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A Report on Practical Training

Undertaken At


(Period: From 15/05/2005 to 14/06/2005)





2nd year Electrical NTPC, KAWAS


It gives us great pleasure to present this training report to the learning centre, NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) Limited, Kawas, combined cycle power project, Hazira, Surat. This training program was immense support to our theoretical knowledge. This formed a bridge between theoretical and practical knowledge. We are thankful to management of NTPC Kawas who gave us this golden opportunity to undergo our vocational training at their plant. I would like to thank Mr. S. K. JHA (Chief Manager, HRD) to give us this opportunity. I would like to express our extreme gratitude towards Mr. R. K. Ash (DGM), Mr. Dhirendra. P. Jajoria (senior engg.), R.G. Patel. Everyone extended their full co-operation and concern towards our training. They overlooked all disturbance and inconvenience caused by us in their work.



S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

TOPIC Introduction to NTPC Introduction to KGPP Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Waste Heat Recovery Boiler Steam Turbine Generator Transformers Switchyard Electrical Protections SWAS 31 40

Page No. 04 08 10 13 26 29

43 49 52



NTPC, the largest power generating company of the country, presently has an installed capacity of over 31000 MW. NTPC presently operates over 27 power stations. NTPC ranked 317th in 2009, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the worlds biggest companies. Currently over 17,000 MW capacity is under construction at 19 projects in 12 states and NTPC plans to become a 75 GW by 2017. Government of India, Deptt. of Public Enterprises, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises vide Office Memorandum dated 19th May, 2010 has conveyed grant of Maharatna status to NTPC apart from three other Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs). Since, presently NTPC has requisite number of non-official Directors on its Board, therefore, only NTPC is eligible to exercise delegated Maharatna powers.

Installed Capacity
NO. OF PLANTS NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total Section I.1 15 7 22 5 27 CAPACITY (MW) 24,885 3,955 28,840 2,864 31,704

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities COAL 7,525 6,360 3,600 7,400 924 25,809 GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895 TOTAL 9,837 7,653 3,950 7,400 2,864 31,704

REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total

Coal Based Power Stations


With 15 coal based power stations, NTPC is the largest thermal power generating company in the country. The company has a coal based installed capacity of 24,885 MW COMMISSIONE STATE D CAPACITY(MW ) Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chhattisgarh 2,000 2,100 2,600 1,600 3,260 2,000 2,340 1,330 3,000 1,050 460 1,000 440 705 1,000 24,885

COAL BASED(Owned by NTPC) 1. Singrauli 2. Korba 3. Ramagundam 4. Farakka 5. Vindhyachal 6. Rihand 7. Kahalgaon 8. NCTPP, Dadri 9. Talcher Kaniha 10 Feroze Gandhi, . Unchahar 11 Talcher Thermal . 12 Simhadri . 13 Tanda . 14 Badarpur . 15 Sipat-II . Total

Coal Based Joint Ventures:

COAL BASED (Owned by JVs) 1. Durgapur STATE West Bengal 6|Page COMMISSIONE D CAPACITY 120

2. Rourkela 3. Bhilai 4. Kanti Total

Orissa Chhattisgarh Bihar

120 574 110 924


Gas/Liquid Fuel Based Power Stations

COMMISSIONE GAS BASED (Owned by NTPC) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anta Auraiya Kawas Dadri Jhanor-Gandhar Rajiv Gandhi CCPP STATE D CAPACITY(MW ) Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Kerala Haryana 413 652 656 817 648 350 430 3,966

Kayamkulam 7. Faridabad Total

Gas Based Joint Ventures:

COAL BASED (Owned by JVs) 1. RGPPL Maharashtra Total STATE COMMISSIONED CAPACITY 1940 1940


Hydro Based Power Projects (Under Implementation)

NTPC has increased thrust on hydro development for a balanced portfolio for long term sustainability. The first step in this direction was taken by initiating investment in Koldam Hydro Electric Power Project located on Satluj river in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. Two other hydro projects under construction are Tapovan Vishnugad and Loharinag Pala. On all these projects construction activities are in full swing.

HYDRO BASED Koldam (HEPP) Loharinag Pala (HEPP) Tapovan Vishnugad (HEPP) Total 1920

STATE Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Uttarakhand




In olden days the Power Stations were constructed to run either on coal or with water (that is getting collected in the catchment area) which are called thermal or hydro power stations respectively. In the recent past say for 15 to 20 years in India the Gas based power stations have come into existence with the exploration of the gas by ONGC and transportation of the same by GAIL. These power stations are operated on gas either in open cycle or in combined cycle mode. As the operation in open cycle is costly, the power producers prefer running the gas power station only in combined cycle mode rather than in simple cycle mode because of the cost consideration. As you are all aware in general the Gas Turbines can produce about 55 - 58% extra energy thru the Steam Turbine from out of the steam generated in HRSGs with the heat exchange that is taking place between flue gases and the water inside the HRSGs. These power stations have become much more popular because of the following considerations: 1. Starting of the units and bringing them on to the bar is easier/faster when compared to the thermal units. 2. 3. When used on gas these units are quite cost effective. When the right equipment is selected, these are good work horses, which can be continued in service after synchronization without much trouble. 4. There are minimum numbers of controls when compared with the thermal unit of the same capacity. The efficiency of the combined cycle unit is about 48% when compared to about 35% of thermal units. Of-course the efficiency of Trent Engines is about 56%. 5. The personnel required to operate combined cycle plant of the same capacity is much less than that of a thermal plant. 10 | P a g e


These are short gestation projects which take less time for installation & commissioning. The Gas units are fully automatic and of single button operating units and they can be started & loaded sequentially.

