Você está na página 1de 504

Version 21.

0: Spring '11

Force.com Apex Code Developer's Guide

Last updated: April 23, 2011


Copyright 2000-2011 salesforce.com, inc. All rights reserved. Salesforce.com is a registered trademark of salesforce.com, inc., as are other

names and marks. Other marks appearing herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introducing Force.com Apex Code..............................................................................7
What is Apex?...............................................................................................................................................................8 How Does Apex Work?.....................................................................................................................................9 What is the Apex Development Process?........................................................................................................10 When Should I Use Apex?..............................................................................................................................14 What are the Limitations of Apex?.................................................................................................................15 What's New?...............................................................................................................................................................15 Apex Quick Start.........................................................................................................................................................15 Documentation Typographical Conventions...................................................................................................16 Understanding Apex Core Concepts...............................................................................................................17 Writing Your First Apex Script.......................................................................................................................21

Chapter 2: Language Constructs................................................................................................27


Data Types...................................................................................................................................................................28 Primitive Data Types.......................................................................................................................................28 sObject Types...................................................................................................................................................31 Collections.......................................................................................................................................................34 Enums..............................................................................................................................................................39 Understanding Rules of Conversion................................................................................................................41 Variables......................................................................................................................................................................41 Case Sensitivity................................................................................................................................................42 Constants.........................................................................................................................................................42 Expressions..................................................................................................................................................................43 Understanding Expressions..............................................................................................................................43 Understanding Expression Operators..............................................................................................................44 Understanding Operator Precedence...............................................................................................................49 Extending sObject and List Expressions.........................................................................................................50 Using Comments.............................................................................................................................................50 Assignment Statements...............................................................................................................................................50 Conditional (If-Else) Statements................................................................................................................................52 Loops...........................................................................................................................................................................52 Do-While Loops.............................................................................................................................................53 While Loops....................................................................................................................................................53 For Loops........................................................................................................................................................53 SOQL and SOSL Queries..........................................................................................................................................57 Working with SOQL and SOSL Query Results.............................................................................................58 Working with SOQL Aggregate Functions.....................................................................................................59 Working with Very Large SOQL Queries......................................................................................................60 Using SOQL Queries That Return One Record.............................................................................................61 Improving Performance by Not Searching on Null Values..............................................................................61 Understanding Foreign Key and Parent-Child Relationship SOQL Queries.................................................62

Table of Contents Using Apex Variables in SOQL and SOSL Queries.......................................................................................62 Querying All Records with a SOQL Statement..............................................................................................63 Locking Statements.....................................................................................................................................................64 Locking in a SOQL For Loop........................................................................................................................64 Avoiding Deadlocks.........................................................................................................................................64 Transaction Control.....................................................................................................................................................64 Exception Statements..................................................................................................................................................65 Throw Statements...........................................................................................................................................66 Try-Catch-Finally Statements.........................................................................................................................66

Chapter 3: Invoking Apex..........................................................................................................67


Triggers........................................................................................................................................................................68 Bulk Triggers...................................................................................................................................................69 Trigger Syntax..................................................................................................................................................69 Trigger Context Variables................................................................................................................................70 Context Variable Considerations.....................................................................................................................71 Common Bulk Trigger Idioms.........................................................................................................................72 Defining Triggers.............................................................................................................................................73 Triggers and Merge Statements.......................................................................................................................75 Triggers and Recovered Records......................................................................................................................76 Triggers and Order of Execution.....................................................................................................................76 Operations That Do Not Invoke Triggers.......................................................................................................78 Fields that Cannot Be Updated by Triggers....................................................................................................79 Trigger Exceptions...........................................................................................................................................79 Apex Scheduler............................................................................................................................................................80 Anonymous Blocks......................................................................................................................................................85 Apex in AJAX..............................................................................................................................................................86

Chapter 4: Classes, Objects, and Interfaces.................................................................................88


Understanding Classes.................................................................................................................................................89 Apex Defining Classes.....................................................................................................................................89 Extended Class Example.................................................................................................................................90 Declaring Class Variables.................................................................................................................................93 Defining Class Methods..................................................................................................................................94 Using Constructors..........................................................................................................................................95 Access Modifiers..............................................................................................................................................96 Static and Instance...........................................................................................................................................97 Apex Properties..............................................................................................................................................100 Interfaces and Extending Classes..............................................................................................................................103 Parameterized Typing and Interfaces.............................................................................................................104 Custom Iterators............................................................................................................................................106 Keywords...................................................................................................................................................................108 Using the final Keyword................................................................................................................................108 Using the instanceof Keyword.......................................................................................................................108 Using the super Keyword...............................................................................................................................108 Using the this Keyword.................................................................................................................................109

ii

Table of Contents Using the transient Keyword.........................................................................................................................110 Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords....................................................................................111 Annotations...............................................................................................................................................................113 Deprecated Annotation.................................................................................................................................113 Future Annotation.........................................................................................................................................114 IsTest Annotation..........................................................................................................................................115 ReadOnly Annotation...................................................................................................................................115 RemoteAction Annotation............................................................................................................................116 Classes and Casting...................................................................................................................................................117 Classes and Collections..................................................................................................................................118 Collection Casting.........................................................................................................................................118 Differences Between Apex Classes and Java Classes.................................................................................................119 Class Definition Creation..........................................................................................................................................120 Naming Conventions.....................................................................................................................................121 Name Shadowing...........................................................................................................................................121 Class Security............................................................................................................................................................122 Namespace Prefix......................................................................................................................................................122 Using Namespaces When Invoking Methods................................................................................................123 Namespace, Class, and Variable Name Precedence........................................................................................123 Type Resolution and System Namespace for Types.......................................................................................124 Version Settings.........................................................................................................................................................124 Setting the Salesforce API Version for Classes and Triggers.........................................................................124 Setting Package Versions for Apex Classes and Triggers...............................................................................125

Chapter 5: Apex Design Patterns..............................................................................................127


Triggers and Bulk Requests.......................................................................................................................................127

Chapter 6: Testing Apex...........................................................................................................129


Understanding Testing in Apex.................................................................................................................................130 Why Test Apex?.............................................................................................................................................130 What to Test in Apex....................................................................................................................................130 Unit Testing Apex......................................................................................................................................................131 Using the runAs Method...............................................................................................................................131 Using Limits, startTest, and stopTest............................................................................................................132 Adding SOSL Queries to Unit Tests.............................................................................................................133 Running Unit Test Methods......................................................................................................................................134 Testing Best Practices................................................................................................................................................136 Testing Example........................................................................................................................................................137

Chapter 7: Dynamic Apex........................................................................................................142


Understanding Apex Describe Information...............................................................................................................143 Dynamic SOQL........................................................................................................................................................151 Dynamic SOSL.........................................................................................................................................................152 Dynamic DML.........................................................................................................................................................152

Chapter 8: Batch Apex.............................................................................................................155

iii

Table of Contents Using Batch Apex......................................................................................................................................................156 Understanding Apex Managed Sharing....................................................................................................................163 Understanding Sharing..................................................................................................................................163 Sharing a Record Using Apex........................................................................................................................166 Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing...........................................................................................................170

Chapter 9: Debugging Apex.....................................................................................................176


Understanding the Debug Log..................................................................................................................................177 Using the System Log Console.....................................................................................................................179 Debugging Apex API Calls...........................................................................................................................187 Handling Uncaught Exceptions................................................................................................................................188 Understanding Execution Governors and Limits......................................................................................................188 Using Governor Limit Email Warnings....................................................................................................................191

Chapter 10: Developing Apex in Managed Packages..................................................................193


Package Versions........................................................................................................................................................194 Deprecating Apex......................................................................................................................................................194 Behavior in Package Versions....................................................................................................................................195 Versioning Apex Code Behavior....................................................................................................................195 Apex Code Items that Are Not Versioned.....................................................................................................196 Testing Behavior in Package Versions............................................................................................................196

Chapter 11: Exposing Apex Methods as Web Services...............................................................199


WebService Methods.................................................................................................................................................200 Exposing Data with WebService Methods....................................................................................................200 Considerations for Using the WebService Keyword......................................................................................200 Overloading Web Service Methods...............................................................................................................202

Chapter 12: Invoking Callouts Using Apex................................................................................203


Adding Remote Site Settings....................................................................................................................................204 SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document....................................................................................204 Invoking an External Service.........................................................................................................................205 HTTP Header Support.................................................................................................................................205 Supported WSDL Features...........................................................................................................................206 Understanding the Generated Code..............................................................................................................208 Considerations Using WSDLs......................................................................................................................211 Invoking HTTP Callouts..........................................................................................................................................211 Using Certificates......................................................................................................................................................212 Generating Certificates..................................................................................................................................212 Using Certificates with SOAP Services.........................................................................................................213 Using Certificates with HTTP Requests.......................................................................................................214 Callout Limits...........................................................................................................................................................214

Chapter 13: Reference..............................................................................................................216


Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations..........................................................................................217 ConvertLead Operation.................................................................................................................................218 Delete Operation...........................................................................................................................................221

iv

Table of Contents Insert Operation............................................................................................................................................223 Merge Statement...........................................................................................................................................225 Undelete Operation.......................................................................................................................................226 Update Operation..........................................................................................................................................228 Upsert Operation...........................................................................................................................................230 sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations........................................................................................234 sObjects That Cannot Be Used Together in DML Operations.....................................................................235 Bulk DML Exception Handling...................................................................................................................236 Apex Standard Classes and Methods........................................................................................................................236 Primitives Methods........................................................................................................................................237 Apex Collection Methods..............................................................................................................................257 Enum Methods..............................................................................................................................................268 sObject Methods...........................................................................................................................................269 System Methods............................................................................................................................................291 Using Exception Methods.............................................................................................................................324 Apex Classes..............................................................................................................................................................327 Apex Email Classes........................................................................................................................................327 Exception Class.............................................................................................................................................342 Visualforce Classes.........................................................................................................................................344 Pattern and Matcher Classes.........................................................................................................................368 HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes...............................................................................................................379 XML Classes.................................................................................................................................................390 Apex Approval Processing Classes.................................................................................................................403 BusinessHours Class......................................................................................................................................407 Apex Community Classes..............................................................................................................................409 Site Class.......................................................................................................................................................412 Cookie Class..................................................................................................................................................417 Apex Interfaces..........................................................................................................................................................419 Site.UrlRewriter Interface.............................................................................................................................419 Using the Process.Plugin Interface................................................................................................................426

Chapter 14: Deploying Apex Scripts.........................................................................................431


Using the Force.com IDE to Deploy Apex...............................................................................................................432 Using the Force.com Migration Tool.........................................................................................................................432 Understanding deploy....................................................................................................................................433 Understanding retrieveCode..........................................................................................................................435 Understanding runTests()..............................................................................................................................436 Force.com Migration Tool Additional Deployment Methods...................................................................................437

Appendices.............................................................................................................................438 Appendix A: Shipping Invoice Example...........................................................................438


Shipping Invoice Example Walk-Through....................................................................................................438 Shipping Invoice Example Code...................................................................................................................440

Table of Contents

Appendix B: Reserved Keywords.....................................................................................450 Appendix C: Security Tips for Apex and Visualforce Development....................................452
Cross Site Scripting (XSS).............................................................................................................................452 Unescaped Output and Formulas in Visualforce Pages..................................................................................454 Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF).............................................................................................................455 SOQL Injection.............................................................................................................................................456 Data Access Control......................................................................................................................................458

Appendix D: Web Services API Calls and SOAP Headers for Apex...................................460
compileAndTest()..........................................................................................................................................460 compileClasses()............................................................................................................................................464 compileTriggers()...........................................................................................................................................465 executeanonymous().......................................................................................................................................466 runTests().......................................................................................................................................................467 DebuggingHeader.........................................................................................................................................472 PackageVersionHeader..................................................................................................................................473

Glossary..................................................................................................................................476 Index....................................................................................................................................................493

vi

Chapter 1
Introducing Force.com Apex Code
In this chapter ... What is Apex? What's New? Apex Quick Start
Over the past several years, salesforce.com has changed the way organizations do business by moving enterprise applications that were traditionally client-server-based into an on-demand, multitenant Web environment. This environment, the Force.com platform, allows organizations to run and customize applications, such as Salesforce Automation and Service & Support, and build new custom applications based on particular business needs. While many customization options are available through the Salesforce user interface, such as the ability to define new fields, objects, workflow, and approval processes, developers can also use the Web services API to issue data manipulation commands such as delete(), update() or upsert(), from client-side programs. These client-side programs, typically written in Java, JavaScript, .NET, or other programming languages grant organizations more flexibility in their customizations. However, because the controlling logic for these client-side programs is not located on Force.com platform servers, they are restricted by: The performance costs of making multiple round-trips to the salesforce.com site to accomplish common business transactions The cost and complexity of hosting server code, such as Java or .NET, in a secure and robust environment

To address these issues, and to revolutionize the way that developers create on-demand applications, salesforce.com introduces Force.com Apex code, the first multitenant, on-demand programming language for developers interested in building the next generation of business applications. What is Apex?more about when to use Apex, the development process, and some limitations What's new in this Apex release? Apex Quick Startdelve straight into the code and write your first Apex script

For more advanced developers, see the Apex Design Patterns on page 127.

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What is Apex?

What is Apex?
Force.com Apex code is a strongly-typed, object-oriented programming language that allows developers to execute flow and transaction control statements on the Force.com platform server in conjunction with calls to the Force.com API. Using syntax that looks like Java and acts like database stored procedures, Apex code enables developers to add business logic to most system events, including button clicks, related record updates, and Visualforce pages. Apex scripts can be initiated by Web service requests and from triggers on objects.

Figure 1: You can add Apex to most system events. As a language, Apex is: Integrated Apex provides built-in support for common Force.com platform idioms, including: Data manipulation language (DML) calls, such as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, that include built-in DmlException handling Inline Salesforce Object Query Language (SOQL) and Salesforce Object Search Language (SOSL) queries that return lists of sObject records Looping that allows for bulk processing of multiple records at a time Locking syntax that prevents record update conflicts Custom public Force.com API calls that can be built from stored Apex methods Warnings and errors issued when a user tries to edit or delete a custom object or field that is referenced by Apex

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

How Does Apex Work?

Easy to use Apex is based on familiar Java idioms, such as variable and expression syntax, block and conditional statement syntax, loop syntax, object and array notation, pass by reference, and so on. Where Apex introduces new elements, it uses syntax and semantics that are easy to understand and encourage efficient use of the Force.com platform. Consequently, Apex produces code that is both succinct and easy to write. Data focused Apex is designed to thread together multiple query and DML statements into a single unit of work on the Force.com platform server, much as developers use database stored procedures to thread together multiple transaction statements on a database server. Note that like other database stored procedures, Apex does not attempt to provide general support for rendering elements in the user interface. Rigorous Apex is a strongly-typed language that uses direct references to schema objects such as object and field names. It fails quickly at compile time if any references are invalid, and stores all custom field, object, and class dependencies in metadata to ensure they are not deleted while required by active Apex scripts. Hosted Apex is interpreted, executed, and controlled entirely by the Force.com platform. Multitenant aware Like the rest of the Force.com platform, Apex runs in a multitenant environment. Consequently, the Apex runtime engine is designed to guard closely against runaway scripts, preventing them from monopolizing shared resources. Any scripts that violate these limits fail with easy-to-understand error messages. Automatically upgradeable Apex never needs to be rewritten when other parts of the Force.com platform are upgraded. Because the compiled code is stored as metadata in the platform, it always gets automatically upgraded with the rest of the system. Easy to test Apex provides built-in support for unit test creation and execution, including test results that indicate how much code is covered, and which parts of your code could be more efficient. Salesforce.com ensures that scripts always work as expected by executing all unit tests stored in metadata prior to any platform upgrades. Versioned You can save your Apex scripts against different versions of the Force.com API. This enables you to maintain behavior. Apex is included in Unlimited Edition, Developer Edition, and Enterprise Edition.

How Does Apex Work?


All Apex runs entirely on-demand on the Force.com platform, as shown in the following architecture diagram:

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What is the Apex Development Process?

Figure 2: Apex code is compiled, stored, and run entirely on the Force.com platform. When a developer writes and saves an Apex script to the platform, the platform application server first compiles the code into an abstract set of instructions that can be understood by the Apex runtime interpreter, and then saves those instructions as metadata. When an end-user triggers the execution of Apex, perhaps by clicking a button or accessing a Visualforce page, the platform application server retrieves the compiled instructions from the metadata and sends them through the runtime interpreter before returning the result. The end-user observes no differences in execution time from standard platform requests.

What is the Apex Development Process?


Before you begin developing Apex, you need to understand the development process that salesforce.com recommends: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Obtain a Developer Edition account. Learn more about Apex. Write your Apex. While writing Apex, you should also be writing tests. Optionally deploy your Apex to a sandbox organization and do final unit tests. Deploy your Apex to your Salesforce production organization.

In addition to deploying your Apex, once it is written and tested, you can also add your classes and triggers to a Force.com AppExchange App package. Obtaining a Developer Edition Account There are three types of organizations where you can run your Apex: A developer organization: an organization created with a Developer Edition account. A production organization: an organization that has live users accessing your data. A sandbox organization: an organization created on your production organization that is a copy of your production organization.

10

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What is the Apex Development Process?

Note: Apex triggers are available in the Trial Edition of Salesforce; however, they are disabled when you convert to any other edition. If your newly-signed-up organization includes Apex, you must deploy your code to your organization using one of the deployment methods. You cannot develop Apex in your Salesforce production organization. Live users accessing the system while you are developing can destabilize your data or corrupt your application. Instead, salesforce.com recommends that you do all your development work in either a sandbox or a Developer Edition organization. If you are not already a member of the developer community, go to http://developer.force.com/join and follow the instructions to sign up for a Developer Edition account. A Developer Edition account gives you access to a free Developer Edition organization. Even if you already have an Enterprise or Unlimited Edition organization and a sandbox for creating Apex, salesforce.com strongly recommends that you take advantage of the resources available in the developer community. Note: You cannot make changes to Apex using the Salesforce user interface in a Salesforce production organization.

Learning Apex After you have your developer account, there are many resources available to you for learning about Apex: Force.com Workbook: Get Started Building Your First App in the Cloud Beginning programmers A set of ten 30-minute tutorials that introduce various Force.com platform features. The Force.com Workbook tutorials are centered around building a very simple warehouse management system. You'll start developing the application from the bottom up; that is, you'll first build a database model for keeping track of merchandise. You'll continue by adding business logic: validation rules to ensure that there is enough stock, workflow to update inventory when something is sold, approvals to send email notifications for large invoice values, and trigger logic to update the prices in open invoices. Once the database and business logic are complete, you'll create a user interface to display a product inventory to staff, a public website to display a product catalog, and then the start of a simple store front. If you'd like to develop offline and integrate with the app, we've added a final tutorial to use Adobe Flash Builder for Force.com. Developer Force Wiki Beginning and advanced programmers Out on the Developer Force wiki, there are several entries about Apex: An Introduction to Apex Apex Code Best Practices Introduction to Apex Code Test Methods Governor Limits in Apex Code

Force.com Cookbook Beginning and advanced programmers This collaborative site provides many recipes for using the Web services API, developing Apex code, and creating Visualforce pages. The Force.com Cookbook helps developers become familiar with common Force.com programming techniques and best practices. You can read and comment on existing recipes, or submit your own recipes, at developer.force.com/cookbook. Development Life Cycle: Enterprise Development on the Force.com Platform Architects and advanced programmers Whether you are an architect, administrator, developer, or manager, the Development Life Cycle Guide prepares you to undertake the development and release of complex applications on the Force.com platform.

11

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What is the Apex Development Process?

Training Courses Training classes are also available from salesforce.com Training & Certification. You can find a complete list of courses at www.salesforce.com/training. In This Book (Apex Developer's Guide) Beginning programmers should look at the following: Introducing Force.com Apex Code, and in particular: Documentation Conventions Core Concepts Hello World Programming Example

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces Testing Apex Understanding Execution Governors and Limits

In addition to the above, advanced programmers should look at: Apex Design Patterns Advanced Apex Programming Example Understanding Apex Describe Information Asynchronous Execution (@future Annotation) Batch Apex and Apex Scheduler

Writing Apex You can write Apex scripts and tests in any of the following editing environments: The Force.com IDE is a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE. The Force.com IDE provides a unified interface for building and deploying Force.com applications. Designed for developers and development teams, the IDE provides tools to accelerate Force.com application development, including source code editors, test execution tools, wizards and integrated help. This tool includes basic color-coding, outline view, integrated unit testing, and auto-compilation on save with error message display. See the website for information about installation and usage. The Salesforce user interface. All scripts are compiled when they are saved, and any syntax errors are flagged. You cannot save your code until it compiles without errors. The Salesforce user interface also numbers the lines in a script, and uses color coding to distinguish different elements, such as comments, keywords, literal strings, and so on. For a trigger on a standard object, click Your Name Setup Customize, click the name of the object, and click Triggers. In the Triggers detail page, click New, and then enter your code in the Body text box. For a trigger on a custom object, click Your Name Setup Develop Objects, and click the name of the object. In the Triggers related list, click New, and then enter your code in the Body text box. For a class, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. Click New, and then enter your code in the Body text box. Note: You cannot make changes to Apex using the Salesforce user interface in a Salesforce production organization.

Any text editor, such as Notepad. You can write your Apex script, then either copy and paste it into your application, or use one of the API calls to deploy it. Tip: If you want to extend the Eclipse plug-in or develop an Apex IDE of your own, the Web services API includes methods for compiling triggers and classes, and executing test methods, while the Metadata API includes methods

12

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What is the Apex Development Process?

for deploying code to production environments. For more information, see Deploying Apex Scripts on page 431 and Web Services API Calls and SOAP Headers for Apex on page 460. Writing Tests Testing is the key to successful long term development, and is a critical component of the development process. salesforce.com strongly recommends that you use a test-driven development process, that is, test development that occurs at the same time as code development. To facilitate the development of robust, error-free code, Apex supports the creation and execution of unit tests. Unit tests are class methods that verify whether a particular piece of code is working properly. Unit test methods take no arguments, commit no data to the database, send no emails, and are flagged with the testMethod keyword in the method definition. In addition, before you deploy Apex or package it for the Force.com AppExchange, the following must be true: 75% of your Apex code must be covered by unit tests, and all of those tests must complete successfully. Note the following: When deploying to a production organization, every unit test in your organization namespace is executed. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests. While only 75% of your Apex code must be covered by tests, your focus shouldn't be on the percentage of code that is covered. Instead, you should make sure that every use case of your application is covered, including positive and negative cases, as well as bulk and single record. This should lead to 75% or more of your code being covered by unit tests.

Every trigger has some test coverage. All classes and triggers compile successfully.

For more information on writing tests, see Testing Apex on page 129. Deploying Apex to a Sandbox Organization Salesforce gives you the ability to create multiple copies of your organization in separate environments for a variety of purposes, such as testing and training, without compromising the data and applications in your Salesforce production organization. These copies are called sandboxes and are nearly identical to your Salesforce production organization. Sandboxes are completely isolated from your Salesforce production organization, so operations you perform in your sandboxes do not affect your Salesforce production organization, and vice-versa. To deploy Apex from a local project in the Force.com IDE to a Salesforce organization, use the Force.com Component Deployment Wizard. For more information about the Force.com IDE, see http://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Force.com_IDE. You can also use the deploy() Metadata API call to deploy your Apex from a developer organization to a sandbox organization. A useful API call is runTests(). In a development or sandbox organization, you can run the unit tests for a specific class, a list of classes, or a namespace. Salesforce includes a Force.com Migration Tool that allows you to issue these commands in a console window, or your can implement your own deployment code. For more information, see Using the Force.com Migration Tool on page 432 and Deploying Apex Scripts on page 431. Deploying Apex to a Salesforce Production Organization After you have finished all of your unit tests and verified that your Apex code is executing properly, the final step is deploying Apex to your Salesforce production organization. To deploy Apex from a local project in the Force.com IDE to a Salesforce organization, use the Force.com Component Deployment Wizard. For more information about the Force.com IDE, see http://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Force.com_IDE.

13

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

When Should I Use Apex?

You can also use the compileAndTest API call to deploy Apex to a Salesforce production organization. For more information, see Deploying Apex Scripts on page 431. Adding Apex Scripts to a Force.com AppExchange App You can also include an Apex script in an app that you are creating for AppExchange. Any Apex that is included as part of a package must have at least 75% cumulative test coverage. Each trigger must also have some test coverage. When you upload your package to AppExchange, all tests are run to ensure that they run without errors. In addition, all tests are run when the package is installed in the installer's organization. The installer can decide whether or not to install the package if any tests fail. In addition, salesforce.com recommends that any AppExchange package that contains Apex be a managed package. For more information, see the Force.com Quick Reference for Developing Packages. For more information about Apex in managed packages, see Developing Apex in Managed Packages on page 193. Note: Packaging Apex classes that contain references to custom labels which have translations: To include the translations in the package, enable the Translation Workbench and explicitly package the individual languages used in the translated custom labels. See Custom Labels Overview in the Salesforce online help.

When Should I Use Apex?


The Salesforce prebuilt applications provide powerful CRM functionality. In addition, Salesforce provides the ability to customize the prebuilt applications to fit your organization. However, your organization may have complex business processes that are unsupported by the existing functionality. When this is the case, the Force.com platform includes a number of ways for advanced administrators and developers to implement custom functionality. These include Apex, Visualforce, and the Web services API.

Apex
Use Apex if you want to: Create Web services Create email services Perform complex validation over multiple objects Create complex business processes that are not supported by workflow Create custom transactional logic (logic that occurs over the entire transaction, not just with a single record or object) Attach custom logic to another operation, such as saving a record, so that it occurs whenever the operation is executed, regardless of whether it originates in the user interface, a Visualforce page, or from the Web Services API

Visualforce
Visualforce consists of a tag-based markup language that gives developers a more powerful way of building applications and customizing the Salesforce user interface. With Visualforce you can: Build wizards and other multistep processes Create your own custom flow control through an application Define navigation patterns and data-specific rules for optimal, efficient application interaction

For more information, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide.

14

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

What are the Limitations of Apex?

Web Services API


Use standard Force.com Web Services API calls if you want to add functionality to a composite application that processes only one type of record at a time and does not require any transactional control (such as setting a Savepoint or rolling back changes). For more information, see the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

What are the Limitations of Apex?


Apex radically changes the way that developers create on-demand business applications, but it is not currently meant to be a general purpose programming language. As of this release, Apex cannot be used to: Render elements in the user interface other than error messages Change standard functionalityApex can only prevent the functionality from happening, or add additional functionality Create temporary files Spawn threads Tip: All Apex runs on the Force.com platform, which is a shared resource used by all other organizations. To guarantee consistent performance and scalability, the execution of Apex is bound by governor limits that ensure no single Apex execution impacts the overall service of Salesforce. This means all Apex code is limited by the number of operations (such as DML or SOQL) that it can perform within one process. All Apex requests return a collection that contains from 1 to 50,000 records. You cannot assume that your code only works on a single record at a time. Therefore, you must implement programming patterns that take bulk processing into account. If you do not, you may run into the governor limits.

See Also:
Understanding Execution Governors and Limits Apex Design Patterns

What's New?
Review the Spring '11 Release Notes for a summary of new and changed Apex features in the Spring '11 release.

Apex Quick Start


Once you have a Developer Edition organization and have chosen which tool you want to use to write your Apex scripts, you will want to learn some of the core concepts of Apex. Because Apex is very similar to Java, you may recognize much of the functionality. After reviewing the basics, you are ready to write your first Apex programa very simple Hello World script. After you write the script you can expand it, with unit tests. In addition, there is a more complex shipping invoice example that you can also walk through. This example illustrates many more features of the language.

15

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Documentation Typographical Conventions

Note: The Hello World script and the shipping invoice example require custom fields and objects. You can either create these on your own, or download the objects, fields and Apex scripts as a managed packaged from Force.com AppExchange. For more information, see wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Documentation.

Documentation Typographical Conventions


Apex and Visualforce documentation uses the following typographical conventions. Convention
Courier font

Description In descriptions of syntax, monospace font indicates items that you should type as shown, except for brackets. For example:
Public class HelloWorld

Italics

In description of syntax, italics represent variables. You supply the actual value. In the following example, three values need to be supplied: datatype variable_name [ = value]; If the syntax is bold and italic, the text represents a code element that needs a value supplied by you, such as a class name or variable value:
public static class YourClassHere { ... }

<>

In descriptions of syntax, less-than and greater-than symbols (< >) are typed exactly as shown.
<apex:pageBlockTable value="{!account.Contacts}" var="contact"> <apex:column value="{!contact.Name}"/> <apex:column value="{!contact.MailingCity}"/> <apex:column value="{!contact.Phone}"/> </apex:pageBlockTable>

{}

In descriptions of syntax, braces ({ }) are typed exactly as shown.


<apex:page> Hello {!$User.FirstName}! </apex:page>

[]

In descriptions of syntax, anything included in brackets is optional. In the following example, specifying value is optional:
datatype variable_name [ = value];

In descriptions of syntax, the pipe sign means or. You can do one of the following (not all). In the following example, you can create a new unpopulated set in one of two ways, or you can populate the set:
Set<datatype> set_name [= new Set<datatype>();] | [= new Set<datatype{value [, value2. . .] };] | ;

16

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Understanding Apex Core Concepts

Understanding Apex Core Concepts


A typical Apex script contains many things that you might be familiar with from other programming languages:

Figure 3: Programming elements in Apex The section describes the basic functionality of Apex, as well as some of the core concepts.

Using Version Settings


In the Salesforce user interface you can specify a version of the Salesforce API against which to save your Apex class or trigger. This setting indicates not only the version of the Force.com Web services API to use, but which version of Apex as well. You can change the version after saving. Every class or trigger name must be unique. You cannot save the same class or trigger against different versions. You can also use version settings to associate a class or trigger with a particular version of a managed package that is installed in your organization from AppExchange. This version of the managed package will continue to be used by the class or trigger if later versions of the managed package are installed, unless you manually update the version setting. To add an installed managed package to the settings list, select a package from the list of available packages. The list is only displayed if you have an installed managed package that is not already associated with the class or trigger.

For more information about using version settings with managed packages, see About Package Versions in the Salesforce online help.

17

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Understanding Apex Core Concepts

Naming Variables, Methods and Classes


You cannot use any of the Apex reserved keywords when naming variables, methods or classes. These include words that are part of Apex and the Force.com platform, such as list, test, or account, as well as reserved keywords.

Using Variables and Expressions


Apex is a strongly-typed language, that is, you must declare the data type of a variable when you first refer to it. Apex data types include basic types such as Integer, Date, and Boolean, as well as more advanced types such as lists, maps, objects and sObjects. Variables are declared with a name and a data type. You can assign a value to a variable when you declare it. You can also assign values later. Use the following syntax when declaring variables:
datatype variable_name [ = value];

Tip: Note that the semi-colon at the end of the above is not optional. You must end all statements with a semi-colon.

The following are examples of variable declarations:


// The following variable has the data type of Integer with the name Count, // and has the value of 0. Integer Count = 0; // The following variable has the data type of Decimal with the name Total. Note // that no value has been assigned to it. Decimal Total; // The following variable is an account, which is also referred to as an sObject. Account MyAcct = new Account();

Also note that all primitive variables are passed by value, while all non-primitive data types are passed by reference.

Using Statements
A statement is any coded instruction that performs an action. In Apex, statements must end with a semicolon and can be one of the following types: Assignment, such as assigning a value to a variable Conditional (if-else) Loops Do-while While For

Locking Data Manipulation Language (DML) Transaction Control Method Invoking Exception Handling

A block is a series of statements that are grouped together with curly braces and can be used in any place where a single statement would be allowed. For example:
if (true) { System.debug(1); System.debug(2);

18

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Understanding Apex Core Concepts

} else { System.debug(3); System.debug(4); }

In cases where a block consists of only one statement, the curly braces can be left off. For example:
if (true) System.debug(1); else System.debug(2);

Using Collections
Apex has the following types of collections: Lists (arrays) Maps Sets

A list is a collection of elements, such as Integers, Strings, objects, or other collections. Use a list when the sequence of elements is important. You can have duplicate elements in a list. The first index position in a list is always 0. To create a list: Use the new keyword Use the List keyword followed by the element type contained within <> characters.

Use the following syntax for creating a list:


List <datatype> list_name [= new List<datatype>();] | [=new List<datatype>{value [, value2. . .]};] | ;

The following example creates a list of Integer, and assigns it to the variable My_List. Remember, because Apex is strongly typed, you must declare the data type of My_List as a list of Integer.
List<Integer> My_List = new List<Integer>();

For more information, see Lists on page 34. A set is a collection of unique, unordered elements. It can contain primitive data types, such as String, Integer, Date, and so on. It can also contain more complex data types, such as sObjects. To create a set: Use the new keyword Use the Set keyword followed by the primitive data type contained within <> characters

Use the following syntax for creating a set:


Set<datatype> set_name [= new Set<datatype>();] | [= new Set<datatype{value [, value2. . .] };] | ;

19

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Understanding Apex Core Concepts

The following example creates a set of String. The values for the set are passed in using the curly braces {}.
Set<String> My_String = new Set<String>{'a', 'b', 'c'};

For more information, see Sets on page 36. A map is a collection of key-value pairs. Keys can be any primitive data type. Values can include primitive data types, as well as objects and other collections. Use a map when finding something by key matters. You can have duplicate values in a map, but each key must be unique. To create a map: Use the new keyword Use the Map keyword followed by a key-value pair, delimited by a comma and enclosed in <> characters.

Use the following syntax for creating a map:


Map<key_datatype, value_datatype> map_name [=new map<key_datatype, value_datatype>();] | [=new map<key_datatype, value_datatype> {key1_value => value1_value [, key2_value => value2_value. . .]};] | ;

The following example creates a map that has a data type of Integer for the key and String for the value. In this example, the values for the map are being passed in between the curly braces {} as the map is being created.
Map<Integer, String> My_Map = new Map<Integer, String>{1 => 'a', 2 => 'b', 3 => 'c'};

For more information, see Maps on page 37.

Using Branching
An if statement is a true-false test that enables your application to do different things based on a condition. The basic syntax is as follows:
if (Condition){ // Do this if the condition is true } else { // Do this if the condition is not true }

For more information, see Conditional (If-Else) Statements on page 52.

