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Os conectivos, mais frequentemente usados, so:

INTRODUO INTRODUCTION

Em primeiro lugar, ... / Antes de tudo, ... / Para comear, ... / Para incio de conversa, ...
REFERNCIA

First of all, ... / In the first place, ... / To begin with, ...

REFERENCE

Com relao a ... / No que diz respeito a ... / No que tange a ...
INTRODUO OPORTUNA DE NOVO ASSUNTO

Regarding ... / With regard to ... / Concerning ... / Considering ...


CHANGE OF SUBJECT

A propsito, / Por falar nisso,

By the way, / Speaking of that, / Incidentally


REINFORCEMENT COMMENT

COMENTRIO DE REFORO

Por sinal, ... / Alis, ... / Inclusive ... Pelo contrrio, / Na verdade,
CONFORMIDADE

As a matter of fact ... / In fact ... Onthecontrary / Actually


AGREEMENT

De acordo com ... / Conforme ... / Segundo ...


NFASE

According to ... / In accordance with ...

EMPHASIS

Principalmente ... / Sobretudo ... / Especialmente ... / Ainda mais ...


CAUSA E MOTIVO

Especially ... / Mainly ... / In particular ... / More important ...


CAUSE

Porque ... / Por causa de / Uma vez que Because / Since / J que / Visto que ... / Pois Em funo de / Em razo de ... / Por motivos de ... / Em virtude de ... / Devido a
DECORRNCIA

As a result of ... / Due to

RESULT, CONSEQUENCE

Levando isto em considerao, / Por este motivo, ... / Por esta razo, / Por isso Desta forma, ... / Assim sendo (sendo assim), ... / Nesse sentido, ... De maneira (forma) (modo) que / Como consequncia, ... Diante do exposto, / Frente a ...
CONCLUSO LGICA

With this in mind, / For this reason / That's why This way ... / In doing so ... So that / As a result, In face of / In view of
INFERENCE, CONCLUSION

Portanto, / Ento ...


PROPSITO

Therefore, / So,
PURPOSE

Com o objetivo de ... / A fim de ... / Para que ... / Para ...

In order to ... / In order that / So that ... / In an effort to ...

DEMARCADORES DE PERODOS ENTRE O PRESENTE E O PROJECTING THE PRESENT INTO THE FUTURE FUTURO

A partir de agora ... / De agora em diante ... / Daqui para a frente ...
DEMARCADORES DE PERODOS PASSADOS

Fromnowon ... / Henceforth ...

SCANNING THE PAST INTO THE PRESENT

At agora ... / At hoje ... / At o momento ... Ainda ...


INDICADORES DE PERODOS PRESENTES

So far ... / Up till now ... Still ... / ...not ... yet.
INDICATING PERIODS IN THE PRESENT

Por enquanto ...


SIMULTANEIDADE

For the time being ... / ... for some time.


SIMULTANEITY

Nesse meio tempo, ... / Enquanto isso, ... Enquanto (durante o tempo em que) ...
INDICADORES DE CIRCUNSTANCIALIDADE

In themeantime, ... / Meanwhile, ... While (duringthe time) ...


DEFINING CIRCUMSTANCES

Em meio a ...
GENERALIZAO E REGULARIDADE

In themidstof ...
GENERALIZING

Em geral, Via de regra,


EVENTOS COINCIDENTES

In general, As a rule,
COINCIDENTAL EVENTS

Sempre que
PROPORCIONALIDADE EM RELAO AO TEMPO

Whenever
TIME RELATIONSHIP

medida que (o tempo passa,) / Com o passar (decorrer) do tempo,


INDICADORES DE DESTINATRIO

As (time goesby,)

ADDRESSING

A quem interessar possa / Para sua informao, ...


ENFRAQUECEDORES

To whom it may concern / For your information, ...