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Kawas gas power project (KGPP) is one of the important power project of NTPC. It was established in 1991. KGPP is situated at Kawas village near Surat (Gujarat). KGPP is gas based combined cycle power project which has 2 blocks. The capital cost is about 1600 crore. KGPP is a France technology power project. The plant has 2 blocks. Total capacity of plant is: 2x328.1 MW. Each block consists of 2 gas turbine generators and one steam turbine generators. Combined Cycle: Combine cycle power plant integrates 2 power conversion cycles. Brayton cycle (GT) and Rankine cycle(ST) with the principle objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. The overall combine cycle efficiency comes to 45%. KGPP gets auxiliary supply for plant from 2 station transformers. Plant generates 11.5 KV and this voltage is step up at 220 KV then transmitted. The plant have diesel generator of capacity 5 MVA. It is used when power fails from both station transformers. The outgoing lines from plant are: Kawas-Haldarva I Kawas-Haldarva II Kawas-vav II KawasNavsari I KawasNavsari II Kawas-Ichchhapore I Kawas-Ichchhapore II

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The gas plant at Kawas consists of two blocks. Each block contains two gas turbine, two boilers and one steam turbine. One boiler for each gas turbine and a by pass chimney. The working of the gas turbine starts with the starting of the turn gear and then the cranking motor (1MW) which rotates the shaft of the compressor which is coupled through a torque converter. The compressor compresses the inlet atmospheric air to 10 bars which is then fed to the combustion chamber for combustion of fuel (can be naphtha, gas, or high speed diesel) which produces flue gas. Now the gas turbine which performs the major function of using the flue gas energy and movement of generator rotor and winding. The rotation of turbine rotor at 3000 rpm gives 50 Hz A.C. The power output of generator is 106 MW at 11 KV. This power can be transmitted western grid . The gas plant can run in both forms either in open cycle or combined cycle. In open cycle the exhaust of the gases is passed to the atmosphere through a by pass chimney where as in combined cycle the exhaust gases are used to heat up water to steam to run steam turbine. When working in combined cycle the exhaust gases (5400 C) are passed through boiler. The boiler has a typical arrangement of different layers of economizer, evaporator, superheater and preheater with two drums HP and LP. The water from feed water tank is pumped to HP as well as LP economizer which increases the temperature of the water. This water then reaches HP and LP drum respectively. From these drums, pumps are used to pump the water to evaporator which converts water to steam. This steam is passed through superheater, which further increases temperature of steam. The HP steam from both the boilers is then fed to HP turbine. At the exhaust of HP turbine both HP and LP steam are mixed and then feed to LP turbine. The generator connected to the turbine 14 | P a g e to 11 kilometers so now it is being step up to 220 KV by a step up transformer which is then given to the switch yard and then to the

produces 116.6 MW which is again supplied to step up transformer. Water is passed through condenser which converts steam to water and now this cooling water goes to cooling tower. Thus produced water is collected in hotwell which is further pumped into the feed water tank through a preheater which increases the temperature of water.

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Combined Cycle Pow

W HRB Exhaust gas Gas Turbine G 33% 15%



Fuel 100% Input

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The gas turbine is a common form of heat engine working with a series of processes consisting of compression of air taken from atmosphere, increase of working medium temperature by constant pressure ignition of fuel in combustion chamber, expansion of SI and IC engines in working medium and combustion but it is like steam turbine in its aspect of the steady flow of the working medium. At Kawas, the GE-Alsthom made Gas Turbine (Model 9E) has an operating efficiency of 31% and 49% in open cycle and combined cycle mode respectively when natural gas is used as fuel. Today gas turbine unit sizes with output above 250 MW at ISO conditions are being designed and developed. The modern gas turbine plants are commonly available in package form with few functional sub assemblies.

The 9E model GEC-Alsthom package consists of

Control compartment Accessory compartment Turbine compartment Inlet exhaust system Load package Generator excitation compartment CO2 fire protection unit

The basic functional sub assemblies of Kawas GT package plant are:

Control compartment The control compartment contains the equipment needed to provide control indication and protection functions. Arrangement can be made for manual operation or for remote unattended operation. The

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control compartment is located at local control room and includes the turbine control panel, generator control panel, batteries and battery charger. Accessory compartment The accessory compartment, contains the mechanical and control elements necessary to allow the gas turbine to be a self, contained operational station. The major components located in the accessory compartment are the lubricating oil system and reservoir, lube oil cooler, starting means, accessory gear fuel system, turbine gauge panel, hydraulic system and atomising air system, water system, cranking motor exhaust frame blowers (88TK-1, 88 TK-2.) Turbine compartment The gas turbine has a 17 stage axial compressor. The compressor rotor consists of individual discs for each stage, and is connected by through bolts to the forward and aft stub shafts. The turbine rotor consists of three stages, with one wheel for each bucket stage. The turbine rotor wheels are assembled by through bolts similar to the compressor, and with two spacers, one between the first and second stage wheels, and the other between the second and the third stage wheels. The entire stator stages utilize precision cast, segmented nozzles, with the 2nd and 3rd stage segments supported from the stationary shrouds. This arrangement removes the hot gas path from direct contact with the turbine shell. The turbine rotor stages also have precision cast, long shank buckets (air foils on the compressor wheels are called blades, those on turbine wheels are called buckets) and this feature effectively shields the wheel rims and bucket dovetails from the high temperature of the main gas steam. The gas turbine unit and shells are split and flanged horizontally for convenience of disassembly. Compressor discharge air is contained by the discharge casing, combustion wrapper, and turbine shell. The 14 combustion liners are mounted completely inside the combustion wrapper, which eliminates the need for combustion cans. Inlet and exhaust system The inlet arrangement includes inlet air filters, silencing, ducting and trash screens to protect the compressor from debris. The inlet arrangements generally comes 18 | P a g e

