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SPE 16861 Superpressured Gas Reservoirs: Case Studies and a Generalized Tank Model
by R.K. Prasad, Petroleum Consulting & Engineering Inc., and LA. Rogers, Gas Research Inst.
SPE Members


1987. Sm,ely

01 Petroleum

E ngmeers al the 62nd Annual Techmcal Conference an~ E xhiJatvOfl of the %c,ety cd Petroleum Engmaara held m

This paper was grepareo lot f,, esenlahon Dallas. TX Seplember 27-30, 1987

Thvi paper was selected for ptes.entalson by an SPE Program CommNtea Iollovsmg review 01 mlormahon conlamed m an Sbatfact submtttesi by the aulhof(s) COnIen:a of the Paper. as fYeSSnWO. have no: been lewewad by Ihe SOOely of Petroleum Engme$r$ and are sub~l 10 corrachon by Iha Papera author(a) The matefial. aa presented. 00ss not naceaaanly reflect any pea!fton of the society of Petroleum Ehemeem. es offcefs,ocmembers Bfeaenled al SPE maatmgs are subfec! 10 publication rawew by Editorial Commmwa of ma SwISty of Petroleum Engmeare Pammwmn fo copy IS remnctacl to an aoetrac! of not more Ihan 300 words Illustrahoh$ may not be copd The ebaIract should ccesfam cona#cucssa ackmwWgment of TX 750S33836 Telex. TWWf) SPEDAL where and @ whom the paper IS preaenfec Write Pubhcattons Manager. SPE. P O Box S33&M. R&mdaon,


gas Pressure decline data from 21 superpreseured re~ervoiro in the Gulf Coast were reviewed to determine the charecterietic slope. of the P/Z (preeaasre divided fector) ve. cumulative by the ges non-ideality production plote. Twelve of the reservoirs were subetentially depleted. The data were fit with one or q change in two straight lines which would indicate the reservoir pressure support mechsraism. The elopee in particular to determine of the plots were reviewed qt reeervoir whether the apparent coaapreaaibility pressures above the hydrostatic level was different than the apparent compreaeibility below the hydrostatic level, as proposed by Heuauerlindl and i.hers. Only four of the plote could reasonably be fit by two straight linee which indicated that the rock compreeoibility correction factor propooed by that changea at the hydrostatic Hamerlindl and otherz, presaeure point ia not general and the method cannot be used indiscriminately. To better identify the factore that cause downward curving P/Z plots the gao law equation for a gaS/aqUife? reservoir was rewritten in a generalized form with additional coefficient included the fluid and rock compressibility changes with preamsre and gas by exaolving from q olution. The P/Z plot calculated the generalized model departz from q straight line, qnd curves downwards depending on the compressibilities q nd aquifer size. l%e generalized equation, with qppropriate expresaiona for the non-ideal factora, can be solved analytically or with ntsmarical computer nd position of the methods to fit both the shape q decline data. An example fit, usiat~ both the two etraight line method and the generalized tank model, to q reservoir with q curving P/Z plot ia given.

trapped q nd some of the pressure ie q upported by the weight of the overlying rock in q ddition to the wei~ht of the fluid. These abnormally pressured reeervoira qre called superpreeeured, or geopressured, if the preseure exceeds the nornal preesure that would occur from q column of wster qt the sdepth (about 0.45 ny dmth psi per foot of depth). They cen occur q t q The in the ground below q few hundred feet. auperpreeaured xonea are generally found in q and/shale q equessce. where the aequencee or evaporite/carbostate porous sand or cerbonate bec~a sealed in place with surrounding impermeable shale or evaporitaa. In the United Statea, euperpreaaured zones are found in all of the hydrocarbon bearing provinces, but are concentrated in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko Baein, Delaware Basin, and the Rocky Mountain qrea. When gae ia removed from a ssealed container, the preeaure inside the container will decline to the amount removed (corrected for proportionate non-ideal gaa behavior). This simple principle is the basic for plotting the graph of the P/Z vs. cumulative production for gas wells. The reservoir is visualized ae a eealed ayatem such that a plot of P/Z va. cumulative production will give a straight line that begins at the initial reservoir preamsre for the @tart of production and declines linearly to zero pressure If the reeervoir is q when the reeervoir ia depleted. depletion-type reservoir, the P/Z plot ia q valid way to predict the gas reserve in the reservoir. In q re not simple closed general, however, gaa reeervoira containers q nd the P/Z plots deviate from straight lines.

