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1. Pelham, Ph.D., William. "DO STIMULANT DRUGS IMPROVE LONG-TERM OUTCOMES IN ADHD?

FINDINGS FROM THE PITTSBURGH ADHD LONGITUDINAL STUDY" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116696_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: To be determined Info 2. McKethan, James. "SECTION 504, ADHD AND ELIGIBILITY" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116634_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Ambiguous Federal regulations and insufficient local placement procedures often leave Section 504 placement teams in a position of not being able to articulate the Section 504 eligibility process to parents. School personnel are confronted by everpresent pressure resulting from state accountability initiatives and No Child Left Behind to ensure student academic progress. Limited understanding of Section 504 requirements, in concert with advocacy and parental pressure, teacher accountability, No Child Left Behind legislation, etc., results in poor eligibility and placement decisions and consequently over-identification. When students are incorrectly identified rights are conveyed to ineligible students including disciplinary rights to students. Conversely, accommodations and due process rights are denied by the failure to correctly identify students with disabilities. Section 504 obligates school officials to provide appropriate regular education and appropriate special education and related aids and services. Typically the Section 504 non-discrimination obligation is understood by school officials; however, procedural requirements are not well understood. For example, do the regulations require simple non-discrimination in the provision of special education or do the regulations require a Section 504 special education beyond the scope of IDEA. Special education" under the civil rights statutes and regulations is a decision for the local education agency to make in conformance with whatever other local, state, and Federal laws, i.e., the IDEA, etc., apply . All student students receiving special education under the IDEA are also disabled under Section 504. There are students who are Section 504 eligible who are not eligible under the IDEA. The 6th Circuit Court of Appeals opined that students are not eligible under IDEA are not eligible under Section 504. At best, the courts decision has created further confusion in the Section 504 eligibility debate. Section 504 and IDEA evaluation requirements are essentially the same. Neither Section

504 regulations nor the Office of Civil Rights require a separate referral and evaluation process. Students with no academic or school behavioral issues suspected of having a disability may be referred directly to the Section 504 committee. Students with academic and/or behavioral concerns who are thought to be disabled should be referred according to established IDEA procedures. Some students not eligible for an evaluation or services under the IDEA may need to be referred to the Section 504 committee. In order to make appropriate Section 504 decisions, school officials must assemble a group of school professionals to determine eligibility and to determine placement for eligible students. The group must be comprised of persons knowledgeable (1) about the child, (2) the meaning of the evaluation data, and (3) of placement options. Section 504 regulations define a person who is handicapped as one who has a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one of lifes major life activities. However, individuals whose learning problems result primarily from cultural environmental or economic disadvantagement may not be eligible under Section 504. School Section 504 committees will, no doubt, be presented with students who have a mental or physical impairment and have learning problems resulting from cultural, environmental or economic disadvantagement. Major life activities include but are not limited to hearing, seeing, walking, performing manual tasks, caring for ones self and learning. In the elementary and secondary educational context, the important question is does the disability affect the major life activity of learning? Learning in the context of a major life activity is not defined. Typically learning should be viewed from a broad perspective rather than a narrow single learning function such as test taking. While learning is not defined either by regulations or the Office of Civil rights, it is likely to be more than advancing from grade to grade and may include social and emotional components. After the Section 504 committee determines the existence of a mental or physical impairment, e.g., ADHD, and that a major life activity has been limited, a determination that the impairment substantially limits a major life activity is required. Neither Section 504 regulation nor OCR has defined the term substantially. OCR indicated that decisions of whether impairment substantially limits a major life activity is a determination to be made by a school district. The Section 504 committee is required obtain information from a variety of sources, including aptitude and achievement tests, teacher recommendations, physical condition, social or cultural background, and adaptive behavior. Although there is no explicit Section 504 requirement for a written plan, Section 504 committees must establish procedures to ensure that information obtained from all such sources is documented and carefully considered . Information for verifying a substantial limitation of a major life activity may include the scholastic record, report cards, work samples, psychological and normed educational evaluations, curriculum based assessments, medical diagnoses and social/ health histories and information provided by parents.

The final step in determining whether or not a students mental or physical impairment substantially limits a major life activity is to assess the degree to which a student academic and/or behavioral performance is different from that of non handicapped peers. In other words, is the academic or behavioral performance of Section 504 eligible students markedly different than the average nondisabled student? The Section 504 eligibility process is a complicated process compelling school officials to understand the requirements. An informed Section 504 committee is better able to defend its decision, particularly when a student is found not to be eligible. Info 3. Naglieri, Jack. "REDEFINING INTELLIGENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ASSESSMENT OF ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116650_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: This workshop will begin with a brief examination of the role of intelligence tests as part of a Psychoeducational assessment of ADHD. The research on traditional IQ tests will be summarized and the use of cognitive tests recommended. Special attention will be paid to the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory as operationalized by the Cognitive Assessment System (Naglieri & Das, 1997). This theory and instrument will be described because there has been a line of research that has suggested the sensitivity of this theory to the cognitive weaknesses found for some children who have the combined type of ADHD. Particularly, children with this type of ADHD have had a weakness in Planning. Inattentive type ADHD has been associated with specific failure on the Attention component of the PASS theory. This research will be summarized with the goal of differential diagnosis and academic instructional planning. The workshop will include the examination of cases studies and a summary of research on the use of the PASS theory for selection of appropriate academic interventions. Research that has been conducted with children who are poor in Planning will be summarized. Cognitive intervention for children with a deficit in attention will also be described. The goal of this workshop is to merge theory and practice in an applied context. Audience participation will be encouraged and sharing of cases appreciated. Info 4. Brown, Thomas. "TREATMENT DILEMMAS IN COMPLICATED CASES OF ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116633_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Abstract for Proposed Presentation at CHADD Conference-2004 Advanced Workshop: Treatment Dilemmas in Complicated Cases of ADHD