out from the back of the inlet air house, over the control and accessory compartments, and down to the inlet plenum, which is mounted on the turbine base. The exhaust arrangement includes the ducting, silencing, and necessary expansion joints. The exhaust gases exit from the side to exhaust plenum, which is mounted separately on its own base, and are directed straight out to the exhaust arrangement. Load package The load package consists of an air-cooled, synchronous generator and associated equipment. The generator also has roof-mounted terminals for out going leads. An air-cooled open ventilation of generator and associated equipments can be used in the load compartment. Fire protection unit The fire protection system consisting of on base piping, detectors etc. capable of distributing a fire extinguishing agent (CO2, or Halon) in all the compartments of the gas turbine and local control room. The bulk of fire extinguishing agent stage unit is located near gas turbine with one main CO2 skid. OPERATION The package plant has been designed to provide maximum operational flexibility and simplicity. The actual operating sequence can be best understood by considering the four basic operating modes: Stand By, Start, Run and Shutdown. Stand by During stand by, each component must be maintained in a state, which allows for immediate start up operation if needed. All the station components that are affected by low temperature or moisture are fully protected during

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stand by. The lubricating oil and the control compartment are maintained at a minimum temperature. The batteries are kept fully charged and heated. Turbine compartment is also maintained hot. Starting the unit Start-up can be ordered either remote or from the control compartment. (LCR) The starting sequence is given below: 1. The starting system consists of an induction motor and torque converter coupled to the accessory gear. 2. The staring system is energized and connected to the turbine up to the value from which Turbine becomes self-sustaining. 3. At about 12% normal speed, fuel is injected and ignited. 4. To avoid thermal shocks in hot parts of turbine, the unit is accelerated under acceleration mode after a Short warm-up period. 5. When the turbine becomes self-sustaining, the gas turbine speeding up continues, but the starting system (Cranking motor) is automatically made off at 60% speed. Running The operator at either the local or remote station has the option of holding the station at spinning reserve, or loading to a point, or running under maximum load exhaust temperature control. The load can be varied manually over the entire load range. Shut down Upon initiation of a normal shut down signal, either locally or remotely, the following events occur: 1. The generator load is gradually reduced to zero. 2. The generator breaker is opened. 3. The fuel supply is reduced & then is shut off. 20 | P a g e

4. The gas turbine coasting down to rest. The starting system components also provide slow speed rotation of the turbine for cool down purposes after shut down. A crank and restart can be initiated at any time below 10% speed & can also be started above 95% speed.

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Starting of gas turbine takes place from this compartment. All the motors required for turbine startup till the cooling of the turbine are placed here. Below all the motors there is lube oil tank through which lube oil for cooling purpose is taken. The main motors in this compartment include:
1. Turn Gear Motor.

2. Cranking Motor. 3. Pumps for water cooling 4. Three lube oil pumps Main pump Auxiliary pump (AC) Emergency pump(DC)

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The axial-flow compressor section consists of the compressor rotor and the casing. Included within the compressor casing are inlet guide vanes, the 17 stages of rotor and stator blading, and the exit guide vanes. In the compressor, air is confined to the space between the rotor and stator blading where it is compressed in stages by a series of alternate rotating (rotor) and stationary (stator) airfoil-shaped blades. The rotor blades supply the force needed to compress the air in each stage and the stator blades guide the air so that it enters in the following rotor stage at the proper angle. The compressed air exits through the compressor-discharge casing to the combustion chambers. Air is extracted from the compressor for turbine bearing cooling sealing, and for pulsation control during start-up (to avoid surging). Since minimum clearance between rotor and stator provides best performance in a compressor, parts have to be assembled very accurately. Compressor is used to increase the pressure of air and that pressurized air is injected into the combustion chamber, so that proper combustion of fuel takes place. For starting the compressor rotor cranking motor is used and when the speed reaches to 60% of the operating speed the cranking motor is cut off and now the compressor rotor rotates with the rotation of turbine rotor as both of them are coupled together. This is known as self -sustaining stage. The amount of air entering the compressor depends on the working condition of the gas turbine i.e. either it is running on full load or on no load or is in start up or shutdown sequence. Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) is used to control the amount of inlet air to the compressor. It is operated by servo valve mechanism by which its blade moves from 34 to 84 degrees which controls the amount of inlet air according to the load.


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During operation of the gas turbine, air is extracted from various stages of the axial flow compressor to: 1. Cool the turbine parts subject to high operating temperature. 2. Seal the turbine bearings. 3. Provide an operating air supply for air operated valves. 4. Air bleeds off to avoid pulsation. 5. For pulse Jet-cleaning system. 6. Fuel nozzle atomizing air. 5th stage air Air is extracted from the compressor 5th stage and is externally piped from connections in the upper and lower half of the casing for cooling and sealing of all rotor bearings. 11th stage Air Air from the compressor 11th stage is bled only during unit start-up and shut down for pulsation control. The compressor bleed valves are closed during unit operation. 17th stage Air Air extracted from the compressor 17th stage flows radially inward between the stage 16 and 17 wheels, to the rotor bore, and then aft to the turbine where it is used for cooling the turbine 1st and 2nd stage buckets and rotor wheel spaces. Compressor discharge air Air extracted from compressor discharge is used for liquid fuel atomising air, stage 1 nozzle vane and retaining ring cooling, stage 2 nozzle cooling, pulse & for Pulse Jet cleaning system. 24 | P a g e

Variable inlet guide vanes Variable inlet guide vanes are located at the aft end of the inlet casing. The position of these vanes has an effect on the quantity of compressor airflow. Movement of these guide vans is accomplished by the inlet guide vane control ring that turns individual pinion gears attached to the end of each vane. The control ring is positioned by a hydraulic actuator and linkage arm assembly.