Previously publiehed papers [1-13] have pointad out that, in many caaea, straight line extrapolation of q the early production history P/Z data project reaerva that ia too high. AC the reservoir is Introduction ia needed to obtain q produced, q dowatwarda correction more correct value for the original gaa-ia-place, qa with qbnormally high preaeura have been Gaa reservoirs ohown in Figure 1. ~rlindL [6] developed q method q ncountered in qll continents of the world. The to qatimata the Saa-ist-place which q ccounted for preamtre of the gaa or other fluids in the formation volumetric q xpanaion of the water with preasssre cm q xceed hydrostatic preamtre when the fluide qre reduction q nd q formation compressibility that waa ___

. . . .-



-s., . . . ..*





m .,.





ar~ . ..w

ii fferent above or below the hydrostatic pressure. Mmsgost [8] introduced a ~thod to include the rock Bernard [11] matrix and pore volume compressibilities. qre introduced a method where the ton-ideal factora lumped together into a term that is linear in pressure, In this study a >ut with an empirical constant. ~eneralized P/Z equation is introduced. Wang [13] ~resented a microcomputer program to calculate original ;as in place with or without a water influence function. His computer program can fit production data For three different P/Z methode. )ata For This Study

Subcategory C2 is the data that could be fit with straight line. This data indicated that there is need to postulete a suddenly changing rock compressibility at hydrostatic pressure. Diacuaaion on Curve Fitting

one no

to the P/Z The early and late time straight line fits data plot can be matched by Ne=rlindla method; however, the curving portion of the plot is not adequately explained. 8y having rock compressibility a function of preaeure and including the effect of gas the exsolving from solution in the associated aquifer, data can be better fit.

the data used in this study were acquired by the etroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State Jniveraity (LSU) from the data bank of the Mineral The 21 reservoira management Services of Louisiana. ~ere selected from a group of about 300 reservoir.s in :he data bank that were euperpreseured and significantly depleted. The nemea of the reaervoira tere then repiaced with code numbers to diaguiae the identity of the reservoirs. The data waa coded by the .SU personnel such that the authore of this paper did lot know the actual identity of the reservoirs. Ten reservoir used in this etudy were ~f the twenty-one tlso used by Bernard in hia 1985 SPE paper [11]. rable 1 lists the available information about the Ielected reaervoire. :urve Fit Results

As mentioned

P/Z Equation

above, a first approximation to eetimstiq th( the gas-in-place of a gas reservoir is to visualize reservoir as an underground tank that can be described by the fundamental gas law q nd material balance consideration from thermodynamics. For an ideal gas, to the amount the equation that relates the pressure of gas-in-place ia: PV=nRT (1)

?iguree 2 through 22 are the P/Z plots for the 21 ?eaervoira in the study where the data was fit with me or two straight lines. The results were then livided into three categories, as shown in Figure 23. rable 2 aumeserizes the analyais reeulta, both with and iithout correction for apparent rock compressibility. or Category A, hydrostatic, the :he operator ia :alculated from :ompreasibility. where the pressures were all above original gas-in-place aa reported by generally lower than the amount the P/Z data corrected for rock

With V, R, and T constant, the pressure PO is directlj to the amount of gaa n remaining in the proportional reservoir. Natural gas ic not qn ideal gaa, however, so the firat correction made to the ideal gaa equation of the gas qa the factoj ia to include the non-ideality Z on the right-hand-side of the equation. The form equation ia then written in the following general PV-GZRT For the initial reservoir conditions, Equation written with the subscripts i as follows: PiVi_GiZiRTi (1) (2) is


The amount of gas produced can be expressed aa the amount of gaa initially in place less the amount still remaining in the reservoir: GP_Gi-G Equations (2), (3), and (4) are combined with the aeaumption that the reservoir volume and temperature remain constant (Vi D V, Ti = 7) and the pressure to obtain the is uniform throughout the reservoir equation: (P/Z) This is a (P/Z) VS. Cp = O is production qmount of (R T/Vi). = (Pi/Zi) Gp (RT/Vi) (5) (4)

?or Category B, where the pressures are all below ~ydrostatic, the original gas-in-place aa reported by :he operators is generally within 25% of the amounts >btained from extrapolation of the P/Z data.

