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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY


FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY SOUTH
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

THESIS FOR UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAM (BSc.)


TITLE: MATERIAL HANDLING AND WASTAGE CONTROL IN ADDIS ABABA LOW COST HOUSING PROJECTS

ADVISOR: Belay Yitayew (Ato.) PREPARED BY: 1. Dechasa Haile 2. Gebrehiwot Hintsay 3. Saron Anteneh Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 1

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

February 2010

APPROVED BY BOARD OF EXAMINERS ADVISOR: ______________________________ SIGNITURE: _____________________________ DATE: ______________________________

EXTERNAL EXAMINER: __________________ SIGNITURE: ______________________________ DATE: ______________________________

INTERNAL EXAMINER: ___________________ SIGNITURE: ______________________________ DATE: _______________________________


Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 2

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research would have been impossible to realize without the tremendous assistance and cooperation of various individuals and construction companies. It is therefore our great pleasure to acknowledge and thank them for their collaboration and helpful support. We sincerely thank and express deep gratitude to our advisor Ato Belay Yitayew for providing valuable advice, continuous support and guidance and for his comments and suggestions during the progress of the research in a more realistic way. Our special credit also goes to those contractors, consultants and employer for giving their precious time to respond our survey questioners and interviews. The Ministry of Works and Urban Development, the Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers also deserves our acknowledgement for the ease access of the important information for this study. And finally we are highly indebted to all site engineers, and supervisors, who have shown their keen interest of cooperation by providing us with the necessary information and data required for the thesis work.

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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgement I Table of content .. II , III Abbreviation .. IV Abstract .. V CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Research back ground ... 1.2 Objective of this research 1.3 Methodology 1.4 Scope and limitation 1.5 Structure of the paper CHAPTER TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEW . 5 2.1 Construction Management 5 2.2 Construction Resource Management 2.3 Construction Materials Management 2.3.1 Materials Planning 2.3.3 Inventory Control 12 2.3.5 Handling and Transportation 2.3.6 Codification and Standardization 13 2.3.7 Disposal of surpluses .. 14 12 6 7 8 10 11 .. .. .. .. 1 3 3 4 4

2.3.2 Materials Procurement Process 2.3.4 Store-Keeping and Warehousing

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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

2.4 Construction Materials Wastage Management .. 2.4.1 Definition .. .. 2.4.2 Materials wastage standard 2.4.4 Side effect of the problem

15 15 15 17 19 20 22 22 22

2.4.3 Causes of material wastage 2.4.4.1 Side effect due to poor material handling 2.4.4.2 Side effect due to material wastage 2.4.5 System of material wastage control 2.4.5.2 Material wastage analysis CHAPTER THREE 3. ANALYSIS 3.1. Profile of the questionnaires 3.2. The respondents . .

19

.. ..

2.4.5.1 Accounting for construction materials ..

24 25 26 26 27 38

3.3. Data presentation, Analysis and Discussion .. 3.3.1 Section one Existence of the problem 3.3.2 Section two Major causes .. 3.3.3 Section three Side effects . 41 CHAPTER FOUR 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1. Conclusion ..

3.3.4 Section four Proposed systems ..

44 45 46

4.2. Recommendation .. References .. Appendix A Research proposal Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Appendix B Research questionnaires

ABBRIVATIONS LCH Low Cost House MSE Micro and Small Enterprises 4Ms Materials, Money, Manpower and Machineries 4Rs Review, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle MSM Material Storage Management AAHDPO Addis Ababa Housing Development HCB Hollow Concrete Block

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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

ABSTRACT
In any construction project especially in Low Cost Housing there should be a great concern for construction material wastage control system in order to avoid maximum material wastage generation. Since construction industry is one of the emerging economy of our country which consumes larger percentage of the annual budget, construction material handling and wastage control system desires serious consideration and due attention. Based on this assumption, we have conducted our research on construction material handling and wastage control systems in LCH projects with in Addis Ababa. And we attempted to answer the following questions. What are the most recent material handling systems in these projects? What are the main causes for material wastage and their consequence? And what are the systems adopt to reduce the wastage generated? In this thesis we have explored construction material handling systems, wastage control mechanisms, and tried to identify wastage causes and their remedial measures to decrease wastages. Data were collected using questioner survey distributed randomly to selected and concerned stake holders for those operating in Addis Ababa LCH projects. In this research work, all questions are grouped and analyzed according to their relationship, discussed and possible conclusions and recommendations forwarded. Generally, 100% of the cost efficient LCH construction stake holders proved that, the existences of material wastage, therefore implementing effective wastage control system, early identification and awarenesss on wastage causes and use of some sort of material plan and management systems are vital to minimize the unavoidable material wastages.

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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

CHAPTER - ONE 1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 Research back ground "Low-Cost-Housing Technology (LCH)" was instituted for the first time in Tigray province and then in other regions of Ethiopia [7]. The city of Addis Ababa, being the capital of the nation, is facing numerous challenges in trying to meet the demands aroused by the ever increasing population and high rate of urbanization. Consequently, the need for an increase in quantity and quality of shelter, infrastructure, employment and various social services become crucial to sustain the city life. Accordingly the city government has planned to address these challenges strategically with the help of the National Integrated Urban Development Plans along with other municipal administration of Addis Ababa Grand Housing Program. Since September 2003, the municipal administration of Addis Ababa has been working on the planning and implementation of the Addis Ababa Grand Housing Program, which is an action program for the construction of living space. The national plan on housing has allocated about 50% of its 2006 - 2010 plans, which are about 200,000 housing units, to be executed in the city of Addis Ababa. The long term objective of housing program is to improve the living standard of citizens, especially low-income citizens of the city, which are the majority, through the creation of employment opportunities and the provision of the decent affordable housing. The specific immediate objectives of the program are to be serving the purpose of: Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 9

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Regenerating the slum area of the inner city, Increasing the land delivery amount in the inner city as a process of densification and vertical growth, Promotion of micro and small-scale enterprise, which can absorb more labor force and operate at a lower overhead cost, Promotion of cost efficient housing construction technology, Empowering citizens of the city through ownership of houses and possession security, Changing the image of the city [6].