Using Loops
While the if statement enables your application to do things based on a condition, loops tell your application to do the same thing again and again based on a condition. Apex supports the following types of loops: Do-while While For

A Do-while loop checks the condition after the code has executed. A While loop checks the condition at the start, before the code executes. A For loop enables you to more finely control the condition used with the loop. In addition Apex supports traditional For loops where you set the conditions, as well as For loops that use lists and SOQL queries as part of the condition.

20

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

For more information, see Loops on page 52.

Writing Your First Apex Script


The following Hello World example illustrates many of the basic concepts of Apex. In this example, a custom Account field named Hello is updated with the text, World as its value whenever a new account is created. Note: This example assumes that you have familiarity with the Salesforce application, and that you have already defined a custom text field on the standard Account object named Hello. For more information see Creating Custom Fields in the Salesforce online help. This image shows the empty Hello field on an Account detail page after an account is created:

Figure 4: The Hello field with no value To automatically update this field with the value World, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, click New, and then enter the following code in the Body text box.
// This class updates the Hello field on account records that are // passed to it. public class MyHelloWorld { public static void addHelloWorld(Account[] accs){ for (Account a:accs){ if (a.Hello__c != 'World') { a.Hello__c = 'World'; } } } }

Be sure to click Save when you have finished. Note the first line of code:
public class MyHelloWorld {

Apex scripts are generally contained in classes. This class is defined as public, which means the class is available to other Apex scripts. For more information, see Classes, Objects, and Interfaces on page 88.

21

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

The second line of code is the start of a method definition:


public static void addHelloWorld(Account[] accs){

This method is called addHelloWorld, and is both public and static. Because it is a static method, you do not need to create an instance of the class in order to access the methodyou can just use the name of the class followed by a dot (.) and the name of the method. For more information, see Static and Instance on page 97. This method takes one parameter, a list of Account records, which is assigned to the variable accs. The next section of code contains the rest of the method definition:
for (Account a:accs){ if (a.Hello__c != 'World') { a.Hello__c = 'World'; } }

Notice the __c after the field nameHello__c. This indicates that it is a custom field, that is, a field you created. Standard fields that are provided by default in Salesforce are accessed using the same type of dot notation but without the __c, for example, Account.name. To run this piece of code, this example uses an Apex component called a trigger. A trigger is a piece of code that executes before or after records of a particular type are inserted, updated, or deleted from the Force.com platform database. Every trigger runs with a set of context variables that provide access to the records that caused the trigger to fire. All triggers run in bulk, that is, they process several records at once. The following trigger is associated with the Account object and calls the addHelloWorld method we defined in the HelloWorld class. To add this trigger to your organization, click Your Name Setup Customize Accounts Triggers, click New, and then type in the following code, replacing what is automatically generated by the template:
trigger helloWorldAccountTrigger on Account (before insert) { Account[] accs = Trigger.new; MyHelloWorld.addHelloWorld(accs); }

The first line of code defines the trigger:


trigger helloWorldAccountTrigger on Account (before insert) {

It gives the trigger a name, specifies the object on which it operates, and defines the events that cause it to fire. For example, this trigger runs before new account records are inserted into the database. The next line in the trigger creates a list of account records named accs and assigns it the contents of a trigger context variable called Trigger.new. Trigger context variables such as Trigger.new are implicitly defined in all triggers, and provide access to the records that caused the trigger to fire. In this case, Trigger.new contains all the new accounts that are about to be inserted.
Account[] accs = Trigger.new;

The next line in the code calls the method addHelloWorld in the MyHelloWorld class. It passes in the array of new accounts.
MyHelloWorld.addHelloWorld(accs);

22

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

Because this code runs on the before insert trigger event, you need to create a new record to run your code. To do so, click the Accounts tab, and then click New to create a new account. The only required field is the name. After you click Save, the Hello field is now populated with the value, World.

Figure 5: The Hello Field is Populated After the Code Runs Adding Tests to the Hello World Program Testing and unit tests are an important part of the development process. You must have at least 75% of your Apex covered by unit tests to deploy your code to production environments. In addition, all triggers must have some test coverage. Salesforce recommends that you have 100% of your code covered by unit tests, where possible. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests.

The following example uses the same class and trigger that you used in the previous example. To add testing to your program, you need to create a new class. To create a class, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, then click New. In the Body text box of the class, add the following:
@isTest private class HelloWorldTestClass { static testMethod void validateHelloWorld() { Account a = new Account(name='T1 Account'); // Insert account insert a; // Retrieve account a = [SELECT hello__c FROM account WHERE Id =:a.id]; // Test that HelloWorld program correctly added the value // "World" to the Hello field System.assertEquals('World', a.hello__c); } }

Be sure to click Save when you have finished. This class is defined using the annotation @isTest. Classes defined as such can only contain test methods. One advantage to creating a separate class for testing as opposed to adding test methods to an existing class is that classes defined with isTest do not count against your organization limit of 2 MB for all Apex scripts. You can also add the @isTest annotation to individual methods. For more information, see IsTest Annotation on page 115 and Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188.

23

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

The method validateHelloWorld is defined as a testMethod. This means that if any changes are made to the database, they are automatically rolled back when execution is complete. First the test method creates a new account and inserts it into the database temporarily.
Account a = new Account(name='T1 Account'); // Insert account insert a;

Once the account is inserted, the code retrieves the account, using the ID that was initially assigned to the account when it was inserted:
// Retrieve account a = [SELECT hello__c FROM account WHERE Id =:a.id];

When the HelloWorld class runs, it is supposed to insert the word World into the hello__c field. The following line is the actual test, verifying that the method addHelloWorld actually ran, and produced the expected results:
// Test that HelloWorld program correctly added the value // "World" to the Hello field System.assertEquals('World', a.hello__c);

To run this unit test, use the Salesforce user interface. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, click the name of the class, HelloWorldTestClass, then click Run Test. Note: Clicking Run Test is only available if you do not have access to the Apex Test Execution page.

After you use the Salesforce user interface to generate test results, the test result page contains the following sections. Each section can be expanded or collapsed. A summary section that details the number of tests run, the number of failures, and the percentage of Apex code that is covered by unit tests. Important: You must have at least 75% of your Apex covered by unit tests to deploy your code to production environments. In addition, all triggers should have some test coverage. Salesforce recommends that you have 100% of your code covered by unit tests, where possible. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests.

Test failures, if any. A code coverage section. This section lists all the classes and triggers in your organization, and the percentage of lines of code in each class and trigger that are covered by tests. If you click the coverage percent number, a page displays, highlighting all the lines of code for that class or trigger that are covered by tests in blue, as well as highlighting all the lines of code that are not covered by tests in red. It also lists how many times a particular line in the class or trigger was executed by the test

Test coverage warnings, if any. Debug log. The debug log is automatically set to specific log levels and categories, which can't be changed. Category Database Level INFO

24

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

Category Apex Code Apex Profiling Workflow Validation

Level FINE INFO INFO INFO

The following is an example of the top half of the result page:

Figure 6: HelloWorldTest Result Page Note: Apex Test Execution and Apex Test Results are part of a pilot program. To enable these tools for your organization, contact salesforce.com. If you have access to the Apex Test Execution page: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Test Execution. Click Run Tests. . .. Select the class HelloWorldTestClass, then click Run. Click Refresh to see the results of the test run. The page doesn't refresh automatically.

After the test finishes running, go back to the list of classes. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. Now you can: Click Calculate your organization's code coverage to see the amount of code in your organization that is covered by unit tests. In the Code Coverage column, click the 100% to see the lines of code covered by unit tests.

If you look at the list of triggers (click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Triggers) you'll see that the trigger you wrote also has 100% of its code covered.

25

Introducing Force.com Apex Code

Writing Your First Apex Script

You can also see all the tests run for your entire organization for the last 30 days. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Test Results.

26

Chapter 2
Language Constructs
In this chapter ... Data Types Variables Expressions Assignment Statements Conditional (If-Else) Statements Loops SOQL and SOSL Queries Locking Statements Transaction Control Exception Statements
The following language constructs form the base parts of Apex: Data Types Variables Expressions Assignment Statements Conditional (If-Else) Statements Loops SOQL and SOSL Queries Locking Statements Transaction Control Exception Statements

Apexis contained in either a trigger or a class. For more information, see Triggers on page 68 and Classes, Objects, and Interfaces on page 88.

27

Language Constructs

Data Types

Data Types
In Apex, all variables and expressions have a data type that is one of the following: A primitive, such as an Integer, Double, Long, Date, Datetime, String, ID, or Boolean (see Primitive Data Types on page 28) An sObject, either as a generic sObject or as a specific sObject, such as an Account, Contact, or MyCustomObject__c (see sObject Types on page 31) A collection, including: A list (or array) of primitives, sObjects, user defined objects, objects created from Apex classes, or collections (see Lists on page 34) A set of primitives (see Sets on page 36) A map from a primitive to a primitive, sObject, or collection (see Maps on page 37)

A typed list of values, also known as an enum (see Enums on page 39) Objects created from user-defined Apex classes (see Classes, Objects, and Interfaces on page 88) Objects created from system supplied Apex classes (see Apex Classes on page 327) Null (for the null constant, which can be assigned to any variable)

Methods can return values of any of the listed types, or return no value and be of type Void. Type checking is strictly enforced at compile time. For example, the parser generates an error if an object field of type Integer is assigned a value of type String. However, all compile-time exceptions are returned as specific fault codes, with the line number and column of the error. For more information, see Debugging Apex on page 176.

Primitive Data Types


Apex uses the same primitive data types as the Web services API. All primitive data types are passed by value, not by reference. Apex primitive data types include: Data Type Blob Description A collection of binary data stored as a single object. You can convert this datatype to String or from String using the toString and valueOf methods, respectively. Blobs can be accepted as Web service arguments, stored in a document (the body of a document is a Blob), or sent as attachments. See Crypto Class on page 383 for more information. A value that can only be assigned true, false, or null. For example:
Boolean isWinner = true;

Boolean

Date

A value that indicates a particular day. Unlike Datetime values, Date values contain no information about time. Date values must always be created with a system static method. You cannot manipulate a Date value, such as add days, merely by adding a number to a Date variable. You must use the Date methods instead.

Datetime

A value that indicates a particular day and time, such as a timestamp. Datetime values must always be created with a system static method. You cannot manipulate a Datetime value, such as add minutes, merely by adding a number to a Datetime variable. You must use the Datetime methods instead.

28

Language Constructs

Primitive Data Types

Data Type Decimal

Description A number that includes a decimal point. Decimal is an arbitrary precision number. Currency fields are automatically assigned the type Decimal. If you do not explicitly set the scale, that is, the number of decimal places, for a Decimal using the setScale method, the scale is determined by the item from which the Decimal is created. If the Decimal is created as part of a query, the scale is based on the scale of the field returned from the query. If the Decimal is created from a String, the scale is the number of characters after the decimal point of the String. If the Decimal is created from a non-decimal number, the scale is determined by converting the number to a String and then using the number of characters after the decimal point.

Double

A 64-bit number that includes a decimal point. Doubles have a minimum value of -263 and a maximum value of 263-1. For example:
Double d=3.14159;

Note that scientific notation (e) for Doubles is not supported. ID Any valid 18-character Force.com record identifier. For example:
ID id='00300000003T2PGAA0';

Note that if you set ID to a 15-character value, Apex automatically converts the value to its 18-character representation. All invalid ID values are rejected with a runtime exception. Integer A 32-bit number that does not include a decimal point. Integers have a minimum value of -2,147,483,648 and a maximum value of 2,147,483,647. For example:
Integer i = 1;

Long

A 64-bit number that does not include a decimal point. Longs have a minimum value of -263 and a maximum value of 263-1. Use this datatype when you need a range of values wider than those provided by Integer. For example:
Long l = 2147483648L;

String

Any set of characters surrounded by single quotes. For example,


String s = 'The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.';

String size: Strings have no limit on the number of characters they can include. Instead, the heap size limit is used to ensure that your Apex programs don't grow too large. Empty Strings and Trailing Whitespace: sObject String field values follow the same rules as in the Web services API: they can never be empty (only null), and they can never include leading and trailing whitespace. These conventions are necessary for database storage. Conversely, Strings in Apex can be null or empty, and can include leading and trailing whitespace (such as might be used to construct a message).

29

Language Constructs

Primitive Data Types

Data Type

Description The Solution sObject field SolutionNote operates as a special type of String. If you have HTML Solutions enabled, any HTML tags used in this field are verified before the object is created or updated. If invalid HTML is entered, an error is thrown. Any JavaScript used in this field is removed before the object is created or updated. In the following example, when the Solution displays on a detail page, the SolutionNote field has H1 HTML formatting applied to it:
trigger t on Solution (before insert) { Trigger.new[0].SolutionNote ='<h1>hello</h1>'; }

In the following example, when the Solution displays on a detail page, the SolutionNote field only contains HelloGoodbye:
trigger t2 on Solution (before insert) { Trigger.new[0].SolutionNote = '<javascript>Hello</javascript>Goodbye'; }

For more information, see What are HTML Solutions? in the Salesforce online help. Escape Sequences: All Strings in Apex use the same escape sequences as SOQL strings: \b (backspace), \t (tab), \n (line feed), \f (form feed), \r (carriage return), \" (double quote), \' (single quote), and \\ (backslash). Comparison Operators: Unlike Java, Apex Strings support use of the comparison operators ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. Since Apex uses SOQL comparison semantics, results for Strings are collated according to the context user's locale, and `are not case sensitive. For more information, see Operators on page 44. String Methods: As in Java, Strings can be manipulated with a number of standard methods. See String Methods for information. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field. Time A value that indicates a particular time. Time values must always be created with a system static method. See Time Methods on page 256 for information.

In addition, two non-standard primitive data types cannot be used as variable or method types, but do appear in system static methods: AnyType. The valueOf static method converts an sObject field of type AnyType to a standard primitive. AnyType is used within the Force.com platform database exclusively for sObject fields in field history tracking tables. Currency. The Currency.newInstance static method creates a literal of type Currency. This method is for use solely within SOQL and SOSL WHERE clauses to filter against sObject currency fields. You cannot instantiate Currency in any other type of Apex.

For more information on the AnyType data type, see


www.salesforce.com/us/developer/docs/api/index_CSH.htm#field_types.htm in the Web Services API

Developer's Guide.

30

Language Constructs

sObject Types

sObject Types
In this developer's guide, the term sObject refers to any object that can be stored in the Force.com platform database. An sObject variable represents a row of data and can only be declared in Apex using the Web services API name of the object. For example:
Account a = new Account(); MyCustomObject__c co = new MyCustomObject__c();

Similar to the Web services API, Apex allows the use of the generic sObject abstract type to represent any object. The sObject data type can be used in code that processes different types of sObjects. sObjects are always passed by reference in Apex. The new operator still requires a concrete sObject type, so all instances are specific sObjects. For example:
sObject s = new Account();

You can also use casting between the generic sObject type and the specific sObject type. For example:
// Cast the generic variable s from the example above // into a specific account and account variable a Account a = (Account)s; // The following generates a runtime error Contact c = (Contact)s;

Because sObjects work like objects, you can also have the following:
Object obj = s; // and a = (Account)obj;

DML operations work on variables declared as the generic sObject data type as well as with regular sObjects. sObject variables are initialized to null, but can be assigned a valid object reference with the new operator. For example:
Account a = new Account();

Developers can also specify initial field values with comma-separated name = value pairs when instantiating a new sObject. For example:
Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme', billingcity = 'San Francisco');

For information on accessing existing sObjects from the Force.com platform database, see SOQL and SOSL Queries on page 57. Note: The ID of an sObject is a read-only value and can never be modified explicitly in Apex unless it is cleared during a clone operation, or is assigned with a constructor. The Force.com platform assigns ID values automatically when an object record is initially inserted to the database for the first time. For more information see Lists on page 34.

Custom Labels
Custom labels are not standard sObjects. You cannot create a new instance of a custom label. You can only access the value of a custom label using system.label.label_name. For example:
String errorMsg = System.Label.generic_error;

31

Language Constructs

sObject Types

For more information on custom labels, see Custom Labels Overview in the Salesforce online help. Accessing sObject Fields As in Java, sObject fields can be accessed or changed with simple dot notation. For example:
Account a = new Account(); a.name = 'Acme'; // Access the account name field and assign it 'Acme'

System generated fields, such as Created By or Last Modified Date, cannot be modified. If you try, the Apex runtime engine generates an error. Additionally, formula field values and values for other fields that are read-only for the context user cannot be changed. If you use the generic sObject type, instead of a specific object such as Account, you can only retrieve the ID field. For example:
Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme', billingcity = 'San Francisco'); Insert a; sObject s = [select id, name from account where name = 'Acme' limit 1]; // This is allowed ID id = s.ID; // The following lines result in errors when you try to save String x = s.name; s.ID = [select id from Account where name = 'Acme' limit 1];

Note: If your organization has enabled person accounts, you have two different kinds of accounts: business accounts and person accounts. If your script creates a new account using name, a business account is created. If the script uses LastName, a person account is created. If you want to perform operations on an sObject, it is recommended that you first convert it into a specific object. For example:
Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme', billingcity = 'San Francisco'); Insert a; sObject s = [select id, name from account where name = 'Acme' limit 1]; ID id = s.ID; Account convertedAccount = (Account)s; convertedAccount.name = 'Acme2'; Update convertedAccount; Contact sal = new Contact(firstname = 'Sal', account = convertedAccount);

The following example shows how you can use SOSL over a set of records to determine their object types. Once you have converted the generic sObject record into a Contact, Lead, or Account, you can modify its fields accordingly:
public class convertToCLA { List<Contact> contacts; List<Lead> leads; List<Account> accounts; public void convertType(Integer phoneNumber) { List<List<sObject>> results = [find {4155557000} in phone fields returning contact(id, phone, firstname, lastname), lead(id, phone, firstname, lastname), account(id, phone, name)]; sObject[] records = ((List<sObject>)results[0]); if (!records.isEmpty()) { for (Integer i = 0; i < records.size(); i++) { sObject record = records[i]; if (record.getSObjectType() == Contact.sObjectType) { contacts.add((Contact) record); } else if (record.getSObjectType() == Lead.sObjectType){ leads.add((Lead) record);

32

Language Constructs

sObject Types

} else if (record.getSObjectType() == Account.sObjectType) { accounts.add((Account) record); } } } } }

Accessing sObject Fields Through Relationships sObject records represent relationships to other records with two fields: an ID and an address that points to a representation of the associated sObject. For example, the Contact sObject has both an AccountId field of type ID, and an Account field of type Account that points to the associated sObject record itself. The ID field can be used to change the account with which the contact is associated, while the sObject reference field can be used to access data from the account. The reference field is only populated as the result of a SOQL or SOSL query (see note below). For example, the following Apex script shows how an account and a contact can be associated with one another, and then how the contact can be used to modify a field on the account: Note: In order to provide the most complete example, this code uses some elements that are described later in this guide: For information on insert and update, see Insert Operation on page 223 and Update Operation on page 223. For information on SOQL and SOSL, see SOQL and SOSL Queries on page 57.

Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme'); insert a; // Inserting the record automatically assigns a // value to its ID field Contact c = new Contact(lastName = 'Weissman'); c.accountId = a.Id; // The new contact now points at the new account insert c; // A SOQL query accesses data for the inserted contact, // including a populated c.account field c = [select account.name from contact where id = :c.id]; // Now fields in both records can be changed through the contact c.account.name = 'salesforce.com'; c.lastName = 'Roth'; // To update the database, the two types of records must be // updated separately update c; // This only changes the contact's last name update c.account; // This updates the account name

Note: The expression c.account.name, as well as any other expression that traverses a relationship, displays slightly different characteristics when it is read as a value than when it is modified: When being read as a value, if c.account is null, then c.account.name evaluates to null, but does not yield a NullPointerException. This design allows developers to navigate multiple relationships without the tedium of having to check for null values. When being modified, if c.account is null, then c.account.name does yield a NullPointerException.

33

Language Constructs

Collections

In addition, the sObject field key can be used with insert, update, or upsert to resolve foreign keys by external ID. For example:
Account refAcct = new Account(externalId__c = '12345'); Contact c = new Contact(account = refAcct, lastName = 'Kay'); insert c;

This inserts a new contact with the AccountId equal to the account with the external_id equal to 12345. If there is no such account, the insert fails. Tip: The following code is equivalent to the code above. However, because it uses a SOQL query, it is not as efficient. If this code was called multiple times, it could reach the execution limit for the maximum number of SOQL queries. For more information on execution limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188.
Account refAcct = [select id from Account where externalId__c='12345']; Contact c = new Contact(account = refAcct.id); Insert c;

Validating sObjects and Fields When an Apex script is parsed and validated, all sObject and field references are validated against actual object and field names, and a parse-time exception is thrown when an invalid name is used. In addition, the Apex parser tracks the custom objects and fields that are used, both in the script's syntax as well as in embedded SOQL and SOSL statements. The platform prevents users from making the following types of modifications when those changes cause an Apex script to become invalid: Changing a field or object name Converting from one data type to another Deleting a field or object Making certain organization-wide changes, such as record sharing, field history tracking, or record types

Collections
Apex has the following types of collections: Lists Maps Sets Note: There is no limit on the number of items a collection can hold. However, there is a general limit on heap size.

Lists A list is an ordered collection of typed primitives, sObjects, user-defined objects, Apex objects or collections that are distinguished by their indices. For example, the following table is a visual representation of a list of Strings:

34

Language Constructs

Collections

Index 0 'Red'

Index 1 'Orange'

Index 2 'Yellow'

Index 3 'Green'

Index 4 'Blue'

Index 5 'Purple'

The index position of the first element in a list is always 0. Because lists can contain any collection, they can be nested within one another and become multidimensional. For example, you can have a list of lists of sets of Integers. A list can only contain up to five levels of nested collections inside it. To declare a list, use the List keyword followed by the primitive data, sObject, nested list, map, or set type within <> characters. For example:
// Create an empty list of String List<String> my_list = new List<String>(); // Create a nested list List<List<Set<Integer>>> my_list_2 = new List<List<Set<Integer>>>(); // Create a list of account records from a SOQL query List<Account> accs = [SELECT Id, Name FROM Account LIMIT 1000];

To access elements in a list, use the system methods provided by Apex. For example:
List<Integer> MyList = new List<Integer>(); // Define a new list MyList.add(47); // Adds a second element of value 47 to the end // of the list MyList.get(0); // Retrieves the element at index 0 MyList.set(0, 1); // Adds the integer 1 to the list at index 0 MyList.clear(); // Removes all elements from the list

For more information, including a complete list of all supported methods, see List Methods on page 257. Using Array Notation for One-Dimensional Lists of Primitives or sObjects When using one-dimensional lists of primitives or sObjects, you can also use more traditional array notation to declare and reference list elements. For example, you can declare a one-dimensional list of primitives or sObjects by following the data or sObject type name with the [] characters:
String[] colors = new List<String>();

To reference an element of a one-dimensional list of primitives or sObjects, you can also follow the name of the list with the element's index position in square brackets. For example:
colors[3] = 'Green';

35

Language Constructs

Collections

All lists are initialized to null. Lists can be assigned values and allocated memory using literal notation. For example: Example
List<Integer> ints = new Integer[0];

Description Defines an Integer list with no elements Defines an Account list with no elements Defines an Integer list with memory allocated for six Integers Defines an Account list with memory allocated for three Accounts, including a new Account object in the first position, null in the second position, and another new Account object in the third position Defines the Contact list with a new list

List<Account> accts = new Account[]{};

List<Integer> ints = new Integer[6];

List<Account> accts = new Account[] {new Account(), null, new Account()};

List<Contact> contacts = new List<Contact> (otherList);

Lists of sObjects Apex automatically generates IDs for each object in a list of sObjects when the list is successfully inserted or upserted into the database with a data manipulation language (DML) statement. Consequently, a list of sObjects cannot be inserted or upserted if it contains the same sObject more than once, even if it has a null ID. This situation would imply that two IDs would need to be written to the same structure in memory, which is illegal. For example, the insert statement in the following block of code generates a ListException because it tries to insert a list with two references to the same sObject (a):
try { // Create a list with two references to the same sObject element Account a = new Account(); Account[] accs = new Account[]{a, a}; // Attempt to insert it... insert accs; // Will not get here System.assert(false); } catch (ListException e) { // But will get here }

For more information on DML statements, see Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations on page 217. You can use the generic sObject data type with lists. You can also create a generic instance of a list. Sets A set is an unordered collection of primitives or sObjects that do not contain any duplicate elements. For example, the following table represents a set of String, that uses city names: 'San Francisco' 'New York' 'Paris' 'Tokyo'

36

Language Constructs

Collections

To declare a set, use the Set keyword followed by the primitive data type name within <> characters. For example:
new Set<String>()

The following are ways to declare and populate a set:


Set<String> s1 = new Set<String>{'a', 'b + c'}; // Defines a new set with two elements Set<String> s2 = new Set<String>(s1); // Defines a new set that contains the // elements of the set created in the previous step

To access elements in a set, use the system methods provided by Apex. For example:
Set<Integer> s = new Set<Integer>(); s.add(1); System.assert(s.contains(1)); s.remove(1); // // // // Define Add an Assert Remove a new set element to the set that the set contains an element the element from the set

Uniqueness of sObjects is determined by comparing fields. For example, if you try to add two accounts with the same name to a set, only one is added.
// Create two accounts, a1 and a2 Account a1 = new account(name='MyAccount'); Account a2 = new account(name='MyAccount'); // Add both accounts to the new set Set<Account> accountSet = new Set<Account>{a1, a2}; // Verify that the set only contains one item System.assertEquals(accountSet.size(), 1);

However, if you add a description to one of the accounts, it is considered unique:


// Create two accounts, a1 and a2, and add a description to a2 Account a1 = new account(name='MyAccount'); Account a2 = new account(name='MyAccount', description='My test account'); // Add both accounts to the new set Set<Account> accountSet = new Set<Account>{a1, a2}; // Verify that the set contains two items System.assertEquals(accountSet.size(), 2);

For more information, including a complete list of all supported set system methods, see Set Methods on page 265. Note the following limitations on sets: Unlike Java, Apex developers do not need to reference the algorithm that is used to implement a set in their declarations (for example, HashSet or TreeSet). Apex uses a hash structure for all sets. A set is an unordered collection. Do not rely on the order in which set results are returned. The order of objects returned by sets may change without warning.

Maps A map is a collection of key-value pairs where each unique key maps to a single value. Keys can be any primitive data type, while values can be a primitive, sObject, collection type or an Apex object. For example, the following table represents a map of countries and currencies: Country (Key) 'United States' 'Japan' 'France' 'England' 'India'

37

Language Constructs

Collections

Currency (Value)

'Dollar'

'Yen'

'Euro'

'Pound'

'Rupee'

Similar to lists, map values can contain any collection, and can be nested within one another. For example, you can have a map of Integers to maps, which, in turn, map Strings to lists. A map can only contain up to five levels of nested collections inside it. To declare a map, use the Map keyword followed by the data types of the key and the value within <> characters. For example:
Map<String, String> country_currencies = new Map<String, String>(); Map<ID, Set<String>> m = new Map<ID, Set<String>>(); Map<ID, Map<ID, Account[]>> m2 = new Map<ID, Map<ID, Account[]>>();

You can use the generic sObject data type with maps. You can also create a generic instance of a map. As with lists, you can populate map key-value pairs when the map is declared by using curly brace ({}) syntax. Within the curly braces, specify the key first, then specify the value for that key using =>. For example:
Map<String, String> MyStrings = new Map<String, String>{'a' => 'b', 'c' => 'd'.toUpperCase()}; Account[] accs = new Account[5]; // Account[] is synonmous with List<Account> Map<Integer, List<Account>> m4 = new Map<Integer, List<Account>>{1 => accs};

In the first example, the value for the key a is b, and the value for the key c is d. In the second, the key 1 has the value of the list accs. To access elements in a map, use the system methods provided by Apex. For example:
Account myAcct = new Account(); //Define a new account Map<Integer, Account> m = new Map<Integer, Account>(); // Define a new map m.put(1, myAcct); // Insert a new key-value pair in the map System.assert(!m.containsKey(3)); // Assert that the map contains a key Account a = m.get(1); // Retrieve a value, given a particular key Set<Integer> s = m.keySet(); // Return a set that contains all of the keys in the map

For more information, including a complete list of all supported map system methods, see Map Methods on page 262. Note the following limitations on maps: Unlike Java, Apex developers do not need to reference the algorithm that is used to implement a map in their declarations (for example, HashMap or TreeMap). Apex uses a hash structure for all maps. Do not rely on the order in which map results are returned. The order of objects returned by maps may change without warning. Always access map elements by key.

Maps from SObject Arrays Maps from an ID or String data type to an sObject can be initialized from a list of sObjects. The IDs of the objects (which must be non-null and distinct) are used as the keys. One common usage of this map type is for in-memory joins between two tables. For instance, this example loads a map of IDs and Contacts:
Map<ID, Contact> m = new Map<ID, Contact>([select id, lastname from contact]);

In the example, the SOQL query returns a list of contacts with their id and lastname fields. The new operator uses the list to create a map. For more information, see SOQL and SOSL Queries on page 57.

38

Language Constructs

Enums

Iterating Collections Collections can consist of lists, sets, or maps. Modifying a collection's elements while iterating through that collection is not supported and causes an error. Do not directly add or remove elements while iterating through the collection that includes them. Adding Elements During Iteration To add elements while iterating a list, set or map, keep the new elements in a temporary list, set, or map and add them to the original after you finish iterating the collection. Removing Elements During Iteration To remove elements while iterating a list, create a new list, then copy the elements you wish to keep. Alternatively, add the elements you wish to remove to a temporary list and remove them after you finish iterating the collection. Note: The List.remove method performs linearly. Using it to remove elements has time and resource implications. To remove elements while iterating a map or set, keep the keys you wish to remove in a temporary list, then remove them after you finish iterating the collection.

Enums
An enum is an abstract data type with values that each take on exactly one of a finite set of identifiers that you specify. Enums are typically used to define a set of possible values that do not otherwise have a numerical order, such as the suit of a card, or a particular season of the year. Although each value corresponds to a distinct integer value, the enum hides this implementation so that you do not inadvertently misuse the values, such as using them to perform arithmetic. After you create an enum, variables, method arguments, and return types can be declared of that type. Note: Unlike Java, the enum type itself has no constructor syntax.

To define an enum, use the enum keyword in your declaration and use curly braces to demarcate the list of possible values. For example, the following code creates an enum called Season:
public enum Season {WINTER, SPRING, SUMMER, FALL}

By creating the enum Season, you have also created a new data type called Season. You can use this new data type as you might any other data type. For example:
Season e = Season.WINTER; Season m(Integer x, Season e) { If (e == Season.SUMMER) return e; //... }

You can also define a class as an enum. Note that when you create an enum class you do not use the class keyword in the definition.
public enum MyEnumClass { X, Y }

You can use an enum in any place you can use another data type name. If you define a variable whose type is an enum, any object you assign to it must be an instance of that enum class.

39

Language Constructs

Enums

Any webService methods can use enum types as part of their signature. When this occurs, the associated WSDL file includes definitions for the enum and its values, which can then be used by the API client. Apex provides the following system-defined enums:
System.StatusCode

This enum corresponds to the API error code that is exposed in the WSDL document for all API operations. For example:
StatusCode.CANNOT_INSERT_UPDATE_ACTIVATE_ENTITY StatusCode.INSUFFICIENT_ACCESS_ON_CROSS_REFERENCE_ENTITY

The full list of status codes is available in the WSDL file for your organization. For more information about accessing the WSDL file for your organization, see Downloading Salesforce WSDLs and Client Authentication Certificates in the Salesforce online help.
System.XmlTag:

This enum returns a list of XML tags used for parsing the result XML from a webService method. For more information, see XmlStreamReader Class on page 391.
System.ApplicationReadWriteMode: This enum indicates if an organization is in 5 Minute Upgrade read-only mode during Salesforce upgrades and downtimes. For more information, see Using the System.ApplicationReadWriteMode

Enum on page 318. Note: 5 Minute Upgrade is currently available through a pilot program. For information on enabling 5 Minute Upgrade for your organization, contact salesforce.com.
System.LoggingLevel:

This enum is used with the system.debug method, to specify the log level for all debug calls. For more information, see System Methods on page 313.
System.RoundingMode:

This enum is used by methods that perform mathematical operations to specify the rounding behavior for the operation, such as the Decimal divide method and the Double round method. For more information, see Rounding Mode on page 247.
System.SoapType:

This enum is returned by the field describe result getSoapType method. For more informations, see Schema.SOAPType Enum Values on page 285.
System.DisplayType:

This enum is returned by the field describe result getType method. For more information, see Schema.DisplayType Enum Values on page 283.
ApexPages.Severity:

This enum specifies the severity of a Visualforce message. For more information, see ApexPages.Severity Enum on page 356.
Dom.XmlNodeType:

This enum specifies the node type in a DOM document. For more information, see Node Types on page 399. Note: System-defined enums cannot be used in Web service methods.

40

Language Constructs

Understanding Rules of Conversion

All enum values, including system enums, have common methods associated with them. For more information, see Enum Methods on page 268. You cannot add user-defined methods to enum values.

Understanding Rules of Conversion


In general, Apex requires you to explicitly convert one data type to another. For example, a variable of the Integer data type cannot be implicitly converted to a String. You must use the string.format method. However, a few data types can be implicitly converted, without using a method. Numbers form a hierarchy of types Variables of lower numeric types can always be assigned to higher types without explicit conversion. The following is the hierarchy for numbers, from lowest to highest: 1. 2. 3. 4. Integer Long Double Decimal Note: Once a value has been passed from a number of a lower type to a number of a higher type, the value is converted to the higher type of number. Note that the hierarchy and implicit conversion is unlike the Java hierarchy of numbers, where the base interface number is used and implicit object conversion is never allowed. In addition to numbers, other data types can be implicitly converted. The following rules apply: IDs can always be assigned to Strings. Strings can be assigned to IDs. However, at runtime, the value is checked to ensure that it is a legitimate ID. If it is not, a runtime exception is thrown. The instanceOf keyword can always be used to test whether a string is an ID.