Thomas E. Brown, Ph.D. In itself, ADHD is a complicated disorder involving impairments of many cognitive functions that are very important in learning, work, social relationships and family life. In addition, more than 50 percent of persons with ADHD also suffer, at some point in their lifespan, with one or more additional problems of learning, emotions, cognition and/or behavior. Treatment of ADHD is complicated not only by the complexity of the disorder and the added complexity of comorbid disorders. Often it is further complicated by family issues, e.g. conflicts between family members over how best to allocate limited family resources of time, attention, effort and money to deal with a family member who has ADHD. In some cases, treatment of ADHD is also complicated by medical problems of the individual being treated, e.g. hypersensitivity to specific medications, chronic problems with non-psychiatric medical disorders. In addition to individual and family complications, sometimes treatment is complicated by problems in the school or community or resources for medical care, e.g. playground bullies, inexperienced teachers or inadequate administrators, inadequate insurance coverage for needed prescriptions or lack of availability of knowledgeable clinicians. This half-day workshop for health care professionals will present a series of actual cases of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD where multiple complicating factors have presented difficult dilemmas for treatment. Cases will include persons with anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, mood disorders, learning disorders, substance abuse, Aspergers disorder, tics, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Many of the cases involve multiple comorbid disorders in addition to individual, family, school and/or community problems. Important dilemmas in treatment of complicated ADHD will be highlighted in each case. Risks and benefits of alternative intervention strategies will be discussed. Info 5. DuPaul, George. and Weyandt, Lisa. "COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH ADHD: WHAT DO WE KNOW AND WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116618_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: College students diagnosed with ADHD constitute a significant population that is eligible for services under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Further, college students with ADHD appear to be at higher than average risk for academic underachievement relative to their non-

ADHD counterparts. Although relatively little empirical information is available concerning ADHD among college students, recent studies suggest that ADHD affects approximately 2 percent to 4 percent of this population. The purposes of this presentation are to (a) describe what is known about the academic and social functioning of college students with ADHD and (b) delineate assessment and treatment practices that may enhance services for this population. Relative to their non-ADHD peers, college students who exhibit significant ADHD symptoms experience more academic performance difficulties, use fewer academic coping strategies, report more intrusive thoughts and a higher degree of internal restlessness, and report a lower quality of life. Preliminary studies suggest that these students may be at higher risk for substance abuse, financial mismanagement, poor employment performance, difficulty selecting a major, and legal problems; however, additional investigations are needed to substantiate these findings. Based on the limited studies available, college students with ADHD do not appear to have significant deficits in psychological, emotional, or neuropsychological functioning. A thorough assessment of ADHD symptoms in a college student should include clinical interviews with the student and significant others, self-report questionnaires, behavioral questionnaires completed by parents, review of school records, and cognitive testing. The overall objective is to determine the extent to which a students symptoms meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD while also carefully considering alternative diagnostic options (e.g., learning disabilities). Typically, the student and parents (or someone else who knows the student well) are interviewed regarding current concerns, developmental history, medical history, and family history. Self-report questionnaires regarding current ADHD symptoms and related psychological difficulties are completed. Both the student and parents also are asked to complete questionnaires regarding childhood ADHD symptoms (e.g., Barkley and Murphy ADHD Rating Scale). If available, school records are reviewed to document a history of ADHD-related concerns in school settings. The specific components of the cognitive evaluation vary according to presenting concerns; however, this typically includes assessment of intellectual ability, memory, and academic skills. Continuous performance tests may be helpful but are used with caution due to questionable diagnostic reliability. Although neuropsychological tests can provide valuable information about cognitive functioning, they do not reliably discriminate between college students with and without ADHD. Treatment of ADHD in college students may include a variety of interventions such as stimulant medication combined with educational accommodations such as extra time for tests, provision of distraction-free environments, books on tape, note-taking services, and adaptive technology. Specific services vary across institutions. Further, empirical studies of the effectiveness of educational accommodations are lacking. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of directions for future research. The emphasis will be on going beyond extant descriptive studies and empirically documenting efficacious treatments specific to the college student population. Info 6. Weiss, Sharon. "KEYS TO PARENTING CHILDREN WITH ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention

Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116710_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: To be determined... Info 7. Ruiz Aponte, Vilmarie. and Cabre Jimenez, Eva. "Relation Between Hyperactivity, Self-Control and Relations Between Mother-Son/Daughter in a Group of Children With and Without ADHD-H." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106005_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: (to be uploaded) Info 8. Bauermeister, Jose. "IMPAIRMENT, COMORBIDITY AND ASSOCIATED FEATURES OF ADHD IN COMMUNITY AND TREATED SAMPLES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116660_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders, and is increasingly the disorder that brings children and adolescents into treatment. The patterns of impairment, comorbidity, and correlates associated with the disorder in children and youth is examined in representative samples from community and treatment facilities in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and the youth themselves was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews that included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, version IV (DISC-IV), a measure of global impairment, and a battery of potential correlates. In the community sample (N=1896) 7.5 percent of the IV ADHD in the previous year. Although the prevalence was three times greater in the treated sample than the community, the general pattern of correlates, impairment and comorbidity was the same in both groups. The exceptions to this result were associated with conduct disorder, anxiety, and age factors that appeared to be related to selection into service. Info 9. Goldstein, Sam. "NEGOTIATING THE MAZE OF INFORMATION ABOUT ADHD: DISTINGUISHING SCIENCE, NON-SCIENCE AND NONSENSE" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116655_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Each month, 40 to 50 scientific peer, reviewed studies are published on ADHD. At this time there are over 4,000 peer reviewed studies available with numbers of research studies increasing monthly. Internet searches reveal over a million sites mentioning, focusing upon or devoted to ADHD. There are nearly 200 trade books published focusing on diverse issues in ADHD with more appearing every year. How is a professional or parent consumer to make sense of these date? Dr. Goldstein will offer an overview of these data sources and provide a set of guidelines for parents and professionals to interpret and understand this information. The basic theme will be to help parents and professionals become good consumers able to distinguish between science, non-science and non-sense as they make clinical and personal decisions concerning ADHD. Info 10. Solanto, Mary. "NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH THE PREDOMINANTLY INATTENTIVE SUBTYPE OF ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116649_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Introduction: Children with the Predominantly Inattentive (IN) subtype of ADHD differ from those with the Combined type (CB) with respect to gender ratio, age of onset, prevalence of comorbid disorders, and associated impairments. These differences suggest there may be corresponding differences between the subtypes in neuropsychological and neurobiological underpinnings. However, relatively limited research to date has generally not yielded evidence of such differences. The current project was designed to compare groups of children rigorously diagnosed as having either the IN or the CB subtype with respect to hypothesized differences in selective and sustained attention, verbal and non-verbal working memory, spatial orienting, selfinhibition, aversion to delay, cognitive interference control, planning, and processing speed. Differences in these functions may help to identify specific brain regions which may be involved in the subtypes and may also have implications for pharmacological and educational interventions. Design: Children were diagnosed by rigorous application of DSM-IV criteria as having either the Combined or the Inattentive subtype of ADHD, or as having no disorder (control group). They were then tested, across two sessions, on a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess the functions listed above. Participants: Thirty individuals meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in each of the three groups: IN, CB, and Normal Control. Inclusion Criteria: Children were required to be between 7 and 12 years of age and diagnosed as having either the IN or CB subtype on the basis of open-ended and

structured (DISC) interviews with the parent as well as scores exceeding designated criteria on the DSM-IV scales on Conners Parent and Teacher Questionnaires. Children in the control group were required to be without significant emotional, behavioral, or learning problems on the basis of parent interview and questionnaire results within normal limits. Exclusion Criteria: Children were excluded from all groups if any of the following were present: major medical or neurological disorder; specific learning disability in reading, language, or arithmetic; IQ < 80; pervasive developmental disorder; comorbid anxiety or depressive disorder. Instruments: The following tests were used to assess neuropsychological functioning: WISC-III; Buschke Selective Reminding Test (verbal learning); Stroop Color-Word Task (cognitive interference); Delay Aversion task; Conners Continuous Perfomance Test (sustained attention); Tower of London (non-verbal working memory); Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (working memory and planning); Posner task (spatial orienting); computerized tests designed specifically for this study to assess stimulus vs. response processing, and reaction time as a function of warning interval (orientation time). Results: The first major finding from this study is that children with the IN subtype were significantly more likely than CB children to display slow Processing Speed on the WISC-III, relative to their verbal ability: Fully half of all children with IN displayed a Processing Speed that was at least 15.8 points lower than their Verbal Comprehension score. The comparable percentage of CB children was less than 10 percent. Discussion: The finding of slower processing speed in IN is consistent with other research suggesting slower reaction time and sluggish cognitive tempo in this subtype, and may have implications for educational practices. For example, the optimal pace of presentation of classroom instruction may be slower for children with IN, compared to typical children and children with CB type ADHD. Results and implications of the study with respect to other neuropsychological functions are currently being analyzed and will be presented at the meeting. Info 11. Taylor, John. "BUILDING CONSCIENCE, TEMPTATION RESISTANCE AND SELF-CONTROL SKILLS IN CHILDREN AND TEENS WITH ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116622_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: This session focuses on several key aspects of social skills and conscience development that are especially helpful for children and teens who have ADHD. Topics include