Construction is proceeding on the basis of LCH technology with prefabricated components. People wishing to move in to the apartment buildings and become owners, by paying some 30% of the construction costs. The remainders are financed through building loans with a 15-year term, prefinancing being advanced by the city municipal administration. In the socially integrated settlements, complete with municipal infrastructure facilities, the residents themselves are to take responsibility for maintaining their houses [7]. Following the first successful LCH pilot projects in 2004, Addis Ababa city government administration under "Grand Housing Program" allocated huge sum of budget to alleviate shortage of housing and also reduce house slum in the city [8]. Besides it is part of the national government plan for the reduction of poverty in the new millennium particularly in the capital city of Ethiopia. Since huge investments are deployed to construct LCH projects, implementation of the existing material handling and wastage control systems and further study will be crucial to save the extra lost cost due to material wastages.

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1.2 Objective of this research The main objectives of this research are: Assess whether material handling and wastage control problems exist or not? Find out the main causes of material wastage and poor material handling. Explore the side effects of material wastage and poor material handling. Forward appropriate material wastage reducing techniques and poor material handling corrective procedures to alleviate problems faced on different stages of the project. 1.3 Methodology The methodology adopted for this research is based on actual survey. In this process data has been collected and discussion has been made with different professionals from the low cost housing construction sector. For the data collection survey, construction industry stakeholders like contractors, consultants and employer, local firms that actively participating in low cost housing construction projects have been selected to fill our questionnaires. Analysis of the collected survey data and interviews are used to answer the following four vital questions: Is material handling and wastage control problem exist or not in LCH projects? What are the major causes of material wastage and handling problems? Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 11

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What are the side effects of the problems in the project? What are the proposed systems used to minimize poor material handling and wastage?

The following procedure were used in order to prepare the research Procedure Topic Selection Research proposal Literature review Description We discussed with our advisor on the contents of research proposal. Referring different literatures and assessing different web sites through internet then supervised by our Research instrument Data collection Sample identification Analysis Thesis writing Submission advisor. Questionnaire survey and desk study were done. Questionnaire were collected from respondents Taking all samples Analysis were done on the collected questionnaire

1.4 Scope and limitation The scope of this research bases only to Low Cost Housing projects in Addis Ababa. The limitations are time for the research, and absence of conducted researches on construction material handling and wastage control system, since LCH projects have been started in recent times and due to lack of properly collected and documented datas.

1.5 Structure of the paper This paper comprises of four chapters: Chapter two present an overview of different literatures on construction materials management and causes of poor material handling and wastage in construction industry, chapter three deals with the analysis of the collected data, and chapter four explains the conclusion and recommendations of the findings. Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 12

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CHAPTER TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Different writers define construction management on their own ways as; Construction management is defined as the art of arranging and/or organizing various activities, operating equipment and group of people in a suitable manner to create systematic operation with continuity to achieve a common goal. Management can also be defined as the use of people and other resources to accomplish objectives. That is, management by necessity involves the creation of an environment in which people can use resources to reach the stated goal. It also involves the implementation of the function of management: - planning, organizing, implementing and controlling. These functions are the very essence of management [3 ]. Construction management is dealing with the system of how relationships among stakeholders, resources and activities are planned, implemented and monitored for the successful completion of any construction work or activities. Construction management addresses how the resources available to the manager can be best applied. Typically when speaking of resources for construction, we think of the four Ms of construction: Manpower, Machine, Material and Money. Management involves the timely and efficient application of the four Ms to construct a project. Many issues should be considered when managing a project and successfully applying the four Ms [2].

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2.2 CONSTRUCTION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Construction project. A complete resource study identifies when and how many of each trade will be on the job site each day of the project. This allows management to ensure that work scheduled concurrently is compatible and that adequate supervision is provided. Efficient & effective implementation of construction project require good management of relationships for and among resources, activities and stakeholders as applied to the context where such projects are implemented. Materials, money, manpower & machineries (the 4M's) are usual resources. The principal resource involved in construction project is material. The correct management of this resource ensures that the stakeholders keep their profit and complete the project according to required quality, cost and time. In our world construction resources are scarce, hard to obtain easily and becoming expensive every day in spite of the fact that their demand is high. It is this reality which obliged us to utilize them efficiently and effectively. resource management is a concept of strategically

managing basic resources for the successful completion of construction

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2.3 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Materials management is a process: It is how a building is designed and how materials are estimated. It is how materials are acquired and even how the packaging is specified. It is how the delivery schedule is designed. It is how contractors plan materials use and how they manage previously used materials and cuts. It is how waste is managed for use elsewhere or recycling rather than being discarded in a landfill [9]. It is a culture how the customer expects the contractor and the contractor its subcontractors and the subcontractors its workers to care for and properly manage the materials provided. Material Management can be defined as integrated management system for planning, controlling or redirecting efforts to achieve a smooth, timely, efficient flow of materials to the project in the required quality, the required time, and at an acceptable price and quality. In building construction projects, materials account for more than 50% of the project total cost. A small saving in materials cost through efficient management of materials can result in a large contribution. A great opportunity for the construction industry to reduce cost and increase profit and competitiveness is in the area of materials management. Better materials use can, additionally, result in improved project economy, conservation of natural resources and reduced pollution. Therefore, the opportunity to reduce cost and increase profits is also the Opportunity to protect the environment. Efficient materials management in project environment calls for an integrated approach covering numerous functions such as materials Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 15

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

planning, purchasing, inventory control, store keeping and ware housing, handling and transportation, codification and standardization, and the disposal of surpluses[1]. 2.3.1 MATERIAL PLANNING

Materials planning is the key function of materials management, is closely linked with project planning and control set up. Both these work together to develop a plan for procurement and stocking of construction materials so as to provide at site materials of the right quality in right quantity at the right prices from the right sources at the right time. A few hours spent in planning can produce project cost savings through: * Reducing the amount of materials purchased * Better use of the materials purchased * Reduced labor in handling materials and having to purchase Make-up materials * Reduced waste and disposal costs. Construction materials planning involves identifying materials,

estimating quantities, defining specifications, forecasting requirements, locating sources of materials approved, designing materials inventory, developing procurement plans, and monitoring flow of materials till the connected construction works are completed. A Materials Management Plan, formulated through the process of these guidelines, consist of procedures guiding all the professionals and trades involved in the entire process of the building creation from design through finish. It is a two-phase plan corresponding to the Design Phase and the Construction Phase of your project. Within each of these phases there are four sections -Review, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle [9]. The process and results of the planning done in the design Phase corresponds directly to the site materials management plan. Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 16

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Design and Construction Phase The Plan that design should consider the "Four R's":

Review: Reconsider the design philosophies and practices. Review the company's policies regarding estimating and purchasing and the site construction practices. And review the sources of those policies and are they valid in today's economy or procedures: ecology? Reduce: Reduce quantities purchased as well as waste. A way of looking at the estimator's and purchaser's "fudge factor" is that they are actually Specifying the waste amounts. More care taken on the jobsite and different cleanup practices could dramatically reduce waste. Then finally create a substantial list of waste-reducing practices. Reuse: Reuse materials as possible. For instance form lumber is used more than once, but generally for another concrete form, and used plastic film can be stored and used to cover exposed work in case of inclement weather. Recycle: Plan the recycling of the construction waste before the project starts at the site. Once the project is underway, treat the waste recycling as rigorously as quality of the construction.