Variables
Local variables are declared with Java-style syntax. For example:
Integer i = 0; String str; Account a; Account[] accts; Set<String> s; Map<ID, Account> m;

As with Java, multiple variables can be declared and initialized in a single statement, using comma separation. For example:
Integer i, j, k;

All variables allow null as a value and are initialized to null if they are not assigned another value. For instance, in the following example, i, and k are assigned values, while j is set to null because it is not assigned:
Integer i = 0, j, k = 1;

41

Language Constructs

Case Sensitivity

Variables can be defined at any point in a block, and take on scope from that point forward. Sub-blocks cannot redefine a variable name that has already been used in a parent block, but parallel blocks can reuse a variable name. For example:
Integer i; { // Integer i; }

This declaration is not allowed

for (Integer j = 0; j < 10; j++); for (Integer j = 0; j < 10; j++);

Case Sensitivity
To avoid confusion with case-insensitive SOQL and SOSL queries, Apex is also case-insensitive. This means: Variable and method names are case insensitive. For example:
Integer I; //Integer i;

This would be an error.

References to object and field names are case insensitive. For example:
Account a1; ACCOUNT a2;

SOQL and SOSL statements are case insensitive. For example:


Account[] accts = [sELect ID From ACCouNT where nAme = 'fred'];

Also note that Apex uses the same filtering semantics as SOQL, which is the basis for comparisons in the Web services API and the Salesforce user interface. The use of these semantics can lead to some interesting behavior. For example, if an end user generates a report based on a filter for values that come before 'm' in the alphabet (that is, values < 'm'), null fields are returned in the result. The rationale for this behavior is that users typically think of a field without a value as just a space character, rather than its actual null value. Consequently, in Apex, the following expressions all evaluate to true:
String s; System.assert('a' == 'A'); System.assert(s < 'b'); System.assert(!(s > 'b'));

Note: Although s < 'b' evaluates to true in the example above, 'b.'compareTo(s) generates an error because you are trying to compare a letter to a null value.

Constants
Constants can be defined using the final keyword, which means that the variable can be assigned at most once, either in the declaration itself, or with a static initializer method if the constant is defined in a class. For example:
public class myCls { static final Integer static final Integer

PRIVATE_INT_CONST; PRIVATE_INT_CONST2 = 200;

public static Integer calculate() { return 2 + 7;

42

Language Constructs

Expressions

} static { PRIVATE_INT_CONST = calculate(); } }

For more information, see Using the final Keyword on page 108.

Expressions
An expression is a construct made up of variables, operators, and method invocations that evaluates to a single value. This section provides an overview of expressions in Apex and contains the following: Understanding Expressions on page 43 Understanding Expression Operators on page 44 Understanding Operator Precedence on page 49 Extending sObject and List Expressions on page 50 Using Comments on page 50

Understanding Expressions
An expression is a construct made up of variables, operators, and method invocations that evaluates to a single value. In Apex, an expression is always one of the following types: A literal expression. For example:
1 + 1

A new sObject, Apex object, list, set, or map. For example:


new new new new new new new Account(<field_initializers>) Integer[<n>] Account[]{<elements>} List<Account>() Set<String>{} Map<String, Integer>() myRenamingClass(string oldName, string newName)

Any value that can act as the left-hand of an assignment operator (L-values), including variables, one-dimensional list positions, and most sObject or Apex object field references. For example:
Integer i myList[3] myContact.name myRenamingClass.oldName

Any sObject field reference that is not an L-value, including: The ID of an sObject in a list (see Lists) A set of child records associated with an sObject (for example, the set of contacts associated with a particular account). This type of expression yields a query result, much like SOQL and SOSL queries.

43

Language Constructs

Understanding Expression Operators

A SOQL or SOSL query surrounded by square brackets, allowing for on-the-fly evaluation in Apex. For example:
Account[] aa = [select id, name from account where name ='Acme']; Integer i = [select count() from contact where lastname ='Weissman']; List<List<SObject>> searchList = [FIND 'map*' IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account (id, name), Contact, Opportunity, Lead];

For information, see SOQL and SOSL Queries on page 57. A static or instance method invocation. For example:
System.assert(true) myRenamingClass.replaceNames() changePoint(new Point(x, y));

Understanding Expression Operators


Expressions can also be joined to one another with operators to create compound expressions. Apex supports the following operators: Operator
=

Syntax
x = y

Description Assignment operator (Right associative). Assigns the value of y to the L-value x. Note that the data type of x must match the data type of y, and cannot be null. Addition assignment operator (Right associative). Adds the value of y to the original value of x and then reassigns the new value to x. See + for additional information. x and y cannot be null. Multiplication assignment operator (Right associative). Multiplies the value of y with the original value of x and then reassigns the new value to x. Note that x and y must be Integers or Doubles, or a combination. x and y cannot be null. Subtraction assignment operator (Right associative). Subtracts the value of y from the original value of x and then reassigns the new value to x. Note that x and y must be Integers or Doubles, or a combination. x and y cannot be null. Division assignment operator (Right associative). Divides the original value of x with the value of y and then reassigns the new value to x. Note that x and y must be Integers or Doubles, or a combination. x and y cannot be null. OR assignment operator (Right associative). If x, a Boolean, and y, a Boolean, are both false, then x remains false. Otherwise, x is assigned the value of true. Note: This operator exhibits short-circuiting behavior, which means y is evaluated only if x is false. x and y cannot be null.

+=

x += y

*=

x *= y

-=

x -= y

/=

x /= y

|=

x |= y

44

Language Constructs

Understanding Expression Operators

Operator
&=

Syntax
x &= y

Description AND assignment operator (Right associative). If x, a Boolean, and y, a Boolean, are both true, then x remains true. Otherwise, x is assigned the value of false. Note: This operator exhibits short-circuiting behavior, which means y is evaluated only if x is true. x and y cannot be null.

<<=

x <<= y

Bitwise shift left assignment operator. Shifts each bit in x to the left by y bits so that the high order bits are lost, and the new right bits are set to 0. This value is then reassigned to x. Bitwise shift right signed assignment operator. Shifts each bit in x to the right by y bits so that the low order bits are lost, and the new left bits are set to 0 for positive values of y and 1 for negative values of y. This value is then reassigned to x. Bitwise shift right unsigned assignment operator. Shifts each bit in x to the right by y bits so that the low order bits are lost, and the new left bits are set to 0 for all values of y. This value is then reassigned to x. Ternary operator (Right associative). This operator acts as a short-hand for if-then-else statements. If x, a Boolean, is true, y is the result. Otherwise z is the result. Note that x cannot be null. AND logical operator (Left associative). If x, a Boolean, and y, a Boolean, are both true, then the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise the expression evaluates to false. Note:
&& has precedence over ||

>>=

x >>= y

>>>=

x >>>= y

? :

x ? y : z

&&

x && y

This operator exhibits short-circuiting behavior, which means y is evaluated only if x is true. x and y cannot be null.

||

x || y

OR logical operator (Left associative). If x, a Boolean, and y, a Boolean, are both false, then the expression evaluates to false. Otherwise the expression evaluates to true. Note:
&& has precedence over ||

This operator exhibits short-circuiting behavior, which means y is evaluated only if x is false. x and y cannot be null.

==

x == y

Equality operator. If the value of x equals the value of y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: Unlike Java, == in Apex compares object value equality, not reference equality. Consequently:

45

Language Constructs

Understanding Expression Operators

Operator

Syntax

Description String comparison using == is case insensitive ID comparison using == is case sensitive, and does not distinguish between 15-character and 18-character formats

For sObjects and sObject arrays, == performs a deep check of all sObject field values before returning its result. For records, every field must have the same value for == to evaluate to true. x or y can be the literal null. The comparison of any two values can never result in null. SOQL and SOSL use = for their equality operator, and not ==. Although Apex and SOQL and SOSL are strongly linked, this unfortunate syntax discrepancy exists because most modern languages use = for assignment and == for equality. The designers of Apex deemed it more valuable to maintain this paradigm than to force developers to learn a new assignment operator. The result is that Apex developers must use == for equality tests in the main script body, and = for equality in SOQL and SOSL queries.

===

x === y

Exact equality operator. If x and y reference the exact same location in memory, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note that this operator only works for sObjects or collections (such as a Map or list). For an Apex object (such as an Exception or instantiation of a class) the exact equality operator is the same as the equality operator. Less than operator. If x is less than y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: Unlike other database stored procedures, Apex does not support tri-state Boolean logic, and the comparison of any two values can never result in null. If x or y equal null and are Integers, Doubles, Dates, or Datetimes, the expression is false. A non-null String or ID value is always greater than a null value. If x and y are IDs, they must reference the same type of object. Otherwise, a runtime error results. If x or y is an ID and the other value is a String, the String value is validated and treated as an ID. x and y cannot be Booleans. The comparison of two strings is performed according to the locale of the context user.

<

x < y

>

x > y

Greater than operator. If x is greater than y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: The comparison of any two values can never result in null. If x or y equal null and are Integers, Doubles, Dates, or Datetimes, the expression is false. A non-null String or ID value is always greater than a null value.

46

Language Constructs

Understanding Expression Operators

Operator

Syntax

Description If x and y are IDs, they must reference the same type of object. Otherwise, a runtime error results. If x or y is an ID and the other value is a String, the String value is validated and treated as an ID. x and y cannot be Booleans. The comparison of two strings is performed according to the locale of the context user.

<=

x <= y

Less than or equal to operator. If x is less than or equal to y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: The comparison of any two values can never result in null. If x or y equal null and are Integers, Doubles, Dates, or Datetimes, the expression is false. A non-null String or ID value is always greater than a null value. If x and y are IDs, they must reference the same type of object. Otherwise, a runtime error results. If x or y is an ID and the other value is a String, the String value is validated and treated as an ID. x and y cannot be Booleans. The comparison of two strings is performed according to the locale of the context user.

>=

x >= y

Greater than or equal to operator. If x is greater than or equal to y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: The comparison of any two values can never result in null. If x or y equal null and are Integers, Doubles, Dates, or Datetimes, the expression is false. A non-null String or ID value is always greater than a null value. If x and y are IDs, they must reference the same type of object. Otherwise, a runtime error results. If x or y is an ID and the other value is a String, the String value is validated and treated as an ID. x and y cannot be Booleans. The comparison of two strings is performed according to the locale of the context user.

!=

x != y

Inequality operator. If the value of x does not equal the value of y, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note: Unlike Java, != in Apex compares object value equality, not reference equality. For sObjects and sObject arrays, != performs a deep check of all sObject field values before returning its result.

47

Language Constructs

Understanding Expression Operators

Operator

Syntax

Description For records, != evaluates to true if the records have different values for any field. x or y can be the literal null. The comparison of any two values can never result in null.

!==

x !== y

Exact inequality operator. If x and y do not reference the exact same location in memory, the expression evaluates to true. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to false. Note that this operator only works for sObjects, collections (such as a Map or list), or an Apex object (such as an Exception or instantiation of a class). Addition operator. Adds the value of x to the value of y according to the following rules: If x and y are Integers or Doubles, adds the value of x to the value of y. If a Double is used, the result is a Double. If x is a Date and y is an Integer, returns a new Date that is incremented by the specified number of days. If x is a Datetime and y is an Integer or Double, returns a new Date that is incremented by the specified number of days, with the fractional portion corresponding to a portion of a day. If x is a String and y is a String or any other type of non-null argument, concatenates y to the end of x. Subtraction operator. Subtracts the value of y from the value of x according to the following rules: If x and y are Integers or Doubles, subtracts the value of x from the value of y. If a Double is used, the result is a Double. If x is a Date and y is an Integer, returns a new Date that is decremented by the specified number of days. If x is a Datetime and y is an Integer or Double, returns a new Date that is decremented by the specified number of days, with the fractional portion corresponding to a portion of a day. Multiplication operator. Multiplies x, an Integer or Double, with y, another Integer or Double. Note that if a double is used, the result is a Double. Division operator. Divides x, an Integer or Double, by y, another Integer or Double. Note that if a double is used, the result is a Double. Logical complement operator. Inverts the value of a Boolean, so that true becomes false, and false becomes true. Unary negation operator. Multiplies the value of x, an Integer or Double, by -1. Note that the positive equivalent + is also syntactically valid, but does not have a mathematical effect. Increment operator. Adds 1 to the value of x, an Integer or Double. If prefixed (++x), the increment occurs before the rest of the statement is executed. If postfixed (x--), the increment occurs after the rest of the statement is executed.

x + y

x - y

* / ! -

x * y x / y !x -x

++

x++ ++x

48

Language Constructs

Understanding Operator Precedence

Operator
--

Syntax
x---x

Description Decrement operator. Subtracts 1 from the value of x, an Integer or Double. If prefixed (--x), the decrement occurs before the rest of the statement is executed. If postfixed (x--), the decrement occurs after the rest of the statement is executed. Bitwise AND operator. ANDs each bit in x with the corresponding bit in y so that the result bit is set to 1 if both of the bits are set to 1. This operator is not valid for types Long or Integer. Bitwise OR operator. ORs each bit in x with the corresponding bit in y so that the result bit is set to 1 if at least one of the bits is set to 1. This operator is not valid for types Long or Integer. Bitwise exclusive OR operator. Exclusive ORs each bit in x with the corresponding bit in y so that the result bit is set to 1 if exactly one of the bits is set to 1 and the other bit is set to 0. Bitwise exclusive OR operator. Exclusive ORs each bit in x with the corresponding bit in y so that the result bit is set to 1 if exactly one of the bits is set to 1 and the other bit is set to 0. Bitwise shift left operator. Shifts each bit in x to the left by y bits so that the high order bits are lost, and the new right bits are set to 0. Bitwise shift right signed operator. Shifts each bit in x to the right by y bits so that the low order bits are lost, and the new left bits are set to 0 for positive values of y and 1 for negative values of y. Bitwise shift right unsigned operator. Shifts each bit in x to the right by y bits so that the low order bits are lost, and the new left bits are set to 0 for all values of y. Parentheses. Elevates the precedence of an expression x so that it is evaluated first in a compound expression.

&

x & y

x | y

x ^ y

^=

x ^= y

<< >>

x << y x >> y

>>>

x >>> y

()

(x)

Understanding Operator Precedence


Apex uses the following operator precedence rules: Precedence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Operators
{} () ++ -! -x +x (type) new * / + < <= > >= instanceof == != && ||

Description Grouping and prefix increments and decrements Unary negation, type cast and object creation Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction Greater-than and less-than comparisons, reference tests Comparisons: equal and not-equal Logical AND Logical OR

49

Language Constructs

Extending sObject and List Expressions

Precedence 9

Operators
= += -= *= /= &=

Description Assignment operators

Extending sObject and List Expressions


As in Java, sObject and list expressions can be extended with method references and list expressions, respectively, to form new expressions. In the following example, a new variable containing the length of the new account name is assigned to acctNameLength.
Integer acctNameLength = new Account[]{new Account(name='Acme')}[0].name.length();

In the above, new Account[] generates a list. The list is populated by the SOQL statement {new Account(name='Acme')}. Item 0, the first item in the list, is then accessed by the next part of the string [0]. The name of the sObject in the list is accessed, followed by the method returning the length name.length(). In the following example, a name that has been shifted to lower case is returned.
String nameChange = [SELECT Name FROM Account][0].Name.toLowerCase();

Using Comments
Both single and multiline comments are supported in Apex scripts: To create a single line comment, use //. All characters on the same line to the right of the // are ignored by the parser. For example:
Integer i = 1; // This comment is ignored by the parser

To create a multiline comment, use /* and */ to demarcate the beginning and end of the comment block. For example:
Integer i = 1; /* This comment can wrap over multiple lines without getting interpreted by the parser. */

Assignment Statements
An assignment statement is any statement that places a value into a variable, generally in one of the following two forms:
[LValue] = [new_value_expression]; [LValue] = [[inline_soql_query]];

In the forms above, [LValue] stands for any expression that can be placed on the left side of an assignment operator. These include:

50

Language Constructs

Assignment Statements

A simple variable. For example:


Integer i = 1; Account a = new Account(); Account[] accts = [select id from account];

A de-referenced list element. For example:


ints[0] = 1; accts[0].name = 'Acme';

An sObject field reference that the context user has permission to edit. For example:
Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme', billingcity = 'San Francisco'); // IDs cannot be set manually // a.id = '00300000003T2PGAA0'; This code is invalid!

// Instead, insert the record. The system automatically assigns it an ID. insert a; // Fields also must be writeable for the context user // a.createdDate = System.today(); This code is invalid because // createdDate is read-only! // Since the account a has been inserted, it is now possible to // create a new contact that is related to it Contact c = new Contact(lastname = 'Roth', account = a); // Notice that you can write to the account name directly through the contact c.account.name = 'salesforce.com';

Assignment is always done by reference. For example:


Account a = new Account(); Account b; Account[] c = new Account[]{}; a.name = 'Acme'; b = a; c.add(a); // These asserts should now be true. You can reference the data // originally allocated to account a through account b and account list c. System.assertEquals(b.name, 'Acme'); System.assertEquals(c[0].name, 'Acme');

Similarly, two lists can point at the same value in memory. For example:
Account[] a = new Account[]{new Account()}; Account[] b = a; a[0].name = 'Acme'; System.assert(b[0].name == 'Acme');

In addition to =, other valid assignment operators include +=, *=, /=, |=, &=, ++, and --. See Understanding Expression Operators on page 44 for more information.

51

Language Constructs

Conditional (If-Else) Statements

Conditional (If-Else) Statements


The conditional statement in Apex works similarly to Java:
if ([Boolean_condition]) // Statement 1 else // Statement 2

The else portion is always optional, and always groups with the closest if. For example:
Integer x, sign; // Your code if (x <= 0) if (x == 0) sign = 0; else sign = -1;

is equivalent to:
Integer x, sign; // Your code if (x <= 0) { if (x == 0) { sign = 0; } else { sign = -1; } }

Repeated else if statements are also allowed. For example:


if (place == 1) { medal_color = 'gold'; } else if (place == 2) { medal_color = 'silver'; } else if (place == 3) { medal_color = 'bronze'; } else { medal_color = null; }

Loops
Apex supports the following five types of procedural loops:
do {statement} while (Boolean_condition); while (Boolean_condition) statement; for (initialization; Boolean_exit_condition; increment) statement; for (variable : array_or_set) statement; for (variable : [inline_soql_query]) statement;

All loops allow for loop control structures:


break; exits the entire loop continue; skips to the next iteration of the loop

52

Language Constructs

Do-While Loops

Do-While Loops
The Apex do-while loop repeatedly executes a block of code as long as a particular Boolean condition remains true. Its syntax is:
do { code_block } while (condition);

Note: Curly braces ({}) are always required around a code_block.

As in Java, the Apex do-while loop does not check the Boolean condition statement until after the first loop is executed. Consequently, the code block always runs at least once. As an example, the following code outputs the numbers 1 - 10 into the debug log:
Integer count = 1; do { System.debug(count); count++; } while (count < 11);

While Loops
The Apex while loop repeatedly executes a block of code as long as a particular Boolean condition remains true. Its syntax is:
while (condition) { code_block }

Note: Curly braces ({}) are required around a code_block only if the block contains more than one statement.

Unlike do-while, the while loop checks the Boolean condition statement before the first loop is executed. Consequently, it is possible for the code block to never execute. As an example, the following code outputs the numbers 1 - 10 into the debug log:
Integer count = 1; while (count < 11) { System.debug(count); count++; }

For Loops
Apex supports three variations of the for loop:

53

Language Constructs

For Loops

The traditional for loop:


for (init_stmt; exit_condition; increment_stmt) { code_block }

The list or set iteration for loop:


for (variable : list_or_set) { code_block }

where variable must be of the same primitive or sObject type as list_or_set. The SOQL for loop:
for (variable : [soql_query]) { code_block }

or
for (variable_list : [soql_query]) { code_block }

Both variable and variable_list must be of the same sObject type as is returned by the soql_query. Note: Curly braces ({}) are required around a code_block only if the block contains more than one statement.

Each is discussed further in the sections that follow. Traditional For Loops The traditional for loop in Apex corresponds to the traditional syntax used in Java and other languages. Its syntax is:
for (init_stmt; exit_condition; increment_stmt) { code_block }

When executing this type of for loop, the Apex runtime engine performs the following steps, in order: 1. Execute the init_stmt component of the loop. Note that multiple variables can be declared and/or initialized in this statement. 2. Perform the exit_condition check. If true, the loop continues. If false, the loop exits. 3. Execute the code_block. 4. Execute the increment_stmt statement. 5. Return to Step 2. As an example, the following code outputs the numbers 1 - 10 into the debug log. Note that an additional initialization variable, j, is included to demonstrate the syntax:
for (Integer i = 0, j = 0; i < 10; i++) { System.debug(i+1); }

54

Language Constructs

For Loops

List or Set Iteration For Loops The list or set iteration for loop iterates over all the elements in a list or set. Its syntax is:
for (variable : list_or_set) { code_block }

where variable must be of the same primitive or sObject type as list_or_set. When executing this type of for loop, the Apex runtime engine assigns variable to each element in list_or_set, and runs the code_block for each value. For example, the following code outputs the numbers 1 - 10 to the debug log:
Integer[] myInts = new Integer[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}; for (Integer i : myInts) { System.debug(i); }

SOQL For Loops SOQL for loops iterate over all of the sObject records returned by a SOQL query. The syntax of a SOQL for loop is either:
for (variable : [soql_query]) { code_block }

or
for (variable_list : [soql_query]) { code_block }

Both variable and variable_list must be of the same type as the sObjects that are returned by the soql_query. As in standard SOQL queries, the [soql_query] statement can refer to script expressions in their WHERE clauses using the : syntax. For example:
String s = 'Acme'; for (Account a : [select id, name from account where name like :(s+'%')]) { // Your code }

The following example combines creating a list from a SOQL query, with the DML update method.
// Create a list of account records from a SOQL query List<Account> accs = [SELECT Id, Name FROM Account WHERE Name = 'Siebel']; // Loop through the list and update the Name field for(Account a : accs){ a.name = 'Oracle'; } // Update the database update accs;

55

Language Constructs

For Loops

SOQL For Loops Versus Standard SOQL Queries SOQL for loops differ from standard SOQL statements because of the method they use to retrieve sObjects. While the standard queries discussed in SOQL and SOSL Queries can retrieve either the count of a query or a number of object records, SOQL for loops retrieve all sObjects, using efficient chunking with calls to the query and queryMore methods of the Web services API. Developers should always use a SOQL for loop to process query results that return many records, to avoid the limit on heap size. Note that queries including an aggregate function don't support queryMore. A runtime exception occurs if you use a query containing an aggregate function that returns more than 2000 rows in a for loop. SOQL For Loop Formats SOQL for loops can process records one at a time using a single sObject variable, or in batches of 200 sObjects at a time using an sObject list: The single sObject format executes the for loop's <code_block> once per sObject record. Consequently, it is easy to understand and use, but is grossly inefficient if you want to use data manipulation language (DML) statements within the for loop body. Each DML statement ends up processing only one sObject at a time. The sObject list format executes the for loop's <code_block> once per list of 200 sObjects. Consequently, it is a little more difficult to understand and use, but is the optimal choice if you need to use DML statements within the for loop body. Each DML statement can bulk process a list of sObjects at a time.

For example, the following code illustrates the difference between the two types of SOQL query for loops:
// Create a savepoint because the data should not be committed to the database Savepoint sp = Database.setSavepoint(); insert new account[]{new account(name = 'yyy'), new account(name = 'yyy'), new account(name = 'yyy')}; // The single sObject format executes the for loop once per returned record Integer I = 0; for (account tmp : [select id from account where name = 'yyy']) { i++; } System.assert(i == 3); // Since there were three accounts named 'yyy' in the // database, the loop executed three times // The sObject list format executes the for loop once per returned batch // of records i = 0; Integer j; for (account[] tmp : [select id from account where name = 'yyy']) { j = tmp.size(); i++; } System.assert(j == 3); // The list should have contained the three accounts // named 'yyy' System.assert(i == 1); // Since a single batch can hold up to 100 records and, // only three records should have been returned, the // loop should have executed only once // Revert the database to the original state Database.rollback(sp);

Note: The break and continue keywords can be used in both types of inline query for loop formats. When using the sObject list format, continue skips to the next list of sObjects. DML statements can only process up to 10,000 records at a time, and sObject list for loops process records in batches of 200. Consequently, if you are inserting, updating, or deleting more than one record per returned record

56

Language Constructs

SOQL and SOSL Queries

in an sObject list for loop, it is possible to encounter runtime limit errors. See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188.

SOQL and SOSL Queries


You can evaluate Salesforce Object Query Language (SOQL) or Salesforce Object Search Language (SOSL) statements on-the-fly in Apex by surrounding the statement in square brackets.

SOQL Statements
SOQL statements evaluate to a list of sObjects, a single sObject, or an Integer for count method queries. For example, you could retrieve a list of accounts that are named Acme:
List<Account> aa = [select id, name from account where name = 'Acme'];

From this list, you can access individual elements:


if (!aa.isEmpty()) { // Execute commands }

You can also create new objects from SOQL queries on existing ones. The following example creates a new contact for the first account with the number of employees greater than 10:
Contact c = new Contact(account = [select name from account where NumberofEmployees > 10 limit 1]); c.FirstName = 'James'; c.LastName = 'Yoyce';

Note that the newly created object contains null values for its fields, which will need to be set. The count method can be used to return the number of rows returned by a query. The following example returns the total number of contacts with the last name of Weissman:
Integer i = [select count() from contact where lastname = 'Weissman'];

You can also operate on the results using standard arithmetic:


Integer j = 5 * [select count() from account];

For a full description of SOQL query syntax, see Salesforce Object Query Language (SOQL) in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

SOSL Statements
SOSL statements evaluate to a list of lists of sObjects, where each list contains the search results for a particular sObject type. The result lists are always returned in the same order as they were specified in the SOSL query. SOSL queries are only supported in Apex classes and anonymous blocks. You cannot use a SOSL query in a trigger. If a SOSL query does not return any records for a specified sObject type, the search results include an empty list for that sObject.

57

Language Constructs

Working with SOQL and SOSL Query Results

For example, you can return a list of accounts, contacts, opportunities, and leads that begin with the phrase map:
List<List<SObject>> searchList = [FIND 'map*' IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account (id, name), Contact, Opportunity, Lead];

Note: The syntax of the FIND clause in Apex differs from the syntax of the FIND clause in the Web services API: In Apex, the value of the FIND clause is demarcated with single quotes. For example:
FIND 'map*' IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account (id, name), Contact, Opportunity, Lead

In the Force.com API, the value of the FIND clause is demarcated with braces. For example:
FIND {map*} IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account (id, name), Contact, Opportunity, Lead

From searchList, you can create arrays for each object returned:
Account [] accounts = ((List<Account>)searchList[0]); Contact [] contacts = ((List<Contact>)searchList[1]); Opportunity [] opportunities = ((List<Opportunity>)searchList[2]); Lead [] leads = ((List<Lead>)searchList[3]);

For a full description of SOSL query syntax, see Salesforce Object Search Language (SOSL) in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

Working with SOQL and SOSL Query Results


SOQL and SOSL queries only return data for sObject fields that are selected in the original query. If you try to access a field that was not selected in the SOQL or SOSL query (other than ID), you receive a runtime error, even if the field contains a value in the database. The following code example causes a runtime error:
insert new Account(name = 'Singha'); Account acc = [select id from account where name = 'Singha' limit 1]; // Note that name is not selected String name = [select id from account where name = 'Singha' limit 1].name;

The following is the same code example rewritten so it does not produce a runtime error. Note that name has been added as part of the select statement, after id.
insert new Account(name = 'Singha'); Account acc = [select id from account where name = 'Singha' limit 1]; // Note that name is now selected String name = [select id, name from account where name = 'Singha' limit 1].name;

Even if only one sObject field is selected, a SOQL or SOSL query always returns data as complete records. Consequently, you must dereference the field in order to access it. For example, this code retrieves an sObject list from the database with a SOQL query, accesses the first account record in the list, and then dereferences the record's annualRevenue field:
Double rev = [select annualRevenue from account where name = 'Acme'][0].annualRevenue; // When only one result is returned in a SOQL query, it is not necessary

58

Language Constructs

Working with SOQL Aggregate Functions

// to include the list's index. Double rev2 = [select annualRevenue from account where name = 'Acme'].annualRevenue;

The only situation in which it is not necessary to dereference an sObject field in the result of an SOQL query, is when the query returns an Integer as the result of a count operation:
Integer i = [select count() from account];

Fields in records returned by SOSL queries must always be dereferenced. Also note that sObject fields that contain formulas return the value of the field at the time the SOQL or SOSL query was issued. Any changes to other fields that are used within the formula are not reflected in the formula field value until the record has been saved and re-queried in Apex. Like other read-only sObject fields, the values of the formula fields themselves cannot be changed in Apex.

Working with SOQL Aggregate Functions


Aggregate functions in SOQL, such as SUM() and MAX(), allow you to roll up and summarize your data in a query. For more information on aggregate functions, see Aggregate Functions in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. You can use aggregate functions without using a GROUP BY clause. For example, you could use the AVG() aggregate function to find the average Amount for all your opportunities.
AggregateResult[] groupedResults = [SELECT AVG(Amount)aver FROM Opportunity]; Object avgAmount = groupedResults[0].get('aver');

Note that any query that includes an aggregate function returns its results in an array of AggregateResult objects. AggregateResult is a read-only sObject and is only used for query results. Aggregate functions become a more powerful tool to generate reports when you use them with a GROUP BY clause. For example, you could find the average Amount for all your opportunities by campaign.
AggregateResult[] groupedResults = [SELECT CampaignId, AVG(Amount) FROM Opportunity GROUP BY CampaignId]; for (AggregateResult ar : groupedResults) { System.debug('Campaign ID' + ar.get('CampaignId')); System.debug('Average amount' + ar.get('expr0')); }

Any aggregated field in a SELECT list that does not have an alias automatically gets an implied alias with a format expri, where i denotes the order of the aggregated fields with no explicit aliases. The value of i starts at 0 and increments for every aggregated field with no explicit alias. For more information, see Using Aliases with GROUP BY in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. Note: Queries that include aggregate functions are subject to the same governor limits as other SOQL queries for the total number of records returned. This limit includes any records included in the aggregation, not just the number of rows returned by the query. If you encounter this limit, you should add a condition to the WHERE clause to reduce the amount of records processed by the query.

59

Language Constructs

Working with Very Large SOQL Queries

Working with Very Large SOQL Queries


Your SOQL query may return so many sObjects that the limit on heap size is exceeded and an error occurs. To resolve, use a SOQL query for loop instead, since it can process multiple batches of records through the use of internal calls to query and queryMore. For example, if the results are too large, the syntax below causes a runtime exception:
Account[] accts = [SELECT id FROM account];

Instead, use a SOQL query for loop as in one of the following examples:
// Use this format if you are not executing DML statements // within the for loop for (Account a : [SELECT id, name FROM account WHERE name LIKE 'Acme']) { // Your code without DML statements here } // Use this format for efficiency if you are executing DML statements // within the for loop for (List<Account> accts : [SELECT id, name FROM account WHERE name LIKE 'Acme']) { // Your code here update accts; }

The following example demonstrates a SOQL query for loop used to mass update records. Suppose you want to change the last name of a contact across all records:
public void massUpdate() { for (List<Contact> contacts: [Select FirstName, LastName From Contact]) { for(Contact c : contacts) { if (c.FirstName == 'Barbara' && c.LastName == 'Gordon') { c.LastName = 'Wayne'; } } update contacts; } }

Instead of using a SOQL query in a for loop, the preferred method of mass updating records is to use batch Apex, which minimizes the risk of hitting governor limits. For more efficient SOQL queries, particularly for queries inside of triggers, use selective (indexed) queries. Selective queries filter on primary keys, foreign keys, names, audit dates (such as LastModifiedDate), or External ID fields. In large organizations, non-selective queries could be stopped at runtime in order to prevent very long running operation times. If you need them for your application, contact your salesforce.com representative. Note: If you use a non-selective query in a trigger against an object that contains more than 100000 records an error is generated. You should include indexed fields in the WHERE clause to avoid these exceptions. For more information, see SOQL For Loops on page 55.

60

Language Constructs

Using SOQL Queries That Return One Record

Using SOQL Queries That Return One Record


SOQL queries can be used to assign a single sObject value when the result list contains only one element. When the L-value of an expression is a single sObject type, Apex automatically assigns the single sObject record in the query result list to the L-value. A runtime exception results if zero sObjects or more than one sObject is found in the list. For example:
List<Account> accts = [SELECT id FROM account]; // These lines of code are only valid if one row is returned from // the query. Notice that the second line dereferences the field from the // query without assigning it to an intermediary sObject variable. Account acct = [SELECT id FROM account]; String name = [SELECT name FROM account].name;

Improving Performance by Not Searching on Null Values


In your SOQL and SOSL queries, avoid searching records that contain null values. Filter out null values first to improve performance. In the following example, any records where the treadID value is null are filtered out of the returned values.
Public class TagWS { /* getThreadTags * * a quick method to pull tags not in the existing list * */ public static webservice List<String> getThreadTags(String threadId, List<String> tags) { system.debug(LoggingLevel.Debug,tags); List<String> retVals = new List<String>(); Set<String> tagSet = new Set<String>(); Set<String> origTagSet = new Set<String>(); origTagSet.addAll(tags); // Note WHERE clause verifies that threadId is not null for(CSO_CaseThread_Tag__c t : [SELECT Name FROM CSO_CaseThread_Tag__c WHERE Thread__c = :threadId AND WHERE threadID != null]) { tagSet.add(t.Name); } for(String x : origTagSet) { // return a minus version of it so the UI knows to clear it if(!tagSet.contains(x)) retVals.add('-' + x); } for(String x : tagSet) { // return a plus version so the UI knows it's new if(!origTagSet.contains(x)) retvals.add('+' + x); } return retVals; }

61

Language Constructs

Understanding Foreign Key and Parent-Child Relationship SOQL Queries

Understanding Foreign Key and Parent-Child Relationship SOQL Queries


The SELECT statement of a SOQL query can be any valid SOQL statement, including foreign key and parent-child record joins. If foreign key joins are included, the resulting sObjects can be referenced using normal field notation. For example:
System.debug([SELECT account.name FROM contact WHERE firstname = 'Caroline'].account.name);

Additionally, parent-child relationships in sObjects act as SOQL queries as well. For example:
for (Account a : [SELECT id, name, (SELECT lastname FROM contacts) FROM account WHERE name = 'Acme']) { Contact[] cons = a.contacts; } //The following example also works because we limit to only 1 contact for (Account a : [SELECT id, name, (SELECT lastname FROM contacts limit 1) FROM account WHERE name = 'testAgg']) { Contact c = a.contacts; }

Using Apex Variables in SOQL and SOSL Queries


SOQL and SOSL statements in Apex can reference Apex code variables and expressions if they are preceded by a colon (:). This use of a local code variable within a SOQL or SOSL statement is called a bind. The Apex parser first evaluates the local variable in code context before executing the SOQL or SOSL statement. Bind expressions can be used as: The search string in FIND clauses The filter literals in WHERE clauses The numeric value in LIMIT clauses The value of the IN or NOT IN operator in WHERE clauses, allowing filtering on a dynamic set of values. Note that this is of particular use with a list of IDs or Strings, though it works with lists of any type. The division names in WITH DIVISION clauses

Bind expressions can't be used with other clauses, such as INCLUDES. For example:
Account A = new Account(name='xxx'); insert A; Account B; // A simple bind B = [select id from account where id = :A.id]; // A bind with arithmetic B = [select id from account where name = :('x' + 'xx')]; String s = 'XXX'; // A bind with expressions B = [select id from account where name = :'XXXX'.substring(0,3)]; // A bind with an expression that is itself a query result B = [select id from account

62

Language Constructs

Querying All Records with a SOQL Statement

where name = :[select name from account where id = :A.id].name]; Contact C = new Contact(lastName='xxx', accountid=A.id); insert new Contact[]{C, new Contact(lastName='yyy', accountId=A.id)}; // Binds in both the parent and aggregate queries B = [select id, (select id from contacts where id = :C.id) from account where id = :A.id]; // One contact returned Contact D = B.contacts; // A limit bind Integer i = 1; B = [select id from account limit :i]; // An IN-bind with an Id list. Note that a list of sObjects // can also be used--the Ids of the objects are used for // the bind Contact[] cc = [select id from contact limit 2]; Task[] tt = [select id from task where whoId in :cc]; // An IN-bind with a String list String[] ss = new String[]{'a', 'b'}; Account[] aa = [select id from account where accountnumber in :ss]; // A SOSL query with binds in all possible clauses String myString1 String myString2 Integer myInt3 = String myString4 Integer myInt5 = = 'aaa'; = 'bbb'; 11; = 'ccc'; 22;

List<List<SObject>> searchList = [FIND :myString1 IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account (id, name WHERE name LIKE :myString2 LIMIT :myInt3), Contact, Opportunity, Lead WITH DIVISION =:myString4 LIMIT :myInt5];

Querying All Records with a SOQL Statement


SOQL statements can use the ALL ROWS keywords to query all records in an organization, including deleted records and archived activities. For example:
System.assertEquals(2, [SELECT count() FROM contact WHERE accountid = a.id ALL ROWS]);

You can use ALL ROWS to query records in your organization's Recycle Bin. You cannot use the ALL ROWS keywords with the FOR UPDATE keywords.

