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ASSIGNMENT MED-304 (Pet, Lab & Zoo Animal Welfare & Management )

COMMON MANAGEMENTAL PROBLEMS OF PETS AND GAME BIRDS

Submitted To:
DR. ASIF RIAZ

Submitted By:
ALTAF HUSAIN AHSAN SALAM ZINAT GULSAN ZEESHAN AZHAR 08-arid-282 08-arid-281 08-arid-279 08-arid-278

DVM 6th

FV&AS
Pir Mehar Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi

COMMON MANA MENTA P OB EMS OF PETS AND GAME B DS


P A i l

Pets provi e people with companionship, comfort and love and offer them a way of making contact with others. Many people see their pets as a natural extension of, or a replacement for, a family. People of all ethnic groups, ages and abilities may have pets. There is no limit to the type of person who may have a pet and benefit from that relationship. Traditional domestic pets include dogs, cats, rabbits, rodents and budgerigars but, more recently, there has been a trend for people to keep exotic species such as invertebrates, snakes and other reptiles and birds. The increase in number and variety of species kept has implications for both human and animal welfare.

Common P
Cats

Animal

Cats are the second most common pet in the UK and they require less living space than dogs. They are more independent and less reliant on their owners. This can cause problems for local authorities and other housing providers in terms of owned cats straying, spraying, soiling and producing unplanned litters. Ho wever, with proper planning and an insistence on responsible pet ownership, these issues can be overcome.

Although cats need a safe domestic area where they feel comfortable, they are usually happiest roaming around freely. However, some people choose to keep cats indoors because of safety, illness or age; cats kept in flats above ground level need to be kept indoors and provision made for their safety. As part of their natural behavior, cats will scratch and claw; this may cause damage to property. This problem can be resolved easily by insisting as part of the tenancy agreement that residents provide a suitable facility, such as a scratching post. Indoor cats in particular need mental and physical stimulation and may settle better in pairs. However, as with dogs, the company of

another cat is no substitute for the company of people. When deciding on how many cats should be kept in a home, factors to be considered include; the size of the accommodation, whether it comes with a garden (either private or communal) and whether the accommodation has a balcony and, if so, whether or not the balcony is safe and secure. Whether or not they have outdoor access, all cats need a litter tray (at least one per cat) and should be encouraged to use it to minimize the problems of cat fouling in other people s gardens and window boxes. Housing providers should insist that all cats male and female are neutered. This will eliminate sexually-related behavior problems, such as roaming and caterwauling by females when in season. Micro chipping should also be encouraged to identify straying cats so that they can be quickly re-united with the owner.

Fish
From a housing provider s point of view, fish are probably the most trouble-free pet. There are a huge variety of available species. The only issue relevant to housing is the volume of water required to provide enough space for large species or large numbers of small species. Even the smallest aquarium should contain no less than 30 to 40 liters of water and is therefore relatively heavy: 1 liter of water weighs approximately 1kg. Therefore, very large aquaria will weigh even more and so housing providers may wish to limit their size.

Rabbits
The common perception of rabbits as a cheap, easy to maintain children s pet could not be further from the truth. Rabbits are highly social animals that require careful feeding and care to live a full and healthy life. Neutering is recommended to prevent inadvertent breeding and fighting. There are two main ways to keep rabbits properly. First, they may live in small neutered groups in a hutch with an attached exercise area.

Second, rabbits can also be kept as house pets. They can be easily trained to use a litter tray and, like dogs and cats, can have free run in the home. It is acceptable to have just one rabbit in situations where they will enjoy a lot of contact with humans, but

it is preferable to have a second rabbit to keep them company. Rabbits are, however, prone to chewing inanimate objects to control tooth growth; electric cables are therefore a significant risk and fixtures and fittings will also need some protection.

Domestic rodents
The most commonly kept of the domesticated rodents are hamsters, mice, gerbils, rats and guinea pigs. All can be kept indoors (although, space permitting, guinea pigs are best kept outdoors). Domestic rodents do not need much living space but their accommodation, whether a cage or a stacked housing system, should be the right size for the species and numbers kept. The animals need to have appropriate outlets for physical and mental stimulation, such as digging and nest building; a running wheel alone is not enough. The accommodation should also be well-maintained and always hygienic.

Reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates


Reptiles have long been kept as pets, particularly tortoises and terrapins. In recent years there has been increasing interest in various snakes and lizards. Some of these, like geckos, are small but others, such as some iguanas, can grow up to two meters in size. Many people also enjoy keeping amphibian animals and invertebrates, whether frogs stick insects, giant African land snails or spiders. Reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates can provide a fascinating hobby while also providing much of the companionship normally associated with rabbits, cats and dogs. If cared for well, many of these species can live a long time: some species of spiders and lizards, such as iguanas, can live for 15 years or more. stick insects, giant African land snails or spiders. Reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates can provide a fascinating hobby while also providing much of the companionship normally associated with rabbits, cats and dogs. If cared for well, many of these species can live a long time: some species of spiders and lizards, such as iguanas, can live for 15 years or more. As with fish, birds and domestic rodents, this group includes a wide variety of species, each with its own particular needs. This makes it impossible to provide detailed guidelines. In general, the environment in which any animal is kept should be designed

and constructed by someone with knowledge of their natural behavior. This is as true for spiders as it is for dogs.

Many exotic animals and reptiles (such as iguanas, lizards, snakes, terrapins, snails and spiders) naturally carry bacteria and diseases that are transmissible and harmful to man. These can include salmonella, cryptosporidium, e.coli 157, campylobacter and meningitis. Many owners do not know enough about exotic animals and so cannot care for them properly: as a result, most only live a few months, instead of several years.

Equines
Depending on their size, all horses, ponies and donkeys require at least one to two acres of grassland to graze upon each. More space is also needed if they are not ridden or regularly exercised away from their home premises. They also need constant access to a roofed shelter. As most housing providers will be unable to offer residents this kind of space and because of their needs in general, housing providers should not allow residents to keep equines as pets.

The role of pets in society the benefits and the drawbacks


Perhaps dogs and cats are the most obvious pets because they are the ones we usually see out and about with their owners. However, many other species are kept, such as guinea-pigs, rabbits, goldfish, hamsters, budgerigars and even horses. Some of these animals are kept indoors and some are outdoor pets. Just as varied are the types of people who are pet owners. According to legislation in different countries legal requirement for pet owners to ensure their pet has:

a proper diet (food and water) protection from pain, suffering, injury or disease the ability to exhibit normal behavior patterns a suitable environment to live in with or apart from other animals

Dog Shelter Requirements


A name. To be clean and dry. No dog should have to endure being wet, dirty or uncomfortable. A bed even if they chew it, use it as toilet, or never use it, every dog should have the choice of something soft, comfortable and dry to lie on. Toys shelters can be a highly stressful environment for dogs and toys help to stimulate them, release tension and encourage natural play behavior. Dogs need safe things to chew! (Do not use bones, wood or other materials that splinter or break easily.) To have positive human contact every day, which will help to socialize them, therefore increasing their chances of a successful adoption. If they live outside, they need to come inside each day (which will help significantly when the dog is rehomed). If they live inside only, they need to go outside each day. Exercise even just a short walk each day makes a big difference to a dog s mental health. To sleep deeply each night, without being disturbed by bright lighting or noise. To have their physical and emotional needs addressed on a daily basis.

Problems Due Pets


Issues of both health and safety potentially compromise
Human welfare Injury through bites from dogs and scratches from cats are all causes for concern. Even small mammals can cause problems by escaping and chewing wiring, causing a potential fire hazard. The noise and smell of pets can also disturb neighbors and all of these are therefore issues for housing providers.

The benefits of pet ownership


Life is lived at a much faster pace and there has been a dramatic change in our working lives, with many of us changing jobs and locations several times during our life. This has led to a fracturing of the family, with the family unit becoming smaller and more physically distant from relatives, such as grandparents, brothers and sisters. This in turn has led to a general decrease in social support mechanisms for some people and an increase in social isolation. Over the same period, pet ownership has increased substantially and people from all sections of society are now pet owners. In children, pet ownership under responsible adult supervision can help develop social skills, social and moral responsibility, empathy and a caring and nurturing attitude to others. Pets can provide a child with a friend and confidant and can increase confidence and self esteem. They can also act as an ice breaker, giving the child a shared interest with their friends and so increasing their social support network.