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2.3.2 MATERIALS PROVISIONING (PROCUREMENT) PROCESS Construction materials needed for a project work vary with the nature of the project. The determination of the type, quantity and specifications of the construction materials needs a detailed study of the contract documents, including the bill of quantities, drawings, specification, pretender estimates, and preliminary vendor enquires. Such a study consumes considerable time, and is a systematic and gradual process [1]. Materials Procurement Preliminary investigations for developing sources for procurement of materials are made by floating enquiry indents, containing quantities, specifications and delivery times are jointly prepared by the project planning cell and materials procurement department. These are processed by the materials procurement department for inviting quotations with samples of materials, where applicable. On receipt of quotations, a comparative study of the price, quality, delivery time, terms of delivery and payment terms is made jointly by both materials and project planning in charges. During the course of this study, vendors proposals are compared with enquiry specifications and stipulated requirements, and the resulting deviations are examined for acceptability. The key criteria for evaluating the potential of the supplier to deliver the right quantity product at the right time should include quality of material, companys financial status, companys management team and their professional competence and engineering skills, and support services.

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The quotation comparison sheet can be best termed as a summary of the alternative proposals for given materials. These proposals undergo further processing before making a decision about placing of purchase order. The various stages encountered prior to the purchase decisions are approval in principle for processing proposals, clients approval of proposed materials and negotiations of terms of supply. And the final step in the procurement of materials is monitoring materials delivery schedule. 2.3.3 INVENTORY CONTROL The term inventory implies the cost of materials in stock at a given time. This stock of materials is held to act as a cushion between supply and demand. The monetary value of inventory indicates the extent of investment required to maintain minimum stock of materials for the smooth running of the project. Higher inventory implies higher investment, and fewer inventories carry the risk of supplies falling behind demand. A balanced inventory acts as a cushion between supply and site requirement till supplies are received. It includes predetermined safety stock to cater for slippages in delivery schedules [1]. Inventory control not only looks into the physical balance of various materials but also looks into aspects of minimizing the inventory cost. Another aspect of inventory control is control of the inventory carrying cost. Avoiding shortage, avoiding excessive stocking and increasing inventory turnover, are some of the main issues concerning inventory control. Further, methods of reducing the component of materials cost in the product cost is an important consideration in cost reduction. This means that the purchase of materials should be for the quantity needed and the purchase quantity should be neither more nor less. Purchases have to be made at the right time and at the most economic cost.

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Inventory control is therefore a strong management tool for cost reduction.

2.3.4 STORE KEEPING AND WAREHOUSING Store keeping: means whereby goods are received, identified, stored, issued, account for and replenished in accordance with defined service levels and with due regard of legal requirements for health and safety. Store keeping is both a science and an art. Some of the essentials of good store keeping are assigning and placing each item in a proper place, providing protection against damage and pilferage, using proper method of identifying and coding, and keeping record and inventory of stores up-to-date. Warehouse: is a place where items are housed or a building designed for storage purposes and constructed with roof and complete side and end walls. Warehouses must be seen as providing services to the rest of the organization in which they operate. The levels of these services will affect the overall efficiency of the organization. Therefore, the relationship between warehouses and other Departments (or functional areas) within the organization are very important aspects of store management. 2.3.5 HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION Materials handling: refers to techniques employed to move, transport, Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 20

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and store or distribute store items with or without the aid of mechanical appliances. The movements of materials to, through, or from productive process, and in receiving and shipping areas. Transportation encompasses all activities involved in the movement and flow of materials from the time they are received to the time they are shipped. The transportation costs are affected by shipment sizes and other factors. Shipment by the full load of a carrier often reduces prices and assures quicker delivery, as the carrier can travel from the origin to the destination of the full load without having to stop for delivering part of the cargo at other stations. Avoiding transshipment is another consideration in reducing shipping cost. While the reduction in shipping costs is a major objective, the requirements of delicate handling of some items may favor a more expensive mode of transportation to avoid breakage and replacement costs.

2.3.6 CODIFICATION AND STANDARDIZATION The received of goods should be identified by a clear way of identification. Without identification it is impossible to uniquely identify the materials needed. This problem can be solved using codification. The code must be developed to identify all items held in store. All materials should be given a code identifying the material specifically, definitely, and unambiguously. Adopting a well designed codification system enables the stores manage to have a unique, precise (i.e. exact), simple and consistent method of identifying stocks. Code should be compact, concise, and flexible enough to accommodate future addition. The primary purpose of classifying materials is to control quality, cost and timely supply. There are many factors that need consideration while classifying materials. These include storage space, shelf life, supply Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 21

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reliability, inventory costs, ease of identification, construction sequence, transportation requirement, price, procurement time, procurement source and project life.

2.3.7 DISPOSAL OF SURPLUSES Construction activity leads to generate of solid wastes, which include sand, gravel, concrete, stone, bricks, wood, metal, paper etc. Construction waste can occur at every stage of the activities but most of those involved in the operation do not aware of that. Waste level for initial stage of construction activities can be low and the most significant waste level can be observed during the construction phase especially on site where most of the resources are being used in this stage. Construction waste is bulky and heavy and is mostly unsuitable for disposal by incineration or composting. Due to continuing shortage of dumping sites and increase in transportation cost, the disposal of surpluses is very expensive.

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2.4 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WASTAGE MANAGEMENT 2.4.1 DEFINITION Construction material wastages can be defined as the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on site and those properly used as specified and accurately measured in the work, after deducting the cost saving of substituted materials transferred elsewhere in which unnecessary cost and time may be incurred by materials wastage [4].

2.4.2 MATERIALS USAGE STANDARDS Generally, the materials and labor costs in a project are conceptualized during the inception stage by using past experience. While contracting the quantities of work involved in a project are detailed in the contract bill of quantities. These are derived from the design and drawings. But there is inherent materials wastage associated with all types of materials. Some wastage is inevitable in actual work. This wastage in materials is generally expressed as percentage of materials calculated theoretically from the quantities of work involved, and is termed as Standard Wastage.

