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Jan 2011 Master of Business Administration -MBA Semester I Subject Code MB0038 Subject Name Management Process and

Organization Behaviour Assignment Set- 1 Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills Answer According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles 1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub -roles, which managers often perform a. Monitor collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization b. Disseminator communicating information to organizational member s c. Spokesperson representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be sub -divided in to the following a. Entrepreneur initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators allocating human, physical, and monetary resources d. Negotiator negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles: This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three sub-headings a. Figurehead Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Leadership leading organization in ter ms of recruiting, motivating etc. c. Liaison Liaoning with external bodies and public relations activities. Management Skills: Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills are as below. 1. Technical skills 1. Technical skills: 2. Human Skill 3. Conceptual Skill

The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Vocational and on -thejob training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. 2. Human Skill: This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficult to manage their subordinates,. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. 3. Conceptual Skill: This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available opti on.

Q.2. Explain the social learning theory in detail Answer The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. Basic Social Learning Concepts 1. People can learn through observation. 2. Mental states are important to learning. 3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. 1. People can learn through observation. Observational Learning In his famous "Bobo doll" studies, Bandura demonstra ted that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: 1. A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.

2. A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. 3. A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media. 2. Mental states are important to learning. Intrinsic Reinforcement Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cogniti ve theory.' 3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors. Q.3. Explain the big 5 model of personality. Answer The Big Five Model can be summarized as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism

1. Openness Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. The trait distinguishes imaginative people from down to-earth, conventional people. People who are open to experience are intellectual ly curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be, compared to closed people, more creative and more aware of their feelings. They are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs. People with low scores on openness tend to have more conventional, traditional interests. They prefer the plain, straightforward, and obvious over the complex, ambiguous, and subtle. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion or even view these endeavors as uninteresting.

Sample openness items

y y y y y y y y

I have a rich vocabulary. I have a vivid imagination. I have excellent ideas. I spend time reflecting on things. I use difficult words. I am not interested in abstractions. I do not have a good imagination. I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.

1. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations. The trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. It influences the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Sample conscientiousness items
y y y y y y y y y

I am always prepared. I am exacting in my work. I follow a schedule. I like order. I pay attention to details. I leave my belongings around. I make a mess of things. I often forget to put things back in their proper place. I shirk my duties.

2. Extraversion Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves. Introverts lack the social exuberance and activity levels of extraverts. They tend to seem quiet, low-key, deliberate, and less involved in the social world. Their lack of social in volvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone. They may be very active and energetic, simply not socially. Sample extraversion items
y y y

I am the life of the party. I don't mind being the center of attention. I feel comfortable around people.

y y y y y y

I start conversations. I talk to a lot of different people at parties. I am quiet around strangers. I don't like to draw attention to myself. I don't talk a lot. I have little to say.

3. Agreeableness Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. The trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. Agreeable individuals value get ting along with others. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. They believe people are basically honest, decent, and trustworthy. Disagreeable individuals place selfinterest above getting along with others. They are generally unconcerned with others well being, and are less likely to extend themselves for other people. Sometimes their skepticism about others motives causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and uncooperative. Sample agreeableness items
y y y y y y y y y y y

I am interested in people. I feel others' feelings. I have a soft heart. I make people feel at ease. I sympathize with others feelings. I take time out for others. I am not interested in other people s problems. I am not really interested in others. I feel little concern for others. I insult people. I like being isolated.

4. Neuroticism Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time, which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish the ability of a person scoring high on neuroticism to think clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress. At the other end of the scale, individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. They tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings. Freedom from negative feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings.

Sample neuroticism items

y y y y y y y y y y

I am easily disturbed. I change my mood a lot. I get irritated easily. I get stressed out easily. I get upset easily. I have frequent mood swings. I often feel blue. I worry about things. I am relaxed most of the time. I seldom feel blue.

Q.4. what are the different factors influencing percepti on? Answer Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception these factors can reside

1. In the perceiver 2. In the Object or target being perceived or 3. In the context of the situation in w hich the perception is made. 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily inf luenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver s attitudes affect perception. For example, Mr. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization - a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude with doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impressions of other. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is

insecure perceives a sub ordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal in security can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job", regardless of the intention of the subordinates. d) Self - Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiver s selfconcept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative self -concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what other perceive. For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. f) Cognitive structure: Cognitive structure, an individual's pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i) Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. ii) One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in other. iii) People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. iv) Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives other into he environmental situation.

2) Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motions, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of inform ation about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target.

3) Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place, has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations

provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. In this situation, we assume that + i.e individual's behaviors can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. Q.5 Write a note on contemporary work cohort. Answer Contemporary Work Cohort, proposed by Robbins (2003) divides the wor k force into different groups depending on the era or period in which they have entered into work. It stresses upon individuals values which reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up. The cohorts and the respective values have been l isted below: 1. Veterans: Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s and exhibited the following value orientations: a). They were influenced by the Great Depression and World War II b). Believed in hard work. c). Tended to be loyal to their employer. d). Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security 2. Boomers: Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid1980s belonged to this category and their value orientations were: a). Influenced heavily by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights and feminist movements, the Beatles, the Vietnam War, and baby boom competition. b). Distrusted authority, but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success. c). Organizations who employed them were vehicles for their careers. d). Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition. 3. Xers: began to enter the workforce from the mid1980s. They cherished the following values: a). Shaped by globalization, two career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers. b). Value flexibility, life options, and achievement of job satisfaction. c). Family and relationships were important and enjoyed team oriented work. d). Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations . e). Terminal values: true friendship, happiness, and pleasure 4. Nexters: most recent entrants into the workforce. a). Grew up in prosperous times, have high expectation, believe in themselves, and confident in their ability to succeed. b). Never ending search for ideal job; see nothing wrong with job hopping. c). Seek financial success. d). Enjoy team work, but are highly self reliant. e). Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life.

Q.6 what are the special issues in motivation? Discuss. Answer Motivation is the combination of a person's desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. It is the cause of action. Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. Not all people are motivated by the same thing and over time their motivations might changes. Motivational Issues Often an employee knows how to perform correctly, the process is good, and all resources are available, but for one reason or another, chooses not to do so, which normally means it is a motivational issue. While many jobs have problems that are inherent to the position, it is the problems that are inherent to the person that normally cause us to lose focus from our main task of getting results. These motivational problems could arrive from family pressures, personality conflicts, a lack of understanding on how the behavior affects other people or process, etc. When something breaks the psychological contract between the employee an d the organization, the leader must find out what the exact problem is by looking beyond the symptoms, finding a solution, focusing on the problem, and then implementing a plan of action. One of the worst situations that a leader can get into is to get the facts wrong. Start by collecting and documenting what the employee is not doing or should be doing, such as tasks, special projects, reports, etc. Try to observe the employee performing the task. Also, do not make it a witch hunt, but rather observe and record what the employee is not doing to standards. Check past performance appraisals, previous managers, or other leaders the employee might have worked with. Try to find out if it a pattern or something new. Once you know the problem, and then work with the employee to solve it. Most employees want to do a good job. It is in your best interest to work with the employee as long as the business needs are met and it is within the bonds of the organization to do so. Cause of problem This motivational issue is not the fault of the employee. By providing feedback and ensuring the feedback is consistent, you provide the means for employees to motivate themselves to the desired behavior. For example, inconsistent feedback would be for man agement to say it wants good safety practices, and then frowns on workers who slow down by complying with regulations. Or expressing that careful workmanship is needed, but reinforces only volume of production. Feedback must be provided on a continuous ba sis. If you only provide it during an employee's performance rating period, then you are NOT doing your job. Also, ensure that there is not a difference in priorities. Employees with several tasks and projects on their plates must be clearly communicated as to what comes first when pressed for time. With the ever increasing notion to do more with less, we must understand that not everything can get done at once. Employees often choose the task that they enjoy the most, rather than the task they dislike the most. And all too often that disliked task is what needs to get performed first.

Jan 2011 Master of Business Administration -MBA Semester I Subject Code MB0038 Subject Name Management Process and Organization Behaviour Assignment Set- 2

