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Functional Skills English

Level 1

Learning Resource 4 Vocabulary and Morphology

Rw/L1.1-3

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1


Excellence in skills development

Contents

4a

Using Reference Materials

Rw/L1.1

Pages

2-6

4b

Vocabulary Associated with Different Kinds of Text

Rw/L1.2

Pages

7 - 10

4c

Prefixes as Clues for Meaning

Rw/L1.3

Pages

11 - 14

4d

Word Origins

Rw/L1.3

Page

15

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.1

Information

Glossaries

A glossary is a list of terms relating to a specific area of knowledge. Written in alphabetical order, a glossary contains explanations and definitions. In this way, a glossary works in a similar way to a dictionary. You will usually find a glossary in a reference book. If there is a glossary, it tends to be situated at the back of the book just before the index.

Exercise 1 Look at these book titles below and circle those which are likely to contain a glossary. Fishing In Focus Shadow Night Effective Study Techniques A Story For Life Aromatherapy For Beginners The Long Weekend Organic Food For The Family The Adventures Of Harriet Potter A Guide To Madrid Everyday Maths Explained 20th Century Medicine A Drink Too Far A Simple Guide To Physics White Clouds Over Grey

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.1

Information

Dictionaries

A dictionary is a reference book consisting of a list of words arranged in alphabetical order. As well as definitions and explanations regarding the meaning of words, dictionaries contain additional information relating to each word:

the country from where the word originates, suggested pronunciation of the word, syllables contained within the word, the part of speech that the word represents e.g. noun, verb, derived words, plurals and tenses.

You may also notice that dictionaries often make use of abbreviations. These abbreviations often relate to word origins or parts of speech. The most commonly used abbreviations are listed below: Aust N.Z. adj adv conj fem masc = = = = = = = Australian New Zealand adjective adverb conjunction feminine masculine Brit S. African n pl prep pro v = = = = = = = British South African noun plural preposition pronoun verb

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.1

Exercise 2

Dictionaries and Abbreviations

Look at the abbreviations below. Your first task is to write each word in full. Your second task is to look up that word in a dictionary and write the definition given.

pl Definition

conj Definition

pron Definition

adv Definition

fem Definition

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.1

Exercise (cont.) prep Definition .

Dictionaries and Abbreviations

masc Definition

adj Definition

v Definition

n Definition

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.1

Exercise 3

Sources of Information

Look at the sources of information and the definitions below. Your task is to match the pairs correctly. If you are unsure of the pairs, use your dictionary to help.

This is a list of options on offer

Dictionary

An alphabetical list of subjects mentioned in a text. This is a detailed guide to a document.

Glossary

Key

This tells you the information that is contained in a document and how the information has been organised. It acts as a general non-specific guide.

Contents

This provides crucial information about the presentation and interpretation of a document.

Menu This book, containing an alphabetical list of words, provides meanings and definitions.

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.2

Information

Vocabulary Used to Persuade

When someone is writing a text which is aimed at persuading people to do something or buy something, they need to choose their vocabulary carefully. They often choose words which over exaggerate the qualities they are describing. Example Instead of describing a seaside resort as a pleasant place to take the family for a holiday, you may well see something like this: Bogthorpe is an ideal place to bring your family for a relaxing family holiday. The miles of golden beach and clear blue water will keep your little ones amused while you sit back and relax in carefree surroundings. If you examine the bold print you will see the vocabulary used is chosen carefully to reflect the kind of holiday the reader wants to see! It paints the ideal family holiday in the readers eye.

Exercise 4

Identifying Persuasive Text Vocabulary

Read the following extract from a holiday brochure and then highlight the vocabulary which has been chosen specially to persuade the reader to buy the holiday. Why not treat yourself to a well-earned break in the glorious Yorkshire Dales? From the breathtaking views to the warm Yorkshire welcome you will receive from your hosts, in whatever kind of accommodation you choose, you will be sure to enjoy a holiday second to none an experience which will bring you back to Yorkshire again and again. Whether you enjoy walking, bird watching, potholing, rock climbing or merely sitting watching others being energetic, you are guaranteed a stimulating yet relaxing holiday. Dont miss out on some amazing current offers on long weekend breaks in the Dales!

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.2

Information

Different Vocabulary for Different Uses

Texts written for different purposes use different kinds of language and vocabulary. For example if you were writing a letter to your bank manager to ask for a loan, you would use different language and vocabulary from that you would use if you were texting a mate about meeting on Saturday night and different again if you were writing a thank you letter to your favourite aunt, wouldnt you?

Exercise 5

Recognising Different Uses of Vocabulary

Try matching the examples of language in the boxes on the right, with the use they were written for in the boxes on the left. Discuss with someone why you made the choices you did. Would they have made the same choices? Why/why not?

A thank you letter to your favourite aunt

The rusty hinges of the door creaked as she slowly opened it to reveal a darkly lit, shadowy hallway.

An advertisement

Meet me 2night at front entrance 2 Marlons Bar. Bring plenty of money!

A ghost story

It is with great sadness, we report the death of Mr B Smith, Director of Finance to the County Council.

An announcement in the newspaper

Thank you so much for the money you sent me for my birthday. It means I have been able to buy the DVD Ive been saving up for, for ages! Youre so kind.