~or Category C, where the data spanned the hydrostatic >resaure, some of the data could be fit with one dtraight line and some of the data could be fit with two lines. Category C was thus divided into two subcategories. Subcategory Cl is the data that can be fit with two lines. The crossover points of the two linee is different than the usually at q point substantially hydrostatic preaeure. Only four of the 21 reservoir fit into this category. The method of Hmmaerlindl [5] could possibly be used for these cases. Note, hewever, curve, rather that the data shows more of q continuous nd the two-line than two strsight line segments, q method is essentially an qpproximation procedure to the early portion of the production data with one fit straight line q nd tha late time portion of the dats with q nether straight line. This procedure will q dequately represent the qnd points, without q good match in the middle.

linear equation such that for a plot of Gp, the intercept on the (P/Z) axis for The intercept on the cumulative (Pi/Zi). (Gp) q xis for (P/Z) = O ia the initial gaa-in-place, The slope of the line is

In q ctual practice of applying thie equation there i. or frequently the problem of getting good reservoir bottom-hole pressure measuramenta. Meet of the time, vailable q nd qoms only well-head preseurea qre q or correction procedure must be used to calculate Even estimate the bottom-hole qnd reservoir preoeure. when good data ia obtained, it ie found thst plote of production frequently do not yield P/Z vs. c-lative straight lines. Strsight-line fits to the data q nd ---

SPE 16861

R. K. PRASADAND L. A. ROGERS extrapolation gas-in-place

of the P/Z plot came closer to the qctua in his sampling of reservoirs. Once q reservoir is in the advanced stage of depletion then an empirical value for the constant C can be aelecte to best fit the data.

straight-line extrapolation. are comaonly used, These straight-line extrapolations will however. The mnetimea overeatlmate the initial gaa-in-place. nctual production will fall off more rapidly than projected by the extrapolation. Corrections to P/Z for Water and Rock Compressibility

Wang [13] form:



P/Z equation




Varioua ~aya have been used to make corrections to Equation (5) in order to get the actual data to plot plot. me a straight line on the P/Z VS. production fie primary problem with using Equation (5) for of water-drive reservoirs is that the assumption The volume of the pore constant volume ia not valid. rnpace in the reservoir rock will change depending on the compre.saibility of the rock matrix as well as the rock itself. As the gas is removed, the reservoir rock Also, the the pressure. oettles down to help maintain water and oil in the reservoir will expand in volume aa the pressure is reduced. Itamnerlindl [5] developed a method of obtaining an effective compressibility to make corrections to the extrapolation of the P/Z plot for early reservoir production in abnormally preaaured reservoirs. This method ia to determine the effective compressibility from the equation:
Ceff (Cg Sg + q# s + Cf) / Sg (6)

P/Z = (Pi/Zi)(G-GP)/[G(l-Ceff(pi-P))-y] where y = [Pi TBC (We-WP Bw)] / (Zi P~c T)



Wang reports that this equation can be used in an pr.+ssure match iteration method to obtain an accurate to all kinds of reservoir. This technique calculates the required water influx to get the beat match of the model to the data. Generalized Tank Model

and then get Actual

the q ctual

gaa-in-place Gi)

from the equation: (7)

Ci = (Apparent

/ (Ceff/Cg)

While this method can be used to match the actual production data, the values that need to be used for may the saturations or formation rock compreaaibility not be realistic. an adjustment factor for the Ramagost [8] developed water and formation compressibilities that aucceaafully gas fit the data from some abnormally pressured reservoirs. He wrote the P/Z equation in the following form: -P)(CU (P/Z) [(l-(Pi - (Pi/Zi) - (Pi/ZiG) Bernard [11] by including difference. Sw + Cf) Gp / (l-SW))] (8)

The basic assumption for the generalized tank model ia snd the qamciated aquifera qra that the gas reservoir considered together in a eesled tank. Thie should be generaily true for geopreaaured reservoir. since they qre initially qt preaauraa qbove hydrostatic q nd the reservoir must be effectively sealed to maintain the preaaure. For the generalized model the extended reservoir cyatem which hae precaure cmnication ia system. This is distinctly viewed qa a single reservoir engineering different than the cmn practice of considering only the hydrocarbon-bearing separate from the connected zone aa the reservoir, aquifera. The distinction between depletion drive and water drive categories ia not made. All of the reaervoir$ are qesumed to contain some amount of wate: lhe question i. how much water there ia and how the water effects the production history; not whether watt is simply present or qbaent. The generalized model proposed here adda two correctic terms to the basic P/Z model. One correction term ia to collect the non-ideal factors related to the reservoir volume, and the other term is to collect the non-ideal factors related to the mess balance. The revised equation can be written as follows: PAT where (1:

proposed that the P/Z equation be modified a term that is linear in pressure His proposed equation is: (9)