WEAKENERS

Que eu saiba, / Pelo que eu sei, / Pelo que me consta, Se no me engano, / Se eu no estiver enganado / Se no me falha a memria, Na minha opinio,

As far as I know, / As far as I can tell, / To my knowledge / To the best of my knowledge, If I'm not wrong, / If I remember well In my opinion, / In my view

EXCLUSO

EXCLUSION

No que se refere a mim, / No que depender de mim, / Quanto a mim, / De minha parte,
POSICIONAMENTO

As far as I'm concerned, / As for me,

POSITION DEFINERS

Do ponto de vista de / Do (sob) meu ponto de vista / Partindo do pressuposto (de) que
CERTEZA

From the standpoint of / From my standpoint / From my point of view / Based on the assumption that
ASSURANCE

Sem dvida / Certamente / Com certeza / Evidentemente


EQUIVALNCIA, PARALELISMO

Of course / For sure / Definitely / Certainly / Without a doubt


EQUIVALENCE, PARALLEL IDEAS

Da mesma forma que / Assim como / Tal como


CONDIO

In the same way that / By the same token / Likewise


CONDITION

Se / Desde que / Enquanto / Contanto que


CONTRASTE

If / As long as / On condition that / Provided (that)


CONTRAST

Enquanto que / Ao passo que / J Mas / Entretanto, / No entanto, / Todavia, / Porm, / Contudo, Mesmo assim, / Ainda assim, Apesar de (disso) / No obstante Embora / Ainda que / E isso que Mesmo que (Por um lado, ...) Por outro lado, / Em compensao, Ao contrrio de
REITERANDO, DETALHANDO

While / Whereas / Bycontrast But / However, / , though. Even so / Nevertheless, / Nonetheless, / Still, In spite of / Despite / Notwithstanding Although / Eventhough Evenif (On (the) one hand, ...) On the other hand, / Conversely Unlike
REITERATING, GIVING DETAILS

Em outras palavras, / O que eu quero dizer / Quer dizer, / Ou seja,


EXEMPLIFICANDO

In other words, / What I'm trying to say / I mean / That is, / i.e.,
PROVIDING EXAMPLE

Por exemplo, tais como


SINALIZAO DE LINGUAGEM METAFRICA

For example, / For instance, suchas


INDICATING METAPHORICAL LANGUAGE

por assim dizer / como que

so to speak / if you will / if you like / like


ALTERNATION

ALTERNNCIA

Por sua vez, / Por seu turno


LIMITAO DE APLICABILIDADE

In his/her/its turn,
APPLICABILITY LIMITATION

Em ltimo caso, Na pior das hipteses, / Se acontecer o pior, Na melhor das hipteses, Pelo (ao) menos / No mnimo / Nem que seja (para) Para no dizer / Isso se no for
ACRSCIMO

As a last resort, If worse comes to worst (If worst comes to worst) / At worst / In a worst-case scenario At best At (the) least / If nothing else / To say the least Ifnot
ADDITION

No apenas , mas (tambm) / No s como (tambm) / Tanto como Alm disso, / Ainda por cima, / Alm do mais / Afora (isso),

Notonly , but (also) Besides (that), / In addition to (that), / On top of that, / Moreover / Apart from (that), / Aside from (that),
EXCEPTION

EXCEO

A no ser por (isso), / Com exceo de / Afora (isso) / seno A no ser que / A menos que
SUBSTITUIO

Apart from (that), / Otherwise / Other than that, / Except for / Aside from (that), Unless
SUBSTITUTION

Em vez de / Em lugar de / Ao invs de De preferncia


CONSEQUNCIA DA NO-OCORRNCIA DE UMA CONDIO

Instead of / In place of Rather (than)

CONSEQUENCE OF NONFULFILLMENT

Seno / Caso contrrio, / Do contrrio, / Sob pena de


DESCONSIDERANDO

Otherwise / Or else / If not

DISMISSAL

De qualquer modo (forma) (maneira), / Seja como for, / Seja qual for o motivo,
RELEMBRANA