making and keeping friends, improving anger control, processing lifes frustrations in a healthy way, making better decisions, asserting personal needs in a win-win format with peers, countering undesirable peer influences, resisting temptations, developing apology skills, and related issues. The techniques are simple, nonthreatening, teacher-friendly and usable in home, classroom and clinical settings. They apply regardless of which components of ADHD the children and teens exhibit. This session features discussion and demonstration of several different methods of social skills instruction, including sculpting, role plays, guided discussion, internal prompts and cuing slogans, descriptive paragraph analysis, and the six-step S C O R E D method. Friendship skills are one of the most frequent social deficits of children with ADHD. This session covers thirteen key skills for improving and maintaining friendships. Examples include letting the friend go first when at play, talking about the friends interests, and empathizing with the friends feelings. Frustration tolerance is notoriously low among those with hyperactivity, and handling difficulties gracefully is an import social skill for hyperactive children and teens to develop. This session includes discussion and demonstration of high-impact counseling methods for improving patience, tolerance of imperfection, and acceptance of frustrating events. Examples include the

classic half-empty but also half-full glassdemonstration that imperfections always occur in every circumstance. Anger is best understood as a energizing, focusing, self-protective secondary emotional response to a perceived primary hurt. It needs to be recognized and channeled into constructive directions. The key principle isnt to avoid being angry but instead is to use the anger wisely. In this session, three helpful ways to utilize anger are discussed, along with four common anger errors made by children and teens with ADHD. Emergency maneuvers for handling discharge of great amounts of anger are also described in this session. Decision making among those with hyperactivity tends to be rash, careless and impulsive, while that of the inattentive type tends to be sluggish, resulting in indecisiveness. This session portrays techniques of slowing down those with hyperactivity and facilitating more prompt and efficient decision making by those who have ADHD inattentive type. A simple 4-step procedure originally developed to assist young hyperactive children in decision making will be illustrated. Social assertion is one of the most important social skills for children with ADHD to learn. Hyperactive children tend to be overassertive, and those with inattentive type ADHD tend to be underassertive of their needs. Neither group ends up creating very many win-win solutions in potential conflict situations with peers. This session provides some practical answers to

this issue. It includes a simple three-step assertion paradigm originally developed to assist hyperactive children with this important social skill. Desperate for more friends, careless in decision making, and thirsting for adventure, hyperactive children and teens are at great risk for succumbing to undesirable peer influences and temptations. This session features detailed discussion of several cognitive behavioral strategies for strengthening personal decision making and saying no to temptations. Strengthening the childs or teens sense of internal self-control is an important feature of many of these strategies. Examples include Stop and think: What should I do at this moment? and Say no twice, then leave. Because of the well known correlation of ADHD with substance abuse, resisting temptations for drug and alcohol use is of course a crucial skill to help these teens develop.. Few children are more in need of redeeming stressed relationships and reclaiming broken friendships than those with ADHD. Yet the are of apology is seldom taught to them by their parents, teachers and counselors. This session answers this dilemma with thorough discussion of eight different aspects of an effective friendship-reclaiming apology. Examples include Admit that you did it, Ask for forgiveness and Make amends. The overall objective of this session is to provide participants with a wealth of practical new strategies for high-impact intervention to assist in these crucial areas of social adjustment. Info Add

12. Judd, April. "Cognitive Impacts of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Collegiate Mathematical Learning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the PME-NA, Oct 25, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p201231_index.html> Publication Type: Poster Abstract: The poster presents exploratory research investigating the cognitive impacts of ADHD on collegiate mathematical learning. Though several studies have examined mathematics learning at the grade school level, little research has been completed among college mathematics students with ADHD. This poster presents a theory, and a method for profiling, mathematical problem-solving activity for college mathematics learners with ADHD. Info 13. Watkins, William. "Motivations, Predictors, And Risk Factors Of ADHD Medication Abuse: A Study In Abuser Typology" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Nov 13, 2007 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p208168_index.html> Publication Type: Poster Abstract: Prescription ADHD medication has been shown to be on the rise as a drug of abuse among young people. Unlike other drugs that serve only the purpose of achieving a high, this particular substance can be perceived as useful and beneficial by those who abuse it. It is these positive attributes given to the illicit use of these drugs that make them so dangerous, especially in the hands of youths. Using a national sample of 12th grade students, this study looks at what motivations exist among youths for the illicit use of ADHD medication. Warning signs and predictors of such abuse behavior are also examined as a means to identify youths who would be at risk to engage in illicit use of these substances. This study looks to build on existing literature regarding ADHD medication abuse by expanding what we know about those who abuse these substance beyond basic bio-demographical characteristics and commonly known motivations for their use. Suggestions for future research and policy implications are also discussed. Info 14. Mayes, Rick. "Teachers! Leave Them Kids Alone: Instructors' Views of ADHD and Psychostimulants" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p41073_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: OBJECTIVE 1: To provide a national profile of the area variation in per-capita psychostimulant consumption in the U.S. METHODS 1: We separated 3,030 U.S. counties into two categories of low and high per-capita use of ADHD drugs (based on data from the Drug Enforcement Administration), and then analyzed them on the basis of their socio-demographic, economic, educational, and medical characteristics. RESULTS 1: Our analysis of the DEA's ARCOS data shows that most of the significant variables correlated with higher per-capita use of ADHD drugs serve as a proxy for county affluence. OBJECTIVE & METHODS 2: The second study examined the hypotheses that teachers perceptions about ADHD and its treatment vary and that these