Q.1 Explain the theory of emotion. Answer Emotion is a complex, subjective experience accompanied by biological and behavioral changes. Emotion involves feeling, thinking, and activation of the nervous system, physiological changes, and behavioral changes such as facial expressions. Different theories exist regarding how and why people experience emotion. These include 1. Evolutionary theories. 2. The James-Lange theory 3. The Cannon-Bard theory 4. Schacter and Singer s two-factor theory 5. Cognitive appraisal. 1. Evolutionary Theories More than a century ago, in the 1870s, Charles Darwin proposed that emotions evolved because they had adaptive value. For example, fear evolved because it helped people to act in ways that enhanced their chances of survival. Darwin believed that facial expressions of emotion are innate (hard-wired). He pointed out that facial expressions allow people to quickly judge someone s hostility or friendliness and to communicate intentions to others. Recent evolutionary theories of emotion als o consider emotions to be innate responses to stimuli. Evolutionary theorists tend to downplay the influence of thought and learning on emotion, although they acknowledge that both can have an effect. Evolutionary theorists believe that all human cultures share several primary emotions, including happiness, contempt, surprise, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness. They believe that all other emotions result from blends and different intensities of these primary emotions. For example, terror is a more intense form of the primary emotion of fear. 2. The James-Lange Theory In the 1880s, two theorists, psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, independently proposed an idea that challenged commonsense beliefs about emotion. This idea, which came to be known as the James-Lange theory, is that people experience emotion because they perceive their bodies physiological responses to external events. According to this theory, people don t cry because they feel sad. Rather, people feel sad because they cry, and, likewise, they feel happy because they smile. This theory suggests that different physiological states correspond to different experiences of emotion.

3. The Cannon-Bard Theory Cannon proposed his own theory of emotion in the 1920s, which was extended by another physiologist, Philip Bard, in the 1930s. The resulting Cannon-Bard theory states that the experience of emotion happens at the same time that physiological arousal happens. Neither one causes the other. The brain gets a message that causes the experience of emotion at the same time that the autonomic nervous system gets a message that causes physiological arousal. 4. Schachter and Singer s Two-Factor Theory In the 1960s, Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed a different theory to explain emotion. They said that people s experience of emotion depends on two factors: physiological arousal and the cognitive interpretation of that arousal. When people perceive physiological symptoms of arousal, they look for an environmental explanation of this arousal. The label people give an emotion depends on what they find in their environment.

5. Cognitive Appraisal The psychologist Richard Lazarus s research has shown that people s experience of emotion depends on the way they appraise or evaluate the events around them. Example: If Tracy is driving on a winding road by the edge of a high cliff, she may be concerned about the danger of the road. Her passenger, on the other hand, thinks about the beauty of the view. Tracy will probably feel frightened, while her passenger may feel exhilarated.

Q.2. Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups . Answer Group decision making is a type of particip atory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively, analyze problems or situations, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action, and select from among the alternatives a solution or solutions. The number of people involved in group dec ision-making varies greatly, but often ranges from two to seven. The individuals in a group may be demographically similar or quite diverse. Decision making groups may be relatively informal in nature, or formally designated and charged with a specific goal. The process used to arrive at decisions may be unstructured or structured. The nature and composition of groups, their size, demographic makeup, structure, and purpose, all affect their functioning to some degree. The external contingencies faced by groups (time pressure and conflicting goals) impact the development and effectiveness of decision-making groups as well. Group Decision Making Technique There are many methods or procedures that can be used by groups. Each is designed to improve the decision-making process in some way. Some of the more common group decision-making methods are:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Brainstorming Dialectical inquiry Nominal group technique Delphi technique.

1. Brainstorming Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of action. The "brainstorming session" is usually relatively unstructured. The situation at hand is described in as much detail as necessary so that group members have a complete understanding of the issue or problem. The group leader or f acilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Usually, the group leader or facilitator will record the ideas presented on a flip chart or marker board. The "generation of alternatives" stage is clearly differentiated from the "alternative e valuation" stage, as group members are not allowed to evaluate suggestions until all ideas have been presented. Once the ideas of the group members have been exhausted, the group members then begin the process of evaluating the utility of the different sug gestions presented. Brainstorming is a useful means by which to generate alternatives, but does not offer much in the way of process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action. One of the difficulties with brainstorming is that despite the prohibition against judging ideas until all group members have had their say, some individuals are hesitant to propose ideas because they fear the judgment or ridicule of other group members. In recent years, some decision -making groups have utilized electronic brainstorming, which allows group members to propose alternatives by means of e-mail or another electronic means, such as an online posting board or discussion room. Members could conceivably offer their ideas anonymously, whi ch should increase the likelihood that individuals will offer unique and creative ideas without fear of the harsh judgment of others. 2. Dialectical inquiry Dialectical inquiry is a group decision -making technique that focuses on ensuring full consideration of alternatives. Essentially, it involves dividing the group into opposing sides, which debate the advantages and disadvantages of proposed solutions or decisions. A similar group decision-making method, devil's advocacy, requires that one member of the group highlight the potential problems with a proposed decision. Both of these techniques are designed to try and make sure that the group considers all possible ramifications of its decision. 3. Nominal group technique The nominal group technique is a structu red decision making process in which group members are required to compose a comprehensive list of their ideas or proposed alternatives in writing. The group members usually record their ideas privately. Once finished, each group member is asked, in turn, to provide one item from their list until all ideas or alternatives have been publicly recorded on a flip chart or marker board. Usually, at this stage of the process verbal exchanges are limited to requests for clarification no evaluation or criticism of listed ideas is permitted. Once all proposals are listed publicly, the