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The total quantity of materials to be provisioned should cater for the standard wastage by increasing the theoretical quantity proportionately. Materials to be provisioned = Theoretical quantity of materials * (100 + standard wastage (%))/100 Standard wastage of the construction materials depends upon many variables such as the nature of work, type of materials, method of application, etc.

It may be noted that standard wastage caters for wastage during utilization only for causes considered beyond control at site. In addition to the uncontrollable wastage, there is wastage/pilferage which falls in the category of controllable wastage. The main causes of controllable wastage at various stages can be due to the following:a. Wastage during design and supervision. b. Wastage during materials procurement. c. Wastage during handling and storage. d. Wastage during utilization. Since, controllable wastage falls under the purview of the materials management staff the additional provisions to compensate for such wastage should be made by them so as to ensure that the right quantity and right quantity of materials are available at the right time. Table 2.1 Construction Materials Wastages Planning Norms [4]. Item No. 1 2 3 4 Types of Materials Cement Sand Aggregate Reinforcement steel bars Planned Wastage ( % ) 2 10 5 3 24

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5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Stone masonry Steel sheet roofing Tile roofing Floor tiling Marble lining Reinforced concrete Lean concrete Painting

5 2 5 2-5 20 2 10 5

2.4.3 CAUSES OF MATERIAL WASTAGE Wastage of materials can take place during various stages of the project. 1. Wastage arising from design may result from the following reasons Dimension dis-coordination. Variations in design at the construction stage (demolishing). Discrepancies in drawings and specifications. Over design. Specification failing to match the quality of the building required. Resistance to adopt alternative materials.

2. Wastage during procurement can result from one or more of the following main causes Buying materials of wrong specification. Buying more than the actual requirement. Unnecessary buying of items to cater for unrealistic and unforeseen eventualities. Untimely buying of short-life materials. 25

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Improper and unnecessary handling of materials. Wastage in transportation.

3. Wastage during storage can occur due to the following reasons Damaged and breakages during handling. Deterioration due to incorrect storage, incorrect maintenance and short-shelf life. Losses due to fire, thefts and exposure to climatic conditions.

4. Wastage during utilization (usage) can be attributed to one or more of the following reasons Excess quantity estimation. Shortage in delivery. Theft and pilferage. Breakages and damages during handling. Lack of pre-work preparation and coordination. Inferior quality of materials. Improper accounting and poor store keeping. Negligent and careless attitude of the supervisor. Unforeseen circumstances like accidents, fire, etc. High rate of deterioration due to long storage at the place of work. Over-issues from the central stores and failures to return unused surplus materials.

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2.4.4 SIDE EFFECT DUE TO MATERIAL HANDLING AND WASTAGE CONTROL PROBLEMS

2.4.4.1. Side effects due to poor materials handling a) High level of materials wastage Due to poor storage system, materials are exposed to damage, loss, vandalism etc. Higher level of wastage may be occurring due to over order or under supply of materials. A lot of materials are being wasted due to poor handling system and poor workmanship. b) Poor materials storage When the materials are not in properly arranged, it may cause damage to materials and obstruct the handling of mechanical plant. Materials should be unloaded and stored near to the point of use to prevent double handling of work. Without proper planning a location of materials storage, the site may be congested and affect site accessibility. There is always a tendency for some of materials to be stored in wrong place. For Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 27

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example small and valuable items like door closers and lockset, which are always stolen by workers or sub-contractors when stored in an open store. c) Materials shortage or excesses on site Without proper planning of ordering and delivering of materials, there is a high tendency facing the shortage of materials in site. Excess of materials delivered to site creates lot storage problems, if the materials are delivered too early on site; the risk of materials damaged by progressing works is high.

2.4.4.2. Side effects due to materials wastage a) Low profitability The profitability of a project can be influenced by the cost of materials. Large costs can be saved from the materials since it contributes to a substantial value of a project. As a rule of thumb, the higher level of wastage, the lower profitability of the project. Therefore, sound Material Storage Management is needed to maximize profitability of a project. b) Construction time delay The delay of construction work may occur when wrong types or quality of materials are used and the time spent for the re-construction and replacement for the goods. Another cause of delays is damages during the transit of materials, shortage of materials, and late delivery of materials and so on. Without proper planning in Material Storage Management, the project is likely to be delayed.

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c) Low productivity Poor Materials Storage Management will affect productivity. For

example, a congested site with materials not properly allocated will create a lot of double handling works and obstruct the operation works. The productivity of the work will be reduced with shortages and delay of materials supply that disrupt program.

d) Environmental impact Since the environmental issue is in concern globally, waste generated by industrial operations need to be categorized in list of concern too as waste levels indicate the appreciation of use of environment natural resources. Among those industry operations, construction industry also contributes a significant waste to the overall waste volume annually for majority country. The impact of construction operations on natural conservation is cumulative and collective in most situations, such as disturbance of sensitive habitats and species by water pollution. In addition, where large amounts of waste are generated, loss of grassland can result from the need for landfill sites. New concepts of waste control are being applied in many countries nowadays. Material Storage Management (MSM) is in great concern. These are all done to ensure the waste is being controlled as well as the environmental condition is being protected.

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2.4.5 SYSTEM OF MATERIAL WASTAGE CONTROL Some unavoidable wastage is inherent during utilization, but it is the excessive wastage which is of concern to the management. Excessive wastage during the utilization stage affects the productivity adversely, and consequently results in extra costs. Productivity control aims at minimizing wastage in usage. Productivity control at the construction responsibility center level can be broadly divided into accounting for materials, analyzing usage variances to determine the causes of wastage and implementing measures to minimize wastage [1].
2.4.5.1 Accounting for Construction Materials

Materials accounting system documents the materials data, it provides the materials procurement status. It shows the holding of materials

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inventory for the incoming works. It identifies and quantifies issues of materials to the site and it reveals the materials costs. Project planners are especially concerned with materials-flow data for ensuring the timely procurement of materials, and site availability of materials of right quantity and quality at the required time and place. They also aim costs, at minimizing estimates and wastage during usage, of evaluating and implications of variations from the acceptable wastage standard, updating expenditures materials, formulating materials costing norms for future works.
2.4.5.2 Materials Wastage Analysis

The first step in materials wastage analysis is to quantify standard quantity and type of direct material needed for each work item. The actual materials consumed for each work item can be complied from the material issues and return notes transacted between supervisors and stockholders. In case of materials delivered directly to the construction sites by the supplier, such as ready-mix concrete from site batching plant of fabricated steel for reinforcement from the site steel yard, or aggregate from the crusher, the suppliers delivery note along with materials return note can be used to determine the quantity consumed for a given work item. These issue slips and delivery notes, when consolidated from the start to completion of the work-item can give the quantities of materials consumed. The difference between the standard materials requirement and the materials usually consumed indicates the excess (if any) from the accepted materials wastage standard prepared at the time of estimation.