63

Language Constructs

Locking Statements

Locking Statements
Apex allows developers to lock sObject records while they are being updated in order to prevent race conditions and other thread safety problems. While an sObject record is locked, no other program or user is allowed to make updates. To lock a set of sObject records in Apex, embed the keywords FOR UPDATE after any inline SOQL statement. For example, the following statement, in addition to querying for two accounts, also locks the accounts that are returned:
Account [] accts = [select id from Account limit 2 for update];

Note: You cannot use the ORDER BY keywords in any SOQL query that uses locking. However, query results are automatically ordered by ID. While the accounts are locked by this call, data manipulation language (DML) statements can modify their field values in the database in the transaction. Caution: Use care when setting locks in your Apex scripts. See Avoiding Deadlocks, below.

Locking in a SOQL For Loop


The FOR UPDATE keywords can also be used within SOQL for loops. For example:
for (Account[] accts : [select id from Account for update]) { // Your code }

As discussed in SOQL For Loops on page 55, the example above corresponds internally to calls to the query() and queryMore() methods in the Web services API. Note that there is no commit statement. If your Apex script completes successfully, any database changes are automatically committed. If your Apex script does not complete successfully, any changes made to the database are rolled back.

Avoiding Deadlocks
Note that Apex has the possibility of deadlocks, as does any other procedural logic language involving updates to multiple database tables or rows. To avoid such deadlocks, the Apex runtime engine: 1. First locks sObject parent records, then children 2. Locks sObject records in order of ID when multiple records of the same type are being edited As a developer, use care when locking rows to ensure that you are not introducing deadlocks. Verify that you are using standard deadlock avoidance techniques by accessing tables and rows in the same order from all locations in an application.

Transaction Control
All requests are delimited by the trigger, Web Service, Visualforce page or anonymous block that executes the Apex code. If the entire request completes successfully, all changes are committed to the database. For example, suppose a Visualforce page

64

Language Constructs

Exception Statements

called an Apex controller, which in turn called an additional Apex class. Only when all the Apex code has finished running and the Visualforce page has finished running, are the changes committed to the database. If the request does not complete successfully, all database changes are rolled back. However, sometimes during the processing of records, your business rules require that partial work (already executed DML statements) be rolled back so that the processing can continue in another direction. Apex gives you the ability to generate a savepoint, that is, a point in the request that specifies the state of the database at that time. Any DML statement that occurs after the savepoint can be discarded, and the database can be restored to the same condition it was in at the time you generated the savepoint. The following limitations apply to generating savepoint variables and rolling back the database: If you set more than one savepoint, then roll back to a savepoint that is not the last savepoint you generated, the later savepoint variables become invalid. For example, if you generated savepoint SP1 first, savepoint SP2 after that, and then you rolled back to SP1, the variable SP2 would no longer be valid. You will receive a runtime error if you try to use it. References to savepoints cannot cross trigger invocations, because each trigger invocation is a new execution context. If you declare a savepoint as a static variable then try to use it across trigger contexts you will receive a runtime error. Each savepoint you set counts against the total number of DML statements. Each rollback counts against the total number of DML statements. You will receive a runtime error if you try to rollback the database additional times.

The following is an example using the setSavepoint and rollback Database methods.
Account a = new account(name = 'xxx'); insert a; System.assertEquals(null, [select accountnumber from account where id = :a.id]. accountnumber); // Create a savepoint while accountNumber is null Savepoint sp = Database.setSavepoint(); // Change the account number a.accountnumber = '123'; update a; System.assertEquals('123', [select accountnumber from account where id = :a.id]. accountnumber); // Rollback to the previous null value Database.rollback(sp); System.assertEquals(null, [select accountnumber from account where id = :a.id]. accountnumber);

Exception Statements
Apex uses exceptions to note errors and other events that disrupt the normal flow of script execution. throw statements can be used to generate exceptions, while try, catch, and finally can be used to gracefully recover from an exception. You can also create your own exceptions using the Exception class. For more information, see Exception Class on page 342.

65

Language Constructs

Throw Statements

Throw Statements
A throw statement allows you to signal that an error has occurred. To throw an exception, use the throw statement and provide it with an exception object to provide information about the specific error. For example:
throw exceptionObject;

Try-Catch-Finally Statements
The try, catch, and finally statements can be used to gracefully recover from a thrown exception: The try statement identifies a block of code in which an exception can occur. The catch statement identifies a block of code that can handle a particular type of exception. A single try statement can have multiple associated catch statements, however, each catch statement must have a unique exception type. The finally statement optionally identifies a block of code that is guaranteed to execute and allows you to clean up after the code enclosed in the try block. A single try statement can have only one associated finally statement.

Syntax
The syntax of these statements is as follows:
try { code_block } catch (exceptionType) { code_block } // Optional catch statements for other exception types. // Note that the general exception type, 'Exception', // must be the last catch block when it is used. } catch (Exception e) { code_block } // Optional finally statement } finally { code_block }

Example
For example:
try { // Your code here } catch (ListException e) { // List Exception handling code here } catch (Exception e) { // Generic exception handling code here }

Note: Limit exceptions caused by an execution governor cannot be caught. See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188 for information.

66

Chapter 3
Invoking Apex
In this chapter ... Triggers Apex Scheduler Anonymous Blocks Apex in AJAX
Using the following mechanisms, you can invoke your Apex scripts: Triggers Apex scheduler (for Apex classes only) Anonymous Blocks AJAX Toolkit

67

Invoking Apex

Triggers

Triggers
Apex can be invoked through the use of triggers. A trigger is Apex code that executes before or after the following types of operations: insert update delete merge upsert undelete

For example, you can have a trigger run before an object's records are inserted into the database, after records have been deleted, or even after a record is restored from the Recycle Bin. You can define triggers for any top-level standard object, such as a Contact or an Account, but not for standard child objects, such as a ContactRole. For case comments, click Your Name Setup Cases Case Comments Triggers. For email messages, click Your Name Setup Cases Email Messages Triggers.

Triggers can be divided into two types: Before triggers can be used to update or validate record values before they are saved to the database. After triggers can be used to access field values that are set by the database (such as a record's Id or lastUpdated field), and to affect changes in other records, such as logging into an audit table or firing asynchronous events with a queue.

Triggers can also modify other records of the same type as the records that initially fired the trigger. For example, if a trigger fires after an update of contact A, the trigger can also modify contacts B, C, and D. Because triggers can cause other records to change, and because these changes can, in turn, fire more triggers, the Apex runtime engine considers all such operations a single unit of work and sets limits on the number of operations that can be performed to prevent infinite recursion. See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. Additionally, if you update or delete a record in its before trigger, or delete a record in its after trigger, you will receive a runtime error. This includes both direct and indirect operations. For example, if you update account A, and the before update trigger of account A inserts contact B, and the after insert trigger of contact B queries for account A and updates it using the DML update statement or database method, then you are indirectly updating account A in its before trigger, and you will receive a runtime error.

Implementation Considerations
Before creating triggers, consider the following:
upsert triggers fire both before and after insert or before and after update triggers as appropriate. merge triggers fire both before and after delete triggers for the losing records and before update triggers for the

winning record only. See Triggers and Merge Statements on page 75. Triggers that execute after a record has been undeleted only work with specific objects. See Triggers and Recovered Records on page 76. Field history is not recorded until the end of a trigger. If you query field history in a trigger, you will not see any history for the current transaction. Do not write triggers that make assumptions about API batches. Salesforce may break up API batches into sets smaller than those specified.

68

Invoking Apex

Bulk Triggers

Bulk Triggers
All triggers are bulk triggers by default, and can process multiple records at a time. You should always plan on processing more than one record at a time. Note: An Event object that is defined as recurring is not processed in bulk for insert, delete, or update triggers.

Bulk triggers can handle both single record updates and bulk operations like: Data import Bulk Force.com API calls Mass actions, such as record owner changes and deletes Recursive Apex methods and triggers that invoke bulk DML statements

Trigger Syntax
To define a trigger, use the following syntax:
trigger triggerName on ObjectName (trigger_events) { code_block }

where trigger_events can be a comma-separated list of one or more of the following events:
before insert before update before delete after insert after update after delete after undelete

Note: You can only use the webService keyword in a trigger when it is in a method defined as asynchronous; that is, when the method is defined with the @future keyword. A trigger invoked by an insert, delete, or update of a recurring event or recurring task results in a runtime error when the trigger is called in bulk from the Force.com API.

For example, the following code defines a trigger for the before insert and before update events on the Account object:
trigger myAccountTrigger on Account (before insert, before update) { // Your code here }

The code block of a trigger cannot contain the static keyword. Triggers can only contain keywords applicable to an inner class. In addition, you do not have to manually commit any database changes made by a trigger. If your Apex script completes successfully, any database changes are automatically committed. If your Apex script does not complete successfully, any changes made to the database are rolled back.

69

Invoking Apex

Trigger Context Variables

Trigger Context Variables


All triggers define implicit variables that allow developers to access runtime context. These variables are contained in the System.Trigger class: Variable
isExecuting isInsert isUpdate isDelete isBefore isAfter isUndelete new

Usage Returns true if the current context for the Apex script is a trigger, not a Visualforce page, a Web service, or an executeanonymous() API call. Returns true if this trigger was fired due to an insert operation, from the Salesforce user interface, Apex, or the API. Returns true if this trigger was fired due to an update operation, from the Salesforce user interface, Apex, or the API. Returns true if this trigger was fired due to a delete operation, from the Salesforce user interface, Apex, or the API. Returns true if this trigger was fired before any record was saved. Returns true if this trigger was fired after all records were saved. Returns true if this trigger was fired after a record is recovered from the Recycle Bin (that is, after an undelete operation from the Salesforce user interface, Apex, or the API.) Returns a list of the new versions of the sObject records. Note that this sObject list is only available in insert and update triggers, and the records can only be modified in before triggers.

newMap

A map of IDs to the new versions of the sObject records. Note that this map is only available in before update, after insert, and after update triggers.

old

Returns a list of the old versions of the sObject records. Note that this sObject list is only available in update and delete triggers.

oldMap

A map of IDs to the old versions of the sObject records. Note that this map is only available in update and delete triggers.

size

The total number of records in a trigger invocation, both old and new.

Note: If any record that fires a trigger includes an invalid field value (for example, a formula that divides by zero), that value is set to null in the new, newMap, old, and oldMap trigger context variables. For example, in this simple trigger, Trigger.new is a list of sObjects and can be iterated over in a for loop, or used as a bind variable in the IN clause of a SOQL query:
Trigger t on Account (after insert) { for (Account a : Trigger.new) { // Iterate over each sObject } // This single query finds every contact that is associated with any of the // triggering accounts. Note that although Trigger.new is a collection of

70

Invoking Apex

Context Variable Considerations

// records, when used as a bind variable in a SOQL query, Apex automatically // transforms the list of records into a list of corresponding Ids. Contact[] cons = [select lastname from contact where accountid in :Trigger.new]; }

This trigger uses Boolean context variables like Trigger.isBefore and Trigger.isDelete to define code that only executes for specific trigger conditions:
trigger myAccountTrigger on Account(before delete, before insert, before update, after delete, after insert, after update) { if (Trigger.isBefore) { if (Trigger.isDelete) { // In a before delete trigger, the trigger accesses the records that will be // deleted with the Trigger.old list. for (Account a : Trigger.old) { if (a.name != 'okToDelete') { a.addError('You can\'t delete this record!'); } } } else { // In before insert or before update triggers, the trigger accesses the new records // with the Trigger.new list. for (Account a : Trigger.new) { if (a.name == 'bad') { a.name.addError('Bad name'); } } if (Trigger.isInsert) { for (Account a : Trigger.new) { System.assertEquals('xxx', a.accountNumber); System.assertEquals('industry', a.industry); System.assertEquals(100, a.numberofemployees); System.assertEquals(100.0, a.annualrevenue); a.accountNumber = 'yyy'; } // If the trigger is not a before trigger, it must be an after trigger. } else { if (Trigger.isInsert) { List<Contact> contacts = new Contact[0]; for (Account a : Trigger.new) { if(a.name == 'makeContact') { contacts.add(new Contact (lastname = a.name, accountId = a.id)); } } insert contacts; } } }}}

Context Variable Considerations


Be aware of the following considerations for trigger context variables:
trigger.new and trigger.old cannot be used in Apex DML operations. You can use an object to change its own field values using trigger.new, but only in before triggers. In all after triggers, trigger.new is not saved, so a runtime exception is thrown. trigger.old is always read-only.

71

Invoking Apex

Common Bulk Trigger Idioms

You cannot delete trigger.new.

The following table lists considerations about certain actions in different trigger events: Trigger Event Can change fields using
trigger.new before insert

Can update original object using an update DML operation Not applicable. The original object has not been created; nothing can reference it, so nothing can update it.

Can delete original object using a delete DML operation Not applicable. The original object has not been created; nothing can reference it, so nothing can update it. Allowed, but unnecessary. The object is deleted immediately after being inserted.

Allowed.

after insert

Not allowed. A runtime error Allowed. is thrown, as trigger.new is already saved. Allowed.

before update after update

Not allowed. A runtime error Not allowed. A runtime error is thrown. is thrown. Allowed. The updates are saved before the object is deleted, so if the object is undeleted, the updates become visible.

Not allowed. A runtime error Allowed. Even though a bad is thrown, as trigger.new script could cause an infinite is already saved. recursion doing this incorrectly, the error would be found by the governor limits. Not allowed. A runtime error is thrown. trigger.new is not available in before delete triggers.

before delete

Allowed. The updates are Not allowed. A runtime error saved before the object is is thrown. The deletion is deleted, so if the object is already in progress. undeleted, the updates become visible.

after delete

Not allowed. A runtime error Not applicable. The object has Not applicable. The object has is thrown. trigger.new is already been deleted. already been deleted. not available in after delete triggers. Not allowed. A runtime error Allowed. is thrown. trigger.old is not available in after undelete triggers. Allowed, but unnecessary. The object is deleted immediately after being inserted.

after undelete

Common Bulk Trigger Idioms


Although bulk triggers allow developers to process more records without exceeding execution governor limits, they can be more difficult for developers to understand and code because they involve processing batches of several records at a time. The following sections provide examples of idioms that should be used frequently when writing in bulk. Using Maps and Sets in Bulk Triggers Set and map data structures are critical for successful coding of bulk triggers. Sets can be used to isolate distinct records, while maps can be used to hold query results organized by record ID. For example, this bulk trigger from the sample quoting application first adds each pricebook entry associated with the OpportunityLineItem records in Trigger.new to a set, ensuring that the set contains only distinct elements. It then queries

72

Invoking Apex

Defining Triggers

the PricebookEntries for their associated product color, and places the results in a map. Once the map is created, the trigger iterates through the OpportunityLineItems in Trigger.new and uses the map to assign the appropriate color.
// When a new line item is added to an opportunity, this trigger copies the value of the // associated product's color to the new record. trigger oppLineTrigger on OpportunityLineItem (before insert) { // For every OpportunityLineItem record, add its associated pricebook entry // to a set so there are no duplicates. Set<Id> pbeIds = new Set<Id>(); for (OpportunityLineItem oli : Trigger.new) pbeIds.add(oli.pricebookentryid); // Query the PricebookEntries for their associated product color and place the results // in a map. Map<Id, PricebookEntry> entries = new Map<Id, PricebookEntry>( [select product2.color__c from pricebookentry where id in :pbeIds]); // Now use the map to set the appropriate color on every OpportunityLineItem processed // by the trigger. for (OpportunityLineItem oli : Trigger.new) oli.color__c = entries.get(oli.pricebookEntryId).product2.color__c; }

Correlating Records with Query Results in Bulk Triggers Use the Trigger.newMap and Trigger.oldMap ID-to-sObject maps to correlate records with query results. For example, this trigger from the sample quoting app uses Trigger.oldMap to create a set of unique IDs (Trigger.oldMap.keySet()). The set is then used as part of a query to create a list of quotes associated with the opportunities being processed by the trigger. For every quote returned by the query, the related opportunity is retrieved from Trigger.oldMap and prevented from being deleted:
trigger oppTrigger on Opportunity (before delete) { for (Quote__c q : [select opportunity__c from quote__c where opportunity__c in :Trigger.oldMap.keySet()]) { Trigger.oldMap.get(q.opportunity__c).addError('Cannot delete opportunity with a quote'); } }

Using Triggers to Insert or Update Records with Unique Fields When an insert or upsert event causes a record to duplicate the value of a unique field in another new record in that batch, the error message for the duplicate record includes the ID of the first record. However, it is possible that the error message may not be correct by the time the request is finished. When there are triggers present, the retry logic in bulk operations causes a rollback/retry cycle to occur. That retry cycle assigns new keys to the new records. For example, if two records are inserted with the same value for a unique field, and you also have an insert event defined for a trigger, the second duplicate record fails, reporting the ID of the first record. However, once the system rolls back the changes and re-inserts the first record by itself, the record receives a new ID. That means the error message reported by the second record is no longer valid.

Defining Triggers
Trigger scripts are stored as metadata under the object with which they are associated. To define a trigger in Salesforce: 1. For a standard object, click Your Name Setup Customize, click the name of the object, then click Triggers.

73

Invoking Apex

Defining Triggers

For a custom object, click Your Name Setup Create Objects and click the name of the object. For campaign members, click Your Name Setup Customize Campaigns Campaign Member Triggers. For case comments, click Your Name Setup Cases Case Comments Triggers. For email messages, click Your Name Setup Cases Email Messages Triggers. 2. In the Triggers related list, click New. 3. Click Version Settings to specify the version of Apex and the API used with this trigger. If your organization has installed managed packages from the AppExchange, you can also specify which version of each managed package to use with this trigger. Use the default values for all versions. This associates the trigger with the most recent version of Apex and the API, as well as each managed package. You can specify an older version of a managed package if you want to access components or functionality that differs from the most recent package version. You can specify an older version of Apex and the API to maintain specific behavior. 4. Select the Is Active checkbox if the trigger should be compiled and enabled. Leave this checkbox deselected if you only want to store the code in your organization's metadata. This checkbox is selected by default. 5. In the Body text box, enter the Apex for the trigger. A single trigger can be up to 1 million characters in length. To define a trigger, use the following syntax:
trigger triggerName on ObjectName (trigger_events) { code_block }

where trigger_events can be a comma-separated list of one or more of the following events:
before insert before update before delete after insert after update after delete after undelete

Note: You can only use the webService keyword in a trigger when it is in a method defined as asynchronous; that is, when the method is defined with the @future keyword. A trigger invoked by an insert, delete, or update of a recurring event or recurring task results in a runtime error when the trigger is called in bulk from the Force.com API.

6. Click Save. Note: Triggers are stored with an isValid flag that is set to true as long as dependent metadata has not changed since the trigger was last compiled. If any changes are made to object names or fields that are used in the trigger, including superficial changes such as edits to an object or field description, the isValid flag is set to false until the Apex compiler reprocesses the code. Recompiling occurs when the trigger is next executed, or when a user re-saves the trigger in metadata. If a lookup field references a record that is deleted, Salesforce sets the lookup field to null, and does not run any Apex triggers, validation rules, workflow rules, or roll-up summary fields.

The Apex Trigger Editor


When editing Visualforce or Apex, either in the Visualforce development mode footer or from Setup, an editor is available with the following functionality:

74

Invoking Apex

Triggers and Merge Statements

Syntax highlighting The editor automatically applies syntax highlighting for keywords and all functions and operators. Search ( ) Search enables you to search for text within the current page, class, or trigger. To use search, enter a string in the Search textbox and click Find Next. To replace a found search string with another string, enter the new string in the Replace textbox and click replace to replace just that instance, or Replace All to replace that instance and all other instances of the search string that occur in the page, class, or trigger. To make the search operation case sensitive, select the Match Case option. To use a regular expression as your search string, select the Regular Expressions option. The regular expressions follow Javascript's regular expression rules. A search using regular expressions can find strings that wrap over more than one line. If you use the replace operation with a string found by a regular expression, the replace operation can also bind regular expression group variables ($1, $2, and so on) from the found search string. For example, to replace an <H1> tag with an <H2> tag and keep all the attributes on the original <H1> intact, search for <H1(\s+)(.*)> and replace it with <H2$1$2>.

Go to line ( ) This button allows you to highlight a specified line number. If the line is not currently visible, the editor scrolls to that line. Undo ( ) and Redo ( ) Use undo to reverse an editing action and redo to recreate an editing action that was undone. Font size Select a font size from the drop-down list to control the size of the characters displayed in the editor. Line and column position The line and column position of the cursor is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the editor. This can be used with go to line ( ) to quickly navigate through the editor.

Line and character count The total number of lines and characters is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the editor.

Triggers and Merge Statements


Merge events do not fire their own trigger events. Instead, they fire delete and update events as follows: Deletion of losing records A single merge operation fires a single delete event for all records that are deleted in the merge. To determine which records were deleted as a result of a merge operation use the MasterRecordId field in Trigger.old. When a record is deleted after losing a merge operation, its MasterRecordId field is set to the ID of the winning record. The MasterRecordId field is only set in after delete trigger events. If your application requires special handling for deleted records that occur as a result of a merge, you need to use the after delete trigger event. Update of the winning record A single merge operation fires a single update event for the winning record only. Any child records that are reparented as a result of the merge operation do not fire triggers.

75

Invoking Apex

Triggers and Recovered Records

For example, if two contacts are merged, only the delete and update contact triggers fire. No triggers for records related to the contacts, such as accounts or opportunities, fire. The following is the order of events when a merge occurs: 1. The before delete trigger fires. 2. The system deletes the necessary records due to the merge, assigns new parent records to the child records, and sets the MasterRecordId field on the deleted records. 3. The after delete trigger fires. 4. The system does the specific updates required for the master record. Normal update triggers apply.

Triggers and Recovered Records


The after undelete trigger event only works with recovered recordsthat is, records that were deleted and then recovered from the Recycle Bin. These are also called undeleted records. The after undelete trigger events only run on top-level objects. For example, if you delete an Account, an Opportunity may also be deleted. When you recover the Account from the Recycle Bin, the Opportunity is also recovered. If there is an after undelete trigger event associated with both the Account and the Opportunity, only the Account after undelete trigger event executes. The after undelete trigger event only fires for the following objects: Account Asset Campaign Case Contact Contract Custom objects Event Lead Opportunity Product Solution Task

Triggers and Order of Execution


When you save a record with an insert, update, or upsert statement, Salesforce performs the following events in order. Note: Before Salesforce executes these events on the server, the browser runs JavaScript validation if the record contains any dependent picklist fields. The validation limits each dependent picklist field to its available values. No other validation occurs on the client side. On the server, Salesforce: 1. Loads the original record from the database or initializes the record for an upsert statement. 2. Loads the new record field values from the request and overwrites the old values. If the request came from a standard UI edit page, Salesforce runs system validation to check the record for: Compliance with layout-specific rules Required values at the layout level and field-definition level Valid field formats

76

Invoking Apex

Triggers and Order of Execution

Maximum field length

Salesforce does not perform system validation in this step when the request comes from other sources, such as an Apex application or a Web services API call. 3. Executes all before triggers. 4. Runs most system validation steps again, such as verifying that all required fields have a non-null value, and runs any user-defined validation rules. The only system validation that Salesforce does not run a second time (when the request comes from a standard UI edit page) is the enforcement of layout-specific rules. 5. Saves the record to the database, but does not commit yet. 6. Executes all after triggers. 7. Executes assignment rules. 8. Executes auto-response rules. 9. Executes workflow rules. 10. If there are workflow field updates, updates the record again. 11. If the record was updated with workflow field updates, fires before and after triggers one more time (and only one more time), in addition to standard validations. Custom validation rules are not run again. Note: The before and after triggers fire one more time only if something needs to be updated. If the fields have already been set to a value, the triggers are not fired again. 12. Executes escalation rules. 13. If the record contains a roll-up summary field or is part of a cross-object workflow, performs calculations and updates the roll-up summary field in the parent record. Parent record goes through save procedure. 14. If the parent record is updated, and a grand-parent record contains a roll-up summary field or is part of a cross-object workflow, performs calculations and updates the roll-up summary field in the parent record. Grand-parent record goes through save procedure. 15. Executes Criteria Based Sharing evaluation. 16. Commits all DML operations to the database. 17. Executes post-commit logic, such as sending email. Note: During a recursive save, Salesforce skips steps 7 through 14.

Additional Considerations
Please note the following when working with triggers: When Enable Validation and Triggers from Lead Convert is selected, if the lead conversion creates an opportunity and the opportunity has Apex before triggers associated with it, the triggers run immediately after the opportunity is created, before the opportunity contact role is created. For more information, see Customizing Lead Settings in the Salesforce online help. If you are using before triggers to set Stage and Forecast Category for an opportunity record, the behavior is as follows: If you set Stage and Forecast Category, the opportunity record contains those exact values. If you set Stage but not Forecast Category, the Forecast Category value on the opportunity record defaults to the one associated with trigger Stage. If you reset Stage to a value specified in an API call or incoming from the user interface, the Forecast Category value should also come from the API call or user interface. If no value for Forecast Category is specified and the incoming Stage is different than the trigger Stage, the Forecast Category defaults to the one associated with trigger Stage. If the trigger Stage and incoming Stage are the same, the Forecast Category is not defaulted.

77

Invoking Apex

Operations That Do Not Invoke Triggers

If you are cloning an opportunity with products, the following events occur in order: 1. The parent opportunity is saved according to the list of events shown above. 2. The opportunity products are saved according to the list of events shown above. Note: If errors occur on an opportunity product, you must return to the opportunity and fix the errors before cloning. If any opportunity products contain unique custom fields, you must null them out before cloning the opportunity.

Operations That Do Not Invoke Triggers


Triggers are only invoked for data manipulation language (DML) operations that are initiated or processed by the Java application server. Consequently, some system bulk operations do not currently invoke triggers. Some examples include: Cascading delete operations. Records that did not initiate a delete do not cause trigger evaluation. Cascading updates of child records that are reparented as a result of a merge operation Mass campaign status changes Mass division transfers Mass address updates Mass approval request transfers Mass email actions Modifying custom field data types Renaming or replacing picklists Managing price books Changing a user's default division with the transfer division option checked Changes to the following objects: BrandTemplate MassEmailTemplate Folder Note: Inserts, updates, and deletes on person accounts fire account triggers, not contact triggers.

Before triggers associated with the following operations are only fired during lead conversion if validation and triggers for lead conversion are enabled in the organization:
insert of accounts, contacts, and opportunities update of accounts and contacts

Opportunity triggers are not fired when the account owner changes as a result of the associated opportunity's owner changing. When you modify an opportunity product on an opportunity, or when an opportunity product schedule changes an opportunity product, even if the opportunity product changes the opportunity, the before and after triggers and the validation rules do not fire for the opportunity. However, roll-up summary fields do get updated, and workflow rules associated with the opportunity do run. The getContent and getContentAsPDF PageReference methods aren't allowed in triggers. Note the following for the ContentVersion object: Content pack operations involving the ContentVersion object, including slides and slide autorevision, don't invoke triggers.

78

Invoking Apex

Fields that Cannot Be Updated by Triggers

Note: Content packs are revised when a slide inside of the pack is revised.

Values for the TagCsv, ContentSize, and VersionData fields are only available in triggers if the request to create or update ContentVersion records originates from the API. You can't use before or after delete triggers with the ContentVersion object.

Things to consider about FeedItem and FeedComment triggers: FeedItem and FeedComment objects don't support updates. Don't use before update or after update triggers. FeedItem and FeedComment objects can't be undeleted. Don't use the after undelete trigger. Only FeedItems of Type TextPost, LinkPost, and ContentPost can be inserted, and therefore invoke the before or after insert trigger. User status updates don't cause the FeedItem triggers to fire. While FeedPost objects were supported for API versions 18.0, 19.0, and 20.0, don't use any insert or delete triggers saved against versions prior to 21.0. For FeedItem the following fields are not available in the before insert trigger: ContentSize ContentType

In addition, the ContentData field is not available in any delete trigger. Apex code uses additional security when executing in a Chatter context. To post to a private group, the user running the code must be a member of that group. If the running user isn't a member, you can set the CreatedById field to be a member of the group in the FeedItem record.

Fields that Cannot Be Updated by Triggers


Some field values are set during the system save operation which occurs after before triggers have fired. As a result, these fields cannot be modified or accurately detected in before insert or before update triggers. Some examples include:
Task.isClosed Opportunity.amount* Opportunity.ForecastCategory Opportunity.isWon Opportunity.isClosed Contract.activatedDate Contract.activatedById Case.isClosed Solution.isReviewed Id (for all records)** createdDate (for all records)** lastUpdated (for all records)

* When Opportunity has no lineitems, Amount can be modified by a before trigger. ** Id and createdDate can be detected in before update triggers, but cannot be modified.

Trigger Exceptions
Triggers can be used to prevent DML operations from occurring by calling the addError() method on a record or field. When used on Trigger.new records in insert and update triggers, and on Trigger.old records in delete triggers, the custom error message is displayed in the application interface and logged.

79

Invoking Apex

Apex Scheduler

Note: Users experience less of a delay in response time if errors are added to before triggers.

A subset of the records being processed can be marked with the addError() method: If the trigger was spawned by a DML statement in Apex, any one error results in the entire operation rolling back. However, the runtime engine still processes every record in the operation to compile a comprehensive list of errors. If the trigger was spawned by a bulk DML call in the Force.com API, the runtime engine sets aside the bad records and attempts to do a partial save of the records that did not generate errors. See Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

If a trigger ever throws an unhandled exception, all records are marked with an error and no further processing takes place.

Apex Scheduler
To invoke Apex classes to run at specific times, first implement the Schedulable interface for the class, then specify the schedule using either the Schedule Apex page in the Salesforce user interface, or the System.schedule method. For more information about the Schedule Apex page, see Scheduling Apex in the Salesforce online help. Important: Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. You can only have ten classes scheduled at one time. You can evaluate your current count by viewing the Scheduled Jobs page in Salesforce or programmatically using the Force.com Web services API to query the CronTrigger object. Use extreme care if you are planning to schedule a class from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more scheduled classes than the ten that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time.

Implementing the Schedulable Interface


To schedule an Apex class to run at regular intervals, first write an Apex class that implements the Salesforce-provided interface Schedulable. The scheduler runs as system: all classes are executed, whether the user has permission to execute the class or not. For more information on setting class permissions, see Setting Apex Class Security in the Salesforce online help. To monitor or stop the execution of a scheduled Apex job using the Salesforce user interface, click Your Name Setup Monitoring Scheduled Jobs. For more information, see Monitoring Scheduled Jobs in the Salesforce online help. The Schedulable interface contains one method that must be implemented, execute.
global void execute(SchedulableContext sc){}

Use this method to instantiate the class you want to schedule. Tip: Though it's possible to do additional processing in the execute method, Salesforce recommends that all processing take place in a separate class. The following example implements the Schedulable interface for a class called mergeNumbers:
global class scheduledMerge implements Schedulable{ global void execute(SchedulableContext SC) {

80

Invoking Apex

Apex Scheduler

mergeNumbers M = new mergeNumbers(); } }

The following example uses the System.Schedule method to implement the above class.
scheduledMerge m = new scheduledMerge(); String sch = '20 30 8 10 2 ?'; system.schedule('Merge Job', sch, m);

You can also use the Schedulable interface with batch Apex classes. The following example implements the Schedulable interface for a batch Apex class called batchable:
global class scheduledBatchable implements Schedulable{ global void execute(SchedulableContext sc) { batchable b = new batchable(); database.executebatch(b); } }

Use the SchedulableContext object to keep track of the scheduled job once it's scheduled. The SchedulableContext method getTriggerID returns the Id of the CronTrigger object associated with this scheduled job as a string. Use this method to track the progress of the scheduled job. To stop execution of a job that was scheduled, use the System.abortJob method with the ID returned by the.getTriggerID method.