group engages in a discussion of the listed alternatives, which ends in some form of ranking or rating in order of preference. As with brainstorming, the prohibition against criticizing proposals as they are presented is designed to overcome individuals' reluctance to share their ideas. Empirical research conducted on group decision making offers some evidence that the nominal group technique succeeds in generating a greater number of decision alternatives that are of relatively high quality. 4. Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a group decision -making process that can be used by decisionmaking groups when the individual members are in different physical locations. The technique was developed at the Rand Corporation. The individuals in the Delphi "group" are usually selected because of the specific knowledge or expertise of the problem they possess. In the Delphi technique, each group member is asked to independently provide ideas, input, and/or alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages. These inputs may be provided in a variety of ways, such as e-mail, fax, or online in a discussion room or electronic bulletin board. After each stage in the process, other g roup members ask questions and alternatives are ranked or rated in some fashion. After an indefinite number of rounds, the group eventually arrives at a consensus decision on the best course of action. Q.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of confl ict. Answer The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages: 1) Potential opposition or incompatibility. 2) Cognition and personalization 3) Intentions 4) Behavior 5) Outcome.

1. Potential opposition or incompatibility: The first step in the conflict process is the presence on conditions that create opportunities for conflict to rise. These cause or create opportunities for conflict to rise. These causes or sources of conflict have been condenses into three general categories - a) Communications b) Structure c) Personal Variables.

a) Communications: Different words connotations, jargon insufficient exchange of information and noise in communication channel are all antecedent conditions to conflict. Too much communication as well as too little communication can rely foundation for conflict. b) Structure: The term structure is used, in this context to include variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, members/ goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence between groups. The size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger the group and the more specialized its activities, the

greater the likelihood of conflict. Tenure and conflict have been found to be inversely related. The potential for conflicts tends to be greatest when group members are younger and when turnover is high. The greater the ambiguity in defining where responsibility for action lies, the greater the potential for conflict to emerge. Such Jurisdictional ambiguity increases inter group fighting for control or resources and territory. c) Personal Variables: Certain personality types- for example individuals who are highly authoritarian and dogmatic- lead to potential conflict. Another reason for conflict is difference in value systems. Value differences are the best explanations of diverse issues such as prejudice disagreements over one s contribution to the group and rewards one deserves.

2. Cognition and personalization: Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict exists is a perception issue. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. Because conflict is perceives does not mean that is personalized. For e.g. A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreements but it may not make A tense or nations and it may have no effect whatsoever on A s affection towards B It is the felt level , when individuals become emotionally involved that parties experience anxiety , tension or hostility. It is the place in the process where the parties decide what the conflict is about and emotions plays a major role in shaping perception.

3. Intentions: Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between people s perception and emotions and their overt behavior. Using two dimensions cooperativeness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party s concerns) and assertiveness (the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns) five conflict handling intentions can be identified. a) Competing: when one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the other p arties to the conflict, he is competing. b) Collaborating: A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all the parties. In collaborating, the intention o the parties are to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. c) Avoiding: a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. Avoiding included trying to just ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree. d) Accommodating: The willingness of one partying a conflict to place the opponent s interest above his or her own. e) Compromising: A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something. Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. They define each party s purpose. Yet people intention is not fixed. During the

course of conflict, they might change because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other party.

4. Behavior: This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempt to implement each party s intentions. 5. Outcomes: The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result in consequences. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. Confli ct is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions simulates creativity and innovations encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self evaluation and change. Conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the more undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members. Q.4 Write a note on GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome). Answer In 1926, a young medical student named Hans Selye noticed that patients in the early stages of infectious diseases exhibited similar symptoms, regardless of the type of disease they had. He later observed a set of three common responses that occurred whenever any organism was injected with a toxic substance (1) The adrenal glands enlarged, (2) the lymph nodes and other white blood cell producing organs swelled at first then shrank, and (3) bleeding appeared in the stomach and intestines. He called these three common responses the General Adaptation Syndrome and proposed that certain changes take place within the body during stress that disrupt normal physiologic mechanisms and trigger an array of diseases. And no matter what type of organism he looked at, from rats and monkeys to humans, he noticed that physic al and emotional stress induced a pattern that, if left untreated, always leads to infection, illness, disease, and eventually death. Stage1. Alarm Reaction: Any physical or mental trauma will trigger an immediate set of reactions that combat the stress. Because the immune system is initially depressed, normal levels of resistance are lowered, making us more susceptible to infection and disease. If the stress is not severe or long-lasting, we bounce back and recover rapidly.