Drawbacks of pet ownership


Pet ownership also has disadvantages. These can take various forms, but are basically related to the concept of responsible pet ownership. The responsible pet owner will take a number of steps to ensure a pet s well-being.
They will ensure that the pet fits in with their lifestyle, physical abilities and environment: for example, a dog would not be a suitable pet for someone who is housebound but fish, a rabbit or a budgerigar may well be. They will house their pet properly and securely, for example in a cage, tank or garden. They will keep the animal in a manner that ensures its physical and psychological well-being, so that it is not stressed when left alone and therefore does not create a noise nuisance or become destructive. They will not have so many pets that there are issues of overcrowding with potential health implications for both animals and humans. They will also ensure that an animal is appropriately trained this is particularly important in the case of dogs and that the training takes into consideration the feelings of others, for example by training the dog not to approach anyone without permission and then to sit rather than jump up in greeting. With some thought, consideration and informed advice, there is no reason why pet ownership cannot be a pleasure for the owner and a neutral, if not pleasurable, experience for the wider community.

Perhaps the only drawback of responsible pet ownership is that pets tend to live shorter lives than humans. The exceptions to this are parrots and tortoises, which regularly reach 80 years of age.

Common pet management issues


Dog fouling
This is a problem most housing providers have to deal with and is one of the main reasons why many housing providers are reluctant to extend their pet polices to dogs in flats. However, many local authorities and housing providers are now tackling this problem head on by working together through education, awareness and enforcement campaigns. Under the Clean Neighborhoods and Environment Act 2005, failure to clean up after a dog is an offence subject to a level 3 fine. Many local authority environmental health departments now employ enforcement officers to issue on-thespot penalty notices to deal with fouling as part of a larger issue to tackle anti-social behavior. Housing providers should consider the following when dealing with dog fouling.
Link up with the local authorities: if you are a local authority, consider interdepartmental working groups. Make sure visible signs about penalties for fouling exist in problem areas, such as parks, land near housing estates and popular footpaths. Ensure information regarding fouling and new enforcement polices and fines are regularly sent to pet owners and residents as part of other mailing initiatives. Highlight the health risks (toxocara) associated with dog faeces.

Make sure areas out of bounds to dogs are clearly marked. Provide dog exercise areas that are out of bounds to others; provide enough disposal bins in these areas that are regularly emptied. If owners refuse to clean up after their animals then you must enforce and be seen to enforce strict penalties: for example, in resident newsletters and on websites you could name and shame those fined or served fixed penalty notices. Make sure all staff knows about enforcement procedures and who to contact with complaints from staff or residents on this issue. Stray dogs are often culprits so should be reported to the dog warden immediately.

Cat Fouling
Cat fouling represents another issue that requires attention from local authorities and housing providers. However, there is no specific legislation that relates to fouling by cats. Although cats tend not to foul public areas as dogs do, they do foul in private gardens, which can cause as much of a problem to other residents. Owners should provide proper facilities, such as a regularly cleaned litter tray for their cat. Local authorities and housing providers should consider the following measures:
Highlight the health risks associated with cat fouling. If owners refuse to clean up after their animals, you need to enforce and be seen to enforce the rules and apply the stated penalties. Ensure all staff know about the enforcement procedures and who to contact with complaints from staff/residents on this issue. Tell residents how to discourage cats from toileting on their properties: Cats Protection have fact sheets that include the following suggestions:  eliminate food sources  install electronic motion sensors that emit a high-pitched sound audible only to cats  install an automatic garden spray  build a high, close-boarded fence next to a hedge, making it difficult for cats to visit  Cultivate shrubs closely to prevent cats from finding a place to dig and cover the ground using stone chippings, pebbles or small rocks.

Noise
Residents should be told how to avoid common noise disturbances from pets (such as barking): this is available from animal welfare organizations. Residents on low incomes may also qualify for help from some animal welfare charities that provide subsidized veterinary care, behavior advice and information on local training classes.

Persistent offenders should be referred to the local authority environmental health department, which has a legal duty to investigate complaints. The housing manager should liaise with the department.

Faeces Management
Uncollected dog faeces are a problem for health, the environment and for amenity reasons. Under the Companion Animals Act, owners are required to remove their dogs faeces and properly dispose of them. In practice, this is extremely difficult to enforce. Some irresponsible dog owners allow their pets to roam off their property early in the morning and late at night to avoid ranger patrols. The animals then defecate and the owner does not take responsibility for the collection of the faeces. If complaints are received regarding known dogs , warning letters can be issued by Council to the owner of the animal. On the Spot penalty notices can also be issued for offences observed by Council s Rangers, or where evidence is provided to support a formal action by a third party.

Roaming / straying animals


Stray dogs and other animals can be a danger to members of the public and are often responsible for persistent fouling. A dog owner must take all reasonable precautions to prevent a dog escaping from the property on which it is kept. However, animals more often stray or roam because of changed circumstances that mean that their owner can no longer cope with them. Any potential cases of neglect or cruelty to animals should always be investigated.