Material usage variance

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= standard acceptable materials wastage - Actual materials wastage.

CHAPTER THREE 3. ANALYSIS


3.1. PROFILE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES As discussed in the methodology part of this paper, the second approach to assess the existence of material handling and wastage problems, the main causes of wastage, their side effects and proposed methods is the use of questionnaires survey based on firms experience. The questionnaires were

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designed to collect data regarding the current material management and wastage control practices. The questionnaires were grouped into four major sections. The sections and their area of assessment are the followings: Section one is related to the existence of material handling and wastage problem in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects. Section two is designed to asses the major causes for materials poor handling and wastage. Wastage resulting during design and supervision, procurement, handling and storage and during utilization of materials has received a particular attention. Section three is designed to asses the common side effects of the problems on both stakeholders and projects. Section four is related to the system proposed by stakeholders to minimize materials poor handling and wastage in the low cost housing projects.

3.2. THE RESPONDENTS The respondents were local contractors, consultants and employers engaged mainly in low cost housing construction projects. A total of 36 questionnaires were distributed, and out of which 22 were collected. The respondents have been asked to respond questions in relation to firms material management practices and any pre identified causes of wastage in projects, if there is any. Respondents reaction was positive and it has a response rate of 61%. Table 3.1 summarizes the number of distributed questionnaires and rate of responses. Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 33

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Table 3.1, Summary on the response rate of questionnaires Construction party Contractors Consultants Employers Distributed questionnaires 12 12 12 Collected questionnaires 8 8 6 Response (%) 67% 67% 50% rate

3.3

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

3.3.1 Section one - is related to the existence of material handling and wastage problem in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects. Table 3.2, Existence of material handling and wastage problem.
Ite m No. Questions Respon d Respondents In No. In %

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Is there any material handling and wastage problem directly connected to low cost housing projects? Yes or No A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer Yes No Yes No Yes No 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0

Fig. 3.1, Existence of materials handling and wastage problems. Discussion - The above Table 3.2 and Fig. 3.1 indicated that the existence of material handling and wastage problem in projects. According to the result found from the survey study, 100% of the stakeholders respondents believe that; the materials poor handling and wastage problem exist in Addis Ababa Low Cost Housing projects. 3.3.2 Section two - is related to the major causes of materials poor handling and wastage. Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 35

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Table 3.3, Major causes of poor materials handling and wastage.


Ite m No. 2 Questions What are the major causes of poor material handling and wastage in LCH projects? 1. Poor workman ship A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 2. Improper material handling and storage system A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 3. Utilization A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 4. Design problem A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 5. Variation in design at construction stage A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 6. Incorrect procurement of materials A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 7. In bulk material supply by the owner A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 6 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 75 50 33 50 25 33 25 25 17 50 38 50 4 5 5 50 63 83 4 5 4 50 63 67 Respondents In No. In %

3 4 4

38 50 67

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Fig. 3.2, Major causes for materials handling and wastage. Discussion - Table 3.3 and Fig. 3.2 shows that, the major causes for poor material handling and wastage in LCH project. According to the survey data, some of the main causes of materials poor handling and wastage are poor workmanship, lack of appropriate handling and storage, utilization, design problems, variations in design at construction stage, incorrect procurement of materials and material supply in bulk quantity. 1. Poor workmanship According to the result found from the study, averages of 60% of the respondents believe that; poor workmanship is one of the major causes of material wastage in LCH project. Besides, most LCH projects are awarded on fixed price bases for selected qualified consultants and contractors; this makes the contractors unable to employ qualified Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 37

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

professionals and skilled manpowers. In addition to this, since the contractor employ laborers with low basic salary, mostly workers seek another company which pays better. Thus poor and non-sustainable workmanship contributes for the increase of material wastage.

Photo 1: Material wastage due to poor workmanship, utilization of improper quality materials and improper supervision. The problem may rise due to poor workmanship during production stage and lack of supervision. Under supervision the following steps should be properly implemented. During production stage; right vibration, quality material selection and correct mix ratio should be kept. The mould has to be cheeked and properly prepared for fixing reinforcement bars and to pour concrete. After casting it has to be properly dismantled and get proper curing. Until precast beams attain its comprehensive strength, it should be properly cured. After that it should be well transported to working site and properly handled.

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Photo 2: Material wastage due to poor workmanship. This grade beam bulge out is due to lack of quality material selection and Skilled laborers. As a result of this, the entire bulge out concrete amount increases the wastage limit to become out of standard.

Photo 3: Excess voids observed on casted grade beam and foundation column junctions due to poor workmanship.

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Photo 4: Forwarded recommendations. As observed in photo 3 & 4, materials are wasted due to poor workmanship; in addition the contractor incurs additional labor cost. Here also the employer loses the on time functioning of the building due to delays of project completion time unless some compensation mechanisms implemented here.

2. Lack of appropriate handling and storage

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As the result of the study shows, nearly 67% of the employer and 50% of the consultant believes that, lack of appropriate handling and storage of materials by the contractors (sub-contractors) contribute for the wastage of materials in the project. Some problems associated with this, are damages and breakages during loading and un-loading, deterioration due to incorrect storage, losses due to theft and exposure to extreme climatic condition. As they replied, wastages are more in cases of labor based contracting system, this is because; mostly sub-contractors are not sensitive to materials rather, they focus on outputs. Hence the client should provide close supervision in order to make the subcontractors give attention to material handling and control their negligence. Inaddtion to this the owner should provide material handling and wastage control item in the contract document.

Photo 5: Inappropriate material (cement) storage. As observed in photo 5, cements are stored directly in contact with floor and it is stockpiled randomly.

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Photo 6: Inappropriate reinforcement stockpiling. Employer always not supply newly produced reinforcement bars. As it is easily observed in the picture, the reinforcement bars get corroded from the very beginning. In addition the reinforcement bars not stockpiled properly; which means it is placed directly in contact with earth and which is not under shed, due to this the corrosion extent enhanced a lot. As a result, it creates a direct additional cost to the contractor and delays on project completion time. 3. Utilization As the result of the study shows, 66% of the stakeholders respondent believes that; improper utilization (usage) is one of the major causes for material wastage. Some of the improper utilization problems mentioned is; excess mortar/concrete preparation, poor handling of materials, misuse of ratio to various grades, using unsuitable tools and machines, and use of dry cement etc.