Anyway, / In any case, / Whatever the case may be,


REMINDER

Afinal / Afinal de contas,

Afterall

FINALIZAO, RESUMO

CLOSURE, SUMMARY

Finalmente, / Por fim, Levando tudo isso em considerao, / Em resumo,

Finally, / At last, All in all, / All things considered, / In summary,

Abaixo segue uma lista mais abrangente de palavras e locues conectivas s do ingls, agrupadas por tipo de ligao que estabelecem. Esta lista facilita a localizao rpida do conectivo que se procura, sendo til especialmente para alunos avanados que possuem boa familiaridade com o ingls escrito:
INTRODUCTION AND REFERENCE

on the other hand regarding as referred to considering speaking of (at) first first of all by the way in reference to to begin with changing the subject in the first place to start with with regard to concerning initially

AGREEMENT

accordingto as per

in accordance with in agreement in conformity

COMPARISON

comparing likewise

in comparison (with) in the same way similarly

CONTRAST

considering that conversely after (all) despite alternatively even so although even though as opposed to at the same time for all that for (my, his, ...) part but given that by contrast by the same token however
EMPHASIS

in contrast in (the) face of in (the) light of in spite of (that) meanwhile nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding on the other hand

still then again though unlike whereas while yet

above all a key feature a major concern definitely especially (not)

even more in any event indeed in particular least of all let alone

most important(ly) most of all naturally particularly positively primarily

the basic cause the chief factor the key point unquestionably valuable to note without a doubt

especially significant mainly principally more important(ly) specifically


ADDITION

both ... and either ... or again equally important also further and (then) furthermore as well as in addition (to) at the same time indeed besides jointly

last but not least likewise moreover neither ... nor next not only ... but also not to mention not to speak of

on top of that or plus similarly together with what's more

ADDING A REMARK

as a matter of fact incidentally

in fact on the contrary the truth is

EXPLANATION OF CAUSE

in view of now that as due to on account of as a result of for since because (of) in order that that is because
RESULT

for this reason for which reason accordingly hence as a consequence in short as a result so much (so) that consequently so that
PURPOSE

such ... that that is why then thereby therefore thus

in return for in an effort to so as to in order that so that to in order to

to the purpose of to this end with this in mind with this purpose

TIME RELATIONSHIP

now nowadays after a while from now on presently afterward(s) henceforth shortly (after) as time goes by immediately simultaneously at last in the meantime since at present lately so far at this point later soon currently meanwhile temporarily

then thereafter throughout thereupon until up until now while yet at the same time

ORDERING

second secondly first third firstly following first of all in the first place next

then later after that last finally

CIRCUMSTANCES

in my opinion in terms of as a last resort in the midst of as a rule from the standpoint of on the part of

ADDRESSING INFORMATION

for your information to whom it may concern

ESTABLISHING A LIMIT

as far as I'm concerned as far as I understand as far as I can remember as well as I know as far as I can tell for the time being as far as I know so far

CONDITION

as long as even if if

if not in case of in case (that) in the event of

in the event (that) on condition that only if or (else)

otherwise provided (that) providing (that) whether or not

DISMISSAL

anyway in any case atany rate whatever the case may be

EXCEPTION / EXCLUSION

apart from (that) not ... yet aside from other than that except for unless

EXAMPLE

for example for instance

including in particular in this case in this manner

namely the following example such as to illustrate take the case of that is

in another case

SUBSTITUTION / PREFERENCE

in place of instead of

rather (than) in exchange for

REITERATION / REFORMULATION

as I have said or rather I mean that is in other words to put it another way more simply

CONCLUSION

forthisreason

so therefore

GENERALIZING

all in all as a rule basically

by and large essentially for the most part generally

generally speaking in general on the whole overall

INTERMEDIATING

by bymeansof

in doing so this way through (which)

CONCESSION

at the same time it may appear that after all granted that naturally although it is true that I admit of course although this may be true

EVIDENCE

indeed as you (anyone) can see it's no wonder naturally certainly needless to say evidently

obviously of course without question without a doubt

CONCLUSION / SUMMARY

after all at last all in all finally all things considered in brief

in short in summary last(ly) on the whole overall

therefore to conclude to summarize to sum up

as we have seen

in conclusion