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INTRODUCTION In order to establish good company image and be more competitive in the marketplace, inspection system can ensure the optimum quality of product on hand and help improve the product quality.Therefore, a lot of factories pay attention to improve the inspection system, especially in textile industry. Human inspection is generally used in textile industry because the cost is very low.However, the disadvantage is that the nature of work is very dull and repetitive, which leads to high inspection error. The automated inspection by machine, on the other hand, can solve this shortcoming.There are more advantages in applying automation technology for inspection system. First, 100% inspection can be obtained. Secondly, it eliminates high inspection error due to human frailty. Thirdly,it can save the labor cost, and reduce the demand for highly skilled inspectors. This paper describes the development of an Automated Visual Inspection (AVI) system for weaving defect detection based on image processing and recognition algorithms. The literatures contain many articles to illustrate a great variety of algorithms dedicated to the description or classification the weaving defect. The purpose of the developed system is used to fully inspect the fabric and weaving products from a textile factory. The location, size and image of the defect are recorded in the system. After the inspection process, The product will be graded in terms of severity and the detailed report will be printed. In addition to the use of standard image processing functions for enhancing and modifying the digital image, the paper will describe the techniques from neural network for classifying the weaving defect. The aim is to obtain saving of manpower and time as well as increased accuracy in the inspection process. This project was proposed from a general discussion with a Managing Director of a local textile manufacturer about the needs and problems in the textile weaving industry. There are indeed such automatic fabric inspection systems in the market (e.g. I-Tex, Elbit Vision Systems Ltd., Israel; SICK Scan, Erwin Sick GmbH, Germany; SCANTEX, Sam Vollenweider Ltd., Switzerland). However, they are very expensive and most local manufacturers cannot afford to purchase them. For example, one complete set of such machinery called I-Tex would cause several million HKD. This proposal aims to develop a low-cost alternative for the local manufacturers. Also, it is high time for the Government to realize the importance of developing and applying high-tech in Hong Kong. There is enough expertise locally and we are committed to developing an automated fabric inspection system comparable to those in the market, for the benefits of the textile and garment industries in Hong Kong. Our success is based on the followings: (1) use of the latest low-cost but high-performance computer hardware and CCD digital cameras; (2) use of advanced software techniques for image processing and defect detection; (3) years of experience and research at the Industrial Automation Laboratory at The University of Hong Kong.


The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. They inspect 20% of the rolls that they receive and evaluate them based on a four-point system. This way, we can avoid fabric related quality problems before it is put into production FourPoint System was published in 1959 by the National Association of Shirt Pajama Sportswear Manufacturers .Widely adopted and used in knitted fabric. Select at least one roll of each color. If more than one role must be selected, then choose the additional roles in proportion to the total number of roles per color received. Defect classify depend on defect length & size The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty point. Only major defects are considered. No penalty points are assigned to minor defects. (A major defect is any defect that would cause a final garment to be considered a second.) 4 point system is most widely used system in apparel industry.4 point system is best as compared to other systems since it is easy to teach and learn.4 point system usually used for knitted fabric and 10 point system is used for woven fabric. Other systems are like Graniteville78 and Dallas system has some problems such as viewing distance and they affect the cost of production as defects are located after cutting and on finish garments. It is wise to inspect the fabric in the factory from which it will be bought so that there remains of changing the badly fault fabric.4point system is widely used for fabric inspection and approve by AAMA (American Approval manufactures Association). This system based for fabric inspection.

Major Defects
Major woven fabric defects include but are not limited to slubs, holes, missing yarns, yarn variation, end out, soiled yarns, and wrong yarn. Major dye or printing defects are out of register, dye spots, machine stop, color out, color smear,or shading.

Inspection Procedure/ principle:

Determine the amount to inspect 10%. Select the rolls to inspect. Put the rolls on the inspection machine or other viewing device. Cut off a 6 inch piece across the width off the end of the roll. Mark the right and left side of the strip. Stop the inspection process every 50 yards and use the strip to check for any shading problems. Also make sure to check the end of the role.

Inspect for visual defects with the light on at a speed slow enough to find the defects. (The fabric must be checked at a slow rate in order to effectively find flaws). Sometimes you may have to turn the light off to see how a flaw will affect the appearance of a garment.

Check that the roll contains the correct yardage as stated by the piece goods source. Check for skewed, biased, and bowed fabric. Mark any defects to the side with colored tape so that they can be easily found and noted. Record any defects.The weaving division functions under the principles of the internationally acclaimed American 4 point system to reduce wastage and ensure quality. Under this system, fabric inspection and grading is carried out as per ASTM standard.

If penalty point scored more then 40/100 Yds fabric then the fabric roll is not accepted and penalty point less then 40/100 Yds fabric then the roll is accepted for cutting.

2.1.0Advantages 4 point system has not width limitation. Worker can easily understand it.