Testing the Apex Scheduler


The following is an example of how to test using the Apex scheduler. This is the class to be tested.
global class TestScheduledApexFromTestMethod implements Schedulable { // This test runs a scheduled job at midnight Sept. 3rd. 2022 public static String CRON_EXP = '0 0 0 3 9 ? 2022'; global void execute(SchedulableContext ctx) { CronTrigger ct = [SELECT id, CronExpression, TimesTriggered, NextFireTime FROM CronTrigger WHERE id = :ctx.getTriggerId()]; System.assertEquals(CRON_EXP, ct.CronExpression); System.assertEquals(0, ct.TimesTriggered); System.assertEquals('2022-09-03 00:00:00', String.valueOf(ct.NextFireTime)); Account a = [SELECT id, name FROM Account WHERE name = 'testScheduledApexFromTestMethod']; a.name = 'testScheduledApexFromTestMethodUpdated'; update a; } }

The following tests the above class:


@istest class TestClass { static testmethod void test() {

81

Invoking Apex

Apex Scheduler

Test.startTest(); Account a = new Account(); a.name = 'testScheduledApexFromTestMethod'; insert a; // Schedule the test job String jobId = System.schedule('testBasicScheduledApex', TestScheduledApexFromTestMethod.CRON_EXP, new TestScheduledApexFromTestMethod()); // Get the information from the CronTrigger API object CronTrigger ct = [SELECT id, CronExpression, TimesTriggered, NextFireTime FROM CronTrigger WHERE id = :jobId]; // Verify the expressions are the same System.assertEquals(TestScheduledApexFromTestMethod.CRON_EXP, ct.CronExpression); // Verify the job has not run System.assertEquals(0, ct.TimesTriggered); // Verify the next time the job will run System.assertEquals('2022-09-03 00:00:00', String.valueOf(ct.NextFireTime)); System.assertNotEquals('testScheduledApexFromTestMethodUpdated', [SELECT id, name FROM account WHERE id = :a.id].name); Test.stopTest(); System.assertEquals('testScheduledApexFromTestMethodUpdated', [SELECT id, name FROM account WHERE id = :a.id].name); } }

Using the System.Schedule Method


After you implement a class with the Schedulable interface, use the System.Schedule method to execute it. The scheduler runs as system: all classes are executed, whether the user has permission to execute the class or not. Note: Use extreme care if you are planning to schedule a class from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more scheduled classes than the ten that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time. The System.Schedule method takes three arguments: a name for the job, an expression used to represent the time and date the job is scheduled to run, and the name of the class. This expression has the following syntax:
Seconds Minutes Hours Day_of_month Month Day_of_week optional_year

Note: Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. The System.Schedule method uses the user's timezone for the basis of all schedules. The following are the values for the expression:

82

Invoking Apex

Apex Scheduler

Name
Seconds Minutes Hours Day_of_month Month

Values 059 059 023 131 112 or the following: JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 17 or the following: SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT null or 19702099

Special Characters None None


, - * / , - * ? / L W , - * /

Day_of_week

, - * ? / L #

optional_year

, - * /

The special characters are defined as follows: Special Character


,

Description Delimits values. For example, use JAN, MAR, APR to specify more than one month. Specifies a range. For example, use JAN-MAR to specify more than one month. Specifies all values. For example, if Month is specified as *, the job is scheduled for every month. Specifies no specific value. This is only available for Day_of_month and Day_of_week, and is generally used when specifying a value for one and not the other. Specifies increments. The number before the slash specifies when the intervals should begin, and the number after the slash is the interval amount. For example,

83

Invoking Apex

Apex Scheduler

Special Character

Description if you specify 1/5 for Day_of_month, the Apex class runs every fifth day of the month, starting on the first of the month.

Specifies the end of a range (last). This is only available for Day_of_month and Day_of_week. When used with Day of month, L always means the last day of the month, such as January 31, February 28 for leap years, and so on. When used with Day_of_week by itself, it always means 7 or SAT. When used with a Day_of_week value, it means the last of that type of day in the month. For example, if you specify 2L, you are specifying the last Monday of the month. Do not use a range of values with L as the results may be unexpected. Specifies the nearest weekday (Monday-Friday) of the given day. This is only available for Day_of_month. For example, if you specify 20W, and the 20th is a Saturday, the class runs on the 19th. If you specify 1W, and the first is a Saturday, the class does not run in the previous month, but on the third, which is the following Monday. Tip: Use the L and W together to specify the last weekday of the month.

Specifies the nth day of the month, in the format weekday#day_of_month. This is only available for Day_of_week. The number before the # specifies weekday (SUN-SAT). The number after the # specifies the day of the month. For example, specifying 2#2 means the class runs on the second Monday of every month.

The following are some examples of how to use the expression. Expression
0 0 13 * * ? 0 0 22 ? * 6L 0 0 10 ? * MON-FRI 0 0 20 * * ? 2010

Description Class runs every day at 1 P.M. Class runs the last Friday of every month at 10 P.M. Class runs Monday through Friday at 10 A.M. Class runs every day at 8 P.M. during the year 2010.

In the following example, the class proschedule implements the Schedulable interface. The class is scheduled to run at 8 A.M., on the 13th of February.
proschedule p = new proschedule(); String sch = '0 0 8 13 2 ?'; system.schedule('One Time Pro', sch, p);

Apex Scheduler Best Practices


Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. Use extreme care if you are planning to schedule a class from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more scheduled classes than the ten that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time.

84

Invoking Apex

Anonymous Blocks

Though it's possible to do additional processing in the execute method, Salesforce recommends that all processing take place in a separate class. You can only have ten classes scheduled at one time. You can evaluate your current count by viewing the Scheduled Jobs page in Salesforce or programmatically using the Force.com Web services API to query the CronTrigger object. You can't use the getContent and getContentAsPDF PageReference methods in scheduled Apex.

Anonymous Blocks
An anonymous block is an Apex script that does not get stored in the metadata, but that can be compiled and executed using one of the following: System Log console Force.com IDE The executeAnonymous Web services API call:
ExecuteAnonymousResult executeAnonymous(String code)

You can use anonymous blocks to quickly evaluate Apex on the fly, such as in System Log console or the Force.com IDE, or to write scripts that change dynamically at runtime. For example, you might write a client Web application that takes input from a user, such as a name and address, and then uses an anonymous block of Apex to insert a contact with that name and address into the database. Note the following about the content of an anonymous block (for executeAnonymous, the code String): Can include user-defined methods and exceptions. User-defined methods cannot include the keyword static. You do not have to manually commit any database changes. If your Apex script completes successfully, any database changes are automatically committed. If your Apex script does not complete successfully, any changes made to the database are rolled back. Unlike classes and triggers, anonymous blocks execute as the current user and can fail to compile if the script violates the user's object- and field-level permissions. Do not have a scope other than local. For example, though it is legal to use the global access modifier, it has no meaning. The scope of the method is limited to the anonymous block.

Even though a user-defined method can refer to itself or later methods without the need for forward declarations, variables cannot be referenced before their actual declaration. In the following example, the Integer int must be declared while myProcedure1 does not:
Integer int1 = 0; void myProcedure1() { myProcedure2(); } void myProcedure2() { int1++; } myProcedure1();

The return result for anonymous blocks includes: Status information for the compile and execute phases of the call, including any errors that occur

85

Invoking Apex

Apex in AJAX

The debug log content, including the output of any calls to the System.debug method (see Understanding the Debug Log on page 177) The Apex stack trace of any uncaught script execution exceptions, including the class, method, and line number for each call stack element

For more information on executeAnonymous(), see Web Services API Calls and SOAP Headers for Apex on page 460. See also Using the System Log Console on page 179 and the Force.com IDE.

Apex in AJAX
The AJAX toolkit includes built-in support for invoking Apex through anonymous blocks or public webService methods. To do so, include the following lines in your AJAX code:
<script src="/soap/ajax/15.0/connection.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script src="/soap/ajax/15.0/apex.js" type="text/javascript"></script>

Note: For AJAX buttons, use the alternate forms of these includes.

To invoke Apex, use one of the following two methods: Execute anonymously via sforce.apex.executeAnonymous (script). This method returns a result similar to the API's result type, but as a JavaScript structure. Use a class WSDL. For example, you can call the following Apex class:
global class myClass { webService static Id makeContact(String lastName, Account a) { Contact c = new Contact(LastName = lastName, AccountId = a.Id); return c.id; } }

By using the following JavaScript code:


var account = sforce.sObject("Account"); var id = sforce.apex.execute("myClass","makeContact", {lastName:"Smith", a:account});

The execute method takes primitive data types, sObjects, and lists of primitives or sObjects. To call a webService method with no parameters, use {} as the third parameter for sforce.apex.execute. For example, to call the following Apex class:
global class myClass{ webService static String getContextUserName() { return UserInfo.getFirstName(); } }

Use the following JavaScript code:


var contextUser = sforce.apex.execute("myClass", "getContextUserName", {});

86

Invoking Apex

Apex in AJAX

Note: If a namespace has been defined for your organization, you must include it in the JavaScript code when you invoke the class. For example, to call the above class, the JavaScript code from above would be rewritten as follows:
var contextUser = sforce.apex.execute("myNamespace.myClass", "getContextUserName", {});

To verify whether your organization has a namespace, log in to your Salesforce organization and navigate to Your Name Setup Create Packages. If a namespace is defined, it is listed under Developer Settings. Both examples result in native JavaScript values that represent the return type of the methods. Use the following line to display a popup window with debugging information:
sforce.debug.trace=true;

87

Chapter 4
Classes, Objects, and Interfaces
In this chapter ... Understanding Classes Interfaces and Extending Classes Keywords Annotations Classes and Casting Differences Between Apex Classes and Java Classes Class Definition Creation Class Security Namespace Prefix Version Settings
A class is a template or blueprint from which Apex objects are created. Classes consist of other classes, user-defined methods, variables, exception types, and static initialization code. They are stored in the application under Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. Once successfully saved, class methods or variables can be invoked by other Apex code, or through the Web services API (or AJAX Toolkit) for methods that have been designated with the webService keyword. In most cases, the class concepts described here are modeled on their counterparts in Java, and can be quickly understood by those who are familiar with them. Understanding Classesmore about creating classes in Apex Interfaces and Extending Classesinformation about interfaces Keywords and Annotationsadditional modifiers for classes, methods or variables Classes and Castingassigning a class of one data type to another Differences Between Apex Classes and Java Classeshow Apex and Java differ Class Definition Creation and Class Securitycreating a class in the Salesforce user interface as well as enabling users to access a class Namespace Prefix and Version Settingsusing a namespace prefix and versioning Apex classes

88

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Understanding Classes

Understanding Classes
As in Java, you can create classes in Apex. A class is a template or blueprint from which objects are created. An object is an instance of a class. For example, the PurchaseOrder class describes an entire purchase order, and everything that you can do with a purchase order. An instance of the PurchaseOrder class is a specific purchase order that you send or receive. All objects have state and behavior, that is, things that an object knows about itself, and things that an object can do. The state of a PurchaseOrder objectwhat it knowsincludes the user who sent it, the date and time it was created, and whether it was flagged as important. The behavior of a PurchaseOrder objectwhat it can doincludes checking inventory, shipping a product, or notifying a customer. A class can contain variables and methods. Variables are used to specify the state of an object, such as the object's Name or Type. Since these variables are associated with a class and are members of it, they are commonly referred to as member variables. Methods are used to control behavior, such as getOtherQuotes or copyLineItems. An interface is like a class in which none of the methods have been implementedthe method signatures are there, but the body of each method is empty. To use an interface, another class must implement it by providing a body for all of the methods contained in the interface. For more general information on classes, objects, and interfaces, see http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/concepts/index.html

Apex Defining Classes


In Apex, you can define top-level classes (also called outer classes) as well as inner classes, that is, a class defined within another class. You can only have inner classes one level deep. For example:
public class myOuterClass { // Additional myOuterClass code here class myInnerClass { // myInnerClass code here } }

To define a class, specify the following: 1. Access modifiers: You must use one of the access modifiers (such as public or global) in the declaration of a top-level class. You do not have to use an access modifier in the declaration of an inner class.

2. Optional definition modifiers (such as virtual, abstract, and so on) 3. Required: The keyword class followed by the name of the class 4. Optional extensions and/or implementations Use the following syntax for defining classes:
private | public | global [virtual | abstract | with sharing | without sharing | (none)] class ClassName [implements InterfaceNameList | (none)] [extends ClassName | (none)] { // The body of the class }

89

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Extended Class Example

The private access modifier declares that this class is only known locally, that is, only by this section of code. This is the default access for inner classesthat is, if you don't specify an access modifier for an inner class, it is considered private. This keyword can only be used with inner classes. The public access modifier declares that this class is visible in your application or namespace. The global access modifier declares that this class is known by all Apex scripts everywhere. All classes that contain methods defined with the webService keyword must be declared as global. If a method or inner class is declared as global, the outer, top-level class must also be defined as global. The with sharing and without sharing keywords specify the sharing mode for this class. For more information, see Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords on page 111. The virtual definition modifier declares that this class allows extension and overrides. You cannot override a method with the override keyword unless the class has been defined as virtual. The abstract definition modifier declares that this class contains abstract methods, that is, methods that only have their signature declared and no body defined. Note: Classes defined with either virtual or abstract cannot also be defined as global in Developer Edition organizations. They can be defined as global in sandbox organizations. Only private and public classes can be defined as either virtual or abstract in Developer Edition organizations. However, a class defined as global can extend virtual or abstract classes in either Developer Edition organizations or sandboxes. You cannot add a method to an abstract or virtual class after the class has been uploaded in a Managed - Released package version. For more information about managed packages, see Developing Apex in Managed Packages on page 193.

A class can implement multiple interfaces, but only extend one existing class. This restriction means that Apex does not support multiple inheritance. The interface names in the list are separated by commas. For more information about interfaces, see Interfaces and Extending Classes on page 103. For more information about method and variable access modifiers, see Access Modifiers on page 96.

Extended Class Example


The following is an extended example of a class, showing all the features of Apex classes. The keywords and concepts introduced in the example are explained in more detail throughout this chapter.
// Top-level (outer) class must be public or global (usually public unless they contain // a Web Service, then they must be global) public class OuterClass { // Static final variable (constant) outer class level only private static final Integer MY_INT; // Non-final static variable - use this to communicate state across triggers // within a single request) public static String sharedState; // Static method - outer class level only public static Integer getInt() { return MY_INT; } // Static initialization (can be included where the variable is defined) static { MY_INT = 2; } // Member variable for outer class private final String m; // Instance initialization block - can be done where the variable is declared, // or in a constructor

90

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Extended Class Example

{ m = 'a'; } // Because no constructor is explicitly defined in this outer class, an implicit, // no-argument, public constructor exists // Inner interface public virtual interface MyInterface { // No access modifier is necessary for interface methods - these are always // public or global depending on the interface visibility void myMethod(); } // Interface extension interface MySecondInterface extends MyInterface { Integer method2(Integer i); } // Inner class - because it is virtual it can be extended. // This class implements an interface that, in turn, extends another interface. // Consequently the class must implement all methods. public virtual class InnerClass implements MySecondInterface { // Inner member variables private final String s; private final String s2; // Inner instance initialization block (this code could be located above) { this.s = 'x'; } // Inline initialization (happens after the block above executes) private final Integer i = s.length(); // Explicit no argument constructor InnerClass() { // This invokes another constructor that is defined later this('none'); } // Constructor that assigns a final variable value public InnerClass(String s2) { this.s2 = s2; } // Instance method that implements a method from MyInterface. // Because it is declared virtual it can be overridden by a subclass. public virtual void myMethod() { /* does nothing */ } // Implementation of the second interface method above. // This method references member variables (with and without the "this" prefix) public Integer method2(Integer i) { return this.i + s.length(); } } // Abstract class (that subclasses the class above). No constructor is needed since // parent class has a no-argument constructor public abstract class AbstractChildClass extends InnerClass { // Override the parent class method with this signature. // Must use the override keyword public override void myMethod() { /* do something else */ } // Same name as parent class method, but different signature. // This is a different method (displaying polymorphism) so it does not need

91

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Extended Class Example

// to use the override keyword protected void method2() {} // Abstract method - subclasses of this class must implement this method abstract Integer abstractMethod(); } // Complete the abstract class by implementing its abstract method public class ConcreteChildClass extends AbstractChildClass { // Here we expand the visibility of the parent method - note that visibility // cannot be restricted by a sub-class public override Integer abstractMethod() { return 5; } } // A second sub-class of the original InnerClass public class AnotherChildClass extends InnerClass { AnotherChildClass(String s) { // Explicitly invoke a different super constructor than one with no arguments super(s); } } // Exception inner class public virtual class MyException extends Exception { // Exception class member variable public Double d; // Exception class constructor MyException(Double d) { this.d = d; } // Exception class method, marked as protected protected void doIt() {} } // Exception classes can be abstract and implement interfaces public abstract class MySecondException extends Exception implements MyInterface { } }

This code example illustrates: A top-level class definition (also called an outer class) Static variables and static methods in the top-level class, as well as static initialization code blocks Member variables and methods for the top-level class Classes with no user-defined constructor these have an implicit, no-argument constructor An interface definition in the top-level class An interface that extends another interface Inner class definitions (one level deep) within a top-level class A class that implements an interface (and, therefore, its associated sub-interface) by implementing public versions of the method signatures An inner class constructor definition and invocation An inner class member variable and a reference to it using the this keyword (with no arguments) An inner class constructor that uses the this keyword (with arguments) to invoke a different constructor Initialization code outside of constructors both where variables are defined, as well as with anonymous blocks in curly braces ({}). Note that these execute with every construction in the order they appear in the file, as with Java. Class extension and an abstract class Methods that override base class methods (which must be declared virtual)

92

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Declaring Class Variables

The override keyword for methods that override subclass methods Abstract methods and their implementation by concrete sub-classes The protected access modifier Exceptions as first class objects with members, methods, and constructors

This example shows how the class above can be called by another Apex script:
// Construct an instance of an inner concrete class, with a user-defined constructor OuterClass.InnerClass ic = new OuterClass.InnerClass('x'); // Call user-defined methods in the class System.assertEquals(2, ic.method2(1)); // Define a variable with an interface data type, and assign it a value that is of // a type that implements that interface OuterClass.MyInterface mi = ic; // Use instanceof and casting as usual OuterClass.InnerClass ic2 = mi instanceof OuterClass.InnerClass ? (OuterClass.InnerClass)mi : null; System.assert(ic2 != null); // Construct the outer type OuterClass o = new OuterClass(); System.assertEquals(2, OuterClass.getInt()); // Construct instances of abstract class children System.assertEquals(5, new OuterClass.ConcreteChildClass().abstractMethod()); // Illegal - cannot construct an abstract class // new OuterClass.AbstractChildClass(); // Illegal cannot access a static method through an instance // o.getInt(); // Illegal - cannot call protected method externally // new OuterClass.ConcreteChildClass().method2();

This code example illustrates: Construction of the outer class Construction of an inner class and the declaration of an inner interface type A variable declared as an interface type can be assigned an instance of a class that implements that interface Casting an interface variable to be a class type that implements that interface (after verifying this using the instanceof operator)

Declaring Class Variables


To declare a variable, specify the following: Optional: Modifiers, such as public or final, as well as static. Required: The data type of the variable, such as String or Boolean. Required: The name of the variable. Optional: The value of the variable.

Use the following syntax when defining a variable:


[public | private | protected | global | final] [static] data type variable name [= value]

93

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Defining Class Methods

For example:
private static final Integer MY_INT; private final Integer i = 1;

Defining Class Methods


To define a method, specify the following: Optional: Modifiers, such as public or protected. Required: The data type of the value returned by the method, such as String or Integer. Use void if the method does not return a value. Required: A list of input parameters for the method, separated by commas, each preceded by its data type, and enclosed in parentheses (). If there are no parameters, use a set of empty parentheses. A method can only have 32 input parameters. Required: The body of the method, enclosed in braces {}. All the code for the method, including any local variable declarations, is contained here.

Use the following syntax when defining a method:


(public | private | protected | global ) [override] [static] data type method name (input parameters) { // The body of the method }

Note: You can only use override to override methods in classes that have been defined as virtual.

For example:
public static Integer getInt() { return MY_INT; }

As in Java, methods that return values can also be run as a statement if their results are not assigned to another variable. Note that user-defined methods: Can be used anywhere that system methods are used. Pass arguments by reference, so that a variable that is passed into a method and then modified will also be modified in the original code that called the method. Can be recursive. Can have side effects, such as DML insert statements that initialize sObject record IDs. See Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations on page 217. Can refer to themselves or to methods defined later in the same class or anonymous block. Apex parses methods in two phases, so forward declarations are not needed. Can be polymorphic. For example, a method named foo can be implemented in two ways, one with a single Integer parameter and one with two Integer parameters. Depending on whether the method is called with one or two Integers, the Apex parser selects the appropriate implementation to execute. If the parser cannot find an exact match, it then seeks an approximate match using type coercion rules. For more information on data conversion, see Understanding Rules of Conversion on page 41.

94

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using Constructors

Note: If the parser finds multiple approximate matches, a parse-time exception is generated.

Cannot be declared as static when used in a trigger . When using void methods that have side effects, user-defined methods are typically executed as stand-alone procedure statements in Apex scripts. For example:
System.debug('Here's a note for the log.');

Can have statements where the return values are run as a statement if their results are not assigned to another variable. This is the same as in Java.

Using Constructors
A constructor is code that is invoked when an object is created from the class blueprint. You do not need to write a constructor for every class. If a class does not have a user-defined constructor, an implicit, no-argument, public one is used. The syntax for a constructor is similar to a method, but it differs from a method definition in that it never has an explicit return type and it is not inherited by the object created from it. After you write the constructor for a class, you must use the new keyword in order to instantiate an object from that class, using that constructor. For example, using the following class:
public class TestObject { // The no argument constructor public TestObject() { // more code here } }

A new object of this type can be instantiated with the following code:
TestObject myTest = new TestObject();

If you write a constructor that takes arguments, you can then use that constructor to create an object using those arguments. If you create a constructor that takes arguments, and you still want to use a no-argument constructor, you must include one in your code. Once you create a constructor for a class, you no longer have access to the default, no-argument public constructor. You must create your own. In Apex, a constructor can be overloaded, that is, there can be more than one constructor for a class, each having different parameters. The following example illustrates a class with two constructors: one with no arguments and one that takes a simple Integer argument. It also illustrates how one constructor calls another constructor using the this(...) syntax, also know as constructor chaining.
public class TestObject2 { private static final Integer DEFAULT_SIZE = 10; Integer size; //Constructor with no arguments public TestObject2() { this(DEFAULT_SIZE); // Using this(...) calls the one argument constructor } // Constructor with one argument

95

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Access Modifiers

public TestObject2(Integer ObjectSize) { size = ObjectSize; } }

New objects of this type can be instantiated with the following code:
TestObject2 myObject1 = new TestObject2(42); TestObject2 myObject2 = new TestObject2();

Every constructor that you create for a class must have a different argument list. In the following example, all of the constructors are possible:
public class Leads { // First a no-argument constructor public Leads () {} // A constructor with one argument public Leads (Boolean call) {} // A constructor with two arguments public Leads (String email, Boolean call) {} // Though this constructor has the same arguments as the // one above, they are in a different order, so this is legal public Leads (Boolean call, String email) {} }

When you define a new class, you are defining a new data type. You can use class name in any place you can use other data type names, such as String, Boolean, or Account. If you define a variable whose type is a class, any object you assign to it must be an instance of that class or subclass.

Access Modifiers
Apex allows you to use the private, protected, public, and global access modifiers when defining methods and variables. While triggers and anonymous blocks can also use these access modifiers, they are not as useful in smaller portions of Apex. For example, declaring a method as global in an anonymous block does not enable you to call it from outside of that code. For more information on class access modifiers, see Apex Defining Classes on page 89. Note: Interface methods have no access modifiers. They are always global. For more information, see Interfaces and Extending Classes on page 103. By default, a method or variable is visible only to the Apex within the defining class. This is different from Java, where methods and variables are public by default. Apex is more restrictive, and requires you to explicitly specify a method or variable as public in order for it to be available to other classes in the same application namespace (see Namespace Prefix on page 122). You can change the level of visibility by using the following access modifiers:
private

This is the default, and means that the method or variable is accessible only within the Apex class in which it is defined. If you do not specify an access modifier, the method or variable is private.

96

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Static and Instance

protected

This means that the method or variable is visible to any inner classes in the defining Apex class. You can only use this access modifier for instance methods and member variables. Note that it is strictly more permissive than the default (private) setting, just like Java.
public

This means the method or variable can be used by any Apex in this application or namespace. Note: In Apex, the public access modifier is not the same as it is in Java. This was done to discourage joining applications, to keep the code for each application separate. In Apex, if you want to make something public like it is in Java, you need to use the global access modifier.
global

This means the method or variable can be used by any Apex script that has access to the class, not just the Apex scripts in the same application. This access modifier should be used for any method that needs to be referenced outside of the application, either in the Web services API or by other Apex scripts. If you declare a method or variable as global, you must also declare the class that contains it as global. Note: Salesforce.com recommends using the global access modifier rarely, if at all. Cross-application dependencies are difficult to maintain.

To use the private, protected, public, or global access modifiers, use the following syntax:
[(none)|private|protected|public|global] declaration

For example:
private string s1 = '1'; public string gets1() { return this.s1; }

Static and Instance


In Apex, you can have static methods, variables, and initialization code, instance methods, member variables, and initialization code (which have no modifier), and local variables: Static methods, variables, or initialization code are associated with a class, and are only allowed in outer classes. When you declare a method or variable as static, it's initialized only once when a class is loaded. Static variables aren't transmitted as part of the view state for a Visualforce page. Instance methods, member variables, and initialization code are associated with a particular object and have no definition modifier. When you declare instance methods, member variables, or initialization code, an instance of that item is created with every object instantiated from the class. Local variables are associated with the block of code in which they are declared. All local variables should be initialized before they are used.

The following is an example of a local variable whose scope is the duration of the if code block:
Boolean myCondition = true; if (myCondition) { integer localVariable = 10; }

97

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Static and Instance

Using Static Methods and Variables You can only use static methods and variables with outer classes. Inner classes have no static methods or variables. A static method or variable does not require an instance of the class in order to run. All static member variables in a class are initialized before any object of the class is created. This includes any static initialization code blocks. All of these are run in the order in which they appear in the class. Static methods are generally used as utility methods and never depend on a particular instance member variable value. Because a static method is only associated with a class, it cannot access any instance member variable values of its class. Static variables are only static within the scope of the request. They are not static across the server, or across the entire organization. Use static variables to store information that is shared within the confines of the class. All instances of the same class share a single copy of the static variables. For example, all triggers that are spawned by the same request can communicate with each other by viewing and updating static variables in a related class. A recursive trigger might use the value of a class variable to determine when to exit the recursion. Suppose you had the following class:
public class p { public static boolean firstRun = true; }

A trigger that uses this class could then selectively fail the first run of the trigger:
trigger t1 on Account (before delete, after delete, after undelete) { if(Trigger.isBefore){ if(Trigger.isDelete){ if(p.firstRun){ Trigger.old[0].addError('Before Account Delete Error'); p.firstRun=false; } } } }

Class static variables cannot be accessed through an instance of that class. So if class C has a static variable S, and x is an instance of C, then x.S is not a legal expression. The same is true for instance methods: if M() is a static method then x.M() is not legal. Instead, your code should refer to those static identifiers using the class: C.S and C.M(). If a local variable is named the same as the class name, these static methods and variables are hidden. Inner classes behave like static Java inner classes, but do not require the static keyword. Inner classes can have instance member variables like outer classes, but there is no implicit pointer to an instance of the outer class (using the this keyword). Note: Static variable values are reset between API batches, but governor limits are not. Do not use static variables to track state information on API batches, because Salesforce may break up a batch into smaller chunks than the batch size you specify. Using Instance Methods and Variables Instance methods and member variables are used by an instance of a class, that is, by an object. Instance member variables are declared inside a class, but not within a method. Instance methods usually use instance member variables to affect the behavior of the method.

98

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Static and Instance

Suppose you wanted to have a class that collects two dimensional points and plot them on a graph. The following skeleton class illustrates this, making use of member variables to hold the list of points and an inner class to manage the two-dimensional list of points.
public class Plotter { // This inner class manages the points class Point { Double x; Double y; Point(Double x, Double y) { this.x = x; this.y = y; } Double getXCoordinate() { return x; } Double getYCoordinate() { return y; } } List<Point> points = new List<Point>(); public void plot(Double x, Double y) { points.add(new Point(x, y)); } // The following method takes the list of points and does something with them public void render() { } }

Using Initialization Code Instance initialization code is a block of code in the following form that is defined in a class:
{ //code body }

The instance initialization code in a class is executed every time an object is instantiated from that class. These code blocks run before the constructor. If you do not want to write your own constructor for a class, you can use an instance initialization code block to initialize instance variables. However, most of the time you should either give the variable a default value or use the body of a constructor to do initialization and not use instance initialization code. Static initialization code is a block of code preceded with the keyword static:
static { //code body }

Similar to other static code, a static initialization code block is only initialized once on the first use of the class.

99

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Apex Properties

A class can have any number of either static or instance initialization code blocks. They can appear anywhere in the code body. The code blocks are executed in the order in which they appear in the file, the same as in Java. You can use static initialization code to initialize static final variables and to declare any information that is static, such as a map of values. For example:
public class MyClass { class RGB { Integer red; Integer green; Integer blue; RGB(Integer red, Integer green, Integer blue) { this.red = red; this.green = green; this.blue = blue; } } static Map<String, RGB> colorMap = new Map<String, RGB>(); static { colorMap.put('red', new RGB(255, 0, 0)); colorMap.put('cyan', new RGB(0, 255, 255)); colorMap.put('magenta', new RGB(255, 0, 255)); } }

Apex Properties
An Apex property is similar to a variable, however, you can do additional things in your script to a property value before it is accessed or returned. Properties can be used in many different ways: they can validate data before a change is made; they can prompt an action when data is changed, such as altering the value of other member variables; or they can expose data that is retrieved from some other source, such as another class. Property definitions include one or two code blocks, representing a get accessor and a set accessor: The code in a get accessor executes when the property is read. The code in a set accessor executes when the property is assigned a new value.

A property with only a get accessor is considered read-only. A property with only a set accessor is considered write-only. A property with both accessors is read-write. To declare a property, use the following syntax in the body of a class:
Public class BasicClass { // Property declaration access_modifier return_type property_name { get { //Get accessor code block } set { //Set accessor code block } } }

Where:

100

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Apex Properties

access_modifier is the access modifier for the property. All modifiers that can be applied to variables can also be applied to properties. These include: public, private, global, protected, static, virtual, abstract, override and transient. For more information on access modifiers, see Access Modifiers on page 96. return_type is the type of the property, such as Integer, Double, sObject, and so on. For more information, see Data

Types on page 28.


property_name is the name of the property

For example, the following class defines a property named prop. The property is public. The property returns an integer data type.
public class BasicProperty { public integer prop { get { return prop; } set { prop = value; } } }

The following code segment calls the class above, exercising the get and set accessors:
BasicProperty bp = new BasicProperty(); bp.prop = 5; // Calls set accessor System.assert(bp.prop == 5); // Calls get accessor

Note the following: The body of the get accessor is similar to that of a method. It must return a value of the property type. Executing the get accessor is the same as reading the value of the variable. The get accessor must end in a return statement. Salesforce recommends that your get accessor should not change the state of the object that it is defined on. The set accessor is similar to a method whose return type is void. When you assign a value to the property, the set accessor is invoked with an argument that provides the new value. When the set accessor is invoked, the system passes an implicit argument to the setter called value of the same data type as the property. Properties cannot be defined on interface. Apex properties are based on their counterparts in C#, with the following differences: Properties provide storage for values directly. You do not need to create supporting members for storing values. It is possible to create automatic properties in Apex. For more information, see Using Automatic Properties on page 101.

Using Automatic Properties


Properties do not require additional code in their get or set accessor code blocks. Instead, you can leave get and set accessor code blocks empty to define an automatic property. Automatic properties allow you to write more compact code that is easier to debug and maintain. They can be declared as read-only, read-write, or write-only. The following example creates three automatic properties:
public class AutomaticProperty { public integer MyReadOnlyProp { get; } public double MyReadWriteProp { get; set; } public string MyWriteOnlyProp { set; } }

101

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Apex Properties

The following code segment exercises these properties:


AutomaticProperty ap = new AutomaticProperty(); ap.MyReadOnlyProp = 5; // This produces a compile error: not writable ap.MyReadWriteProp = 5; // No error System.assert(MyWriteOnlyProp == 5); // This produces a compile error: not readable

Using Static Properties


When a property is declared as static, the property's accessor methods execute in a static context. This means that the accessors do not have access to non-static member variables defined in the class. The following example creates a class with both static and instance properties:
public class StaticProperty { public static integer StaticMember; public integer NonStaticMember; public static integer MyGoodStaticProp { get{return MyGoodStaticProp;} } // The following produces a system error // public static integer MyBadStaticProp { return NonStaticMember; } public integer MyGoodNonStaticProp { get{return NonStaticMember;} } }

The following code segment calls the static and instance properties:
StaticProperty sp = new StaticProperty(); // The following produces a system error: a static variable cannot be // accessed through an object instance // sp.MyGoodStaticProp = 5; // The following does not produce an error StaticProperty.MyGoodStaticProp = 5;

Using Access Modifiers on Property Accessors


Property accessors can be defined with their own access modifiers. If an accessor includes its own access modifier, this modifier overrides the access modifier of the property. The access modifier of an individual accessor must be more restrictive than the access modifier on the property itself. For example, if the property has been defined as public, the individual accessor cannot be defined as global. The following class definition shows additional examples:
global virtual class PropertyVisibility { // X is private for read and public for write public integer X { private get; set; } // Y can be globally read but only written within a class global integer Y { get; public set; } // Z can be read within the class but only subclasses can set it public integer Z { get; protected set; } }

102

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Interfaces and Extending Classes

Interfaces and Extending Classes


An interface is like a class in which none of the methods have been implementedthe method signatures are there, but the body of each method is empty. To use an interface, another class must implement it by providing a body for all of the methods contained in the interface. Interfaces can provide a layer of abstraction to your code. They separate the specific implementation of a method from the declaration for that method. This way you can have different implementations of a method based on your specific application. Defining an interface is similar to defining a new class. For example, a company might have two types of purchase orders, ones that come from customers, and others that come from their employees. Both are a type of purchase order. Suppose you needed a method to provide a discount. The amount of the discount can depend on the type of purchase order. You can model the general concept of a purchase order as an interface and have specific implementations for customers and employees. In the following example the focus is only on the discount aspect of a purchase order.
public class PurchaseOrders { // An interface that defines what a purchase order looks like in general public interface PurchaseOrder { // All other functionality excluded Double discount(); } // One implementation of the interface for customers public virtual class CustomerPurchaseOrder implements PurchaseOrder { public virtual Double discount() { return .05; // Flat 5% discount } } // Employee purchase order extends Customer purchase order, but with a // different discount public class EmployeePurchaseOrder extends CustomerPurchaseOrder{ public override Double discount() { return .10; // Its worth it being an employee! 10% discount } } }

Note the following about the above example: The interface PurchaseOrder is defined as a general prototype. Methods defined within an interface have no access modifiers and contain just their signature. The CustomerPurchaseOrder class implements this interface; therefore, it must provide a definition for the discount method. As with Java, any class that implements an interface must define all of the methods contained in the interface. The employee version of the purchase order extends the customer version. A class extends another class using the keyword extends. A class can only extend one other class, but it can implement more than one interface.