variations can be predicted by teacher characteristics. Across 14 schools (8 elementary, 5 middle, 1 high), 286 teachers (90% female, 90% Caucasian) completed a brief questionnaire assessing their perceptions about ADHD and its treatment. RESULTS 2: A multiple regression analysis indicated that being female, having children of their own, and having more years of experience at their current school were associated with teachers positive views of the effectiveness of psychostimulant medication for treating ADHD (p < .01). Interestingly, the characteristics related to the perception that psychostimulants are effective may be indicative of greater direct experience with children (i.e., having children and more teaching experience). Info Add 15. Rafalovich, Adam. "Exploring Clinician Uncertainty in the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p108491_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Based upon analyses of interview data collected from twenty-six clinician respondents, this study explores two facets of clinician uncertainty related to the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. First, this study explores clinician reservations about the diagnostic validity of ADHD as it is described by the American Psychiatric Association (1994) in DSM IV. Second, this study explores clinician ambivalence regarding the physical and social-psychological side-effects of stimulant medications, such as Ritalin. In reviewing a sizable cross-section of the popular and research-oriented literature demonstrating the very contentious nature of the ADHD phenomenon, this study illustrates that clinicians do not practice within a vacuum, but are instead largely affected by the marked skepticism that surrounds ADHD. In being affected by this skepticism, it is concluded that clinicians who assess and treat ADHD are autonomous in how they interpret the diagnostic and treatment protocols for this mental disorder. Info 16. Aull, Edward. "BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF STIMULANTS AND NON-STIMULANTS ON SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ADHD AND ASPERGER'S SYNDROME." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116658_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Social interaction is often an issue for patients with either ADHD or Asperger's syndrome (A.S.). Typically the social issues are more severe in A.S. than ADHD, but they can be major handicaps in either disorder. It is important that the professional who is utilizing medications for these disorders does not impair social interaction in these patients. There may also be an advantage to social activity with one medication over another. It may be that either of tow medications is effective for the primary symptoms of ADHD, but one leaves the patient much more socially withdrawn than the other. At

follow-up, social benefits should be questioned about and sought after as positive medication effects. The discussion will be a clinical presentation of the potential social effects of the various medications used today. For example, Adderall tends to make patients less socially active. This is not true in all cases. Adderall may actually enhance social interaction by decreasing interruptions by the patient and allowing him or her to better remember the content of teh conversation so they are able to add to it when appropriate. These effects may require separate stratagies at different ages. It may be necessary that a college student take Adderall to maintain adequate grades, but dosing could be adjusted so that there is less negative effect at social times. At the middle-school level the social effects may be more important and poorer academic success may be tolerated in a more holistic evaluation of care. Methylphenidate products tend to be more neutral to social interactions in most patients. However, the short-acting products may cause mood swings, which may not be tolerated by others in the group. Long acting products cause much less social difficulty except as they wear off. At that time, there may be a thirty to ninety minute phase when the patient is more irritable and sensitive. The decrease in hyperactivity, interruptions, and impulsivity may be required by the group in order to allow any social interactions at all. Atomoxetine often has a positive effect on social interaction. These effects may be even more pronounced in patients with A.S. than in those with ADHD. Atomoxetine seems to improve interest in social interaction and improves reading of nonverbal cues and puns. Improved ready of body language is very helpful to the patient with A.S. Patients will often notice their improved abilities and report that their peers tolerate them better. Some patients with ADHD and shyness may find they are more easily able to join into a group that previously might have been avoided. I will discuss the effects and side effects on social interaction in patients with ADHD and A.S. There will also be some discussion of ways to minimize negative effects with dosage changes, combinations of these medications, or addition of other medications, especially SSRI's. The discussion will be very clinical in its presentation with case examples. Info 17. Schnupp, Rebecca. "Gene X Environment Interaction and a Retrospective Measure of ADHD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p125903_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Abstract: The effects of gene X environment interactions (GxE) on retrospective measures of ADHD have largely been neglected in the empirical literature. Data from a genetically-sensitive subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) are used to determine if there is a GxE interaction between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphism and delinquent peers on ADHD. The results suggest that the DRD2 polymorphism has a significant effect on ADHD for males. Further, the findings reveal that the effect of DRD2 on ADHD is conditioned by the number of drugusing friends an adolescent male has in his peer network. These results will be discussed in the context of the importance of analyzing genetic and environmental factors when studying ADHD.