Stage2: Resistance: Eventually, sometimes rather quickly, we adapt to stress, and there's actually a tendency to become more resistant to illness and disease. Our immune system works overtime for us during this period, trying to keep up with the demands placed upon it. We become complacent about our situation and assume that we can resist the effects of stress indefinitely. Therein lies the danger. Believing that we are immune from the effects of stress, we typically fail to do anything about it. Stage3: Exhaustion: Because our body is not able to maintain homeostasis and the longterm resistance needed to combat stress, we invariably develop a sudden drop in our resistance level. No one experiences exactly the same resistance and tolerance to stress, but everyone's immunity at some point collapses following prolonged stress reactions. Life sustaining mechanisms slow down and sputter, organ systems begin to break down, and stress-fighting reserves finally succumb to what Selye called "diseases of adaptation.
Q.5 Discuss the power and influence tactics? Answer Influence is the process of changing someone's behaviour. It's about being able to move things forward, without pushing, forcing or telling others what to do. It's the ability to work everything at your disposal, both verbal and non-verbal communication, to create the impact you want, rather than letting things just happen. There are ten common influence tactics that people can use ethically (some are more valid are sales than others): Legitimizing by referring to or using recognized authority Logical Persuading by using logic to persuade the influence.
y y y y y y y y

Appealing to Friendship and asking friends for favours or assistance Socializing to establish rapport, find commonalities and build a connection Consulting by examining a problem and working with the influence towards a solution Stating, boldly and directly stating what you want the prospect to do Appealing to Values, inspiring cooperation by appealing to values, emotions, or feelings Modelling or setting an example for others to follow Exchanging by giving something of value to the influence in return for something you want Alliance Building, building an alliance of supporters who can help you influences others

According to Robert B. Cialdini PhD, there are 6 universal influence tactics. Click here for my influence summary of them. Today, in this field, Dr. Cialdini is the most-cited living Social Psychologist in the world. But merely applying a tactic will not make you an effective influencer Influence effectiveness . depends on a combination of factors including: choice of influence tactic, your skill at using the tactic and your personal power. For years many believed that the ability to influence was a character attribute some had it and others did not. It's true for some people; the power to influence comes naturally. However, there's been research conducted over the past 30 years that indicates virtually anyone can apply the principles of influence to change the outcome of any personal inte raction. This research is based upon extensive observation of leading salespeople inside a wide variety of industries. By studying individuals in sales situations, scientists have been able to identify certain patterns of behaviour and speech that increase the likelihood of someone saying yes to a request.

Q.6 Explain the characteristics of organizational development. Answer Organizational Development (OD) can be described as the systematic process to change the culture, system and behavior of organization. It is process that helps in solving organizational problems and achieving organizational objectives. Organizational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system. It concentrates on people dimensions like norms, values, attitudes, relationships, organizational culture etc. The strategies of Organizational Development focus on enhancement of organization effectiveness and solving organizational problems. It includes structural and technological changes and focuses on working relationships of employees with the organization. Organizational Development is the modern approach to management of change for human resources development. The characteristics of Organizational Development are as follows : 1. Organizational Development is an educational strategy that attempts to bring about a planned change. 2. Organizational Development relates to real organizational problems instead of hypothetical cases. 3. Organizational Development uses sensitivity training methods and lay emphasis on the significance of experiment based training. 4. Its change agents are almost external consultants outside of the organization. 5. The external change agents and internal organization executives establish a collaborative relationship that involves mutual trust, influence and jointly determined goals. 6. The external change agents are humanists and seek to establish a social and altruistic philosophy within an organization. 7. The goals that the change agent seeks to achieve through OD tend to reflect human approach and aims for better conflict resolution, increased understanding and more considerable leadership. 8. The required changes in the organization are usually the result of some immediate problems but it is a long term approach covering three to five years. 9. It is used to describe variety of change programmes and intends to change the organizational philosophies, attitudes and skills of people. 10. It is a dynamic process that involves considerable investment of money and time. 11. It is research based activity and aims at conducting surveys, collection of data and evaluation of the situation. 12. It works on open and adaptive system concepts and believes that organizational design and managerial performance are mutually interdependent.