When you define a new interface, you are defining a new data type. You can use an interface name in any place you can use another data type name. If you define a variable whose type is an interface, any object you assign to it must be an instance of a class that implements the interface, or a sub-interface data type. An interface can extend another interface. As with classes, when an interface extends another interface, all the methods and properties of the extended interface are available to the extending interface. See also Classes and Casting on page 117.

103

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Parameterized Typing and Interfaces

You cannot add a method to an interface after the class has been uploaded in a Managed - Released package version. For more information about managed packages, see Developing Apex in Managed Packages on page 193.

Parameterized Typing and Interfaces


Apex, in general, is a statically-typed programming language, which means users must specify the data type for a variable before that variable can be used. For example, the following is legal in Apex:
Integer x = 1;

The following is not legal if x has not been defined earlier:


x = 1;

Lists, maps and sets are parameterized in Apex: they take any data type Apex supports for them as an argument. That data type must be replaced with an actual data type upon construction of the list, map or set. For example:
List<String> myList = new List<String>();

Parameterized typing allows interfaces to be implemented with generic data type parameters that are replaced with actual data types upon construction. The following gives an example of how the syntax of a parameterized interface works. In this example, the interface Pair has two type variables, T and U. A type variable can be used like a regular type in the body of the interface.
public virtual interface Pair<T, U> { T getFirst(); U getSecond(); void setFirst(T val); void setSecond(U val); Pair<U, T> swap(); }

The following interface DoubleUp extends the Pair interface. It uses the type variable T:
public interface DoubleUp<T> extends Pair<T, T> {}

Tip: Notice that Pair must be defined as virtual for it to be extended by DoubleUp.

Implementing Parameterized Interfaces


A class that implements a parameterized interface must pass data types in as arguments to the interface's type parameters.
public class StringPair implements DoubleUp<String> { private String s1; private String s2; public StringPair(String s1, String s2) { this.s1 = s1; this.s2 = s2; } public String getFirst() { return this.s1; } public String getSecond() { return this.s2; } public void setFirst(String val) { this.s1 = val; }

104

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Parameterized Typing and Interfaces

public void setSecond(String val) { this.s2 = val; } public Pair<String, String> swap() { return new StringPair(this.s2, this.s1); } }

Type variables can never appear outside an interface declaration, such as in a class. However, fully instantiated types, such as Pair<String, String> are allowed anywhere in Apex that any other data type can appear. For example, the following are legal in Apex:
Pair<String, String> y = x.swap(); DoubleUp<String> z = (DoubleUp<String>) y;

In this example, when the compiler compiles the class StringPair, it must check that the class implements all of the methods in DoubleUp<String> and in Pair<String, String>. So the compliler substitutes String for T and String for U inside the body of interface Pair<T, U>.
DoubleUp<String> x = new StringPair('foo', 'bar');

This means that the following method prototypes must implement in StringPair for the class to successfully compile:
String getFirst(); String getSecond(); void setFirst(String val); void setSecond(String val); Pair<String, String> swap();

Overloading Methods
In this example, the following interface is used:
public interface Overloaded<T> { void foo(T x); void foo(String x); }

The interface Overloaded is legal in Apex: you can overload a method by defining two or more methods with the same name but different parameters. However, you cannot have any ambiguity when invoking an overloaded method. The following class successfully implements the Overloaded interface because it simultaneously implements both method prototypes specified in the interface:
public class MyClass implements Overloaded<String> { public void foo(String x) {} }

The following executes successfully because m is typed as MyClass, therefore MyClass.foo is the unique, matching method.
MyClass m = new MyClass(); m.foo('bar');

The following does not execute successfully because o is typed as Overloaded<String>, and so there are two matching methods for o.foo(), neither of which typed to a specific method. The compiler cannot distinguish which of the two matching methods should be used. :
Overloaded<String> o = m; o.foo('bar');

105

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Custom Iterators

Subtyping with Parameterized Lists


In Apex, if type T is a subtype of U, then List<T> would be a subtype of List<U>. For example, the following is legal:
List<String> slst = new List<String> {'foo', 'bar'}; List<Object> olst = slst;

However, you cannot use this in interfaces with parameterized types, such as for List, Map or Set. The following is not legal:
public interface I<T> {} I<String> x = ...; I<Object> y = x; // Compile error: Illegal assignment from I<String> to I<Object>

Custom Iterators
An iterator traverses through every item in a collection. For example, in a while loop in Apex, you define a condition for exiting the loop, and you must provide some means of traversing the collection, that is, an iterator. In the following example, count is incremented by 1 every time the loop is executed (count++) :
while (count < 11) { System.debug(count); count++; }

Using the Iterator interface you can create a custom set of instructions for traversing a List through a loop. This is useful for data that exists in sources outside of Salesforce that you would normally define the scope of using a SELECT statement. Iterators can also be used if you have multiple SELECT statements.

Using Custom Iterators


To use custom iterators, you must create an Apex class that implements the Iterator interface. The Iterator interface has the following instance methods: Name
hasNext

Arguments

Returns Boolean Any type

Description Returns true if there is another item in the collection being traversed, false otherwise. Returns the next item in the collection.

next

All methods in the Iterator interface must be declared as global. You can only use a custom iterator in a while loop. For example:
IterableString x = new IterableString('This is a really cool test.'); while(x.hasNext()){ system.debug(x.next()); }

Iterators are not currently supported in for loops.

106

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Custom Iterators

Using Custom Iterators with Iterable


If you do not want to use a custom iterator with a list, but instead want to create your own data structure, you can use the Iterable interface to generate the data structure. The Iterable interface has the following method: Name
iterator

Arguments

Returns Iterator class

Description Returns a reference to the iterator for this interface.

The iterator method must be declared as global. It creates a reference to the iterator that you can then use to traverse the data structure. In the following example a custom iterator iterates through a collection:
global class CustomIterable implements Iterator<Account>{ List<Account> accs {get; set;} Integer i {get; set;} public CustomIterable(){ accs = [SELECT id, name, numberofEmployees FROM Account WHERE name = 'false']; i = 0; } global boolean hasNext(){ if(i >= accs.size()) return false; else return true; } global Account next(){ if(i == 8){ i++; return null;} i=i+1; return accs[i-1]; } }

The following calls the above code:


global class foo implements iterable<Account>{ global Iterator<Account> Iterator(){ return new CustomIterable(); } }

The following is a batch job that uses an iterator:


global class batchClass implements Database.batchable<Account>{ global Iterable<Account> start(Database.batchableContext info){ return new foo(); } global void execute(Database.batchableContext info, List<Account> scope){ List<Account> accsToUpdate = new List<Account>(); for(Account a : scope){ a.name = 'true'; a.numberOfEmployees = 69; accsToUpdate.add(a); } update accsToUpdate; } global void finish(Database.batchableContext info){ } }

107

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Keywords

Keywords
Apex has the following keywords available:
final instanceof super this transient with sharing and without sharing

Using the final Keyword


You can use the final keyword to modify variables. Final variables can only be assigned a value once, either when you declare a variable or in initialization code. You must assign a value to it in one of these two places. Static final variables can be changed in static initialization code or where defined. Member final variables can be changed in initialization code blocks, constructors, or with other variable declarations. To define a constant, mark a variable as both static and final (see Constants on page 41). Non-final static variables are used to communicate state at the class level (such as state between triggers). However, they are not shared across requests. Methods and classes are final by default. You cannot use the final keyword in the declaration of a class or method. This means they cannot be overridden. Use the virtual keyword if you need to override a method or class.

Using the instanceof Keyword


If you need to verify at runtime whether an object is actually an instance of a particular class, use the instanceof keyword. The instanceof keyword can only be used to verify if the target type in the expression on the right of the keyword is a viable alternative for the declared type of the expression on the left. You could add the following check to the Report class in the classes and casting example before you cast the item back into a CustomReport object.
If (Reports.get(0) instanceof CustomReport) { // Can safely cast it back to a custom report object CustomReport c = (CustomReport) Reports.get(0); } Else { // Do something with the non-custom-report. }

Using the super Keyword


The super keyword can be used by classes that are extended from virtual or abstract classes. By using super, you can override constructors and methods from the parent class. For example, if you have the following virtual class:
public virtual class SuperClass { public String mySalutation; public String myFirstName; public String myLastName;

108

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using the this Keyword

public SuperClass() { mySalutation = 'Mr.'; myFirstName = 'Carl'; myLastName = 'Vonderburg'; } public SuperClass(String salutation, String firstName, String lastName) { mySalutation = salutation; myFirstName = firstName; myLastName = lastName; } public virtual void printName() { System.debug('My name is ' + mySalutation + myLastName); } public virtual String getFirstName() { return myFirstName; } }

You can create the following class that extends Superclass and overrides its printName method:
public class Subclass extends Superclass { public override void printName() { super.printName(); System.debug('But you can call me ' + super.getFirstName()); } }

The expected output when calling Subclass.printName is My name is Mr. Vonderburg. But you can call me Carl. You can also use super to call constructors. Add the following constructor to SubClass:
public Subclass() { super('Madam', 'Brenda', 'Clapentrap'); }

Now, the expected output of Subclass.printName is My name is Madam Clapentrap. But you can call me Brenda.

Best Practices for Using the super Keyword


Only classes that are extending from virtual or abstract classes can use super. You can only use super in methods that are designated with the override keyword.

Using the this Keyword


There are two different ways of using the this keyword.

109

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using the transient Keyword

You can use the this keyword in dot notation, without parenthesis, to represent the current instance of the class in which it appears. Use this form of the this keyword to access instance variables and methods. For example:
public class myTestThis { string s; { this.s = 'TestString'; } }

In the above example, the class testThis declares an instance variable s. The initialization code populates the variable using the this keyword. Or you can use the this keyword to do constructor chaining, that is, in one constructor, call another constructor. In this format, use the this keyword with parentheses. For example:
public class testThis { // First constructor for the class. It requires a string parameter. public testThis(string s2) { } // Second constructor for the class. It does not require a parameter. // This constructor calls the first constructor using the this keyword. public testThis() { this('None'); } }

When you use the this keyword in a constructor to do constructor chaining, it must be the first statement in the constructor.

Using the transient Keyword


Use the transient keyword to declare instance variables that can't be saved, and shouldn't be transmitted as part of the view state for a Visualforce page. For example:
Transient Integer currentTotal;

You can also use the transient keyword in Apex classes that are serializable, namely in controllers, controller extensions, or classes that implement the Batchable or Schedulable interface. In addition, you can use transient in classes that define the types of fields declared in the serializable classes. Declaring variables as transient reduces view state size. A common use case for the transient keyword is a field on a Visualforce page that is needed only for the duration of a page request, but should not be part of the page's view state and would use too many system resources to be recomputed many times during a request. Some Apex objects are automatically considered transient, that is, their value does not get saved as part of the page's view state. These objects include the following: PageReferences XmlStream Classes Collections automatically marked as transient only if the type of object that they hold is automatically marked as transient, such as a collection of Savepoints Most of the objects generated by system methods, such as Schema.getGlobalDescribe.

Static variables also don't get transmitted through the view state.

110

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords

The following example contains both a Visualforce page and a custom controller. Clicking the refresh button on the page causes the transient date to be updated because it is being recreated each time the page is refreshed. The non-transient date continues to have its original value, which has been deserialized from the view state, so it remains the same.
<apex:page controller="ExampleController"> T1: {!t1} <br/> T2: {!t2} <br/> <apex:form> <apex:commandLink value="refresh"/> </apex:form> </apex:page> public class ExampleController { DateTime t1; transient DateTime t2; public String getT1() { if (t1 == null) t1 = System.now(); return '' + t1; } public String getT2() { if (t2 == null) t2 = System.now(); return '' + t2; } }

Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords


Apex generally runs in system context; that is, the current user's profile-based permissions, field-level security, and sharing rules are not taken into account during code execution. Note: The only exceptions to this rule are Apex scripts that are executed with the executeAnonymous call. executeAnonymous always executes using the full permissions of the current user. For more information on executeAnonymous, see Anonymous Blocks on page 85. Because these rules are not enforced, developers who use Apex must take care that they do not inadvertently expose sensitive data that would normally be hidden from users by profile-based permissions, field-level security, or organization-wide defaults. They should be particularly careful with Web services, which can be restricted by profile, but execute in system context once they are initiated. Most of the time, system context provides the correct behavior for system-level operations such as triggers and Web services that need access to all data in an organization. However, you can also specify that particular Apex classes should enforce the sharing rules that apply to the current user. (For more information on sharing rules, see the Salesforce.com online help.) Note: A user's profile-based permissions and field-level security are always ignored to ensure that Apex scripts can view all fields and objects in an organization. If particular fields or objects are hidden for a user, the script would fail to compile at runtime. Use the with sharing keywords when declaring a class to enforce the sharing rules that apply to the current user. For example:
public with sharing class sharingClass { // Code here }

111

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords

Use the without sharing keywords when declaring a class to ensure that the sharing rules for the current user are not enforced. For example:
public without sharing class noSharing { // Code here }

If a class is not declared as either with or without sharing, the current sharing rules remain in effect. This means that if the class is called by a class that has sharing enforced, then sharing is enforced for the called class. Both inner classes and outer classes can be declared as with sharing. The sharing setting applies to all code contained in the class, including initialization code, constructors, and methods. Classes inherit this setting from a parent class when one class extends or implements another, but inner classes do not inherit the sharing setting from their container class. For example:
public with sharing class CWith { // All code in this class operates with enforced sharing rules. Account a = [select . . . ]; public static void m() { . . . } static { . . . } { . . . } public c() { . . . } } public without sharing class CWithout { // All code in this class ignores sharing rules and operates // as if the context user has the Modify All Data permission. Account a = [select . . . ]; . . . public static void m() { . . . // This call into CWith operates with enforced sharing rules // for the context user. When the call finishes, the code execution // returns to without sharing mode. CWith.m(); } public class CInner { // All code in this class executes with the same sharing context // as the code that calls it. // Inner classes are separate from outer classes. . . . // Again, this call into CWith operates with enforced sharing rules // for the context user, regardless of the class that initially called this inner class. // When the call finishes, the code execution returns to the sharing mode that was used to call this inner class.

112

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Annotations

CWith.m(); } public class CInnerWithOut exends CWithout { // All code in this class ignores sharing rules because // this class extends a parent class that ignores sharing rules. } }

Caution: There is no guarantee that a class declared as with sharing does not call a script that operates as without sharing. Class-level security is always still necessary. In addition, all SOQL or SOSL queries that use PriceBook2 ignore the with sharing keyword. All PriceBook records are returned, regardless of the applied sharing rules. Enforcing the current user's sharing rules can impact: SOQL and SOSL queries. A query may return fewer rows than it would operating in system context. DML operations. An operation may fail because the current user does not have the correct permissions. For example, if the user specifies a foreign key value that exists in the organization, but which the current user does not have access to.

Annotations
An Apex annotation modifies the way a method or class is used, similar to annotations in Java. Annotations are defined with an initial @ symbol, followed by the appropriate keyword. To add an annotation to a method, specify it immediately before the method or class definition. For example:

global class MyClass { @future Public static void myMethod(String a) { //long-running Apex code } }

Apex supports the following annotations:


Deprecated Future IsTest ReadOnly RemoteAction

Deprecated Annotation
Use the deprecated annotation to identify methods, classes, exceptions, enums, interfaces, or variables that can no longer be referenced in subsequent releases of the managed package in which they reside. This is useful when you are refactoring code in managed packages as the requirements evolve. New subscribers cannot see the deprecated elements, while the elements continue to function for existing subscribers and API integrations. The following code snippet shows a deprecated method. The same syntax can be used to deprecate classes, exceptions, enums, interfaces, or variables.
@deprecated // This method is deprecated. Use myOptimizedMethod(String a, String b) instead.

113

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Future Annotation

public void myMethod(String a) { }

Note the following rules when deprecating Apex identifiers: Unmanaged packages cannot contain code that uses the deprecated keyword. When something in Apex, or when a custom object is deprecated, all global access modifiers that reference the deprecated identifier must also be deprecated. Any global method that uses the deprecated type in its signature, either in an input argument or the method return type, must also be deprecated. A deprecated item, such as a method or a class, can still be referenced internally by the package developer. webService methods and variables cannot be deprecated. You can deprecate an enum but you cannot deprecate individual enum values. You can deprecate an interface but you cannot deprecate individual methods in an interface. You can deprecate an abstract class but you cannot deprecate individual abstract methods in an abstract class. You cannot remove the deprecated annotation to undeprecate something in Apex after you have released a package version where that item in Apex is deprecated.

For more information about package versions, see Developing Apex in Managed Packages on page 193.

Future Annotation
Use the future annotation to identify methods that are executed asynchronously. When you specify future, the method executes when Salesforce has available resources. For example, you can use the future annotation when making an asynchronous Web service callout to an external service. Without the annotation, the Web service callout is made from the same thread that is executing the Apex script, and no additional processing can occur until the callout is complete (synchronous processing). Methods with the future annotation must be static methods, and can only return a void type. To make a method in a class execute asynchronously, define the method with the future annotation. For example:
global class MyFutureClass { @future static void myMethod(String a, Integer i) { System.debug('Method called with: ' + a + ' and ' + i); //do callout, other long running code } }

The following snippet shows how to specify that a method executes a callout:
@future (callout=true) public static void doCalloutFromFuture() { //Add code to perform callout }

You can specify (callout=false) to prevent a method from making callouts. To test methods defined with the future annotation, call the class containing the method in a startTest, stopTest code block. All asynchronous calls made after the startTest method are collected by the system. When stopTest is executed, all asynchronous processes are run synchronously. Methods with the future annotation have the following limits: No more than 10 method calls per Apex invocation

114

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

IsTest Annotation

Note: Asynchronous calls, such as @future or executeBatch, called in a startTest, stopTest block, do not count against your limits for the number of queued jobs. Salesforce also imposes a limit on the number of future annotations: 200 method calls per full Salesforce user license per 24 hours. This is an organization-wide limit. For example, suppose your organization has five full Salesforce user licenses and 100 Customer Portal User licenses. Your entire organization is limited to only 1,000 method calls every 24 hours (5 * 200, not 105.) The parameters specified must be primitive dataypes, arrays of primitive datatypes, or collections of primitive datatypes. Methods with the future annotation cannot take sObjects or objects as arguments. Methods with the future annotation cannot be used in Visualforce controllers in either getMethodName or setMethodName methods, nor in the constructor.

Remember that any method using the future annotation requires special consideration, because the method does not necessarily execute in the same order it is called. You cannot call a method annotated with future from a method that also has the future annotation. Nor can you call a trigger from an annotated method that calls another annotated method. The getContent and getContentAsPDF PageReference methods cannot be used in methods with the future annotation. For more information about callouts, see Invoking Callouts Using Apex on page 203.

See Also:
Understanding Execution Governors and Limits

IsTest Annotation
Use the isTest annotation to define classes or individual methods that only contain code used for testing your application. The isTest annotation is similar to creating methods declared as testMethod. Note: Classes defined with the isTest annotation do not count against your organization limit of 2 MB for all Apex scripts. Individual methods defined with the isTest annotation do count against your organization limits. For more information, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. Classes and methods defined as isTest must be declared as private. For example:
@isTest private class MyTest { // Methods for testing }

Classes defined as isTest cannot be interfaces or enums. A class defined as isTest can only be invoked using the Force.com runTests() API call, or from the Salesforce user interface (using the Run Tests button). You cannot call it from another class or trigger.

ReadOnly Annotation
Note: The @ReadOnly annotation is part of a pilot program. To enable the @ReadOnly annotation for your organization, contact salesforce.com.

115

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

RemoteAction Annotation

The @ReadOnly annotation provides developers the ability to perform unrestricted queries against the Force.com database. It is important to note this annotation, while removing the limit of the number of returned rows for a request, blocks the developer from performing any DML within the request. All other limits still apply. The @ReadOnly annotation is only available for Web services and the Schedulable interface. To use the @ReadOnly annotation, the top level request must be in the schedule execution or the webservice invocation. To use the @ReadOnly annotation, the top level request must be the schedule execution or a webservice invocation. For example, if a Visualforce page calls a webservice that contains the @ReadOnly annotation, the request fails because Visualforce is the top level request, not the webservice.

RemoteAction Annotation
Note: The @RemoteAction annotation is currently available as a Developer Preview. You must contact Salesforce.com Support to enable this feature. The RemoteAction annotation provides support for Apex methods used in Visualforce to be called via Javascript. This process is often referred to as Javascript remoting. Note: Methods with the RemoteAction annotation must be global and static methods.

To use Javascript remoting, your request must take the following form:
[<namespace>.]<controller>.<method>([params...,] <callbackFunction>(result, event) { // callback function logic }, {escape:true});

where
namespace is your organization's namespace. This is only required if the class comes from an installed packaged. controller is the name of your Apex controller method is the name of the Apex method you're calling params is the commaseparated list of parameters that your method takes callbackFunction is the name of the function that handles the response from the controller. It returns the status of

the call and the method result. escape defines whether your response should be escaped (by default, true) or not (false)

In your controller, your Apex method declaration is preceded with the @RemoteAction annotation like this:
@RemoteAction global static String getItemId(String objectName) { ... }

Your Apex method must be both global and static. Overloading is not permitted; in other words, your remoted method can't have the same number of parameters as other methods with the same name. For instance, with the method above, you can't also have a getItemId(Integer objectNumber) method. Your method can only take Apex primitives as arguments. However, it can return Apex primitives and sObjects. For more information, see Javascript Remoting for Apex Controllers in the Visualforce Developer's Guide.

116

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Classes and Casting

Classes and Casting


In general, all type information is available at runtime. This means that Apex enables casting, that is, a data type of one class can be assigned to a data type of another class, but only if one class is a child of the other class. Use casting when you want to convert an object from one data type to another. In the following example, CustomReport extends the class Report. Therefore, it is a child of that class. This means that you can use casting to assign objects with the parent data type (Report) to the objects of the child data type (CustomReport). In the following code block, first, a custom report object is added to a list of report objects. After that, the custom report object is returned as a report object, then is cast back into a custom report object.
Public virtual class Report { Public class CustomReport extends Report { // Create a list of report objects Report[] Reports = new Report[5]; // Create a custom report object CustomReport a = new CustomReport(); // Because the custom report is a sub class of the Report class, // you can add the custom report object a to the list of report objects Reports.add(a); // // // // The following is not legal, because the compiler does not know that what you are returning is a custom report. You must use cast to tell it that you know what type you are returning CustomReport c = Reports.get(0);

// Instead, get the first item in the list by casting it back to a custom report object CustomReport c = (CustomReport) Reports.get(0); } }

117

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Classes and Collections

Figure 7: Casting Example In addition, an interface type can be cast to a sub-interface or a class type that implements that interface. Tip: To verify if a class is a specific type of class, use the instanceOf keyword. For more information, see Using the instanceof Keyword on page 108.

Classes and Collections


Lists and maps can be used with classes and interfaces, in the same ways that lists and maps can be used with sObjects. This means, for example, that you can use a user-defined data type only for the value of a map, not for the key. Likewise, you cannot create a set of user-defined objects. If you create a map or list of interfaces, any child type of the interface can be put into that collection. For instance, if the List contains an interface i1, and MyC implements i1, then MyC can be placed in the list.

Collection Casting
Because collections in Apex have a declared type at runtime, Apex allows collection casting. Collections can be cast in a similar manner that arrays can be cast in Java. For example, a list of CustomerPurchaseOrder objects can be assigned to a list of PurchaseOrder objects if class CustomerPurchaseOrder is a child of class PurchaseOrder.
public virtual class PurchaseOrder {

118

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Differences Between Apex Classes and Java Classes

Public class CustomerPurchaseOrder extends PurchaseOrder { } { List<PurchaseOrder> POs = new PurchaseOrder[] {}; List<CustomerPurchaseOrder> CPOs = new CustomerPurchaseOrder[]{}; POs = CPOs;} }

Once the CustomerPurchaseOrder list is assigned to the PurchaseOrder list variable, it can be cast back to a list of CustomerPurchaseOrder objects, but only because that instance was originally instantiated as a list of CustomerPurchaseOrder. A list of PurchaseOrder objects that is instantiated as such cannot be cast to a list of CustomerPurchaseOrder objects, even if the list of PurchaseOrder objects contains only CustomerPurchaseOrder objects. If the user of a PurchaseOrder list that only includes CustomerPurchaseOrders objects tries to insert a non-CustomerPurchaseOrder subclass of PurchaseOrder (such as InternalPurchaseOrder), a runtime exception results. This is because Apex collections have a declared type at runtime. Note: Maps behave in the same way as lists with regards to the value side of the Mapif the value side of map A can be cast to the value side of map B, and they have the same key type, then map A can be cast to map B. A runtime error results if the casting is not valid with the particular map at runtime.

Differences Between Apex Classes and Java Classes


The following is a list of the major differences between Apex classes and Java classes: Inner classes and interfaces can only be declared one level deep inside an outer class. Static methods and variables can only be declared in a top-level class definition, not in an inner class. Inner classes behave like static Java inner classes, but do not require the static keyword. Inner classes can have instance member variables like outer classes, but there is no implicit pointer to an instance of the outer class (using the this keyword). The private access modifier is the default, and means that the method or variable is accessible only within the Apex class in which it is defined. If you do not specify an access modifier, the method or variable is private. Specifying no access modifier for a method or variable and the private access modifier are synonymous. The public access modifier means the method or variable can be used by any Apex in this application or namespace. The global access modifier means the method or variable can be used by any Apex script that has access to the class, not just the Apex scripts in the same application. This access modifier should be used for any method that needs to be referenced outside of the application, either in the Web services API or by other Apex scripts. If you declare a method or variable as global, you must also declare the class that contains it as global. Methods and classes are final by default. The virtual definition modifier allows extension and overrides. The override keyword must be used explicitly on methods that override base class methods.

Interface methods have no modifiersthey are always global. Exception classes must extend either exception or another user-defined exception. Their names must end with the word exception. Exception classes have four implicit constructors that are built-in, although you can add others.

For more information, see Exception Class on page 342. Classes and interfaces can be defined in triggers and anonymous blocks, but only as local.

119

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Class Definition Creation

Class Definition Creation


To create a class in Salesforce: 1. In the application, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. 2. Click New. 3. Click Version Settings to specify the version of Apex and the API used with this class. If your organization has installed managed packages from the AppExchange, you can also specify which version of each managed package to use with this class. Use the default values for all versions. This associates the class with the most recent version of Apex and the API, as well as each managed package. You can specify an older version of a managed package if you want to access components or functionality that differs from the most recent package version. You can specify an older version of Apex and the API to maintain specific behavior. 4. In the Body text box, enter the Apex for the class. A single class can be up to 1 million characters in length, not including comments, test methods, or classes defined using @isTest. 5. Click Save to save your changes and return to the class detail screen, or click Quick Save to save your changes and continue editing your class. Your Apex class must compile correctly before you can save your class. Classes can also be automatically generated from a WSDL by clicking Generate from WSDL. See SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document on page 204. Once saved, classes can be invoked through class methods or variables by other Apex, such as a trigger. Note: To aid backwards-compatibility, classes are stored with the version settings for a specified version of Apex and the API. If the Apex class references components, such as a custom object, in installed managed packages, the version settings for each managed package referenced by the class is saved too. Additionally, classes are stored with an isValid flag that is set to true as long as dependent metadata has not changed since the class was last compiled. If any changes are made to object names or fields that are used in the class, including superficial changes such as edits to an object or field description, or if changes are made to a class that calls this class, the isValid flag is set to false. When a trigger or Web service call invokes the class, the code is recompiled and the user is notified if there are any errors. If there are no errors, the isValid flag is reset to true.

The Apex Class Editor


When editing Visualforce or Apex, either in the Visualforce development mode footer or from Setup, an editor is available with the following functionality: Syntax highlighting The editor automatically applies syntax highlighting for keywords and all functions and operators. Search ( ) Search enables you to search for text within the current page, class, or trigger. To use search, enter a string in the Search textbox and click Find Next. To replace a found search string with another string, enter the new string in the Replace textbox and click replace to replace just that instance, or Replace All to replace that instance and all other instances of the search string that occur in the page, class, or trigger. To make the search operation case sensitive, select the Match Case option. To use a regular expression as your search string, select the Regular Expressions option. The regular expressions follow Javascript's regular expression rules. A search using regular expressions can find strings that wrap over more than one line.

120

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Naming Conventions

If you use the replace operation with a string found by a regular expression, the replace operation can also bind regular expression group variables ($1, $2, and so on) from the found search string. For example, to replace an <H1> tag with an <H2> tag and keep all the attributes on the original <H1> intact, search for <H1(\s+)(.*)> and replace it with <H2$1$2>.

Go to line ( ) This button allows you to highlight a specified line number. If the line is not currently visible, the editor scrolls to that line. Undo ( ) and Redo ( ) Use undo to reverse an editing action and redo to recreate an editing action that was undone. Font size Select a font size from the drop-down list to control the size of the characters displayed in the editor. Line and column position The line and column position of the cursor is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the editor. This can be used with go to line ( ) to quickly navigate through the editor.

Line and character count The total number of lines and characters is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the editor.

Naming Conventions
Salesforce.com recommends following Java standards for naming, that is, classes start with a capital letter, methods start with a lowercase verb, and variable names should be meaningful. It is not legal to define a class and interface with the same name in the same class. It is also not legal for an inner class to have the same name as its outer class. However, methods and variables have their own namespaces within the class so these three types of names do not clash with each other. In particular it is legal for a variable, method, and a class within a class to have the same name.

Name Shadowing
Member variables can be shadowed by local variablesin particular function arguments. This allows methods and constructors of the standard Java form:
Public Class Shadow { String s; Shadow(String s) { this.s = s; } // Same name ok setS(String s) { this.s = s; } // Same name ok }

Member variables in one class can shadow member variables with the same name in a parent classes. This can be useful if the two classes are in different top-level classes and written by different teams. For example, if one has a reference to a class C and wants to gain access to a member variable M in parent class P (with the same name as a member variable in C) the reference should be assigned to a reference to P first. Static variables can be shadowed across the class hierarchyso if P defines a static S, a subclass C can also declare a static S. References to S inside C refer to that staticin order to reference the one in P, the syntax P.S must be used.

121

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Class Security

Static class variables cannot be referenced through a class instance. They must be referenced using the raw variable name by itself (inside that top-level class file) or prefixed with the class name. For example:
public class p1 { public static final Integer CLASS_INT = 1; public class c { }; } p1.c c = new p1.c(); // This is illegal // Integer i = c.CLASS_INT; // This is correct Integer i = p1.CLASS_INT; }

Class Security
You can specify which users can execute methods in a particular top-level class based on their user profile. Note that you can only set security on Apex classes, not on triggers. To set Apex class security from the class list page: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. Next to the name of the class that you want to restrict, click Security. Select the profiles that you want to enable from the Available Profiles list and click Add. Select the profiles that you want to disable from the Enabled Profiles list and click Remove. Click Save.

To set Apex class security from the profile detail page: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Your Name Setup Manage Users Profiles. Click the name of the profile you want to modify. Scroll to the Enabled Apex Class Access related list and click Edit. Select the Apex classes that you want to enable from the Available Apex Classes list and click Add. Select the Apex classes that you want to disable from the Enabled Apex Classes list and click Remove. Click Save.

Namespace Prefix
The application supports the use of namespace prefixes. Namespace prefixes are used in managed Force.com AppExchange packages to differentiate custom object and field names from those in use by other organizations. After a developer registers a globally unique namespace prefix and registers it with AppExchange registry, external references to custom object and field names in the developer's managed packages take on the following long format:
namespace_prefix__obj_or_field_name__c

Because these fully-qualified names can be onerous to update in working SOQL statements, SOSL statements, and Apex once a class is marked as managed, Apex supports a default namespace for schema names. When looking at identifiers, the parser considers the namespace of the current object and then assumes that it is the namespace of all other objects and fields unless otherwise specified. Consequently, a stored class should refer to custom object and field names directly (using obj_or_field_name__c) for those objects that are defined within its same application namespace.

122

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Using Namespaces When Invoking Methods

Tip: Only use namespace prefixes when referring to custom objects and fields in managed packages that have been installed to your organization from theAppExchange.

Using Namespaces When Invoking Methods


To invoke a method that is defined in a managed package, Apex allows fully-qualified identifiers of the form:
namespace_prefix.class.method(args)

Use the special namespace System to disambiguate the built-in static classes from any user-defined ones (for example, System.System.debug()). Without the System namespace prefix, system static class names such as Math and System can be overridden by user-defined classes with the same name, as outlined below. Tip: Only use namespace prefixes when invoking methods in managed packages that have been installed to your organization from theAppExchange.

Namespace, Class, and Variable Name Precedence


Because local variables, class names, and namespaces can all hypothetically use the same identifiers, the Apex parser evaluates expressions in the form of name1.name2.[...].nameN as follows: 1. The parser first assumes that name1 is a local variable with name2 - nameN as field references. 2. If the first assumption does not hold true, the parser then assumes that name1 is a class name and name2 is a static variable name with name3 - nameN as field references. 3. If the second assumption does not hold true, the parser then assumes that name1 is a namespace name, name2 is a class name, name3 is a static variable name, and name4 - nameN are field references. 4. If the third assumption does not hold true, the parser reports an error. If the expression ends with a set of parentheses (for example, name1.name2.[...].nameM.nameN()), the Apex parser evaluates the expression as follows: 1. The parser first assumes that name1 is a local variable with name2 - nameM as field references, and nameN as a method invocation. 2. If the first assumption does not hold true: If the expression contains only two identifiers (name1.name2()), the parser then assumes that name1 is a class name and name2 is a method invocation. If the expression contains more than two identifiers, the parser then assumes that name1 is a class name, name2 is a static variable name with name3 - nameM as field references, and nameN is a method invocation.