Info 18. Mayes, Rick. "Suffer the Restless Children: ADHD, Psychostimulants, and the Politics of Pediatric Mental Health" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Aug 30, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p209292_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Abstract: BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) holds the distinction of being both the most extensively studied pediatric mental disorder and one of the most controversial. This is partly due to the fact that it is also the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder among minors. On average, 1 in every 15 to 20 children in the U.S. has been diagnosed with the disorder and 1 in every 20 to 25 uses a stimulant medicationoften Ritalin, Adderall, or Concertaas treatment. The biggest increase in youth diagnosed with ADHD and prescribed a stimulant drug occurred during the 1990s, when the prevalence of physician visits for stimulant pharmacotherapy increased fivefold. This unprecedented increase in U.S. children using psychotropic medication triggered an intense public debate. When the 1990s began, most schools across the country had only a handful of (if any) children diagnosed with ADHD and using stimulants. By 2000, every classroom in the United States had, on average, at least 1 to 2 such students treated for the disorder. Currently, almost 8 percent of youth aged 4 to 17 years have a diagnosis of ADHD, and approximately 4 percent both have the diagnosis and are taking medication for the disorder. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: ADHD has been present under different diagnostic labels in the U.S. for at least seventy years, so what accounts for the rapid growth in diagnoses, stimulant treatment and the disorders popular acceptance within the past twenty years? To what extent have the evolution of ADHD and stimulants been unique compared to other mental disorders and forms of pharmacotherapy? And why did stimulant use by children become so controversial yet commonplace? FINDINGS: As this book attempts to explain, the massive increase in the number of U.S. children diagnosed with ADHD and using stimulants stemmed from: a confluence of trends (clinical, economic, educational, political), an alignment of incentives (among clinicians, educators, policy makers, health insurers, the pharmaceutical industry), and the sizeable growth in scientific knowledge about ADHD and stimulants that converged in the first half of the 1990s. Growing political movements advocating for childrens welfare and mental health consumers, along with the decreasing stigma associated with mental disorders, led to three seemingly minor changesto disability, special education, and Medicaid policiesin the early 1990s that helped trigger the surge in ADHD diagnoses and related stimulant use. DISCUSSION: The use of stimulant medication for the management and treatment of ADHD has vocal supporters and critics alike, and as our book describes, the history of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder reveal numerous controversies. Today, however, the controversy is not focused as much on whether or not ADHD is a real disorder. It is widely recognized as such. If controversies about ADHD continue, then, they are less focused on the existence of the disorder than on some of the consequences

of the disorder. For example, what are the policy implications? What are the implications of the increase in the use of stimulant medication in recent years? How do ADHD and the use of stimulants fit with concerns about cosmetic psychopharmacology? The enduring controversy about ADHD in the public arena reflects the discomfort about what happens when the science is translated into policies and rules that govern how children will be treated. A diagnosis of ADHD is not simply a private medical finding; it carries with it a host of public ramifications. Will the child receive medication, or will more effective discipline strategies work? Will parents retain exclusive control over what prescription drugs their child ingests, or will school officials, judges, and child protection workers also have a say? Will an impoverished child and his family receive extra government assistance, or will they have to get by on what the rest of the poor families live on, which could amount to no government assistance at all? Will a child struggling socially and academically in school receive special assistance and accommodations, or will she have to plod along with everyone else? Futhermore, while scientists might agree that there is a set of core conditions that can be characterized as a medical dysfunction called ADHD, there is little consensus among policymakers about how many children have this dysfunction. The conundrum is not the small number of children with symptoms so debilitating that practically everyone would agree they need some sort of helpmost likely a combination of drug and behavioral therapy. The real problem is the much larger number of children who have a shadow of the disorder, symptoms that are clearly severe enough that the childs behavior irritates his teachers, wears down his parents, alienates peers, and leads to his own unhappiness. Estimates of how prevalent ADHD is range from 3% to 5% of all school-aged children to as high as 10%. In the public debate, we are not talking about the same children. Because the diagnostic criteria are not always applied rigorously, the diagnosis encompasses both children who all would agree have a clinical disorder as well as children where the decision is a judgment call, children who are extremely taxing to those around them but whose actions may not be the result of a neurological impairment. As a matter of policy, Americans are more willing to provide social assistance and accommodations to people who cant meet their social obligations, however willing they are, than to give the benefit of the doubt to those who wont. Thus, the conflict over the existence and prevalence of ADHD endures, despite all of the scientific evidence, because behavior is never 100 percent either cant or wont. Info 19. Wolraich, Mark., LeFever, Gretchen., McKeown, Robert., Lesesne, Catherine. and Visser, Susanna. "STUDIES OF THE PREVALENCE OF ADHD IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS: A CDC COLLABORATIVE PROJECT" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116647_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: A gap in information on the population-based prevalence of ADHD, including