In this equation, the constant C lumps together the compresaibilitiea of the rock, water, and other factors The value of functions of pressure. that qre linear adjusted until the plot made by the C ia empirically In this model, the volume of equation fits the data. water in qssociated aquifera or exaolution of gas from the reservoir brine q nd oil qre not specifically are implicitly buried described. These other qffects in the constant C and are qsaumed to be linear functions of pressure difference. Bernard also qrgues that in the early stagea of correction production you cannot tell what the correct factora qre, bated on the data. On the q verage, however, the straight-line extrapolation of the early Hia time data will overeetimete the gaa-in-place. qtatiatical qtudy q hewed that s correction of 0.7 spplied to the initial gaa-in-place baeed on

to reservoir pore apace volume (V) X q correction (G) Y = correction to amount of gas in reservoir Z = gas non-ideality (aupercompressibility) factol The X correction to the reservoir pore apace includ{ q nd the the rock or pore voluum compressibility Thil compressibility of the liquids in the reservoir. the q ctual volume in tha reservoir thei term describes the gas can occupy. If water is produced from the to the free gaa reservoir then the volume available If shalea dewater or if water moves into increases. the reservoir, the water influx will decrease the volume available to the free gas. The Y term corrects syetem other than the exsolved from the oil production will be the
for gas added or removed from tl measured production. Gee qnd water in the reservoir duril main contributor to this term,

SUPERPRESSUR~ me Z term i.



the ueusl supercompreseibility :orrection to the ges conetant, or proportionelity to be Factor R that qllowe the ideal gas equetion toed for reel 8ases. fiese three correction term. are defined in lquation (12) a. dimansionlesa termm that are multipliers to the parameters they correct. hmbining Equations (12) q nd (4) using subscript For initial conditions gives the equation: [(X V)/(y Z)]=[(Pi Vi)/(yi Zi)]-[R T]GP i

( 13)

~quation (13) is a generalized form of the gas law !quation for conetant temperature. It should be to the extent that sufficiently qccurate Applicable !xpresoiona can be developed for X, Y, and Z. Its ~rimary limitation ie that it treats the entire This reservoir aa being at equilibrium preesure. state effects, which can >mita traneient or non-steady >e highly significant in real reservoirs. line plot for Equation (13) the ro get a straight ?ertical qxis q hould be (P X V)/(Y Z), rather than the taual P/Z, with the horizontal q xie being the ueual preseure :umuletive gas production, . This initiel ? intercept point is (Pi Xi Vi /(Yi Zi)s and q qlope )f the straight line preesure decline it (R T). Note :hat for Equation (8) by Ramagoat the corresponding :orrection factor ie [(l-(Pi-P)(Cw ~ + ~f)/(1-Q)]/Z, factor tnd for Equetion (9) by Sernard the correction Both of theee q uthors hed success (Pi-P)l/Z. L6 [l-C factore as eimple linear in describing the correction Functions of preseure. propoeed generalized model the X, Y, ?or the currently tnd Z correction terme can be calculated separately. l%ey do not need to be eimple linear functions of measure that can be written as an analytical term They do, such as Ramagoat or Bernard have done. mwever, need to be state function. that dont depend from the initial m time or the process used in getting :onditiono to the final conditions. The *X term :orrects for the rock mechanica and fluid mechanics !ffecta of the reservoir q nd can generally >e expreaeed as a function of preaeure only (with temperature constent), such as Bernard has done. For the computer program developed here, the pore volume :ompreeaibility was assumed to be a linear function of >reeaure according to the equation: Cpor =a+bP (14)