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The combustion system is of the reverse flow type with 14 combustion chambers arranged around the periphery of the compressor discharge casing. This system also includes fuel nozzles, spark plug ignition system, flame detectors, and crossfire tubes. Hot gases, generated from burning in combustion chambers, are used to drive the turbine. High-pressure air from the compressor discharge is directed around the transition pieces and into the combustion chambers inlets. This air enters the combustion zone through metering holes for proper fuel combustion and through slots to cool the combustion liner. Fuel is supplied to each combustion chamber through a nozzle designed to disperse and mix the fuel with the proper amount of combustion air. Orientation of the combustion around the periphery of the compressor is shown on figure CS-1.Combustion chambers are numbered counter-clockwise when viewed looking down-stream and starting from the top of the machine. Spark plug and flame detectors locations are also shown.

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Flame Detectors: During the start up sequence, it is quite essential that an indication of flame or noflame to be transmitted to the control system. For this reason, a flame monitoring system is used consisting of four sensors which are installed on four combustion chambers No.4, 5 and 10, 11 and an electronic amplifier which is mounted in the turbine control panel. Spark plug: Combustion is initiated by means of the discharge from two high-voltage, retractable-electrode spark plugs installed in adjacent combustion chambers (No.12 and 13) These spring-injected and pressure retractable plugs receive their energy from ignition transformers. At the time of firing, spark at one or both plugs ignites the gases in a chamber. The remaining chambers are ignited by crossfire through the tubes that interconnect the reaction zones of the remaining chambers. As rotor speed increases, chamber pressure causes the spark plugs to retract and the electrodes are removed from the combustion zone.

The three-stage turbine section is the area in which the energy in the hot pressurized gas produced by compressor and combustion sections is converted into mechanical energy. The MS 9E major turbine section components include: the turbine rotor, turbine shell, exhaust frame, exhaust diffuser, nozzles and diaphragms, buckets & shrouds, and No.3 (aft) bearing assembly, spacers.

Turbine is just opposite to the compressor here the gases expand. The temperature at the inlet of turbine is around 1100 and at the exhaust is 540. The first stage of turbine rotor blade consists of 96 blades. Air cooling arrangements are provided for turbine 1st and 2nd stage. Stator or the stationary part is so designed that it passes the flue gasses from one stage to another stage, tangentially to the next stage so that maximum torque can be applied to the blades of the turbine and maximum rotation occurs 30 | P a g e

Turbine is only of 1 or 3/2 meter. Now flue gases passes through rotor blades (buckets) of the turbine and rotates the turbine. These flue gases from the turbine come out and pass through the damper. If damper is closed then all the flue gases moves to the atmosphere through by pass stack which is a vertical cylinder like structure of metal with a height of 30 m. This is called as open cycle operation. If damper is open, then all the flue gases pass through the boiler which is called combined cycle operation.

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1st and 2nd stage of Turbine Rotor

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Waste heat is heat, which is generated in a process by way of fuel combustion or chemical reaction, and then dumped into the environment even though it could still be reused for some useful and economic purpose. The essential quality of heat is not the amount but rather its value. The strategy of how to recover this heat depends in part on the temperature of the waste heat gases and the economics involved. Waste heat recovery boiler is an essential part of the whole system of gas power plants. Using WHRB the overall efficiency of the system is increased. Water from feed water tank is pumped using feed water pumps to the HP and LP lines. We have two 100% and one 30% line, water is supplied according to the load condition. The WHRB includes the following: 1. Preheater 2. L.P economizer 3. H.P economizer 4. L.P evaporator 5. H.P evaporator 6. L.P superheater 7. Two H.P superheater 8. L.P & H.P drum 9. L.P & H.P circulating pumps 10. 11. 12. 13. Diverter damper Weather protection damper Bypass stack Chimney

PREHEATER It is used to raise the temperature of the water which is pumped by the condensate extraction pumps (CEX) to the deaerater using the high temperature of the flue gases and it is the last stage where the heat is extracted from the flue gases. Now the flue gases are escaped to atmosphere. 34 | P a g e

ECONOMIZER Economizer is used to increase the temperature of water by absorbing heat from the flue gases. Economizer used is of the welded fine tube type. For every 220 C reduction in flue gas temperature by passing through an economiser or a pre-heater, there is 1% saving of fuel in the boiler. In other words, for every 60 C rise in feed water temperature through an economiser, or 200C rise in combustion air temperature through an air pre-heater.


DRUM Water from economizer enters here as well as steam from evaporator enters here, so drum contains both water and steam. Steam floats over water which is then taken out to the superheater. SUPERHEATER Superheaters are meant to raise the steam temp. above the saturation temp. by absorbing heat from the gas by increasing the temp. of the medium the useful energy that can be recovered increasing thus the efficiency of cycle also increases. DESUPERHEATERS These are commonly used to reduce the superheated steam temp. as a means controlling final superheated steam temp. WEATHER DAMPER It is used to protect the tubes of the exchanger from bad weather during the stoppages of the boiler. Another effect of this damper is to keep a relative high temp. during short drive stoppage of the boiler. It is between weather & the chimney. 35 | P a g e

DIVERTER DAMPER The diverter damper separates the gas turbine section with the boiler section. The damper consists of a single flap which rotates about its horizontal axis. When the damper is in closed condition the boiler portion is cut off and the plant runs in open condition. When the damper is in open condition the plant runs in combined cycle since boiler comes into play. The weight of the damper is 32 tons and is hydraulically operated. Normal opening time Normal closing time : 70 sec : 70sec