common comorbidities and function exists in the current literature. Information on prevalence in racial/ethnic subpopulations is also limited. The purpose of these studies will be to determine the prevalence of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria in school-based samples of elementary school aged children. The project includes children from three different US cities and as well as children who are Caucasian, Native American, African American and Hispanic. The studies include information on co-morbidities, diagnoses and treatments and health risk behaviors. School districts are being used as the sampling frames. Info 20. Welch, Ann. "ADHD AND NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND: TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS (K-8)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116620_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) require that all students participate in state tests to measure progress toward academic standards. When test results are used to make significant decisions regarding a student (for example, whether the student is promoted or retained) or a school (for example, whether it is classified as accredited or failing), the test is referred to as a high-stakes test. High-stakes tests have become a fact of life for most American students. There are many valid criticisms of high- stakes testing, but responsible parents and teachers recognize the importance of helping students to succeed on tests that they are required to take. NCLB requires that all students in grades three through eight be tested in reading and math every year. Many states have additional highstakes tests in other subjects and grades. Students with ADHD must take these tests. Annual testing is intended to promote accountability and ensure that all students reach high standards. Unfortunately, students with ADHD often have difficulty both learning the curriculum standards and demonstrating what they have learned. The core characteristics of the disorder (impulsivity, inattention, hyperactivity, and executive function deficits) have a negative influence on both learning and performance. Even students who do not have learning problems may have difficulty demonstrating their knowledge on high-stakes tests. Students with ADHD respond impulsively, overlook key words, omit sections, and lose their place on the answer sheets. There are no magic wands to guarantee either learning or passing test scores, but there are instructional strategies that increase the likelihood of both. After a brief overview of high-stakes tests and the No Child Left Behind Act, the rest of this session will focus on instructional strategies (visual, mnemonic, and organizational), test-taking strategies, and test accommodations. A standard conference session would include an overview of strategies with examples at different grade levels. A pre-convention workshop would permit more strategies, examples, and audience participation. Participant objectives include the following:

Review the purpose and requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. Compare the Individuals with Disabilities Act and No Child Left Behind Act. Recognize the benefits of visual and mnemonic strategies for students with ADHD. List visual and mnemonic instructional strategies that would be applicable in the participants teaching setting. List organizational strategies that would be applicable in the participants teaching setting. List test-taking strategies that would be applicable in the participants teaching setting. Be familiar with test accommodations to reduce the impact of ADHD on test performance Commit to including selected strategies in the participants teaching setting. The good news? Effective teaching strategies for students with ADHD will also be helpful for many other students. The bad news? Good teaching takes time, effort, resources, community, and commitment. No conference session can provide a magic wand, but every teacher can add to his or her repertoire of effective strategies for students with ADHD. Info 21. Illes, Terry. "BREAKING DOWN BARRIES: ENLISTING TEACHER SUPPORT FOR YOUR ADHD CHILD" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116646_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Breaking Down Barriers: Enlisting Teacher Support for Your ADHD Child Children with ADHD often experience their greatest challenges and distress at school. Indeed, school failure, as indicated by academic underachievement, interpersonal conflicts and conduct problems, is one of the most common byproducts of having ADHD. However, the close association between ADHD and school failure is not inescapable. Researchers have identified a variety of school-based interventions, accommodations and support programs that are of significant benefit to children with ADHD. Indeed, used effectively, these strategies may even normalize the childs school experience. Unfortunately, in spite of this availability, parents often report difficulty obtaining such support for their ADHD child. This suggests that many children with ADHD are not receiving the help that they need to succeed in school. Although there are certainly many reasons for this neglect, in this session, the presenter will focus on the role of teacher resistance. More specifically, the presenter will discuss a variety of factors that undermine a teachers willingness or capacity to address the individual needs of the ADHD child. The purpose of this session will be to help parents identify the basis of teacher resistance and to provide strategies for breaking down these barriers. These strategies will help parents to be more successful as they advocate for their child in the effort to obtain accommodations and support services for their ADHD child. The presenter will examine three sources of teacher resistance and will discuss the basis of each. Moreover, the

presenter will offer parents suggestions for overcoming these sources of resistance to enlist greater school support for their ADHD child. The presenter will first identify poor parent-teacher rapport as a source of teacher resistance. Poor communication and misunderstandings between the parent and teacher may undermine a teachers willingness and ability to meet the needs of the ADHD student. In this section, parents will learn how to avoid specific rapport busters and strategies for enlisting teacher empathy and support for the child. The presenter will next identify resource limitations as a contributing factor to teacher resistance. Teachers may lack the personal (e.g., time, energy, or expertise) or material (e.g., home notes, incentives, funds) resources to provide additional help to the ADHD child. The presenter will discuss how to reduce this resource strain and will demonstrate how to put together a resource kit for teachers. Lastly, the presenter will identify subtle cultural attitudes that ultimately discourage teacher efforts to accommodate the individual needs of ADHD children. The discussion will include an examination of the academic and behavioral models of disabilities and describe how the models influence teacher reactions to children with ADHD. The models are diagrammed below: Academic Model academic deficit>organic impairment>involuntary response>empathy>remediation>reward Behavioral Model behavior deficit>motivational impairment>voluntary response>anger>elimination>punishment Info 22. Hull, Robert. "CREATING A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT THAT ENCOURAGES THE SUCCESS OF STUDENTS WITH ADHD IN ADVANCED CURRICULUM AND CLASSES" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116642_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: Creating a Learning Environment that Encourages the Success of Students with ADHD in Advanced Curriculum and Classes Outcomes o Identification: Participants will be able to identify generic executive function deficits. o Understanding the necessity of executive function skills to meet with academic success: Participants will acquire a basic knowledge of how improving executive functioning skills will increase the success of students with ADHD. o Teaching Skills and Strategies to Students: Participants will learn to associate deficits with skills and strategies that will increase the independent functioning of students with ADHD.