3TUDIES AND A GENERALIZED TANXMODSL SPE ~ Production from the reservoir tenk ia then somewhere qlthe q ccomplished by wells located reservoir. If q wall is qt the uppermost point of the gas cap, only ges will be produced until the well or watere out. either depletes If the wall ie part quifer, wey down the reservoir structure, towerds qn q the well will produce only Ses until the encroachi~ water reaches the well. Then the well will produce gas from the up-dip attic portion of the reeervoir ncroechiog q quifer. If and water from the down-dip q the producing well is below the initial gas-water contact, the production will be only weter (and diaaolved ges) until the qttic gas conee down to the wall. Then both gaa and.,water will be produced. Reservoir q ngineere ehou~~ test wet zone. in new (befo,te they are declared dry q nd wells, if poesible abandoned), to determin$ whether q new well might be expected to cleen-up and produce gae from up-dip by of gas and coning down the water with co-production water. This generalized model will predict the onset of water production et some preesure above zero for reservoir with eufficieatly large q quifers. If the preoeure q which weter production will qtart ie below the water will probably not be q bandonment pressure, produced during the uteful lifetime of the reeervoir. If, on the other bend, the preseure for onset of water im q bove the q bandonment preeaure, the opetetor may be ourprised to find the wells watering out prematurely, qe predicted by the conventional practice of extrapolating the P/Z curves. Example Resulte wee done to show the qffect of An example calculation q weter drive q quifer where gas exsolution from the long with linear compreseibilitiee weter was included q for the rock, porosity, qnd fluide in the reeervoir. Since the gas aupercompreoeibility and volubility of gas in water ia beat described by complicated q numerical method, using q deek non-linear equations, top personal computer, wes used to model the reservoir drawdown. The numerical method and computer progrem ppendix. are described in the q example of the P/Z v.. Figure 24 shows q hypothetical cumulative production where there ia only gas and brin in the reeervoir tank. For this example, the initi~ q nd th amount of free geo in the tank is held constant tank i. increased in size so that the q ssociated aquifer becomes larger. The parametric curves qre in terms of the fraction (percentage) of the tank pore free gaa. volume that was initially Note thet the qe the size of tha curvature of the P/Z plot increases aquifer increases. The model therefore predicts that curvature to the P/Z plot is found where q significant or a rathet there may be chenging rock compressibility quifer qsaocieted with the gas reservoir. large q In theory, one should be q ble to qeeume various gae and brine volumae for the model to match the deta reeervoir. taken from a produci~ selected The valuee for the verioue input paramatere, however, should be parameter of coneietent with the geology q nd phyeicai the reeervoir. If good fite to the data cannot be obtained, the conclusion may be that the eyetem ie mot that negate the uee eealed or there qre other factore q quilibrium tank model. The of thie generalized preaeuree ueed for the reeervoir reported bottom-hole preeeure may be q uepect or the data do not repreeent conditions. the etatic

me Y term corrects for the gas material balance in the ayatem and is largely related to the gas that txsolves or disaolvea in the liquid phases. This term q function of pressure but may also be is largely influenced by the change in composition of the liquid resulting from the gas entering or leaving the liquid. gas volubility equation reported by Ihe following Price and Blount [14] was used. Ln(CN4) = -3.3544 - 0.002277t + 6.278C-6t2 - 0.004042s + 0.9904 LM(P) - 0.0311(Ln P)2 + 3.204E-4 t Ln(P) fie

( 15)

Z tene corrects for the gas non-ideality and ie strong function of pressure, Sas composition and methods qre temperature. A variety of mathematical Z. tvaileble to calculate

. c,



m .



. .


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resulting match in applying thie 33 in the current dsta. A oathod to Reservoir reaeoncbly good match to the data using the water-drive identities :ank model was found. Since the reeervoir no qssessment can be tere not known to the authors, ie consistent Bade here qs to whether this conclusion qnd reservoir engineering tith the qctual geolosy >armetere. :onclusion to a co-n industry belief, qll tupercompreesibility sas reservoirs do not show iownwards curving P/Z plots. A case study of 21 rnuperpressured reservoirs in the Gulf Coaet has shown that the commonly used P/Z plots produce both straight line and curved line.. Fitting the curved line data traight lines may be an adequate engineering tiith two q Bpproximetion, but it may misinterpret the actual reservoir parameters. A generalized tank model was developed which includes factors not included in previous model., such aa variable compre.sibilitiea tnd the effects of gao coming out of solution in the aquifer. In this generalized tank model, correction teme qre q dded to the real gae q quation to account for changes in gas content qe wall qt chancing balance cap.ter program reeervoir vol~. A material waa written for the de$k-top personal computar to calculate tha P/Z curves. Am example match was for one of the reeervoira that had q calculated non-linear P/Z vs. cumulative production curve.
hntrary from this model ia that The practical implication current estimates of gaa-in-place and qstimated producible reaervea for auperpremaured reaarvoira baaed solely on the conventional P/Z v.. cumulative curves with empirical constanta may need to production It may be prudent to reevaluate the P/Z be ravioed. data for auperpreswred gaa wells with this generalized model to provide insight into which fsctors predominate in controlling production.