A text message

Buy your new carpets from us now, and dont pay a penny until next year.

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.2

Exercise 6 Make a collection of texts appropriate to your vocational work, or to an area of interest to you which shows the different ways language is used. For example, if you are interested in motor maintenance, a collection of the following texts would show you an amazing variety of different kinds of language and vocabulary: a maintenance handbook; an advertisement for a second hand car in the newspaper; an advertisement for a family saloon from a magazine; an advertisement for a sports car from a motor magazine; instructions on how to fit a CD player in a car; a car log book; an MOT certificate; and you should be able to think of many more! Take photocopies of the texts, if necessary, and stick them on sheets of A4. Annotate or label them, pointing out the different kinds of language and vocabulary.

West Nottinghamshire College

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.2

Information

Different Uses of Descriptive Language

Even if the same object is being described, if it is for different purposes, the writers will choose to use different language and vocabulary. It is important that you recognise this in other writers before you begin to write for different purposes extensively for yourself.

Exercise 7

Recognising Different Features of Descriptive Writing

Examine these two different texts both describing the same place: one is a piece of poetry, the other a geographical description of the landscape features of the same place. Highlight the vocabulary and language features which are special to each genre.

Oh, what a wonderful sight is the moor. Into the heather-scented air soars the sweet sounding lark, Hovering high above the purple and mauve canvas Then dipping and swooping, Suddenly dropping like a stone to earth Hiding itself among the plum-coloured bushes.

Barnby Moor is situated 30 miles east from the city of Leeds. The underlying rock is Millstone Grit and its flora is consistent with that type of moorland, ling and purple flowering heather. Skylarks are to be found nesting in the area.

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10

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.3

Information

Prefixes

A prefix is a group of letters that can be added to the beginning of a root word that changes its meaning. When the letters are added to the beginning of the root word, the spelling of that root word remains the same. E.g. comfort (root) discomfort (prefix).

Exercise 8

Adding Prefixes

Look at both the prefixes and the root words. Your task is to add a suitable prefix to each of the root words.

Root Words Prefixes ..septic de ..wise ir ..form mis ..mobile dis ..logical un ..mortal non..fortune in ..lucky im ..legal il ..frost anti ..resistible .polite .place .possible .rational .compress .named .responsible .capable .taste .honest .smoker

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11

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.3

Information

Prefixes

By studying the prefixes on the previous page, we can see that certain prefixes are used for certain words. Prefixes are not interchangeable. They have slightly different meanings and when we look carefully certain patterns may emerge.

de

(reverse)

e.g. defrost

This is used in front of verbs and verb derivatives ir (not) e.g. irreversible

This is used in front of adjectives beginning with r mis dis un (wrong/badly) (not) (contrary) e.g. mistrust e.g. distrust e.g. unsafe

This is used in front of adjectives and certain verbs non(not) e.g. non-smoker

This prefix is always used with a hyphen except with the word nonsense

im

(not)

e.g. imperfect

This occurs in front of adjectives beginning with m or p

il

(not)

e.g. illegal

This is used in front of adjectives and usually occurs before I

anti

(against)

e.g. antibiotic, anti-apartheid

This is used to form nouns and adjectives. A hyphen is often used if the root word begins with a vowel.

West Nottinghamshire College

12

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.3

Exercise 9

Prefixes

Look carefully at the prefixes provided. Your task is to add suitable root words. Use a dictionary to ensure that your words make sense. de dis.. in. il.. ir.. un im de dis.. in. anti. mis.. non. il.. ir. un im... ir. un.. in anti. mis. non il. ir. un.. im.. de.. dis.. in anti. mis. non il. mis... non.. im. de dis in.. anti.. mis non-.. il ir... un im. de dis in.. anti..

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13

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.3

Information

Prefixes

Prefixes can give us a clue to the meaning of the word. Prefixes can provide us with a range of information for example information relating to numbers, negativity and size.

Exercise 10 Look at the lists of words below. Your task is to add one more word to each list using the prefix provided. Define the meaning of the prefix. You can use a dictionary to help you where necessary. microphone microlight microfilm . photoactive photocopy photosynthesis . telephone television telegram . aquarium aquaplane aquaerobics . bicycle bifocal biannual . aeroplane aerobatics aeronautics . triangle triad trifid . biodiversity bioculture biohazard .

Now write the definition or meaning of each of these prefixes. micro bi photo aero . . . . tele tri . .

aqua . bio .

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14

Excellence in skills development

VOCABULARY AND MORPHOLOGY LEVEL 1 RW/L1.3

Information

Word Origins

Language is constantly changing. It is updated with the introduction of new words whilst many old words die out of ordinary use. As well as newly invented words and words from popular culture, the English language uses words from other languages. Likewise some English words have been adopted by other countries.

Exercise 11 Look at the two categories of words below and match each word to its origin. Use a dictionary to help if necessary.

Clothing pyjamas sari umbrella bra anorak dress fleece fez

Origin Latin Turkish Eskimo Urdu Old English Hindi Italian French

Animals elephant kiwi ostrich tapir rabbit iguana cow kangaroo

Origin Spanish Caribbean Greek Maori Aboriginal Dutch Norse Latin

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