o On-going Teacher Training: Participants will learn techniques for providing support to teachers who have students with ADHD in their classes. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act the federal government motivated school districts to accelerate achievement and provide access to Gifted, Honors and advanced placement (AP) classes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this presentation is to provide educators and family members with various techniques to improve the independent use of executive system functioning (ESF) skills and strategies employed by and for students with ADHD across the age span The techniques presented were developed by members of the Maryland ADHD Advisory Council, the council consists of regular and special educators, parents, physicians and psychologists. The demands on ESF skills are greatly increased in upper level classes and advanced placement classes. The relationship is direct, i.e. greater complexity of learning requires students to derive information from larger chunks of increasingly complex text, to reproduce this information in an organized written form and to do so in an independent and timely manner. Pupil personnel resources, such as school psychologists need to be more involved in supporting teachers to assess the needs of, teach and develop talents in students challenged by the lack of executive functioning skills. The specific executive functions that impact the ability of students with ADHD to succeed in advanced curriculum will be reviewed. Following that review will be a description of how ESF impacts the acquisition of academic, social and communication skills. Providing an awareness of ESF to teachers and a method of improving the independent use of ESF skills and strategies in students, increases the potential for academic and social success in the areas where students with ADHD typically have difficulty: (1) long term planning and goal-setting; (2) multi-tasking; (3) organizing materials; (4) working memory and getting ideas on paper; (5) a sense of time and time management; (6) pacesetting and self-monitoring; (7) complex cognitive processing that requires foresight and hindsight; (8) working co-operatively with others to complete projects or labs. This presentation will provide teachers, school psychologists, administrators and families with a toolkit of strategies to identify executive system functions and teach the skills necessary so that ADHD students can meet with academic and social success in advanced curriculum programs and classes. Info Add 23. Moss, John. "ADHD Behavioral Rating Scales and the Social Construction of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p183553_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (or ADHD) is a mental illness that in 2003, affected approximately one out of every 13 children in the United States between the ages of 4 and 17. Measuring childhood behavior with ADHD rating scales is one form of evidence clinicians use to determine whether a child warrants a diagnosis of ADHD. Because of this, knowing more about these scales is critical for understanding how ADHD is socially constructed. In this paper, I analyze nine of these scales asking three

questions: Are these rating scales valid measurements? What is the normative childhood behavior that these scales assume? What functions do these scales serve the people who use them? I argue that these scales are not valid according to the basic tenets of statistical logic and that these scales are biased towards finding ADHD in the children the scales target. These scales also assume that children should be compliant to all adult commands, that children should not move their bodies unless it is for a purpose, that they should be productive workers and that they should have a harmonious relationship with peers. I find that these scales function to identify the disruptions that children cause in institutions in order to enable goal-oriented activities to be more easily accomplished in the settings in which they are used. Further directions for research are also suggested. Info 24. Spector, Annette. and Spector, Stephen. "LIVING WITH AN ADHD PARTNER" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Renaissance Nashville Hotel and Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2008-04-08 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116652_index.html> Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript Review Method: Peer Reviewed Abstract: PRESENTATION ABSTRACT: This panel will provide couples and individuals in relationships with an overview of lifelong issues and practical suggestions and resources for making improvements with difficult issues that arise. Through describing the presenters forty-year marriage with one partner having ADHD, the primary focus will be examples of what works, what doesnt work, and resources. This will include a description of the various issues that both partners experienced and their complimentary and different perceptions of each other and their relationship. Attendees will gain insights and practical suggestions for remaining in a long-term relationship. As in any long-term relationship, the road remains rocky. It is never smooth sailing or a straight path. Layer upon that, ADHD issues, and the rocks in the road can become boulders without adequate support systems in place. By identifying issues that might arise before they become major conflicts, both parties will be better able to see and hear each other and work constructively to a new place. Therefore, education about ADHD, prior planning, helpful cues and signals, and knowing where to find resources, can help both the ADHD partner and their mate. The panelists will provide anecdotal descriptions of the presenters 40 year marriage including problems encountered, attempted solutions which did not work, what did work, and helpful resources that were tried and used. Time will be provided for an open discussion between the attendees and presenters (Q and A). Participants will be encouraged to share their experiences, including frustrations,what has worked for them, resources and practical suggestions so that all participants leave with a sense of hope and encouragement. Some of these resources will include: how to deal with initial resistance to a diagnosis, how to identify other possible conditions (such as depression) that may either mask the existence of ADHD and/or make ADHD interventions more difficult, a

bibliography of helpful literature, and the types of professionals and support groups that are available to help either or both partners.