Abandonment / neglect
Any member of staff or resident who suspects that an animal has been abandoned or neglected should contact the local authority dog warden. They will make initial enquires and may suggest rehoming. Under recent animal welfare legislation it is an offence to cruelly abandon any animal, either temporarily or permanently, or to cause any unnecessary suffering to any domestic or captive animal.

Damage to property
Damage to property should be rare as long as pets are cared for responsibly (as specified in your pet policy) and owners do not keep inappropriate pets. Just as a tenant is liable for other damage, however, your policy should make it clear that they are also liable for any damage caused by their pets. Any reports of damage should always be investigated as it may be a result of a pet being neglected by being left alone for long periods of time. Never allow animals to be tethered on residential property: it can lead to injury and even death. Tethered animals can also be a danger to the public as they can become

stressed and even aggressive. Animals that are tethered are often isolated from both human and animal company, do not receive adequate exercise and, if approached by predators, are unable to escape.

GAME B RDS
A huge range of birds are kept as pets. These vary from small finches weighing a few grams to parrots weighing several hundred grams and with a wingspan over 300mm. It is illegal to keep a bird in a cage in which it cannot fully stretch its wings in every direction. It is unreasonable to keep a bird in such a restricted environment except on a temporary basis. Where more than one bird is kept in one enclosure it is essential that there is enough space for all birds to perch at the same time. Birds environments can also be enriched by placing objects, such as toys and mirrors, in their cages. Further advice on keeping specific types of birds can be obtained from specialist groups and specialist vets, who can be located either by contacting your local veterinary surgeon or the British Small Animal Veterinary Association (see the contacts directory for details). There are many reasons for propagating game birds. Some fanciers keep birds as pets, or to study the unusual feather patterns, for a "back to nature" feeling or for some other reason. Other growers produce birds for the meat market. A limited market for game birds exists in the hotel and restaurant business.

Requirements of Game Birds


Housing and penning
 When birds are housed or penned, the accommodation should be well constructed and managed and of sufficient size to ensure good health and welfare. This is best achieved by: 1. good design, including adequate facilities for the inspection of the birds, and their removal where necessary; 2. protection from adverse weather conditions, extremes of temperature and predators; 3. appropriate size, stocking densities and facilities, including appropriate environment enrichment, to ensure good health and welfare; 4. flooring appropriate to the species kept, designed to avoid foot injury and managed to prevent the ground becoming too soiled; 5. Adequate lighting, heating and ventilation. Lighting should enable the birds to be inspected without difficulty, and should be available at all times to allow for inspection of the birds should this prove necessary. Fixed artificial lighting should have a dimming facility to allow birds to prepare for darkness and there should be a minimum continuous night-time dark period of 6 hours in every 24 hours.  Housing should be capable of being maintained in a clean and hygienic condition to avoid the risk of disease transfer. For temporary housing, clean ground and a location away from poultry or livestock should be selected and both housing and equipment used should be kept in good repair to avoid injury, escape and predation.  All housing and penning should be located so as to minimize disturbance to the birds and should be equipped with an inside and outside run ( where appropriate) of sufficient size to allow them to exhibit normal behavior patterns. Consideration should be given to incorporating handling facilities when constructing pens.  All housing and penning for laying birds should have sufficient shelter to provide protection for all birds during periods of adverse weather.  Where a dry litter material is not available naturally, non-toxic, non-irritant material should be provided and maintained in a clean and tangle-free form to allow for dust bathing and the dilution of droppings.  Sufficient perching should be provided for all birds, as appropriate to age and species.  All housing should be cleaned and d isinfected between different batches of birds.  Game bird breeders and rearers installing new systems and equipment should assess whether they can be managed in ways that meet the full requirements of this Code. If they, or existing systems, cannot, they should not be used.  Where gas heating is used it is important to ensure that the equipment is regularly serviced and is functioning correctly to avoid the risk of fire, build up of toxic gases and to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained in brooder houses.

 All automatic systems should be regularly checked to ensure that they are working and a back-up system should be available in case of system failure.  Barren raised cages for breeding pheasants and small barren cages for breeding partridges should not be used. All laying systems used for the housing of birds should be designed and managed to ensure the welfare of the birds. Any system should be appropriately enriched.  Game bird keepers should explore possible methods of enrichment with their veterinary surgeon or other suitable adviser. Laying birds should be provided with nest areas sufficient for the number of birds housed.