25 ie the


= Constant term for C r (l/psi) [l/kPa] =~~depandant !%mforCWr(l/pei2)

c Cv c~
G Gi > p Pi P~c R Ceff Cpor

= Lumped constant
= Effective compressibility (psi-l) [kPa-l] = Pore volume cazpressibility (1 psi) [1 kPa] = Compressibility of water (pol- {{) [kPa- ] = Methane dissolved in weter/brine (SCF/Bbl) [m3/~J - Amount of gaa in free ges volume (SCF) [m31 = Original gae in place = Produced gae (SCF) [m3] - Hase of gas (moles) [mol] = Pressure (psia) [kPa] = Initial PL soure (paia) [kPa] at Standard Conditions (psia) [kPa] = Pressure = Gae equation of state constant = Salinity of water/brine (g/L) [g/L] = Watet saturation (fraction) (It) [oK] = Temperature = Initial Temperature (%) [K] (~) [C] = Temperature qt Standard Condition

s s
T Ti Tac


Vi e P

Y Y Zi

= Initial Volu9a of $as (ft3) [m31 = Cumulative water influx (MRB) [rea m3] - cumulative water producad (MBTB) [ $tock-taak m3] = Pore volm correction factor (diaanaionleee) = Gee in reeervoir correction factor (dimensionless) factor defined by Equation 12 = Correction = Gee non-ideality factor (dimenaionleas) factor = Initial Gea non-ideality (dimanaionlesa)

References 1.
of Abnormally Pressured Gas Basa, D. M.; Analysis Water Influx, SPE 3850, Reaervoira with Partial 3rd Symposium on Abnormal Subsurface Pore State University, May 1972. Preaaure, Louisiana

ccounting needs, it is neceaaary to Becauae of gas q early in the predict the producible gas, or reserves, life of the reservoir. To make the best estimate qn analyaia needs to be made early uoing a P/Z plot, in the reservoirs lifa to determine whether the P/Z Care plot will be a straisht line, or a curved line. should be therefore taken to get accurate preaaure data for the early production of a reservoir such that q downward curvature can be detected as soon es Known geological q nd reservoi r possible , if it existo. properti~a should to be used in conjunction with the genaralizt~d tank modal to obtain realistic parameters for the model of the reservoir.
of Much is still unknown about predicting the behavior superpre.aured reservoirs and further recearch is needed to understand the parameters that determine whether the original gas in place can be determined by ctraight line extrapolation of the q arly time P/Z data, are needed. or whether corrections


Shale Water qs q Preaour Burgoyne, A. T. et.al.; Support Mechanimm ie Superpresaured Raservoira, SPE 3851, 3rd Symposium on Abnormal Subsurface Pore Preaaure, Louisiana State University, Hay 1972. Burns, J. R., Fetkovitch, M. J., q nd Meitzan, V, C.; The Effect of Water Influx on P/Z Cumulative Gas Production Curves, Journal of Petroleum Technology, vol. 17, pp. 287-291, 1965.




J. o.;

me Mobil-David

(Anderson L)

- An Abnormally

South Texas, 1970, Houston 5*

Preasurad Gaa Raoervoir in SPK 2938, 45th AIME Fall Heating, Texas.

Ha~rlindl, D. J.; Predicting Gae Raeerves in Abnormally Preoaured reservoirs, SPE 3479, Annual Pleating Octob?r 3-6, 1971, New Orleans, Loui9iana. Harville, D. W. q nd Navkins, IL F.; Rock q. Reservoir Compracsibility qnd Failure Mechanisms in Geopressured Gas Reservoirs, vol. 21, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp. 1528-1530, 1969.





Hurst, w.; On the Subject of Abnormally Preseured Journal of Petroleum Technology, Gas Reservoirs,


SPS 16861


vol. 8.




1969. 86

Wp/Z Abno~lly pressured Ramagost, B. P.; Reservoirs, SPE 10125, Annual Meeting October 5-7, 1981.

Calculate the amount of water and trapped gas that q tsy in the q quifer zone and the amount that move into the imbibed zone. The exoolved pe ie quifer until the critical gas reteined in the q eaturstion for drainage ia reached. Cae in exceaa of the critical gaa saturation ia qlao transferred to the imbibed zone. Calculate the volume of the imbibed, or flooded zone. The imbibed zone trapa gaa from the free quifer to develope an imbibed gae zone and the q zone that containa gaa at the critical saturation point for imbibition. Calculate


Wickenhauaer, T. L.; Shale Water a. a Pressure Support Mechaniam in Superpresaure Reaervoira, M.S. Theaia, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1966.


LO. Fertl, Elsevier il.

H.; Abnormal Formation Presaurea, Scientific Fubliehing Co., 1976.


Eernard, W. J.; Gulf Coaet Geopreaaured Gaa Drive Mechanism and Performance Reaervoira: Prediction, SFE 14362, Annual Meeting September 22-25, 1985. 7. Begland, T. F. and Whitehead, W. R.; Depletion Performance of Volumetric High-Preaaured Gaa Reaervoir8, SPE 15523, Annual Meeting October 5-8, 1986, New Orleana, Louisiana. Wang, B and Teasdale, T.S.; GASWAT-PC: A Microcomputer Program for Gaa Material Balance With Water Influx, SPE 16484, SPE Petroleum Industry Applications of !4icrocomputera, June 23-26, 1987, Montgomery, Texaa. Price, L. C., qnd Blount, C. W.; Methane Solubilities In Brine With Application To The Geopreaaured Resource, Fifth GecpreaauredGeothemal Energy Conference, October 13-15, 1981, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

the amount of gaa required in the free for the given pressure. The difference between what wae in the zone before the preaaure reduction ia the reduction and after the pressure amount of gaa produced.