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Photo 7: Material wastage during concrete transportation to cast a structure.

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Photo 8: Material wastage during concrete mixing.

Material wastage mostly observed in LCH project to a maximum degree than other high scale projects. This is due to various reasons:4. Design problems As the result of the study shows, 75% of the contractors and 50% of the consultants believe that; design problems as the major cause for LCH projects are labor based contract from the very beginning. Beside this the contractor not handle the materials by using proper techniques and mostly the labor force lack expected

material wastage. Some problems associated with this, are over design, dimension dis-coordination, and design without soil test. In this case, larger material volumes are mandatory for construction than should be the case, and this become a cause for material wastages. A good design can reduce wastages by considering dimensional coordination and grid system of designing. 5. Variations in design at construction stage Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 44

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In this section, the study indicates that, 50% of the contractors accept variations in design at the construction stage have effect for the increase of material wastage in the project. The effect is manifested by not having complete design and design change order given to the contractor by the consultant or/and employer at the construction stage. Design change (modification) at construction stage which leads to the additional wastage in the form of demolishing of faulty design works.

6. Incorrect procurement of materials As the result of the study shows, almost 75% of the respondents replied that, incorrect procurement of materials does not have an influence on material wastage. However, during our site visit and discussion with the employees of stakeholders; we have reached to a common understanding of its existence, since it is observed on contractors when procuring and delivering incorrect materials which are inferior in quality, however they remove it from site when it is understood by the consultant.

7. In bulk material supply by the owner It is agreed by nearly 55% of stakeholders that, bulk supply of materials by the owner (AAHDPO) and MSE has influence to the increase of material wastage in the project. They have explained the impact of its influence as follows: a. The supply of materials by the owner (AAHDPO) is not conceding with the project material delivery schedule, which facilitates untimely bulk supply of materials.

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b. Due to lack of supervision, MSEs produce poor quality materials and supply materials with out keeping the required quantity and right time.

Table 3.4, Does the involvement of MSEs increase wastage


Ite m No. Questions Respon d Respondents In No. In %

Does the involvement of MSE'S have contribution for the increase of material wastage in LCH projects? Yes or No, if yes what are the side effects in your context? Please forward possible justification? Yes No Yes No Yes No 6 2 7 1 1 5 75 25 88 13 17 83

A. Contractors B. Consultant C. Employer

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Fig. 3.3, Does the involvement of MSEs increase wastage Discussion - Table 3.4 and Fig. 3.3 shows that, whether the existence of MSEs (Micro and Small Enterprises) have contribution for the increase of material wastage in the project. As the result shows 83% of the employers believe that, the involvement of MSEs in this sector does not contribute for the increase of wastage while; 75% of the contractors and 87.5% of the consultants replied that, their participation in producing and supplying materials has large effect on wastages of materials. They have explained the impact of their influence as follows: a) Production error and lack of perfection on materials like precast beams, slab and HCB walls. b) Due to lack of supervision, MSEs produce and supply poor quality materials.

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The main problem we have understood here is that, the MSEs not yet got enough training and knowledge which enables them to produce materials with required quality and dimension. Due to this reason, materials with poor quality and incorrect dimension produced and wastages generated.

3.3.3 Section three - is related to the major side effects of materials poor handling and wastage in Low Cost Housing projects. Table 3.5, side effects of the problems in the project.
Ite m No. 4 Questions What are the side effects of the problems in LCH projects? 1. Cost overrun A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 2. Delay in project completion time A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 3. Ineffective resource utilization A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 4. Environmental impact A. Contractor B. Consultant C. Employer 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 5 3 5 3 63 50 67 38 50 67 50 63 83 38 63 50 Respondents In No. In %

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Fig. 3.4, Side effects of the problems in the project. Discussion - Table 3.5 and Fig. 3.4 shows that the major side effects of poor materials handling and wastage in the low cost housing projects. Some of the main side effects according to the survey data are cost overrun, delay in project completion time, ineffective resource utilization, and environmental impact. 1. Cost overrun According to the result found from the study, averages of 60% of the stakeholders respondents believe that materials poor handling and wastage affects the expected project cost planned by employer and contractor. More over as stated in the literature review section 2.3 in building construction projects materials account for more than 50% of the project total cost. The effect is manifested by not using proper handling during procurement, transportation, storage, and utilization.

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2. Delay in project completion time As the result of the study shows nearly 53% of the stakeholders respondents believe that project completion time is affected having materials poor handling and wastage in projects. During our discussion with the project engineers the delay of construction work may occur when wrong types or quality of materials are used and the time spent for the re-construction and replacement for the goods. Another cause of delays is damages during the transit of materials, shortage of materials, and late delivery of materials and so on. 3. Ineffective resource utilization As the result of the study shows nearly 83% of the employer and 63% of the consultants believe that materials poor handling and wastage affects the planned quantity of material to complete a project. Lack of appropriate handling and storage of materials by the contractors (subcontractors) contribute for wastage of materials in projects. 4. Environmental impact According to the result found from the study shows nearly 50% of the stakeholders respondents believe that wastes due to materials poor handling and wastage is easily affect the environment. The impact of construction operations on natural conservation is cumulative and collective in most situations, such as disturbance of sensitive habitats and species by water pollution. In addition, where large amounts of waste are generated, loss of grassland can result from the need for landfill sites.

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3.3.4 Section Four: proposed systems and methodologies used to minimize materials wastage and to maintain proper material handling from the three stakeholders point of view. Material is the large portion of the project cost; our profit is highly depending on proper utilization of material resources at different stage of the project time. Because of this reason, stakeholders forward the following systems to minimize material wastage and poor material handling.
Table 3.6, proposed systems to minimize poor material handling and wastages.

Stake holders A. Contractors

Proposed and practiced systems Assignment of follow up engineer by preparing checklists. Training is forwarded to engineers (senior and fresh) and to other relevant skilled laborers with in some interval or as it need. Regular meeting evaluation which obtain one major agenda about material handling and its standard utilization. Providing bonuses, position increment, preparing scheduled recreational time to efficient laborers and professionals as per their position and encouragement on different aspect. Bar schedule preparation, finance budgeting; break downed material schedule preparation before forced to executions. Recycling, for example wastage created during plastering, concrete placing and mixing. All these material wastage will be processed again to use for ordinary works.

