\

=
( ) 2
2 2
2
2
rated
X KS / R
E
+
Where S=
s
r s
K
K.
Note that
s
is the synchronous speed at the rated frequency.
Now the developed torque is
T = /S R I
K
3
2
2
2
s
T=
( )
( )
+
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
rated
s
X KS / R
KS R E
3
Now, E is maintained constant for a given frequency. The
power transferred across the airgap will be maximum at a slip
S
m
for which
K.X
2
= R
2
/ S
m
(or) S
m
=
2
2
KX
R
T
max
=
2
2
rated
s
X
E
.
2
3
So , for a variable frequency control at a constant flux, the
breakdown torque remain constant for all frequencies, both
during motoring and regenerative breaking .Also, the
examination of Equations shows that for a constant (SK),the
rotor current I
2
and torque T are constant . Now, if
_
E is take
as a reference vector, then the phase lag of 2
_
I is given by
Q
r
=tan
1
(K.s.X
2
/R
2
)
Since Qr is also constant for a given (SK), the motor
current will also be constant. Thus, the motor operates at
constant value of torque, I
1
and I
2
when the flux and (KS) are
maintained constant.
The physical significance of SK ,
s
ss
s
r s
K
SK =
=
Where
r s ss
K =
Note that
s
is the speed, which is the difference in the
frequency f (or synchronous speed K
s
) and the rotor speed
r
.
W
ss
is the drop in motor speed from its noload speed (K
s
)
when the machine is loaded. From Equation, a constant value
of (KS) implies the motor operation at a constant slip speed
s
.
So, it becomes clear that for any value of T, the drop in the
motor speed from its noload speed (K
s
) is the same for all
frequencies. Hence, the machine speedtorque characteristics
for 0 < s < S
m
are parallel curves. The natures of speedtorque
curves for the variable frequency operation at a constant flux
are shown in Fig. 4 both for motoring and braking operations.
Fig. 5 Speed torque curves with variable frequency control
E. Test and Result of the drive
Fig. 6 Complete block diagram of the drive
The pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter for variable
speed drive of induction motor circuit drives small induction
motors up to about 0.5 horse power, 380 volts, variable
frequencies. The frequency may be adjusted from 16 Hz to 60
Hz. So, the motor speed can be varied from 464 rpm to 1740
rpm. The complete system of this thesis consists of an AC
voltage input that is put through a diode bridge rectifier to
produce a DC output which across a shunt capacitor, this will,
in turn, feed the PWM inverter. The PWM inverter is
controlled to produce a desired sinusoidal voltage at a
particular frequency to the squirrel cage induction motor.
1. Laboratory Test Arrangement
Performance test and results of variable frequency drive of
threephase induction motor are expressed as follows:
Supply voltage 380 volts
Supply frequency 50 Hz
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
649
Motor rating 0.5 hp
Number of poles 4
Normal speed 1450 rpm
Number of speed up step 45
Maximum speed 1740 rpm
Minimum speed 464 rpm
Maximum frequency 60 Hz
Minimum frequency 16 Hz
TABLE I
SPEEDUP TESTING OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE OF THREEPHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR
No. of Step Frequency (Hz) Speed (rpm)
1 16 464
2 25 725
3 32 928
4 45 1305
5 50 1450
6 60 1740
2. Output Voltage Waveform of the Inverter Circuit
The output voltage waveform of the inverter circuit is
shown in Fig. 7. This forms step sine waves, with 120 degrees
phase shift to each other. When the drive is tested with the
digital scope, the output frequency of the drive is 55 Hz and
the output voltage is 227 V. The drive is adjusted with the
frequency to control the speed of the induction motor.
Fig. 7 Photo of Output voltage waveform of Inverter
Fig. 8 Photo of the Completed Drive Circuit
Fig 9 Output voltage waveform of PIC18F452 controller circuit
Fig. 10 Output voltage waveform of gate driver circuit
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
650
III. CONCLUSION
To control the speed of a threephase induction motor in
open loop, supply voltage and frequency need to be varied
with constant ratio to each other. The author of this paper
directly contributed to the electronics design of the inverter
and controller. Also the author implemented the system in its
entirety and experimentally verified its operation at a wide
range of speed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author would like to express her deep gratitude to her
teacher, Professor Dr. Khin Aye Win, Yangon Technological
University, Myanmar for her guidance, help, support and
sharing ideas. The author is deeply grateful to her supervisor
Dr. Salai Tluang Za Thang, Lecturer of Electrical Power
Engineering Department, Mandalay Technological University,
Myanmar for his closed guidance, accomplished supervision
and suggestion for this paper.
REFERENCES
[1] R.Krishnan, 2001. Electric Motor Drives (Modeling, Analysis, and
Control), Prentice Hall, Inc.
[2] Ned Mohan, Torre M. Undeland, William P. Robbins, 1995, Power
Electronics Converters, Applications and Design, Wiley, New York.
[3] Richard Valentine, 1998. Motor Control Electronic Handbook,
McGrawHill, New York.
[4] Sigh, M. D. and Khanchandani, K. B. 2000. Power Electronic, Tata
McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, Newdelhi.
[5] Ham N. J., Hammerton C. J. and Sharples. D. , 2000. Power
Semiconductor Applications, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company
Limited, Newdelhi.
Thida Win received her B.E degree in Electrical Power Engineering from
Mandalay Technological University and M.E degree in Electrical Power
Engineering from Yangon Technological University, Myanmar, then
following three years teaching in Technological University, Myanmar. Her
interests include Power Electronic Devices and its applications.
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42 2008
651
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