Emergency closing time: 20 sec

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The Steam Turbine is yet another important part of Kawas gas power plant. With the use of boiler and then Steam Turbine makes the plant efficiency better. At Kawas the Steam Turbine comprises of one High Pressure Turbine and one Low Pressure Turbine. The HP turbine is single flow horizontal split type with 13 stages whereas the LP turbine is double flow horizontal split type with 5 blades at each side. There are 6 bearing although from High Pressure Turbine to generator. The output megawatt of Steam Turbine is 116.6Mw at 11KV. HP steam from superheater of both the two boilers of a block mixes and then some part of the steam is passed to the deaerator, rest steam which is at 523 0C and 170 bar pressure is supplied to the HP Turbine. At the inlet of the HP turbine two stop valves as well as two control valves are placed. The stop valve works just like a switch, fully opened or fully closed, mainly used during emergency trip conditions. The control valve is used to control the amount of steam entering the turbine and works on conventional servo valve mechanism. Various sensors are mounted on bearing number 1 i.e. before the HP turbine such as vibration sensors to measure rotor and stator (casing) expansion, sensors for measuring axial movement. Measurement of these parameters is very critical since the spacing between rotor and stator is about 6mm. At the 13 stage of the HP turbine the LP steam of both boilers is introduced. Now because of same temperature and pressure both the steam mixes here and then passed to LP turbine. The steam entering the LP turbine then flows in both the directions. This steam after working in LP turbine is thus condensed in a condenser placed at the bottom of LP turbine.

EMERGENCY TRIP CONDITION Vacuum is maintained in the condenser using a vacuum pump. Special diaphragms and vacuum breaker valves are provided to meet an emergency trip condition.

Under normal running conditions, the pressure inside the turbine is less than that of the outside so the diaphragms well at required conditions. Whenever an emergency trip is required the vacuum pump stops and pressure inside the turbine increases as compared to the outside so the diaphragm moves upward and with the action of cutting blades all the steam will move to the atmosphere. So, the Steam Turbine does not damage. Same work is done by vacuum breakers. HP AND LP BYPASS SYSTEM After a trip when the system is again started then it is not possible to instantaneously get a steam of 5230C and 170 bar. During the initial startup the temperature and pressure remains low, so this steam cannot be feed to HP or LP turbine and therefore a by pass system is used. Also whenever a trip in the system occurs then the stop valves remain fully closed and the steam in the boiler is passed through this by pass system. All the steam through this by pass system is send to the condenser but this high temperature and pressure steam will damage the condenser vacuum, so this steam is further cooled by water before entering the condenser. The control valve for HP and LP by pass system works on actuator. CONDENSOR AND HOTWELL Condenser is the portion where the steam is condensed to water. Water from cooling tower is pumped from Cooling Water (CW) pumps which are circulated through pipe in condenser. When steam comes in contact with water it cools down and gets collected in the hotwell. This circulating water is again pumped to cooling tower. Water from hotwell is again pumped through condensate extraction pumps to preheater and then deaerator.


Total station load is dependent on Station transformers 220 kV/6.6 kV, 24 MVA each There are no UATs on generator terminals Power generated at 11.5 kV is stepped up directly to 220 kV Six 220 kV transmission lines connect Kawas to four grid substations of GEB


A turbo generator is a turbine directly connected to an electric generator for the generation of electric power.


At KGPP there are 4 Nos. 134 MVA (for GT) and 2 nos. 145 MVA (for ST) Synchronous Generators. These generators are 2 pole machines with a generating frequency of 50 Hz. Generators are directly coupled with turbines. Major components of the generators are:

The frame is a single block. It holds by clamping the magnetic core along with stator bars, their wedge and connections. The frame forms the outer casing of the turbo generator.

Stator Magnetic Core:

The magnetic core is made up of a stack of special grain oriented magnetic steel segments, or laminations. These laminations are characterised by their method of manufacturing - cold rolling their low loss and high permeability, and their carlite coating. Each segment is further insulated, with a thin coat of oil varnish containing coiloidal slica.

Rotor Shaft:
The generator shaft is made of a single forging, whose ingot is made in an electric furnace and then vacuum cast. The steel used is a high fracture resistant alloy. The longitudinal slots which house the fields coils are milled into the shaft body and are arranged so as to generate an magneto motive force wave approaching a sine wave.

Stator Winding:
It is composed of conductors wedged into the magnetic core. It is in the winding that the electrical energy is generated. There are two distinct parts of winding. a) b) The straight part which is within the magnetic core. The end windings which are outside the core and which serve to connect bars of different slots, together, thereby completing the winding

Rotor winding:
The rotor winding which is unevenly arranged around the body, thus produces a dis symmetry of inertia with respect to both of the main planes of the rotor. Slots milled perpendicular to the axis of rotation restores this equilibrium. The rotor winding has two distinct parts. a) b) The part contained in the shaft body - the slot portion. The part outside the shaft body - the end winding. The rotor winding comprises a number of turns stacked inside the rotor slots and which constitute the field coils which make up the poles of the rotor.

IMPORTANT POINTS: Gas turbine generator : 134 MVA - 4 Nos Steam turbine generator : 140 MVA - 2 Nos Air cooled, 3000 RPM, 2 pole, double star. Alsthom, France make. 11.5 kV generator terminal voltage. Four coolers in the generator for cooling the air.


11.5 KV 6740 AMPS 0.8 209 V DC 1500 amps AIR COOLED.



Prime mover Excitation system/AVR Generator transformer Cooling system

Prime mover:
The initial agent that transforms energy from thermal or pressure form to mechanical form; typically an engine or turbine. The alternator based on the type of prime movers to which they are mechanically coupled, may be classified as turbo generators, hydrogenerators, & engine driven generators. Turbo generators are driven by steam or gas turbines. The efficiency of steam turbines is high at large speeds, and therefore, synchronous machines driven by steam turbines (i.e. turbo generators) are high speed machines.

The maximum speed of turbo-generators is 3000 rpm corresponding to 2 poles and 50 Hz and it is widely used. These have small diameters (about 1.2m). Cylindrical rotor construction is used as the salient pole construction is impractical owing to large mechanical forces. The 4 pole construction with a speed of 1500 rpm is now obsolete. They have greetings up to 1000 MVA.