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The contractor should take care on handling of materials during loading, unloading, transportation and utilization periods. The contractor should have taken right mix, quality material and properly staffed human resource.

Stake holders B. Consultants

Proposed and practiced systems Giving orientation and briefing for the cause of wastages to construction materials in LCH projects such as slab & wall HCB's, bar, sand & gravel. Filling inspections on materials before they brought in to the building to construct slab or HCB wall. Preparing checklists, material handling procedure and systems on storing, placing and on how material management can be handled. Providing special training to supervisors, how they should handle the project to the extent low cost demands awareness. Assisting the contractors in how & where to store materials when supplied by the client. Warning contractors by writing on site book to create a good management after repeated oral communication and that obliged the contractors to proceed by full filling their responsibility. Consulting offices are trying to prepare trainings for most stakeholders like Engineers under Consulting with in some intervals to create Precast beam & on major raw materials such as cement, reinforcement

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offices, contractors, suppliers & MSE's about how to accomplish the project with appropriate quality, relative completion time & better profit with less wastage. The consulting office should properly asses the project site before rushing to the design work and forces the contractor to implement it. Here soil exploration must be the first mandatory and helpful data for design work. Stake holders C. Employer Proposed and practiced systems The organization should take random follow up and supervision not only on materials production but also due attention should be taken during loading, un loading, transportation and usage of materials. Appreciate position rewarding to efficient professionals to acquire better knowledge, here rewarding goes to the degree of additional work provisions to the constructing parties. All stake holders should keep their responsibilities to achieve targets. Discussion - Table 3.6 shows the systems practiced and proposed techniques used to minimize poor material handling and wastage. To avoid these problems, majorly all stakeholders agreed on staff training, close supervision, proper work force staffing, and utilization of different wastage reduction mechanisms including innovations are the basics. Out of them, specifically clients have weaknesses in supervising MSEs. In addition to this all the stakeholders should try to have good relationship among others in order to minimize materials poor handling and wastage in low cost house projects. Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 53

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CHAPTER - FOUR 4. CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1. Conclusion


The research on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa Low Cost Housing projects is concluded with the following points: 1. Stakeholders should know how projects properly managed

concerning materials. 2. The client and MSEs do not use proper material delivery system. 3. From observation, material wastage is mostly created due to utilization, poor workmanship, design problem and improper material handling and storage systems. 4. From the research findings, training and workshop requirement is mandatory for the reduction of material wastage. 5. On most observed sites, poor quality materials exist due to lack of strong supervision on the production of materials like precast beams, slabs and wall HCBs. 6. Building participants are often lacking skill and knowledge in applying wastage minimization techniques in their daily work. Hence, there is a natural tendency among architects, engineers and contractors to use the more familiar conventional methods. 7. Unless we familiarized and go in to practice on wastage reduction techniques, the following major out comings will be observed widely on most project sites. Major out comings are project cost increase, great lost for the owner and to other participated stake holders, work will be delayed due to the overall material shorten and environment risk. 8. Wastage is unavoidable in construction work; but by applying appropriate controlling system, we can minimize it.

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4.2 Recommendation
1. A proper way to handle the project is early planning. 2. The client should follow proper material delivery system. 3. Developing staff training, Staffs or workers have to be consulted to ensure they know how to handle the materials correctly and try to reduce wastage. 4. Proper design should be implemented which considers material wastage reduction. 5. Communication between the designer and contractor is important so that each realizes how the design decisions will affect on site operations and wastage generation. 6. Implementation of environmentally friendly construction methods. 7. Selections of the best reputation contractor have to be made to insure the wastages are minimized. 8. Try to implement innovations like low-wastage building technologies by avoiding obstacles. 9. Technical problems of a few new construction methods have to be overcome before they can be widely adopted. 10. Developing Information and record management system. 11. Use appropriate wastage minimizing techniques for LCH projects. 12. Further study is recommended on material handling and wastage control system.

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APPENDIX - A RESEARCH PROPOSAL


Research title : Material Handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects.

Research goal : To investigate any existing material wastage and poor material handling, studying their causes and side effects and for forwarding improved systems to minimize wastages and correct poor material handling systems to LCH projects. Research objectives : To investigate the presence of material handling and wastage control problem on LCH project including its extent. To find out the main causes of material wastage and poor material handling. To explore the side effects of material wastage and poor material handling on LCH project. To forward latest material wastage reducing techniques and poor material handling corrective procedures to alleviate problems faced on different stages of the project. Research background :

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In order to respond the high demand of population housing problem in respect to economy and land resource utilization, the Ethiopian government has give due attention for low cost housing. Besides it is believed that it creates better urbanization, job opportunity to unemployed large number of young people and become fair living sites especially to low-income citizens of the city. Since building construction materials account more than 50% of the total project cost and LCH projects target cost-efficient house construction, and using effective wastage control systems and proper material handling is vital for the reduction of cost expenditure due to poor material handling and problems on material wastages. The research is tried to describe different crucial systems to avoid excess wastages. Research problems : 1. Problem statement: Identify and use appropriate systems to minimize

material wastages and poor material handlings available in LCH projects. 2. Research questions: What is material handling and wastage control system? Is materials handling and wastage problem exist? If it

exists, what are the main causes and to what extent it appears? To what degree, the stake holders share and give

outstanding solution for the problems appear associated with wastage?

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What are the effects of excess wastage and materials

poor handling to the project and what are the proposed remedial measures to reduce these problems?

Research context : Out of the construction materials, Cement, Reinforcement bar, slab and wall HCBs, prefabricated concrete elements etc are the main inputs for the construction of LCH buildings. However, since we are not using the materials properly, we obliged to face different type of wastages in degree. These wastages are: Wastage during design and supervision. Wastage due to incorrect purchasing. Wastage during transportation, handling and storage. Wastage during utilization (construction).