Management Devices
 The use of management devices or practices that do not allow birds to fully express their range of normal behaviors should not be considered as routine and keepers should work towards the ideal of management systems that do not require these devices. Such devices and practices include mutilations such as beak trimming, procedures to prevent or limit flight such as brailing (placing a band on a wing to prevent extension of the wing), trimming of non-sensitive flight feathers and the use of bits, spectacles and hoods to prevent feather pecking, egg eating or aggression. Their use should be justified on a flock by flock basis and regularly reviewed in the flock health and welfare plan. Any device that is designed to pierce the nasal septum must not be used.  Bird breeders and rearers and those employed by them should be sufficiently knowledgeable to be able to demonstrate competent levels of management in respect of bird husbandry. Bird welfare should not be compromised by the speed of operation in applying a management device.  The use of bits in young pheasants for short periods (3 to 7 weeks) to prevent injurious behavior should be justified and closely monitored on premises. Bits should be made of suitable material appropriate to the size and age of the bird and fitted and removed only by trained and experienced stockmen.  'Bump' bits should not be used except in r esponse to a specific need in consultation with a veterinary surgeon and only with particular care.  Beak trimming should not be practiced in game birds except in circumstances where there is an overwhelming need to protect the welfare of the birds.  Plastic spectacles fitted to the beak to prevent feather pecking or egg eating may cause significant damage to the nasal septum and should not be used except in response to a specific need in consultation with a veterinary surgeon. Any type designed to pierce the nasal septum is illegal in birds.  Anti-aggression masks or shrouds should not generally be used as a form of bird management.  Outer primary feathers may be clipped to restrict flight but trimming growing feathers ('blood quills') must be avoided if it constitutes interference with a sensitive tissue and would, therefore, be a mutilation, which is an offence under section 20 of the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006.  Brailing one wing to restrict flight should only be done with extreme care by a skilled operator or under close supervision and brails should be of the correct size for the birds concerned. Brails are usually only necessary in open pens.

Their use in covered pens needs to be closely monitored and justified on a case by case basis. Any brail must be removed before release.

Managemental Problems
Cannibalism
Another serious problem in the game bird business is cannibalism. This occurs among chicks, growing birds and mature birds. Heavy death loss can result from a severe outbreak of cannibalism. Cannibalism is usually sporadic and can be the result of toe picking, feather pulling or fighting for breeding territory. It is frequently possible to watch a flock develop cannibalistic behavior. Though it is normal for one or two of the larger birds to dominate the other birds according to a well established social system or "pecking order", this can lead to cannibalism. Cannibalism is generally thought to be caused by too much or too little of something, such as too much heat or light, overcrowding or lack of water. There are probably many other causes.

Cannibalism Control
There are several ways to control cannibalism. If cannibalism seems to be a problem, first check the feed-be sure you're feeding the right feed and birds have food in front of them all the time. Make sure birds have enough feeder space that they can all eat at the same time. If this is not possible, they will start fighting for feeder space. Fighting draws blood and starts cannibalism. Crowding can also contribute to cannibalism. Crowding starts to become a problem in birds four weeks of age and older. Breeding males also fight for territory. Pheasants should be given as much room as possible at breeding time. Another control method is beak trimming. However, beak trimming detracts from the bird's appearance. Beak-trimmed birds have had the top beak cut off or removed about halfway between the tip and the nostrils, and the bottom beak removed about a quarter of the way from the tip to the nostrils. Poultry producers use an electrically heated knife that cuts off and sears the beak at the same time to prevent bleeding. Chickens are beak-trimmed at a very young age, usually in the first two weeks of life. Cannibalism is also controlled through the use of specks. Specks look like reading glasses for the bird. They fit over the beak with a plastic pin attached through the nostril. They differ from reading glasses in that they are blinders, made of opaque plastic. The bird can see to the right or left, up and down, but not straight ahead. The bird becomes quite adept at finding its way around the pen. The specks are easily removed by clipping the plastic pin.

Predators
No single predator gets more blame than coyotes, but research over several decades has proven that coyotes focus their foraging on rodents and rabbits and do not take adult pheasants or nests as frequently as the other mammalian predators (red fox, striped skunk and raccoon). In addition, the larger home range and territorial nature of coyotes can actually result in lower populations of these other, more destructive predators. Predation accounts for three-fourths of unsuccessful nests, and nearly all of adult mortality (excluding hunting) is directly predator related. The problem can be exacerbated when insufficient habitat and severe weather make pheasants more vulnerable.