Excitation system:
Static & brushless excitation with rotating diodes on rotor. Shunt excitation with 11.5 kV excitation transformer. Excitation transformer is directly connected on generator busbars. Voltage regulation is done using thyristors. 125 Volts DC is for field flashing and boosting. The main exciter is directly mounted on the generator shaft. The exciter has field coils on the stator and armature on the rotor. Insulation - class F, speed: 3000 rpm, I/P voltage 45V, I/P current 86A, O/P voltage 220V, O/P current 1630A.

Generator Sectional Drawing


AVR (Automatic voltage regulation)

Output voltage is given to AVR which is connected to exciter. AVR gives command to exciter which varies the excitation level to maintain output voltage constant (11.5kv). There are various cards which are used to limit the parameters which can lead to damage in generator. Sr.n o. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CARD LUF2(+B4 APPLICATION Flux limitation in generator and its auxiliaries (transformer & motor)

6) LSES(+B39 Under excitation limitation which prevents loss of synchronization. ) RCOSI(+B5 cos regulation in generator. 1) RSI(+B58) RPS(+B70) SP1(+B77) Stator voltage regulator. Regulation channel tracking. Power stabilization. It dampers rotor oscillations.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

LCSI(+B32 ) CMS(+C17 ) RIEX(+C10

Stator current limitation. Manual reference card. Stator voltage manual reference controls a Current loop & regulates the excitation current. Excitation current regulation.

) CAS(+B27) Automatic set point. COM1(+C2 Channel switching i.e. switching from automatic to manual channel 2) FITS(+C27 ) GITS(+C32 ) Pulse generator Pulse generator. Generates the thyristor firing pulses so that the rectified Voltage is proportional to control voltage. Excitation assistance. Firing pulses of the thyristors in the excitation circuit which allows the generator to be excited by means of the battery when the stator voltage Exceeds its lower limit.


ASEX(+B1 0)

Generator transformer
The output generated by generator at 11.5kv is given to the transformer of capacity 140 MVA. Voltage is stepped up to 220kv by the transformer and is given to the main bus through generator bay. Important features are: -

1. Welded tank construction 2. Oil forced air forced cooling. 3. NVTC for voltage control (off load). 4. Yd11 configuration. GT and Generator cooling system Fin fan coolers are available.

15 fans are for Generator and 15 are for GT. Normally 9 fans are in service. Other fans come in service automatically depending on temperature. Each fan is having 11 kW motor.

The generator is cooled using air cooling through water. Generator is cooled by air through a fan. Water circulates at the ends of generator and when this air comes in contact with water pipes, it becomes cool. Trip signal is given when water level is greater than permissive level in generator. The water which becomes hot is then pumped to fin fan coolers for cooling. Fresh Water is added to it for making up the water lost by evaporation in this process.

Bearings A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement. There are 5 bearings for GT and 7 for ST. There are three types of bearings Axial sliding Rolling.

Sliding bearing is further classified into journal and thrust bearings. Turbine bearing is grounded because there is possibility of electrostatic charge to develop as ions are present. Otherwise it will damage the whole bearing. Generator bearing are grounded from end shield. In accessories compartment journal cum thrust bearings. In turbine we have elliptical journal and tilting pad journal bearing. In generator we have journal bearing.


A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often called an alternator) to generate electric energy. Diesel generating sets are used in places

without connection to the power grid or as emergency power-supply if the grid fails. Its capacity is 3MW, speed 1500 rpm and shell type core. WRLDC has issued guidelines for grid restoration after a black out and identified stations with black start facility: Kawas, Jhanor, Uran, GIPCL, Ukai Hydro, Koyna Hydro Trombay Gas etc. are some of these. Events in a blackout: Gas Turbines get normal shutdown (fired s/d) on turbine under speed : setting 47.5 hz Electrical relays of generators (GT and ST) are set to 47.2 Hz and 1.2 Sec. Station transformer HV and MV breakers open on under voltage The liquid fuel forwarding pumps trip and all liquid fuel units will trip on loss of flame The DC lube oil pumps will take start to prevent oil starvation to the bearings 220 kV transmission lines do not trip as they have no under frequency tripping. They have to be hand tripped.

The restoration:
The black start DG set (2.7 MW rating) starts on 6.6 kV under voltage and connects automatically to both the 6.6 kV bus bars within 40 sec. The important Gas turbine and Steam turbine auxiliaries (Load : 1.5 MW) get automatically restored as these transformers breakers do not trip. Unimportant loads like colony, simulator feeders etc., are cut off through load shedding relay. Ensure that the essential auxiliaries of gas turbine and steam turbine are running. Give a start command to the GT running on gas after resetting primary and secondary master trip relays of switchyard and LCR before the speed goes below 95%. In case the above is not possible, one gas turbine is started up on Gas fuel. The load on the DG set at this time will include the cranking motor which is of 1MW rating. The GT generator is connected to the 220 kV Bus in the Dead Bus charging mode. The Station transformers are charged and then further synchronized with the BSDG at the 6.6 kV Busbars.

The station load is taken on the station transformers by opening the BSDG incomer breakers and DG is kept on FSNL. The CW pumps and the boiler feed pumps can be taken into service. Keep the frequency of the running unit at 50.5 Hz. Generator is again synchronized with grid in steps after rectification.

Kawas Electrical Schematic

220 kV BSDG 220 kV

Stn . Trf. 1 Bus coupler

6.6 kV Bus I Load Plant Auxiliaries Load

6.6 kV Bu

We have 4 types of transformers in NTPC Generator transformer
Three Phase, 140 MVA, Fuji make. Delta Star, neutral solidly grounded. Welded tank construction. Oil forced air forced cooling. NVTC for voltage control (off load). 9 cooling fans for each unit, 3 for each phase & 3 pumps for circulating oil.

Station transformer
Three Phase, 24 MVA, Fuji make. Delta Star, neutral solidly grounded. Welded tank construction. Oil natural air natural cooling. OLTC for 6.6 kV Bus voltage control.