If the imbibed zone hsa moved up in the reservoir to intersect the production point in the well then the program qleo calculate the amount of water that must be produced to keep the production imbibition zone top qt the specified point. The program than printa out the preaeure, P/Z, qnd the quantities of gaa q nd water produced. It to Step 1 until all the specified then recycles preaaure atepa qre calculated. The output can then be used to generate q P/Z plot to compare to the qctual data.




kPPENDIX Computational Method:

PZTANX) waa written in The computer program (called Turbo Paacal for IBM-PC compatible computers. Tha executable program and the source code have been disk library on provided to the SPE microcomputer 5-1/4 floppy disk.

rhe computational model aasumea that the reservoir is a tank, initially at equilibrium, with water in the lower portion, and gaa in the upper portion. The preaaure in the tank ia aasumed to be constant everywhere, and the water is aesumed to be saturated with diaaolved gaa. A well is placed in the tank which drawa gaa, and possibly water, from some point The volume in the tank near the top of the tank. between the gas withdrawal point and the top of the tank ia the attic volume. The computer program firat calculates the initial gas, water and diaaolved gas volumes given the input The parameter are entered manually parameter. Then through qn input screen provided by the program. the the program goes into q loop which cslculatea volumes and material balancea for atepwiae decreasing preaaurea. The steps in the loop are as follows: 10 For the next reduced reservoir preaaure, calculate the new total re.ervoir volume from the Also calculate rock pore volume compreaaibility. Z and P/Z for the new preaaure. Calculate gas zones the revised volumes f~r the aquifer due to reservoir compaction. and



the watar expanaion q nd the q mount of Calculata gaa exaolved from the water due to decompreaaion.

.- .

$?E 16861




OCPTII w 11.600 11,650 i19,21k2 15,000 12,170 11,4738 12,970 12,8b2 12,790 lb,957 l&,5b5 15. MO 12,k28 13,700 13,700 118,300 lb, kOl lk,750 11!, ?50 10,300 13,600 15,96b 13,700

No. v-


TE74PF,RATUR E (*F) 215 213 290 216 . . 268 231 230 232 330 317 288 216 273 273 .283 274 279 19b 242 265 273

POROSITY _LaL 32 29 22 28

IAATER SATURATION (a) 25 30 23 30

GAS CRAV1TY ~Air.l .0) 0.03 0.83 0.60 0.69 -. -0.72 0.62 o.7fl 0.6S 0.65 0.65 -0.61 0.60 -0.62 0.61 0.61 0.65 0.62 0.62 0.61

OPSRATOR REPORTtD OCIP (~F) 35, ?99 9.999 200;000 13,207

Ill 33 70 109 117 139 140 11.I 161 162 ib& 178 183 195 197 214 220 221 235 26S 269 311

1 1 7 1 15 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 II 5 -1 2 1 2 2 1 2




27 28 28

23 25 22 2s 26 2fl --


21 2s 28 28 57 35 26 25 20 28 -.33 29 19 26 26 28

327,909 k5, bk2 3,bL2 123,676 1,600 17,571 16,363 2L6,766 67,23h 36,h51


18 lB 29 27 25 2k

5,109 51,000 9,>00 33*WZ 25,000 i3,7bS k,599






0.678 16,319 13,227 12,913 7,988 13, !00 10,700 7,525

(~~i/f~} f~-(nc?)
0.b8 0.9b 0.91 0.8B 0.78 0.85 0.70 0.55 .17.56 1.15 17.00 53.30 18.00 lb.90 n,214 63.69 2.b7 $.00 186.00 21.00 278.00 11.00 llo. oo 9.35 18. LIO 111.00 12.00 32.50 10. LO

OCIP PROM OCIP PRCAII EARLY ?/2 oCIP FNIW fORRECT&O LATE P/z OPF.RATCM APPAUPX7 (BCF) (Aj (RCF)--(B) (BC~). (C) (.BCF)-(o) 5.44 1.60 17.57 94.30 33.30 13. Flo 11..3b &7.23 5.11 &,bO 200,00 Io. oo 326.00 25.00 36.00 ,3,~1 90.0 2.b 63.1 3LJ.O 7L. b 7b.5 bb. b 1.5 35.5 191.0 57.0 37.0