3. If the second assumption does not hold true, the parser then assumes that name1 is a namespace name, name2 is a class name, name3 is a static variable name, name4 - nameM are field references, and nameN is a method invocation. 4. If the third assumption does not hold true, the parser reports an error. However, with class variables Apex also uses dot notation to reference member variables. Those member variables might refer to other class instances, or they might refer to an sObject which has its own dot notation rules to refer to field names (possibly navigating foreign keys). Once you enter an sObject field in the expression, the remainder of the expression stays within the sObject domain, that is, sObject fields cannot refer back to Apex expressions.

123

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Type Resolution and System Namespace for Types

For instance, if you have the following class:


public class c { c1 c1 = new c1(); class c1 { c2 c2; } class c2 { Account a; } }

Then the following expressions are all legal:


c.c1.c2.a.name c.c1.c2.a.owner.lastName.toLowerCase() c.c1.c2.a.tasks c.c1.c2.a.contacts.size()

Type Resolution and System Namespace for Types


Because the type system must resolve user-defined types defined locally or in other classes, the Apex parser evaluates types as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. For a type reference TypeN, the parser first looks up that type as a scalar type. If TypeN is not found, the parser looks up locally defined types. If TypeN still is not found, the parser looks up a class of that name. If TypeN still is not found, the parser looks up system types such as sObjects.

For the type T1.T2 this could mean an inner type T2 in a top-level class T1, or it could mean a top-level class T2 in the namespace T1 (in that order of precedence).

Version Settings
To aid backwards-compatibility, classes and triggers are stored with the version settings for a specific Salesforce API version. If an Apex class or trigger references components, such as a custom object, in installed managed packages, the version settings for each managed package referenced by the class are saved too. This ensures that as Apex, the API, and the components in managed packages evolve in subsequent released versions, a class or trigger is still bound to versions with specific, known behavior. Setting a version for an installed package determines the exposed interface and behavior of any Apex code in the installed package. This allows you to continue to reference Apex that may be deprecated in the latest version of an installed package, if you installed a version of the package before the code was deprecated. Typically, you reference the latest Salesforce API version and each installed package version. If you save an Apex class or trigger without specifying the Salesforce API version, the class or trigger is associated with the latest installed version by default. If you save an Apex class or trigger that references a managed package without specifying a version of the managed package, the class or trigger is associated with the latest installed version of the managed package by default.

Setting the Salesforce API Version for Classes and Triggers


To set the Salesforce API and Apex version for a class or trigger: 1. Edit either a class or trigger, and click Version Settings. 2. Select the Version of the Salesforce API. This is also the version of Apex associated with the class or trigger. 3. Click Save.

124

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Setting Package Versions for Apex Classes and Triggers

If you pass an object as a parameter in a method call from one Apex class, C1, to another class, C2, and C2 has different fields exposed due to the Salesforce API version setting, the fields in the objects are controlled by the version settings of C2. Using the following example, the Categories field is set to null after calling the insertIdea method in class C2 from a method in the test class C1, because the Categories field is not available in version 13.0 of the API. The first class is saved using Salesforce API version 13.0:
// This class is saved using Salesforce API version 13.0 // Version 13.0 does not include the Idea.categories field global class C2 { global Idea insertIdea(Idea a) { insert a; // category field set to null on insert // retrieve the new idea Idea insertedIdea = [SELECT title FROM Idea WHERE Id =:a.id]; return insertedIdea; } }

The following class is saved using Salesforce API version 16.0:


@isTest // This class is bound to API version 16.0 by Version Settings private class C1 { static testMethod void testC2Method() { Idea i = new Idea(); i.CommunityId = '09aD000000004YCIAY'; i.Title = 'Testing Version Settings'; i.body = 'Categories field is included in API version 16.0'; i.categories = 'test'; C2 c2 = new C2(); Idea returnedIdea = c2.insertIdea(i); // retrieve the new idea Idea ideaMoreFields = [SELECT title, categories FROM Idea WHERE Id = :returnedIdea.id]; // assert that the categories field from the object created // in this class is not null System.assert(i.categories != null); // assert that the categories field created in C2 is null System.assert(ideaMoreFields.categories == null); } }

Setting Package Versions for Apex Classes and Triggers


To configure the package version settings for a class or trigger: 1. Edit either a class or trigger, and click Version Settings. 2. Select a Version for each managed package referenced by the class or trigger. This version of the managed package will continue to be used by the class or trigger if later versions of the managed package are installed, unless you manually update the version setting. To add an installed managed package to the settings list, select a package from the list of available packages. The list is only displayed if you have an installed managed package that is not already associated with the class or trigger. 3. Click Save.

125

Classes, Objects, and Interfaces

Setting Package Versions for Apex Classes and Triggers

Note the following when working with package version settings: If you save an Apex class or trigger that references a managed package without specifying a version of the managed package, the Apex class or trigger is associated with the latest installed version of the managed package by default. You cannot Remove a class or trigger's version setting for a managed package if the package is referenced in the class or trigger. Use Show Dependencies to find where a managed package is referenced by a class or trigger.

126

Chapter 5
Apex Design Patterns
Like all programming languages, developers can use either good or bad design patterns. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the difference between the two, highlighting best practices and identifying common pitfalls.

Triggers and Bulk Requests


A common development pitfall is the assumption that trigger invocations never include more than one record. Apex triggers are optimized to operate in bulk, which, by definition, requires developers to write logic that supports bulk operations. The following is an example of a flawed programming pattern. It assumes that only one record is pulled in during a trigger invocation. While this might support most user interface events, it does not support bulk operations invoked through the Force.com Web services API or Visualforce.
trigger MileageTrigger on Mileage__c (before insert, before update) { user c = [SELECT Id FROM user where mileageid__c =trigger.new[0].id]; }

The following is another example of a flawed programming pattern. It assumes that less than 20 records are pulled in during a trigger invocation. If more than 20 records are pulled into this request, the trigger would exceed the SOQL query limit of 20 SELECT statements:
trigger MileageTrigger on Mileage__c (before insert, before update) { for(mileage__c m : trigger.new){ user c = [SELECT Id FROM user where mileageid__c =m.id]; }

For more information on governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. The following example demonstrates the correct pattern to support the bulk nature of triggers while respecting the governor limits:
Trigger MileageTrigger on Mileage__c (before insert, before update) { set<ID> ids = Trigger.new.keySet(); list<user> c = [SELECT Id FROM user WHERE mileageid__c in :ids]; }

This pattern respects the bulk nature of the trigger by passing the Trigger.new collection to a set, then using the set in a single SOQL query. This pattern captures all incoming records within the request while limiting the number of SOQL queries.

Best Practices for Designing Bulk Programs


The following are the best practices for this design pattern:

127

Apex Design Patterns

Triggers and Bulk Requests

Minimize the number of data manipulation language (DML) operations by adding records to collections and performing DML operations against these collections. Minimize the number of SOQL statements by preprocessing records and generating sets, which can be placed in single SOQL statement used with the IN clause.

128

Chapter 6
Testing Apex
In this chapter ... Understanding Testing in Apex Unit Testing Apex Running Unit Test Methods Testing Best Practices Testing Example
This chapter provides an overview of what to test, as well as the tools that are available on the Force.com platform for testing Apex. Understanding Testing in Apex Unit Testing Apex Running Unit Test Methods Testing Best Practices Testing Example

129

Testing Apex

Understanding Testing in Apex

Understanding Testing in Apex


Testing is the key to successful long term development, and is a critical component of the development process. salesforce.com strongly recommends that you use a test-driven development process, that is, test development that occurs at the same time as code development.

Why Test Apex?


Testing is key to the success of your application, particularly if your application is to be deployed to customers. If you validate that your application works as expected, that there are no unexpected behaviors, your customers are going to trust you more. There are two ways of testing an application. One is through the Salesforce user interface, important, but merely testing through the user interface will not catch all of the use cases for your application. The other way is to test for bulk functionality: up to 200 records can be passed through your code if it's invoked using the Force.com Web services API or by a Visualforce standard set controller. An application is seldom finished. You will have additional releases of it, where you change and extend functionality. If you have written comprehensive tests, you can ensure that a regression is not introduced with any new functionality. Before you can deploy your code or package it for the Force.com AppExchange, the following must be true: 75% of your Apex code must be covered by unit tests, and all of those tests must complete successfully. Note the following: When deploying to a production organization, every unit test in your organization namespace is executed. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests. While only 75% of your Apex code must be covered by tests, your focus shouldn't be on the percentage of code that is covered. Instead, you should make sure that every use case of your application is covered, including positive and negative cases, as well as bulk and single record. This should lead to 75% or more of your code being covered by unit tests.

Every trigger has some test coverage. All classes and triggers compile successfully.

Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests. Salesforce runs all tests in all organizations with Apex scripts to verify that no behavior has been altered as a result of any service upgrades.

What to Test in Apex


Salesforce.com recommends that you write tests for the following: Single action Test to verify that a single record produces the correct, expected result. Bulk actions Every Apex script, whether a trigger, a class or an extension, may be invoked for 1 to 200 records. You must test not only the single record case, but the bulk cases as well. Positive behavior Test to verify that the expected behavior occurs through every expected permutation, that is, that the user filled out everything correctly and did not go past the limits.

130

Testing Apex

Unit Testing Apex

Negative behavior There are likely limits to your applications, such as not being able to add a future date, not being able to specify a negative amount, and so on. You must test for the negative case and verify that the error messages are correctly produced as well as for the positive, within the limits cases. Restricted user Test whether a user with restricted access to the sObjects used in your code sees the expected behavior. That is, whether they can run the code or receive error messages. Note: Conditional and ternary operators are not considered executed unless both the positive and negative branches are executed. For examples of these types of tests, see Testing Example on page 137.

Unit Testing Apex


To facilitate the development of robust, error-free code, Apex supports the creation and execution of unit tests. Unit tests are class methods that verify whether a particular piece of code is working properly. Unit test methods take no arguments, commit no data to the database, send no emails, and are flagged with the testMethod keyword in the method definition. For example:
public class myClass { static testMethod void myTest() { code_block } }

Note: Test methods cannot be used to test Web service callouts. Web service callouts are asynchronous, while unit tests are synchronous.

Using the runAs Method


Generally, all Apex scripts run in system mode, and the permissions and record sharing of the current user are not taken into account. The system method runAs enables you to write test methods that change either the user contexts to an existing user or a new user, or to run using the code from a specific version of a managed package. When running as a user, all of that user's record sharing is then enforced. You can only use runAs in a test method. The original system context is started again after all runAs test methods complete. For information on using the runAs method and specifying a package version context, see Testing Behavior in Package Versions on page 196. Note: Every call to runAs counts against the total number of DML statements issued in the process.

In the following example, a new test user is created, then code is run as that user, with that user's permissions and record access:
public class TestRunAs { public static testMethod void testRunAs() { // Setup test data // This code runs as the system user

131

Testing Apex

Using Limits, startTest, and stopTest

Profile p = [select id from profile where name='Standard User']; User u = new User(alias = 'standt', email='standarduser@testorg.com', emailencodingkey='UTF-8', lastname='Testing', languagelocalekey='en_US', localesidkey='en_US', profileid = p.Id, timezonesidkey='America/Los_Angeles', username='standarduser@testorg.com'); System.runAs(u) { // The following code runs as user 'u' System.debug('Current User: ' + UserInfo.getUserName()); System.debug('Current Profile: ' + UserInfo.getProfileId()); } } }

You can nest more than one runAs method. For example:
public class TestRunAs2 { public static testMethod void test2() { Profile p = [SELECT Id FROM profile WHERE name='Standard User']; User u2 = new User(alias = 'newUser', email='newuser@testorg.com', emailencodingkey='UTF-8', lastname='Testing', languagelocalekey='en_US', localesidkey='en_US', profileid = p.Id, timezonesidkey='America/Los_Angeles', username='newuser@testorg.com'); System.runAs(u2) { // The following code runs as user u2. System.debug('Current User: ' + UserInfo.getUserName()); System.debug('Current Profile: ' + UserInfo.getProfileId()); // The following code runs as user u3. User u3 = [select id from user where username='newuser@testorg.com']; System.runAs(u3) { System.debug('Current User: ' + UserInfo.getUserName()); System.debug('Current Profile: ' + UserInfo.getProfileId()); } // Any additional code here would run as user u2. } } }

Best Practices for Using runAs


The following items use the permissions granted by the user specified with runAs running as a specific user: Dynamic Apex Methods using with sharing or without sharing Shared records

The original permissions are reset after runAs completes. The runAs method ignores user license limits. You can create new users with runAs even if your organization has no additional user licenses.

Using Limits, startTest, and stopTest


The Limits methods return the specific limit for the particular governor, such as the number of calls of a method or the amount of heap size remaining.

132

Testing Apex

Adding SOSL Queries to Unit Tests

There are two versions of every method: the first returns the amount of the resource that has been used in the current context, while the second version contains the word limit and returns the total amount of the resource that is available for that context. For example, getCallouts returns the number of callouts to an external service that have already been processed in the current context, while getLimitCallouts returns the total number of callouts available in the given context. In addition to the Limits methods, use the startTest and stopTest methods to validate how close the code is to reaching governor limits. The startTest method marks the point in your test code when your test actually begins. Each testMethod is allowed to call this method only once. All of the code before this method should be used to initialize variables, populate data structures, and so on, allowing you to set up everything you need in order to run your test. After you call this method, the limits that get applied are based on either the first DML statement (like INSERT, DELETE, and so on) or the first Web service invocation. The startTest method does not refresh the context of the test: it adds a context to your test. For example, if your class makes 98 SOQL queries before it calls startTest, and the first significant statement after startTest is a DML statement, the program can now make an additional 100 queries. Once stopTest is called, however, the program goes back into the original context, and can only make 2 additional SOQL queries before reaching the limit of 100. The stopTest method marks the point in your test code when your test ends. Use this method in conjunction with the startTest method. Each testMethod is allowed to call this method only once. After calling this method, any post assertions are done in the original context. All asynchronous calls made after the startTest method are collected by the system. When stopTest is executed, all asynchronous processes are run synchronously.

Adding SOSL Queries to Unit Tests


To ensure that test methods always behave in a predictable way, any Salesforce Object Search Language (SOSL) query that is added to an Apex test method returns an empty set of search results when the test method executes. If you do not want the query to return an empty list of results, you can use the Test.setFixedSearchResults system method to define a list of record IDs that are returned by the search. All SOSL queries that take place later in the test method return the list of record IDs that were specified by the Test.setFixedSearchResults method. Additionally, the test method can call Test.setFixedSearchResults multiple times to define different result sets for different SOSL queries. If you do not call the Test.setFixedSearchResults method in a test method, or if you call this method without specifying a list of record IDs, any SOSL queries that take place later in the test method return an empty list of results. The list of record IDs specified by the Test.setFixedSearchResults method replaces the results that would normally be returned by the SOSL query if it were not subject to any WHERE or LIMIT clauses. If these clauses exist in the SOSL query, they are applied to the list of fixed search results. For example:
public class SoslFixedResultsTest1 { public static testMethod void testSoslFixedResults() { Id [] fixedSearchResults= new Id[1]; fixedSearchResults[0] = '001x0000003G89h'; Test.setFixedSearchResults(fixedSearchResults); List<List<SObject>> searchList = [FIND 'test' IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account(id, name WHERE name = 'test' LIMIT 1)]; } }

Although the account record with an ID of 001x0000003G89h may not match the query string in the FIND clause ('test'), the record is passed into the RETURNING clause of the SOSL statement. If the record with ID 001x0000003G89h matches the WHERE clause filter, the record is returned. If it does not match the WHERE clause, no record is returned.

133

Testing Apex

Running Unit Test Methods

Running Unit Test Methods


You can run unit tests for: a specific class a subset of classes all unit tests in your organization

You can use either the Apex Test Execution page or the Salesforce user interface to run tests.

Note: Apex Test Execution and Apex Test Results are part of a pilot program. To enable these tools for your organization, contact salesforce.com. To use the Apex Test Execution page: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Test Execution. Click Run Tests... Either select individual tests or select all, then click Run. Click Refresh to update the status of the running tests. The test results don't automatically refresh.

After you run tests using the Apex Test Execution page, you can display the percentage of code covered by those tests on the list of Apex classes. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, then click Calculate your organization's code coverage. You can also verify which lines of code are covered by tests for an individual class. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, then click the percentage number in the Code Coverage column for a class. Click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Test Results to view all test results for your organization, not just tests that you have run. Test results are retained for 30 days after they finish running, unless cleared. If you cannot access the Apex Test Execution page, use the Salesforce user interface to run tests. To use the Salesforce user interface to generate test results, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes, then either click Run All Tests or click the name of a specific class that contains tests and click Run Test. After you use the Salesforce user interface to generate test results, the test result page contains the following sections. Each section can be expanded or collapsed. A summary section that details the number of tests run, the number of failures, and the percentage of Apex code that is covered by unit tests.

134

Testing Apex

Running Unit Test Methods

Important: You must have at least 75% of your Apex covered by unit tests to deploy your code to production environments. In addition, all triggers should have some test coverage. Salesforce recommends that you have 100% of your code covered by unit tests, where possible. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests.

Test failures, if any. A code coverage section. This section lists all the classes and triggers in your organization, and the percentage of lines of code in each class and trigger that are covered by tests. If you click the coverage percent number, a page displays, highlighting all the lines of code for that class or trigger that are covered by tests in blue, as well as highlighting all the lines of code that are not covered by tests in red. It also lists how many times a particular line in the class or trigger was executed by the test

Test coverage warnings, if any. Debug log. The debug log is automatically set to specific log levels and categories, which can't be changed. Category Database Apex Code Apex Profiling Workflow Validation Level INFO FINE INFO INFO INFO

In addition, you can execute tests with the Force.com IDE (see
https://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Apex_Toolkit_for_Eclipse).

You can also use the runTests() call from the Web services API:
RunTestsResult[] runTests(RunTestsRequest ri)

This call allows you to run all tests in all classes, all tests in a specific namespace, or all tests in a subset of classes in a specific namespace, as specified in the RunTestsRequest object. It returns the following: total number of tests that ran code coverage statistics (described below) error information for each failed test information for each test that succeeds time it took to run the test

For more information on runTests(), see the WSDL located at


https://your_salesforce_server/services/wsdl/apex, where your_salesforce_server is equivalent to the server on which your organization is located, such as na1.salesforce.com.

Though administrators in a Salesforce production organization cannot make changes to Apex scripts using the Salesforce user interface, it is still important to use runTests() to verify that the existing unit tests run to completion after a change is made, such as adding a unique constraint to an existing field. Salesforce production organizations must use the compileAndTest API call to make changes to Apex scripts. For more information, see Deploying Apex Scripts on page 431.

135

Testing Apex

Testing Best Practices

For more information on runTests(), see Web Services API Calls and SOAP Headers for Apex on page 460.

Testing Best Practices


Good tests should do the following: Cover as many lines of code as possible. Important: You must have at least 75% of your Apex covered by unit tests to deploy your code to production environments. In addition, all triggers must have some test coverage. Salesforce recommends that you have 100% of your code covered by unit tests, where possible. Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests.

In the case of conditional logic (including ternary operators), execute each branch of code logic. Make calls to methods using both valid and invalid inputs. Complete successfully without throwing any exceptions, unless those errors are expected and caught in a trycatch block. Always handle all exceptions that are caught, instead of merely catching the exceptions. Use System.assert methods to prove that code behaves properly. Use the runAs method to test your application in different user contexts. Use the isTest annotation. Classes defined with the isTest annotation do not count against your organization limit of 2 MB for all Apex scripts. Exercise bulk trigger functionalityuse at least 20 records in your tests. Use the ORDER BY keywords to ensure that the records are returned in the expected order. Not assume that record IDs are in sequential order. Record IDs are not created in ascending order unless you insert multiple records with the same request. For example, if you create an account A, and receive the ID 001D000000IEEmT, then create account B, the ID of account B may or may not be sequentially higher.

On the list of Apex classes, there is a Code Coverage column. If you click the coverage percent number, a page displays, highlighting all the lines of code for that class or trigger that are covered by tests in blue, as well as highlighting all the lines of code that are not covered by tests in red. It also lists how many times a particular line in the class or trigger was executed by the test Set up test data: Create the necessary data in test classes, so the tests do not have to rely on data in a particular organization Create all test data before calling the starttest method Since tests don't commit, you won't need to delete any data

Write comments stating not only what is supposed to be tested, but the assumptions the tester made about the data, the expected outcome, and so on. Test the classes in your application individually. Never test your entire application in a single test.

If you are running many tests, consider the following: In the Force.com IDE, you may need to increase the Read timeout value for your Apex project. See https://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Apex_Toolkit_for_Eclipse for details. In the Salesforce user interface, you may need to test the classes in your organization individually, instead of trying to run all of the tests at the same time using the Run All Tests button.

136

Testing Apex

Testing Example

Testing Example
The following example includes cases for the following types of tests: Positive case with single and multiple records Negative case with single and multiple records Testing with other users

The test is used with a simple mileage tracking application. The existing code for the application verifies that not more than 500 miles are entered in a single day. The primary object is a custom object named Mileage__c. Here is the entire test class. The following sections step through specific portions of the code.
@isTest private class MileageTrackerTestSuite { static testMethod void runPositiveTestCases() { Double totalMiles = 0; final Double maxtotalMiles = 500; final Double singletotalMiles = 300; final Double u2Miles = 100; //Setup User User u1 = [select id from User where alias='auser']; //Run As U1 System.RunAs(u1){ System.debug('Inserting 300 miles... (single record validation)');

Mileage__c testMiles1 = new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 300, Date__c = System.today()); insert testMiles1; // validate single insert for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :u1.id and miles__c != null]) { totalMiles += m.miles__c; } System.assertEquals(singletotalMiles, totalMiles); //validate bulk totalMiles = 0; System.debug('Inserting 200 mileage records... (bulk validation)'); List<Mileage__c> testMiles2 = new List<Mileage__c>(); for(integer i=0; i<200; i++) { testMiles2.add( new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 1, Date__c = System.today()) ); } insert testMiles2; for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :u1.id and miles__c != null]) {

137

Testing Apex

Testing Example

totalMiles += m.miles__c; } System.assertEquals(maxtotalMiles, totalMiles); }//end RunAs(u1) //validate additional user: totalMiles = 0; //setup RunAs User u2 = [select id from User where alias='tuser']; System.RunAs(u2){ Mileage__c testMiles3 = new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 100, Date__c = System.today()); insert testMiles3; for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :u2.id and miles__c != null]) { totalMiles += m.miles__c; } //validate System.assertEquals(u2Miles, totalMiles); } //System.RunAs(u2) } // runPositiveTestCases() static testMethod void runNegativeTestCases() { User u3 = [select id from User where alias='tuser']; System.RunAs(u3){ System.debug('Inserting a record with 501 miles... (negative test case)'); Mileage__c testMiles3 = new Mileage__c( Miles__c = 501, Date__c = System.today() ); try { insert testMiles3; } catch (DmlException e) { //Assert Error Message System.assert( e.getMessage().contains('Insert failed. First exception on ' + 'row 0; first error: FIELD_CUSTOM_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION, ' + 'Mileage request exceeds daily limit(500): [Miles__c]'), e.getMessage() ); //Assert field System.assertEquals(Mileage__c.Miles__c, e.getDmlFields(0)[0]); //Assert Status Code System.assertEquals('FIELD_CUSTOM_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION' , e.getDmlStatusCode(0) ); } //catch } //RunAs(u3) } // runNegativeTestCases() } // class MileageTrackerTestSuite

Positive Test Case


The following steps through the above code, in particular, the positive test case for single and multiple records.

138

Testing Apex

Testing Example

1. Add text to the debug log, indicating the next step of the script:
System.debug('Inserting 300 more miles...single record validation');

2. Create a Mileage__c object and insert it into the database.


Mileage__c testMiles1 = new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 300, Date__c = System.today() ); insert testMiles1;

3. Validate the code by returning the inserted records:


for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :createdbyId and miles__c != null]) { totalMiles += m.miles__c; }

4. Use the system.assertEquals method to verify that the expected result is returned:
System.assertEquals(singletotalMiles, totalMiles);

5. Before moving to the next test, set the number of total miles back to 0:
totalMiles = 0;

6. Validate the code by creating a bulk insert of 200 records. First, add text to the debug log, indicating the next step of the script:
System.debug('Inserting 200 Mileage records...bulk validation');

7. Then insert 200 Mileage__c records:


List<Mileage__c> testMiles2 = new List<Mileage__c>(); for(integer i=0; i<200; i++){ testMiles2.add( new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 1, Date__c = System.today()) ); } insert testMiles2;

8. Use System.assertEquals to verify that the expected result is returned:


for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :createdbyId and miles__c != null]) { totalMiles += m.miles__c; } System.assertEquals(maxtotalMiles, totalMiles);

Negative Test Case


The following steps through the above code, in particular, the negative test case.

139

Testing Apex

Testing Example

1. Create a static test method called runNegativeTestCases:


static testMethod void runNegativeTestCases(){

2. Add text to the debug log, indicating the next step of the script:
System.debug('Inserting 501 miles... negative test case');

3. Create a Mileage__c record with 501 miles.


Mileage__c testMiles3 = new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 501, Date__c = System.today());

4. Place the insert statement within a try/catch block. This allows you to catch the validation exception and assert the generated error message.
try { insert testMiles3; } catch (DmlException e) {

5. Now use the System.assert and System.assertEquals to do the testing. Add the following code to the catch block you previously created:
//Assert Error Message System.assert(e.getMessage().contains('Insert failed. First exception '+ 'on row 0; first error: FIELD_CUSTOM_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION, '+ 'Mileage request exceeds daily limit(500): [Miles__c]'), e.getMessage()); //Assert Field System.assertEquals(Mileage__c.Miles__c, e.getDmlFields(0)[0]); //Assert Status Code System.assertEquals('FIELD_CUSTOM_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION' e.getDmlStatusCode(0)); } } } ,

Testing as a Second User


The following steps through the above code, in particular, running as a second user. 1. Before moving to the next test, set the number of total miles back to 0:
totalMiles = 0;

2. Set up the next user.


User u2 = [select id from User where alias='tuser']; System.RunAs(u2){

140

Testing Apex

Testing Example

3. Add text to the debug log, indicating the next step of the script:
System.debug('Setting up testing - deleting any mileage records for ' + UserInfo.getUserName() + ' from today');

4. Then insert one Mileage__c record:


Mileage__c testMiles3 = new Mileage__c(Miles__c = 100, Date__c = System.today()); insert testMiles3;

5. Validate the code by returning the inserted records:


for(Mileage__c m:[SELECT miles__c FROM Mileage__c WHERE createdDate = TODAY and createdById = :u2.Id and miles__c != null]) { totalMiles += m.miles__c; }

6. Use the system.assertEquals method to verify that the expected result is returned:
System.assertEquals(u2Miles, totalMiles);

141

Chapter 7
Dynamic Apex
In this chapter ... Understanding Apex Describe Information Dynamic SOQL Dynamic SOSL Dynamic DML
Dynamic Apex enables developers to create more flexible applications by providing them with the ability to: Access sObject and field describe information Describe information provides information about sObject and field properties. For example, the describe information for an sObject includes whether that type of sObject supports operations like create or undelete, the sObject's name and label, the sObject's fields and child objects, and so on. The describe information for a field includes whether the field has a default value, whether it is a calculated field, the type of the field, and so on. Note that describe information provides information about objects in an organization, not individual records. Write dynamic SOQL queries, dynamic SOSL queries and dynamic DML Dynamic SOQL and SOSL queries provide the ability to execute SOQL or SOSL as a string at runtime, while dynamic DML provides the ability to create a record dynamically and then insert it into the database using DML. Using dynamic SOQL, SOSL, and DML, an application can be tailored precisely to the organization as well as the user's permissions. This can be useful for applications that are installed from Force.com AppExchange.

142

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

Understanding Apex Describe Information


Apex provides two data structures for sObject and field describe information: Tokena lightweight, serializable reference to an sObject or a field that is validated at compile time. Describe resultan object that contains all the describe properties for the sObject or field. Describe result objects are not serializable, and are validated at runtime.

It is easy to move from a token to its describe result, and vice versa. Both sObject and field tokens have the method getDescribe which returns the describe result for that token. On the describe result, the getSObjectType and getSObjectField methods return the tokens for sObject and field, respectively. Because tokens are lightweight, using them can make your code faster and more efficient. For example, use the token version of an sObject or field when you are determining the type of an sObject or field that your code needs to use. The token can be compared using the equality operator (==) to determine whether an sObject is the Contact object, for example, or whether a field is the Name field or a custom calculated field. The following code provides a general example of how to use tokens and describe results to access information about sObject and field properties:
// Create a new account as the generic type sObject sObject s = new Account(); // Verify that the generic sObject is an Account sObject System.assert(s.getsObjectType() == Account.sObjectType); // Get the sObject describe result for the Account object Schema.DescribeSObjectResult r = Account.sObjectType.getDescribe(); // Get the field describe result for the Name field on the Account object Schema.DescribeFieldResult f = Schema.sObjectType.Account.fields.Name; // Verify that the field token is the token for the Name field on an Account object System.assert(f.getSObjectField() == Account.Name); // Get the field describe result from the token f = f.getSObjectField().getDescribe();

The following algorithm shows how you can work with describe information in Apex: 1. 2. 3. 4. Generate a list or map of tokens for the sObjects in your organization (see Accessing All sObjects on page 146) Determine the sObject you need to access Generate the describe result for the sObject If necessary, generate a map of field tokens for the sObject (see Accessing All Field Describe Results for an sObject on page 146) 5. Generate the describe result for the field the code needs to access

Understanding Describe Information Permissions


Apex generally runs in system mode. All classes and triggers that are not included in a package, that is, are native to your organization, have no restrictions on the sObjects that they can look up dynamically. This means that with native code, you can generate a map of all the sObjects for your organization, regardless of the current user's permission. Dynamic Apex, contained in managed packages created by salesforce.com ISV partners that are installed from Force.com AppExchange, have restricted access to any sObject outside the managed package. Partners can set the API Access value within the package to grant access to standard sObjects not included as part of the managed package. While Partners can

143

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

request access to standard objects, custom objects are not included as part of the managed package and can never be referenced or accessed by dynamic Apex that is packaged. For more information, see About API and Dynamic Apex Access in Packages in the Salesforce online help.

Using sObject Tokens


SObjects, such as Account and MyCustomObject__c, act as static classes with special static methods and member variables for accessing token and describe result information. You must explicitly reference an sObject and field name at compile time to gain access to the describe result. To access the token for an sObject, use one of the following methods: Access the sObjectType member variable on an sObject type, such as Account Call the getSObjectType method on an sObject describe result, an sObject variable, a list, or a map

Schema.SObjectType is the data type for an sObject token.

In the following example, the token for the Account sObject is returned:
Schema.sObjectType t = Account.sObjectType;

The following also returns a token for the Account sObject:


Account A = new Account(); Schema.sObjectType T = A.getSObjectType();

This example can be used to determine whether an sObject or a list of sObjects is of a particular type:
public class sObjectTest { { // Create a generic sObject variable s SObject s = Database.query('select id from account limit 1'); // Verify if that sObject variable is an Account token System.assertEquals(s.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); // Create a list of generic sObjects List<sObject> l = new Account[]{}; // Verify if the list of sObjects contains Account tokens System.assertEquals(l.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); } }

Some standard sObjects have a field called sObjectType, for example, AssignmentRule, QueueSObject, and RecordType. For these types of sObjects, always use the getSObjectType method for retrieving the token. If you use the property, for example, RecordType.sObjectType, the field is returned.

Using sObject Describe Results


To access the describe result for an sObject, use one of the following methods: Call the getDescribe method on an sObject token Use the Schema sObjectType static variable with the name of the sObject. For example, Schema.sObjectType.Lead.

Schema.DescribeSObjectResult is the data type for an sObject describe result.

144

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

The following example uses the getDescribe method on an sObject token:


Schema.DescribeSObjectResult D = Account.sObjectType.getDescribe();

The following example uses the Schema sObjectType static member variable:
Schema.DescribeSObjectResult D = Schema.SObjectType.Account;

For more information about the methods available with the sObject describe result, see sObject Describe Result Methods on page 276.

Using Field Tokens


To access the token for a field, use one of the following methods: Access the static member variable name of an sObject static type, for example, Account.Name Call the getSObjectField method on a field describe result

The field token uses the data type Schema.SObjectField. In the following example, the field token is returned for the Account object's AccountNumber field:
Schema.SObjectField F = Account.AccountNumber;

In the following example, the field token is returned from the field describe result:
// Get the describe result for the Name field on the Account object Schema.DescribeFieldResult f = Schema.sObjectType.Account.fields.Name; // Verify that the field token is the token for the Name field on an Account object System.assert(f.getSObjectField() == Account.Name); // Get the describe result from the token f = f.getSObjectField().getDescribe();

Using Field Describe Results


To access the describe result for a field, use one of the following methods: Call the getDescribe method on a field token Access the fields member variable of an sObject token with a field member variable (such as Name, BillingCity, and so on)

The field describe result uses the data type Schema.DescribeFieldResult. The following example uses the getDescribe method:
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Account.AccountNumber.getDescribe();

This example uses the fields member variable method:


Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Schema.SObjectType.Account.fields.Name;

In the example above, the system uses special parsing to validate that the final member variable (Name) is valid for the specified sObject at compile time. When the parser finds the fields member variable, it looks backwards to find the name of the sObject (Account) and validates that the field name following the fields member variable is legitimate. The fields member variable only works when used in this manner.

145

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

You can only have 100 fields member variable statements in an Apex class or trigger. Note: You should not use the fields member variable without also using either a field member variable name or the getMap method. For more information on getMap, see Accessing All Field Describe Results for an sObject on page 146. For more information about the methods available with a field describe result, see Describe Field Result Methods on page 279.