MV/LV transformers Alsthom make Oil filled hermetically sealed. Resin cast type.

Lighting transformers Resin cast dry type transformer. Delta star for providing neutral point to the lighting supplies. Also reduces the fault level on the lighting bus.

The various parts and protection systems of a transformer are:

1. 2. Tank: - A suitable container for the assembled core and winding. Transformer oil: - A suitable medium for insulating the core and winding from its container. 3. Bushings: - (porcelain, oil filled, or condenser type) for insulating and bringing out terminals of the windings from the container. 4. Conservator tank: - to slow down deterioration of oil and keep the main tank full of oil, emergency vent to relieve pressure inside the tank in case the pressure inside the transformer rises to a danger point. 5. Breather: - the air entering the transformer is made moisture free by letting it pass through breather. It consists of a small container connected to the vent pipe and contains a dehydrating material like silica gel crystals impregnated with cobalt chloride. It is blue when dry and whitish pink when damp. 6. Buchholz relay: - it is installed in the pipe joining the main tank of the transformer & the conservator. It gives alarm to indicate the presence of gas in case of some minor fault and take the transformer out of circuit in case of serious fault. It is double float type with alarm and trip contacts, along with suitable gas collecting device. Below is its fig.

Buchholz relay -

OLTC Features 1. Local control, it has both manual and electrical control. 2. It can be operated by remote electrical control. 3. It has safety interlocks and protection.

DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS It is for Preventive and Predictive Maintenance of transformers. It is done as follows: First sample immediately after charging Second sample after 15 days of charging Third sample after six month Every six month thereafter These samples are tested and DGA level is determined. DGA committee takes appropriate action on various transformers.

Following are the main parts of switchyard in NTPC 2 Main Bus 1 Transfer bus 18 Bays : 6 Generator bays 8 Line bays ( 6 commissioned and 2 future) 2 Station transformer bays 1 Bus coupler bay 1 Bus transfer bay

There are two 220kv main bus each of capable of taking whole capacity of plant (656.2MW). Transfer bus is normally dead and is used in case any one of the bay is having fault. It provides alternate path for the flow of power in case of fault. It can be used only if one has to work on isolator and breaker of that bay. A bay consists of 1 Circuit Breaker, 4 Isolator, 1 Current Transformer, 1 Capacitive Voltage Transformer, 1 Lightning Arrestor, 2 earth switches. Isolator Isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely deenergized for service or maintenance. It is 220KV isolator. Circuit Breaker The breakers have SF-6 as arc quenching medium and are hydraulically operated. The SF-6 gas rated pressure is 7.65 bar at 20C and 1st stage low-pressure alarm is at 7.20 bar and 2nd stage low pressure alarm is at 7.10 bar. Gas (SF6) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the SF6 to quench the stretched arc.

SF6 is approximately 100 times more effective than air in quenching spurious arcing. SF6 also has a high thermal heat capacity that can absorb the energy of the arc without much of a temperature rise. Current Transformer There are 3 types of CT: Hair Pin Design Eye Bolt Design Live tank Design Core Material The main aim is to give high accuracy with low saturation CRGO Silicon steel. For very low loss characteristics, material (Alloy of Ni-Fe) is used. Ratio: Core 1: 1200-600/1 used for Main 1 protecion Core 2 : 1200-600/1 used for Main 2 protection Core 3: 1200-600/1 used for Metering. Core 4: 1200/1 for Busbar protection Main zone. Core 5: 1200/1 for Busbar protection Check zone. Insulation levels - For Windings having Um(System Voltage) greater than 300kV, the rated insulation level is determined by rated switching and lightning impulse withstand voltage. For voltages < 300kV, insulation levels are decided by lightning impulse and power-frequency withstand voltages. Reasons of CT Failures - Moisture entry into solid insulation, Wrinkles in aluminum grading, Opening of secondary winding, Opening of tan delta point, Dielectric failure due to pre-mature ageing, Other dielectric failures due to improper wrapping of paper, improper flux distribution etc. factor. Core Material is made of

Capacitive Voltage Transformer Basic circuit is shown below: Compensating Reactor is provided to compensate for the phase displacement in Capacitor elements

L = 1/ (C1+C2) L = 1/ 2 (C1+C2) Ferro resonance in CVTs is due to the Capacitance in Voltage Divider in series with the inductance of the Transformer and series reactor. This circuit is brought to resonance by various disturbances in the network that may saturate the iron core of the transformer, over heat electro magnetic unit and lead to insulation breakdown. Ferro resonance circuit is provided in CVT Secondary to suppress Ferro resonance oscillations. There can be active or passive Ferro resonance circuits. circuit (ABB make CVTs) or RL circuit (CGL, BHEL CVTs). It can be RLC

VA ratings for core-1, core-2 and core-3 are generally 200VA, 200VA and 100VA respectively. CVT accuracies are guaranteed if connected burdens are within 25% to 100% of the rated burdens. Change in Capacitance value above 6%, CVT need to be replaced. Tan delta values more than 0.003 from pre-commissioning value needs replacement. Reasons for Failure of CVTs wrinkles on aluminum foils, Poor soldering qualities, rusting of coupling bolts, shorting of transformer cores, entry of moisture in capacitor stacks, looseness of core bolts, overheating of damping resistor etc. Lightning Arrestor LAs are available at 336kV, 360kV, 372kV and 390kV. Higher ratings are selected taking into consideration of ageing of LA elements. During single phase to ground fault, voltage on healthy phase may go upto 1.4 to 1.5 times 230 x 1.4/1.5 = 323 346