And these again, will lead to have maximum wastages for most items of works. Which shows stake holders are not yet give due attention for wastages created in different stages of the project. So we try to explore in depth the menses and strengthening mechanisms to reduce wastages. Research concept : Weakness to minimize controllable wastage of materials and attain the permissible percentage of construction material wastage is a

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big problem. Therefore the research will find out causes and weaknesses to reduce wastage and give appropriate solutions. Research Methodology : Survey & Desk study

1. Survey: Research data type is Qualitative (problem solving & case study approach). Research instrument; postal questioners. Data Source; study population will be taken from the following categories of project stake holders: Employers contractors consultants Data collection Data analysis

2. Desk Study: For contextual concept development.

Research processes : Topic Proposal Literature review Research instrument Data collection Analysis Thesis writing 59

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Research time schedule : Advisor: Ato Belay Yitayew

Submitted by: Dechasa Haile Gebrehiwot Hintsay Saron Anteneh

APPENDIX

- B

Addis Ababa University


Faculty of Technology Department of Construction Technology and Management
Questioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared for Contractors

Profile Name: Profession: Organization: . Years of Experience: .. Position:

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1. Is there any material handling and wastage problem directly connected to low cost housing ( ) ? Yes No 2. If your answer is yes, what are the consequences? A) Cost over run. B) Delays of project completion time. C) Ineffective material resource utilization. D) Environmental impact. Please, brief all how it affects. A) B) . C) D) . 3. Is there any material handling problem and causes for construction material wastage due to delivering of construction material in bulk amount to the site by the client?

Yes

No

4. If yes, please mention the impacts of its influence? Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 61

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.. 5. Is the involvement of micro & small enterprises (MSE), have contribution for the increase of wastage in producing and supplying materials such as HCB, precast elements etc? Yes No 6. If your answer is yes, please describe it? .. 7. What is your recommendation to minimize material handling & wastage control system in LCH projects with respect to MSEs material delivery system? ..

8. In your opinion, which creates cost over run and delays on project completion time due to material wastage and poor material handling in LCH projects? A) Over design during design period, B) Contractors negligence, Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 62

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C) Delay in material selection and approval, D) Delay in material supply by the owner, Please, brief how it affects. A) B) . C) D) . 9. What is your opinion, on the effect of workmanship quality during utilization of materials on site with respect to wastage of construction materials? .. 10. Lack of sufficient stock area for construction materials on site, could it be a cause for material wastage?

Yes

No

11. If yes, how it will be modified? Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 63

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.. 12. What are the major causes that enhancing material wastages in your company? Please circle one or two and illustrate. A) Lack of appropriate attention for handling and storing, B) Poor workmanship at site, C) Improper material procurement, D) Inexperienced project managers, E) Variations in design at the construction stage (demolishing), F) Delay in material selection and approval, ( ) ( ) ( ) 13. What kind of methodology you adopt to your company for minimizing material handling and wastage problems? ..

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Addis Ababa University


Faculty of Technology Department of Construction Technology and Management
Questioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared for Consultants

Profile Name: Profession: Organization: . Years of Experience: .. Position:

1. Is there any material handling & wastage problem during your design & supervision? Yes No 2. If your answer is yes, what problems your companies observe during design period? Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 65

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.. 3. If your answer is yes, what problems your companies observe during supervision period? .. 4. Based on question no 1, is there any remedial measures taken by your company to resolve problems, if problems come in to view? .. 5. Is there any design modification made by your company to reduce material wastages in low cost house (LCH) project? Yes No 6. If your answer is yes, please describe it? Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 66

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

.. 7. What are the major causes that enhancing material wastages in your company? Please circle one or two and illustrate. A) Over design, B) Dimension dis-coordination during design stage, C) Variations in design at the construction stage (demolishing), D) Inexperienced project supervisors, E) Delay in material selection and approval, F) Resistance to adopt alternative materials. ( ) ( ) ( ) 8. Is the involvement of micro & small enterprises (MSE), have contribution for the increase of wastage in producing and supplying materials such as HCB, precast elements etc? Yes No 9. If your answer is yes, please describe it? .. 10. In your observation, which one lead to create maximum material wastage in LCH projects? A) Contractors negligence, Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 67

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B) Poor workman ship, C) Improper material handling and storage, D) Delay in material supply by the owner, E) Unconcerned supervisory staff, Please circle one or two and illustrate. ( ) ( ) 11. What kind of methodology and system you adopt to your company, in minimizing material handling problem and wastage controls for LCH projects? ..

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Addis Ababa University


Faculty of Technology Department of Construction Technology and Management
Questioner on Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects Prepared for Employers

Profile Name: Profession: Organization: . Years of Experience: .. Position:

1. Is there any material handling and wastage problem directly connected to low cost housing ( ) ?

Yes

No 69

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2. If your answer is yes, what are the side effects? A) Cost over run. B) Delays of project completion time. C) Ineffective material resource utilization. D) Environmental impact. Please, brief all how it affects. A) B) . C) D) . 3. Which type of material wastage problem is mostly your organization faced in LCH projects? A) Due to design B) Due to procurement of materials C) Due to material storage & handling D) Due to utilization Please, brief all how it affects. A) Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 70

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B) . C) D) .. 4. What are the main causes that enhancing material wastages your organization observe in LCH projects? A) Contractors negligence B) Poor workman ship C) Improper material handling and storage D) Variations in design at the construction stage E) Unconcerned supervisory staff Please circle one or two and illustrate. ( ) ( ) ( ) 5. Is the involvement of micro & small enterprises (MSE), have contribution for the increase of wastage in producing and supplying materials such as HCB, precast elements etc?

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Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

Yes

No

6. If your answer is yes, please describe it? 7. Is there any mechanisms designed by your organization for wastage control? Yes No 8. If your answer is yes, what are the mechanisms?

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REFERENCES:
1. K.K Chitkara: Construction Project Management. Planning,

Scheduling and Controlling - Second reprint 2000. 2. 3. Er. D. Lall: Construction Management Reprint 2004. Wubishet Jekale Mengesha (Dr.Ing), Principles of Construction Management 4. Management Development Program (MDP) in Professional

Project Management Course Material, Organized by Sileshi Consult, in association with Nehru Institute of Construction and Enterprise, INDIA. 5. Matiwos Ensermu, Material Handling and Stores Management, Addis Ababa University College of Commerce, hand out 2006. 6. Document (terms of reference) prepared for lideta urban renewal, AAHDPO, Unpublished. 7. Ingo Becker, Successes in Capacity Development Low Cost Housing Program 2003. 8. Technical Manual for Low Cost Housing Volume 2, GTZ IS, 2003 Prepared by: Dechasa, Gebrehiwot, Saron 73

Material handling and wastage control in Addis Ababa low cost housing projects

9.

Construction Materials Management. Guide lines for economy and ecology in design and construction. Prepared by, Houston, a chapter of the American Institute of Architect. AIA

10. M. Osmani, Reducing Waste Through Architectural Design Practices 2007. 11. http://www.naser_elamzoni@yahoo.co.uk Construction Waste Minimization.htm, accessed on December 15, 2009.

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