PERCENT WI?VFRY 26 72 LA 28 32 116 70 76 -b3 .S6 40 Lb 34 50 85 -. bb L3 61 ?2



lb: :b2 220

-. --.
11.8 57.2 -8.0 216.0 53.0 507,0 32.0 80.0 11.0 ..27.9 53.0 14. s



235 2bQ lbb 1s3 214 31i 33 l;; 2b8 38 70 109 131

(c) (c) (c) (c)

(D) (0) .(D) (o) (D) (o) (o) (0) (0) -. (A) (0)



-E E E E E

5,900 11,500 8,oOO S,665 9,100 9,000 10,130 10,500 S,701 n, 000 8,782 8,850

o.b3 0..s1 0.b9 0.77 0.67 0.78 0.68 0.8b 0.b7 0,66 O.bb 0.62

----332.0 91.0 898.0 62,8

--.-217.0 58.0 670.0 30.(!


c-l c- I
c-i c-1 C-2 c-2 c-2 c-2 c-2 c-2 c-2


-. -. -312.0 --.

---271.. O -.--


178 I .?> 197

169.00 28,77 3b.45





NoTE :






~ g
Actual OGIP App8r.nt OGIP

4,0G0 3,0GG 2,0G0

1.OGo o o I I 1 I I 1 1
70~90100 Cumulotlvo Gcs Production (6CF]

2 a


Cuntulativo Gas ProductIon, MMCF ..




9,000 AGiP = 2.4 6CF GW trom tt~ Mdhod = 1.606CF

8.000 7*000 6,000

~ : ; s,-




62.05 w GIPfrom HanrrrrortirwMethod

= 33.50 BCF



. q mud on lf~a~ IZ ~

4,m0 3#00 2.Otm k

1,000 0 0 5 10 Cuntulattvo Gas production (6CFI 1s 20

4.000 3,000

o! 0



I 30 {BCFI


60; m w

Cumut@ivo Gas Production +umpmllu~wz.

9.OW 8,000 7,000

7,000 6,000 5*W

6*U)O z ~ k ; \ 5,000 4.000 3,000 2,000 2.000 1,000 0 o 1,000 z z & ; : 4,000 3.000



200 (BCF] 250

0 0








70 60

Gas Production ?m..wnv

Cunwt@ivo w %-mzcW

S.000 GtPlfom~Nottmd=37.06CF 7.000 _.. 6,000 W2 Wan

Hvtimwtatk Ord

Moo 7,000 6,000

. GIP trom id,
P/Z = 11.75


z S*OOO g 4.000 ~
~ 3,000 2,000 1*000 o i I I I i I I 35 (6CF] 2.000 4.000


45 60

0 0




20 a.







Cunwdativo Gos Production

CutnuldivO Gas Production (6CF)


GIP from lat. k.



q PRnanlt@,aukcnd



2.OGO 1.000
1 I I I I











Cumutativo G-

15 Production (BCF)



CumdotiuO Gu production [3CF)



4*OW z g N 2 3@00 2,000 l@OO GR trom late PIZ = 0.07 SCF

7*000 Spoo

4.000 3,000 2@00 l,OGO


1 1

5 ~tivo

Gas Production (eq

o 1s 20







Cunlulatiuo Gas Producuom (BCF)




2@oo 1.000 1.000














Cumutattw G@s Producttom(2CFI


7*000 6@W

~ 4@oo ~ wz
A(3P s 42.6 2CF GWfma~-Umd==.62CP wtrambtOP/z=33suF


~ 3,000 a 2.oa) *@w o 2.000 1,000

1 to

0 30 20 (BCF) CumddvOGa8Production 40 so 0
20 40 CuIIUISttve Gos

Production [6CF)



7.000 6,000 5*000

2@oo *.000



1Cundoth Gas Production [3CFI

o 0
5 ~tivo 10 15 GA8 Froductiom (BCF} 20 2s

ap tmm lab


27.s 2CF




3,0m 2Som l@OO o












Callu18ttvo G48 PrOdwction(ecF]

q ?!



Gw froml.sts P/z = 14.s 6CF

6.000 5.000

q &

3,0D0 2,0DD 1.000 0


20 ~tiw










Gss Pm&wt@a [GCF]


los lss+m141 19s


9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000

q 4,000 & 3,000 2,000


Cumulatlvo Ga$ Production

200 (BCF)


9,000 8,000 7,000


4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 E




Gas ProductIon