Temporary O/V

= 1.5 pu = 336kV

Discharge voltage: 945 kV Hence surge arrestors are placed to ground the overvoltage. It also grounds the current due to lightning. These are made by mixing ZnO with small amount of additives such as Bi2O3, CoO, Cr2O3, MnO and Sb2.O3 ZnO grains (about 10m dia) have low resistivity and surrounded by a granular layer which is a high resistive Oxide layer(0.1 m thick). The two are strongly bonded. For protecting generator unit it is placed after transformers and for protecting lines it is placed after CVT. Lightning Arrestor drives a small magnitude of leakage current under the continuous operating voltage i.e. leakage current. It increases with time and results in ageing of LA. It can also lead to thermal runaway. Ageing of Surge Arresters 1. Normal Operating Voltage causes ageing of ZnO Blocks 2. Temporary O/V, Switching O/V and Lightning O/V may cause overloading of all or some of the ZnO blocks 3. External Pollution may cause non-linear voltage distribution. Accelerated ageing caused by internal PDs 4. Moisture Entry through sealing gaskets, may lead to shorting of ZnO discs and overstressing of healthy ZnO blocks. 5. The degree of ageing depends on the nature/ quality of the granular layer. 6. The increase in Resistive Leakage Current may bring the arrester to Thermal instability and complete Arrester Breakdown. Earth switch For operating on a bay it is necessary that earth switch should be closed as there is high induction due power flow in surrounding bays.

The figure shows the busbar schemes. Any bay can be connected to either bus1 or bus2 by isolator 1 & 2. There is a breaker in each bay which is hydraulically operated. Isolator 4 allows the transmission of the power of any bay through transfer bus in case there is fault in that bay. Only one bay can be switched to transfer bus at a time. Transfer bay is

used to charge the transfer bus from main bus for providing the alternate path of power flow as described above. Bus coupler is used to couple the two buses for maintaining both at constant voltage otherwise unnecessary circulating current will be developed which will cause overheating.

Bus Switching Schemes

Double main and Transfer bus scheme
Main Bus -2 Main Bus -1

Bus Coupler
These are the transmission lines from NTPC grid.

Transfer Bay

Kawas 220 kV transmission system

Transfer Bus

6 Generators Kawas 2 Stn.transformers

8 Transmission lines




Electrical Protections
Generator and transformer protections 6.6 kV Protections Station transformer protections Motor protections Transformer protections Line protections Busbar protection Breaker failure protection

220 kV Protections

Zones of protection
Generator Protn. Transformer Protn. Line Protn.

Generator Protections
Generator Differential Protection Generator Stator earthfault protection 100% Generator Stator earthfault protection 95% Generator rotor earth fault protection Overall differential protection Transformer restricted earth fault protection Generator Transformer Over fluxing relay

Overall Gen. Trf. Protn.

Busbar Protn.

Generator reverse power relay Backup impedance relay Generator Loss of excitation protection Generator Negative phase sequence current protection Stator Over voltage protection Stator Under voltage protection Under frequency relay Voltage balance relay Too long field flashing protection. Protection against back energization Protection against DC failure The diode matrix

6.6kV Protections
Station transformer protections Three phase Overcurrent protection. Earthfault protection. Restricted earth fault protection. IDMT over current protection Earthfault protection IDMT over current protection Earthfault protection

Motor protection

Transformer protection

220 kV protections
Line protections Main I Distance protection (21-1) Main II Distance protection (21-2) Breaker failure relay. Trip circuit supervision relay

Trip coil supervision relay. Fault locator Disturbance recorder

220 kV Transformer protections Busbar protection Differential protection To protect against fault on main bus bars and the transfer bus. Bus I zone differential relay Bus II zone differential relay Check zone relay Transformer Differential protection.(87) Three phase overcurrent protection. (51) Earth fault relay (Phase current balance) Breaker failure relay. Bucholz relay Winding temperature relay Oil temperature relay Pressure relief device

Breaker failure protection To protect against circuit breaker malfunctions Gives command to trip the 220 kV busbar on which the equipment is connected when: Trip command is existing from any relay and Current has not died out even after 200 ms.

In KGPP, the SWAS room located nearby the boiler contains all the type of the analyzers. SWAS stands for Steam and Water Analysis System. SWAS is mainly used to check the healthiness of steam turbine and boiler. As the name indicates, the water and steam samples belonging to the boilers are tested here first for different composition of chemicals for better and pollution free production. Analyzers like NOx analyzers, Na analyzers, Hydrazine analyzer, Dissolved O2 analyzers, Water pH meters, silica analyzers, Water conductivity meters etc. are mounted in the SWAS room, which are described briefly below:



NOx analyzer is used for the detection of the nitrous components detection.

2. SILICA ANALYZER:The hetropoly blue method is used to measure molybdate-reactive silica.


O2 ANALYZER:The universal demand for oxygen analysis due to its essential role in oxidation,

combustion and industrial processing applications has led to a large number of varied techniques applied to process analyzers. Among them, at KGPP, we use the dissolved oxygen analyzer which is as under.

4. CONDUCTIVITY ANALYZER:Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity. Its unit is mho. Conductivity of water depends upon the dissolved salts like CaSO4, MgSO4, etc. These salts result in scale formation in pipes. Therefore we measure conductivity of water and try to reduce it.

5. SODIUM ANALYZER:In chlorination plant, chlorine is being used. If it is mixed with sodium, NaCl salt will form which may deposit in the pipes and scale formation will take place. So we have to remove it. Sodium analyzer cell contains Na electrode which is placed in NaCl solution. One glass membrane is in direct contact with sample water and generates mV which is proportional to the amount of Na present in the water sample. It is also temperature dependent so temperature compensation is used.

6. pH METER:-

pH meter is used for measurement of pH of the water. How much hydroxyl ion does the water contains is known by measuring pH. pH of normal water is 7, pH < 7 is known as acidic liquid & pH > 7 is known as basic solution. For process acidic solution is not proper so ph meter is necessary. All these analyzers are manufactured by the ABB, KENT.