Accessing All sObjects


Use the Schema getGlobalDescribe method to return a map that represents the relationship between all sObject names (keys) to sObject tokens (values). For example:
Map<String, Schema.SObjectType> gd = Schema.getGlobalDescribe();

The map has the following characteristics: It is dynamic, that is, it is generated at runtime on the sObjects currently available for the organization, based on permissions The sObject names are case insensitive The keys use namespaces as required The keys reflect whether the sObject is a custom object

For example, if the code block that generates the map is in namespace N1, and an sObject is also in N1, the key in the map is represented as MyObject__c. However, if the code block is in namespace N1, and the sObject is in namespace N2, the key is N2__MyObject__c. In addition, standard sObjects have no namespace prefix.

Accessing All Field Describe Results for an sObject


Use the field describe result's getMap method to return a map that represents the relationship between all the field names (keys) and the field tokens (values) for an sObject. The following example generates a map that can be used to access a field by name:
Map<String, Schema.SObjectField> M = Schema.SObjectType.Account.fields.getMap();

Note: The value type of this map is not a field describe result. Using the describe results would take too many system resources. Instead, it is a map of tokens that you can use to find the appropriate field. After you determine the field, generate the describe result for it. The map has the following characteristics: It is dynamic, that is, it is generated at runtime on the fields for that sObject All field names are case insensitive The keys use namespaces as required The keys reflect whether the field is a custom object

For example, if the code block that generates the map is in namespace N1, and a field is also in N1, the key in the map is represented as MyField__c. However, if the code block is in namespace N1, and the field is in namespace N2, the key is N2__MyField__c. In addition, standard fields have no namespace prefix.

146

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject


Use the describeDataCategoryGroups and describeDataCategoryGroupStructures methods to return the categories associated with a specific object: 1. Return all the category groups associated with the objects of your choice (see describeDataCategoryGroups on page 269). 2. From the returned map, get the category group name and sObject name you want to further interrogate (see Schema.Describe DataCategoryGroupResult on page 271). 3. Specify the category group and associated object, then retrieve the categories available to this object (see describeDataCategoryGroupStructures on page 270). The describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method returns the categories available for the object in the category group you specified. For additional information about data categories, see What are Data Categories? in the Salesforce online help. In the following example, the describeDataCategoryGroupSample method returns all the category groups associated with the Article and Question objects. The describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method returns all the categories available for articles and questions in the Regions category group. For additional information about articles and questions, see Managing Articles and Translations and Answers Overview in the Salesforce online help. To use the following example, you must: Enable Salesforce Knowledge Enable the answers feature Create a data category group called Regions Assign Regions as the data category group to be used by Answers Make sure the Regions data category group is assigned to Salesforce Knowledge

For more information on creating data category groups, see Creating and Modifying Category Groups in the Salesforce online help. For more information on answers, see Answers Overview in the Salesforce online help.

public class DescribeDataCategoryGroupSample { public static List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult> describeDataCategoryGroupSample(){ List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult> describeCategoryResult; try { //Creating the list of sobjects to use for the describe //call List<String> objType = new List<String>(); objType.add('KnowledgeArticleVersion'); objType.add('Question'); //Describe Call describeCategoryResult = Schema.describeDataCategoryGroups(objType); //Using the results and retrieving the information for(DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult singleResult : describeCategoryResult){ //Getting the name of the category singleResult.getName(); //Getting the name of label singleResult.getLabel(); //Getting description singleResult.getDescription(); //Getting the sobject singleResult.getSobject(); } } catch(Exception e){ }

147

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

return describeCategoryResult; } }

public class DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructures { public static List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult> getDescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResults(){ List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult> describeCategoryResult; List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult> describeCategoryStructureResult; try { //Making the call to the describeDataCategoryGroups to //get the list of category groups associated List<String> objType = new List<String>(); objType.add('KnowledgeArticleVersion'); objType.add('Question'); describeCategoryResult = Schema.describeDataCategoryGroups(objType); //Creating a list of pair objects to use as a parameter //for the describe call List<DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair> pairs = new List<DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair>(); //Looping throught the first describe result to create //the list of pairs for the second describe call for(DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult singleResult : describeCategoryResult){ DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair p = new DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair(); p.setSobject(singleResult.getSobject()); p.setDataCategoryGroupName(singleResult.getName()); pairs.add(p); } //describeDataCategoryGroupStructures() describeCategoryStructureResult = Schema.describeDataCategoryGroupStructures(pairs, false); //Getting data from the result for(DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult singleResult : describeCategoryStructureResult){ //Get name of the associated Sobject singleResult.getSobject(); //Get the name of the data category group singleResult.getName(); //Get the name of the data category group singleResult.getLabel(); //Get the description of the data category group singleResult.getDescription(); //Get the top level categories DataCategory [] toplevelCategories = singleResult.getTopCategories(); //Recursively get all the categories List<DataCategory> allCategories = getAllCategories(toplevelCategories); for(DataCategory category : allCategories) { //Get the name of the category category.getName(); //Get the label of the category

148

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

category.getLabel(); //Get the list of sub categories in the category DataCategory [] childCategories = category.getChildCategories(); } } } catch (Exception e){ } return describeCategoryStructureResult; } private static DataCategory[] getAllCategories(DataCategory [] categories){ if(categories.isEmpty()){ return new DataCategory[]{}; } else { DataCategory [] categoriesClone = categories.clone(); DataCategory category = categoriesClone[0]; DataCategory[] allCategories = new DataCategory[]{category}; categoriesClone.remove(0); categoriesClone.addAll(category.getChildCategories()); allCategories.addAll(getAllCategories(categoriesClone)); return allCategories; } } }

Testing Access to All Data Categories Associated with an sObject


The following example tests the describeDataCategoryGroupSample method shown in Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject. It ensures that the returned category group and associated objects are correct.
@isTest private class DescribeDataCategoryGroupSampleTest { public static testMethod void describeDataCategoryGroupSampleTest(){ List<DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult>describeResult = DescribeDataCategoryGroupSample.describeDataCategoryGroupSample(); //Assuming that you have KnowledgeArticleVersion and Questions //associated with only one category group 'Regions'. System.assert(describeResult.size() == 2, 'The results should only contain two results: ' + describeResult.size()); for(DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult result : describeResult) { //Storing the results String name = result.getName(); String label = result.getLabel(); String description = result.getDescription(); String objectNames = result.getSobject(); //asserting the values to make sure System.assert(name == 'Regions', 'Incorrect name was returned: ' + name); System.assert(label == 'Regions of the World', 'Incorrect label was returned: ' + label); System.assert(description == 'This is the category group for all the regions', 'Incorrect description was returned: ' + description); System.assert(objectNames.contains('KnowledgeArticleVersion') || objectNames.contains('Question'), 'Incorrect sObject was returned: ' + objectNames); } } }

149

Dynamic Apex

Understanding Apex Describe Information

This example tests the describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method shown in Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject. It ensures that the returned category group, categories and associated objects are correct.
@isTest private class DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructuresTest { public static testMethod void getDescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResultsTest(){ List<Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult> describeResult = DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructures.getDescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResults(); System.assert(describeResult.size() == 2, 'The results should only contain 2 results: ' + describeResult.size()); //Creating category info CategoryInfo world = new CategoryInfo('World', 'World'); CategoryInfo asia = new CategoryInfo('Asia', 'Asia'); CategoryInfo northAmerica = new CategoryInfo('NorthAmerica', 'North America'); CategoryInfo southAmerica = new CategoryInfo('SouthAmerica', 'South America'); CategoryInfo europe = new CategoryInfo('Europe', 'Europe'); List<CategoryInfo> info = new CategoryInfo[] { asia, northAmerica, southAmerica, europe }; for (Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult result : describeResult) { String name = result.getName(); String label = result.getLabel(); String description = result.getDescription(); String objectNames = result.getSobject(); //asserting the values to make sure System.assert(name == 'Regions', 'Incorrect name was returned: ' + name); System.assert(label == 'Regions of the World', 'Incorrect label was returned: ' + label); System.assert(description == 'This is the category group for all the regions', 'Incorrect description was returned: ' + description); System.assert(objectNames.contains('KnowledgeArticleVersion') || objectNames.contains('Question'), 'Incorrect sObject was returned: ' + objectNames); DataCategory [] topLevelCategories = result.getTopCategories(); System.assert(topLevelCategories.size() == 1, 'Incorrect number of top level categories returned: ' + topLevelCategories.size()); System.assert(topLevelCategories[0].getLabel() == world.getLabel() && topLevelCategories[0].getName() == world.getName()); //checking if the correct children are returned DataCategory [] children = topLevelCategories[0].getChildCategories(); System.assert(children.size() == 4, 'Incorrect number of children returned: ' + children.size()); for(Integer i=0; i < children.size(); i++){ System.assert(children[i].getLabel() == info[i].getLabel() && children[i].getName() == info[i].getName()); } } } private class CategoryInfo { private final String name; private final String label;

150

Dynamic Apex

Dynamic SOQL

private CategoryInfo(String n, String l){ this.name = n; this.label = l; } public String getName(){ return this.name; } public String getLabel(){ return this.label; } } }

Dynamic SOQL
Dynamic SOQL refers to the creation of a SOQL string at runtime with an Apex script. Dynamic SOQL enables you to create more flexible applications. For example, you can create a search based on input from an end user, or update records with varying field names. To create a dynamic SOQL query at runtime, use the database query method, in one of the following ways: Return a single sObject when the query returns a single record:
sObject S = Database.query(string_limit_1);

Return a list of sObjects when the query returns more than a single record:
List<sObject> L = Database.query(string);

The database query method can be used wherever an inline SOQL query can be used, such as in regular assignment statements and for loops. The results are processed in much the same way as static SOQL queries are processed. Dynamic SOQL results can be specified as concrete sObjects, such as Account or MyCustomObject__c, or as the generic sObject data type. At runtime, the system validates that the type of the query matches the declared type of the variable. If the query does not return the correct sObject type, a runtime error is thrown. This means you do not need to cast from a generic sObject to a concrete sObject. Dynamic SOQL queries have the same governor limits as static queries. For more information on governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. For a full description of SOQL query syntax, see
www.salesforce.com/us/developer/docs/api/index_CSH.htm#sforce_api_calls_soql.htm in the Web

Services API Developer's Guide.

SOQL Injection
SOQL injection is a technique by which a user causes your application to execute database methods you did not intend by passing SOQL statements into your script. This can occur in an Apex script whenever your application relies on end user input to construct a dynamic SOQL statement and you do not handle the input properly. To prevent SOQL injection, use the escapeSingleQuotes method. This method adds the escape character (\) to all single quotation marks in a string that is passed in from a user. The method ensures that all single quotation marks are treated as enclosing strings, instead of database commands.

151

Dynamic Apex

Dynamic SOSL

Dynamic SOSL
Dynamic SOSL refers to the creation of a SOSL string at runtime with an Apex script. Dynamic SOSL enables you to create more flexible applications. For example, you can create a search based on input from an end user, or update records with varying field names. To create a dynamic SOSL query at runtime, use the search query method. For example:
List<List <sObject>> myQuery = search.query(SOSL_search_string);

The following example exercises a simple SOSL query string.


String searchquery='FIND\'Edge*\'IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account(id,name),Contact, Lead'; List<List<SObject>>searchList=search.query(searchquery);

Dynamic SOSL statements evaluate to a list of lists of sObjects, where each list contains the search results for a particular sObject type. The result lists are always returned in the same order as they were specified in the dynamic SOSL query. From the example above, the results from Account are first, then Contact, then Lead. The search query method can be used wherever an inline SOSL query can be used, such as in regular assignment statements and for loops. The results are processed in much the same way as static SOSL queries are processed. SOSL queries are only supported in Apex classes and anonymous blocks. You cannot use a SOSL query in a trigger. Dynamic SOSL queries have the same governor limits as static queries. For more information on governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. For a full description of SOSL query syntax, see
www.salesforce.com/us/developer/docs/api/index_CSH.htm#sforce_api_calls_sosl.htm in the Web

Services API Developer's Guide.

SOSL Injection
SOSL injection is a technique by which a user causes your application to execute database methods you did not intend by passing SOSL statements into your script. This can occur in an Apex script whenever your application relies on end user input to construct a dynamic SOSL statement and you do not handle the input properly. To prevent SOSL injection, use the escapeSingleQuotes method. This method adds the escape character (\) to all single quotation marks in a string that is passed in from a user. The method ensures that all single quotation marks are treated as enclosing strings, instead of database commands.

Dynamic DML
In addition to querying describe information and building SOQL queries at runtime, you can also create sObjects dynamically, and insert them into the database using DML. To create a new sObject of a given type, use the newSObject method on an sObject token. Note that the token must be cast into a concrete sObject type (such as Account). For example:
// Get a new account Account A = new Account(); // Get the token for the account Schema.sObjectType tokenA = A.getSObjectType();

152

Dynamic Apex

Dynamic DML

// The following produces an error because the token is a generic sObject, not an Account // Account B = tokenA.newSObject(); // The following works because the token is cast back into an Account Account B = (Account)tokenA.newSObject();

Though the sObject token tokenA is a token of Account, it is considered an sObject because it is accessed separately. It must be cast back into the concrete sObject type Account to use the newSObject method. For more information on casting, see Classes and Casting on page 117. You can also specify an ID with newSObject. For example:
SObject s = Database.query('Select Id from account limit 1')[0].getSObjectType(). newSObject([SELECT Id FROM Account LIMIT 1][0].id);

Setting and Retrieving Field Values


Use the get and put methods on an object to set or retrieve values for fields using either the API name of the field expressed as a String, or the field's token. In the following example, the API name of the field AccountNumber is used:
SObject s = [SELECT accountNumber FROM account LIMIT 1]; Object o = s.get('AccountNumber'); s.put('AccountNumber', 'abc');

The following example uses the AccountNumber field's token instead:


Schema.DescribeFieldResult f = Schema.sObjectType.Account.fields.AccountNumber; Sobject s = Database.query('SELECT AccountNumber FROM Account LIMIT 1'); s.put(f.getsObjectField(), '12345');

The Object scalar data type can be used as a generic data type to set or retrieve field values on an sObject. This is equivalent to the anyType field type. Note that the Object data type is different from the sObject data type, which can be used as a generic type for any sObject. Note: Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

Setting and Retrieving Foreign Keys


Apex supports populating foreign keys by name (or external ID) in the same way as the API. To set or retrieve the scalar ID value of a foreign key, use the get or put methods. To set or retrieve the record associated with a foreign key, use the getSObject and putSObject methods. Note that these methods must be used with the sObject data type, not Object. For example:
SObject c = Database.query('SELECT Id, FirstName, AccountId, Account.Name FROM Contact LIMIT 1'); SObject a = c.getSObject('Account');

There is no need to specify the external ID for a parent sObject value while working with child sObjects. If you provide an ID in the parent sObject, it is ignored by the DML operation. Apex assumes the foreign key is populated through a relationship SOQL query, which always returns a parent object with a populated ID. If you have an ID, use it with the child object. For example, suppose that custom object C1 has a foreign key c2__c that links to a child custom object C2. You want to create a C1 object and have it associated with a C2 record named 'xxx' (assigned to the value c2__r). You do not need the ID of the 'xxx' record, as it is populated through the relationship of parent to child. For example:
insert new C1__c(name = 'x', c2__r = new C2__c(name = 'xxx'));

153

Dynamic Apex

Dynamic DML

If you had assigned a value to the ID for c2__r, it would be ignored. If you do have the ID, assign it to the object (c2__c), not the record. You can also access foreign keys using dynamic Apex. The following example shows how to get the values from a subquery in a parent-to-child relationship using dynamic Apex:
String queryString = 'SELECT Id, Name, (SELECT FirstName, LastName from Contacts LIMIT 1) from Account'; SObject[] queryParentObject = Database.query(queryString); for (SObject parentRecord : queryParentObject){ Object ParentFieldValue = parentRecord.get('Name'); // Prevent a null relationship from being accessed SObject[] childRecordsFromParent = parentRecord.getSObjects('Contacts'); if (childRecordsFromParent != null) { for (SObject childRecord : childRecordsFromParent){ Object ChildFieldValue1 = childRecord.get('FirstName'); Object ChildFieldValue2 = childRecord.get('LastName'); System.debug('Account Name: ' + ParentFieldValue + '. Contact Name: '+ ChildFieldValue1 + ' ' + ChildFieldValue2); } } }

154

Chapter 8
Batch Apex
In this chapter ... Using Batch Apex Understanding Apex Managed Sharing
A developer can now employ batch Apex to build complex, long-running processes on the Force.com platform. For example, a developer could build an archiving solution that runs on a nightly basis, looking for records past a certain date and adding them to an archive. Or a developer could build a data cleansing operation that goes through all Accounts and Opportunities on a nightly basis and reassigns them if necessary, based on custom criteria. Batch Apex is exposed as an interface that must be implemented by the developer. Batch jobs can be programmatically invoked at runtime using Apex. You can only have five queued or active batch jobs at one time. You can evaluate your current count by viewing the Scheduled Jobs page in Salesforce or programmatically using the Force.com Web services API to query the AsyncapexJob object. Caution: Use extreme care if you are planning to invoke a batch job from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more batch jobs than the five that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time. Batch jobs can also be programmatically scheduled to run at specific times using the Apex scheduler, or scheduled using the Schedule Apex page in the Salesforce user interface. For more information on the Schedule Apex page, see Scheduling Apex in the Salesforce online help. The batch Apex interface is also used for Apex managed sharing recalculations. For more information on batch jobs, continue to Using Batch Apex on page 156. For more information on Apex managed sharing, see Understanding Apex Managed Sharing on page 163.

155

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex


To use batch Apex, you must write an Apex class that implements the Salesforce-provided interface Database.Batchable, and then invoke the class programmatically. To monitor or stop the execution of the batch Apex job, click Your Name Setup Monitoring Apex Jobs. For more information, see Apex Job Queue in the Salesforce online help.

Implementing the Database.Batchable Interface


The Database.Batchable interface contains three methods that must be implemented:
start method
global (Database.QueryLocator | Iterable<sObject>) start(Database.BatchableContext bc) {}

The start method is called at the beginning of a batch Apex job. Use the start method to collect the records or objects to be passed to the interface method execute. This method returns either a Database.QueryLocator object or an iterable that contains the records or objects being passed into the job. Use the Database.QueryLocator object when you are using a simple query (SELECT) to generate the scope of objects used in the batch job. If you use a QueryLocator object, the governor limit for the total number of records retrieved by SOQL queries is bypassed. For example, a batch Apex job for the Account object can return a QueryLocator for all account records (up to 50 million records) in an organization. Another example is a sharing recalculation for the Contact object that returns a QueryLocator for all contact records in an organization. Use the iterable when you need to create a complex scope for the batch job. You can also use the iterable to create your own custom process for iterating through the list. Important: If you use an iterable, the governor limit for the total number of records retrieved by SOQL queries is still enforced.
execute method:
global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, list<P>){}

The execute method is called for each batch of records passed to the method. Use this method to do all required processing for each chunk of data. This method takes the following: A reference to the Database.BatchableContext object. A list of sObjects, such as List<sObject>, or a list of parameterized types. If you are using a Database.QueryLocator, the returned list should be used.

finish method
global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){}

The finish method is called after all batches are processed. Use this method to send confirmation emails or execute post-processing operations.

156

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

Each execution of a batch Apex job is considered a discrete transaction. For example, a batch Apex job that contains 1,000 records and is executed without the optional scope parameter from Database.executeBatch is considered five transactions of 200 records each. The Apex governor limits are reset for each transaction. If the first transaction succeeds but the second fails, the database updates made in the first transaction are not rolled back.

Using Database.BatchableContext
All of the methods in the Database.Batchable interface require a reference to a Database.BatchableContext object. Use this object to track the progress of the batch job. The following is the instance method with the Database.BatchableContext object: Name
getJobID

Arguments

Returns ID

Description Returns the ID of the AsyncApexJob object associated with this batch job as a string. Use this method to track the progress of records in the batch job. You can also use this ID with the System.abortJob method.

The following example uses the Database.BatchableContext to query the AsyncApexJob associated with the batch job.
global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){ // Get the ID of the AsyncApexJob representing this batch job // from Database.BatchableContext. // Query the AsyncApexJob object to retrieve the current job's information. AsyncApexJob a = [Select Id, Status, NumberOfErrors, JobItemsProcessed, TotalJobItems, CreatedBy.Email from AsyncApexJob where Id = :BC.getJobId()]; // Send an email to the Apex job's submitter notifying of job completion. Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); String[] toAddresses = new String[] {a.CreatedBy.Email}; mail.setToAddresses(toAddresses); mail.setSubject('Apex Sharing Recalculation ' + a.Status); mail.setPlainTextBody ('The batch Apex job processed ' + a.TotalJobItems + ' batches with '+ a.NumberOfErrors + ' failures.'); Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail }); }

Using Database.QueryLocator to Define Scope


The start method can return either a Database.QueryLocator object that contains the records to be used in the batch job or an iterable. The following example uses a Database.QueryLocator:
global class SearchAndReplace implements Database.Batchable<sObject>{ global global global global final final final final String String String String Query; Entity; Field; Value;

global SearchAndReplace(String q, String e, String f, String v){ Query=q; Entity=e; Field=f;Value=v; } global Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){ return Database.getQueryLocator(query);

157

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

} global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<sObject> scope){ for(sobject s : scope){ s.put(Field,Value); } update scope; } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){ } }

Using an Iterable in Batch Apex to Define Scope


The start method can return either a Database.QueryLocator object that contains the records to be used in the batch job, or an iterable. Use an iterable to step through the returned items more easily.
global class batchClass implements Database.batchable{ global Iterable start(Database.BatchableContext info){ return new CustomAccountIterable(); } global void execute(Database.BatchableContext info, List<Account> scope){ List<Account> accsToUpdate = new List<Account>(); for(Account a : scope){ a.name = 'true'; a.numberOfEmployees = 70; accsToUpdate.add(a); } update accsToUpdate; } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext info){ } }

Using the Database.executeBatch Method


You can use the Database.executeBatch method to programmatically begin a batch job. Important: When you call Database.executeBatch, Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. The Database.executeBatch method takes two parameters: The class that implements Database.Batchable. The Database.executeBatch method takes an optional parameter scope. This parameter specifies the number of records that should be passed into the execute method. This value must be greater than 0. There is no upper limit, however, if you use a very high number, you may run into other limits. Use this when you have many operations for each record being passed in and are running into governor limits. By limiting the number of records, you are thereby limiting the operations per transaction.

The Database.executeBatch method returns the ID of the AsyncApexJob object, which can then be used to track the progress of the job. For example:
ID batchprocessid = Database.executeBatch(reassign); AsyncApexJob aaj = [SELECT Id, Status, JobItemsProcessed, TotalJobItems, NumberOfErrors FROM AsyncApexJob WHERE ID =: batchprocessid ];

For more information about the AsyncApexJob object, see AsyncApexJob in the Force.com Web Services API Developer's Guide.

158

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

You can also use this ID with the System.abortJob method.

Batch Apex Examples


The following example uses a Database.QueryLocator:
global class UpdateAccountFields implements Database.Batchable<sObject>{ global final String Query; global final String Entity; global final String Field; global final String Value; global UpdateAccountFields(String q, String e, String f, String v){ Query=q; Entity=e; Field=f;Value=v; } global Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){ return Database.getQueryLocator(query); } global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<sObject> scope){ for(Sobject s : scope){s.put(Field,Value); } update scope; } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){ } }

The following code can be used to call the above class:


id batchinstanceid = database.executeBatch(new UpdateAccountFields(q,e,f,v), 5);

The following class uses batch Apex to reassign all accounts owned by a specific user to a different user.
global class OwnerReassignment implements Database.Batchable<sObject>{ String query; String email; Id toUserId; Id fromUserId; global database.querylocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){ return Database.getQueryLocator(query);} global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<sObject> scope){ List<Account> accns = new List<Account>(); for(sObject s : scope){Account a = (Account)s; if(a.Ownerid==fromUserId){ a.Ownerid=toUserId; accns.add(a); } } update accns; } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){ Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); mail.setToAddresses(new String[] {email});

159

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

mail.setReplyTo('batch@acme.com'); mail.setSenderDisplayName('Batch Processing'); mail.setSubject('Batch Process Completed'); mail.setPlainTextBody('Batch Process has completed'); Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail }); } }

Use the following to execute the OwnerReassignment class in the previous example:
OwnerReassignment reassign = new OwnerReassignment(); reassign.query='SELECT Id, Name, Ownerid FROM Account WHERE ownerid=\'' + u.id + '\''; reassign.email='admin@acme.com'; reassign.fromUserId = u; reassign.toUserId = u2; ID batchprocessid = Database.executeBatch(reassign);

Using Callouts in Batch Apex


To use a callout in batch Apex, you must specify Database.AllowsCallouts in the class definition. For example:
global class SearchAndReplace implements Database.Batchable<sObject>, Database.AllowsCallouts{ }

Callouts include HTTP requests as well as methods defined with the webService keyword.

Using State in Batch Apex


Each execution of a batch Apex job is considered a discrete transaction. For example, a batch Apex job that contains 1,000 records and is executed without the optional scope parameter is considered five transactions of 200 records each. If you specify Database.Stateful in the class definition, you can maintain state across these transactions. This is useful for counting or summarizing records as they're processed. For example, suppose your job processed opportunity records. You could define a method in execute to aggregate totals of the opportunity amounts as they were processed. If you do not specify Database.Stateful, all member variables in the interface methods are set back to their original values. The following example summarizes a custom field total__c as the records are processed:
global class SummarizeAccountTotal implements Database.Batchable<sObject>, Database.Stateful{ global final String Query; global integer Summary; global SummarizeAccountTotal(String q){Query=q; Summary = 0; } global Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){ return Database.getQueryLocator(query); } global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<sObject> scope){ for(sObject s : scope){Summary = Integer.valueOf(s.get('total__c'))+Summary; } } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){ } }

160

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

In addition, you can specify a variable to access the initial state of the class. You can use this variable to share the initial state with all instances of the Database.Batchable methods. For example:
// Implement the interface using a list of Account sObjects // Note that the initialState variable is declared as final global class MyBatchable implements Database.Batchable<sObject> { private final String initialState; String query; global MyBatchable(String intialState) { this.initialState = initialState; } global Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC) { // Access initialState here return Database.getQueryLocator(query); } global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<sObject> batch) { // Access initialState here } global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC) { // Access initialState here } }

Note that initialState is the initial state of the class. You cannot use it to pass information between instances of the class during execution of the batch job. For example, if you changed the value of initialState in execute, the second chunk of processed records would not be able to access the new value: only the initial value would be accessible.

Testing Batch Apex


When testing your batch Apex, you can test only one execution of the execute method. You can use the scope parameter of the executeBatch method to limit the number of records passed into the execute method to ensure that you aren't running into governor limits. The executeBatch method starts an asynchronous process. This means that when you test batch Apex, you must make certain that the batch job is finished before testing against the results. Use the Test methods startTest and stopTest around the executeBatch method to ensure it finishes before continuing your test. All asynchronous calls made after the startTest method are collected by the system. When stopTest is executed, all asynchronous processes are run synchronously. Note: Asynchronous calls, such as @future or executeBatch, called in a startTest, stopTest block, do not count against your limits for the number of queued jobs. The example below tests the OwnerReassignment class.
public static testMethod void testBatch() { user u = [SELECT ID, username FROM User WHERE username='testuser1@acme.com']; user u2 = [SELECT ID, username FROM User WHERE username='testuser2@acme.com']; String u2id = u2.id; // Create 200 test accounts - this simulates one execute. // Important - the Salesforce.com test framework only allows you to // test one execute.

161

Batch Apex

Using Batch Apex

List <Account> accns = new List<Account>(); for(integer i = 0; i<200; i++){ Account a = new Account(name='testAccount'+'i', Ownerid = u.ID); accns.add(a); } insert accns; Test.StartTest(); OwnerReassignment reassign = new OwnerReassignment(); reassign.query='SELECT ID, Name, Ownerid FROM Account WHERE ownerid=\'' + u.id + '\' LIMIT=200'; reassign.email='admin@acme.com'; reassign.fromUserId = u.Id; reassign.toUser.Id = u2.Id; ID batchprocessid = Database.executeBatch(reassign); Test.StopTest(); System.AssertEquals(database.countquery('SELECT count()' +' FROM Account WHERE ownerid=:u2ID'), 200); } }

Batch Apex Governor Limits


Keep in mind the following governor limits for batch Apex: Up to five queued or active batch jobs are allowed for Apex. A user can have up to five query cursors open at a time. For example, if five cursors are open and a client application still logged in as the same user attempts to open a new one, the oldest of the five cursors is released. Cursor limits for different Force.com features are tracked separately. For example, you can have five Apex query cursors, five batch cursors, and five Visualforce cursors open at the same time. A maximum of 50 million records can be returned in the Database.QueryLocator object. If more than 50 million records are returned, the batch job is immediately terminated and marked as Failed. If no size is specified with the optional scope parameter, Salesforce chunks the records returned by the QueryLocator into batches of 200, and then passes each batch to the execute method. Apex governor limits are reset for each execution of execute. The start, execute and finish methods can implement only one callout in each method.

Batch Apex Best Practices


Use extreme care if you are planning to invoke a batch job from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more batch jobs than the five that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time. When you call Database.executeBatch, Salesforce only places the job in the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. When testing your batch Apex, you can test only one execution of the execute method. You can use the scope parameter of the executeBatch method to limit the number of records passed into the execute method to ensure that you aren't running into governor limits. The executeBatch method starts an asynchronous process. This means that when you test batch Apex, you must make certain that the batch job is finished before testing against the results. Use the Test methods startTest and stopTest around the executeBatch method to ensure it finishes before continuing your test.

162

Batch Apex

Understanding Apex Managed Sharing

Use Database.Stateful with the class definition if you want to share variables or data across job transactions. Otherwise, all instance variables are reset to their initial state at the start of each transaction. Methods declared as future are not allowed in classes that implement the Database.Batchable interface. Methods declared as future cannot be called from a batch Apex class. You cannot call the Database.executeBatch method from within any batch Apex method. You cannot use the getContent and getContentAsPDF PageReference methods in a batch job. In the event of a catastrophic failure such as a service outage, any operations in progress are marked as Failed. You should run the batch job again to correct any errors. When a batch Apex job is run, email notifications are sent either to the user who submitted the batch job, or, if the code is included in a managed package and the subscribing organization is running the batch job, the email is sent to the recipient listed in the Apex Exception Notification Recipient field. Each method execution uses the standard governor limits anonymous block, Visualforce controller, or WSDL method. Each batch Apex invocation creates an AsyncApexJob record. Use the ID of this record to construct a SOQL query to retrieve the jobs status, number of errors, progress, and submitter. For more information about the AsyncApexJob object, see AsyncApexJob in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. All methods in the class must be defined as global. For a sharing recalculation, Salesforce recommends that the execute method delete and then re-create all Apex managed sharing for the records in the batch. This ensures the sharing is accurate and complete.

See Also:
Exception Statements Understanding Execution Governors and Limits Understanding Sharing

Understanding Apex Managed Sharing


Sharing is the act of granting a user or group of users permission to perform a set of actions on a record or set of records. Sharing access can be granted using the Salesforce user interface and Force.com, or programmatically using Apex. This section provides an overview of sharing using Apex: Understanding Sharing Sharing a Record Using Apex Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

For more information on sharing, see Setting Your Organization-Wide Sharing Defaults in the Salesforce online help.

Understanding Sharing
Sharing enables record-level access control for all custom objects, as well as many standard objects (such as Account, Contact, Opportunity and Case). Administrators first set an objects organization-wide default sharing access level, and then grant additional access based on record ownership, the role hierarchy, sharing rules, and manual sharing. Developers can then use Apex managed sharing to grant additional access programmatically with Apex. Most sharing for a record is maintained in a related sharing object, similar to an access control list (ACL) found in other platforms.

Types of Sharing
Salesforce has the following types of sharing:

163

Batch Apex

Understanding Sharing

Force.com Managed Sharing Force.com managed sharing involves sharing access granted by Force.com based on record ownership, the role hierarchy, and sharing rules: Record Ownership Each record is owned by a user (or optionally a queue for custom objects, cases and leads). The record owner is automatically granted Full Access, allowing them to view, edit, transfer, share, and delete the record. Role Hierarchy The role hierarchy enables users above another user in the hierarchy to have the same level of access to records owned by or shared with users below. Consequently, users above a record owner in the role hierarchy are also implicitly granted Full Access to the record, though this behavior can be disabled for specific custom objects. The role hierarchy is not maintained with sharing records. Instead, role hierarchy access is derived at runtime. For more information, see Controlling Access Using Hierarchies in the Salesforce online help. Sharing Rules Sharing rules are used by administrators to automatically grant users within a given group or role access to records owned by a specific group of users. Sharing rules cannot be added to a package and cannot be used to support sharing logic for apps installed from Force.com AppExchange. All implicit sharing added by Force.com managed sharing cannot be altered directly using the Salesforce user interface, Web services API, or Apex. User Managed Sharing, also known as Manual Sharing User managed sharing allows the record owner or any user with Full Access to a record to share the record with a user or group of users. This is generally done by an end-user, for a single record. Only the record owner and users above the owner in the role hierarchy are granted Full Access to the record. It is not possible to grant other users Full Access. Users with the Modify All object-level permission for the given object or the Modify All Data permission can also manually share a record. User managed sharing is removed when the record owner changes or when the access granted in the sharing does not grant additional access beyond the object's organization-wide sharing default access level. Apex Managed Sharing Apex managed sharing provides developers with the ability to support an applications particular sharing requirements programmatically with Apex. This type of sharing is similar to Force.com managed sharing, only the application developer manages this sharing using Apex. Only users with Modify All Data permission can add or change Apex managed sharing on a record. Apex managed sharing is maintained across record owner changes. Note: Apex managed sharing is only available for custom objects.

The Sharing Reason Field


In the Salesforce user interface, the Reason field on a custom object specifies the type of sharing used for a record. This field is called rowCause in Apex or the Force.com API. Each of the following list items is a type of sharing used for records. The tables show Reason field value, and the related rowCause value. Force.com Managed Sharing
Reason Field Value rowCause Value (Used in Apex or the Force.com API) ImplicitChild

Account Sharing

164

Batch Apex

Understanding Sharing

Reason Field Value

rowCause Value (Used in Apex or the Force.com API) ImplicitParent Owner Team Rule TerritoryRule

Associated record owner or sharing Owner Sales Team Sharing Rule Territory Assignment Rule

User Managed Sharing


Reason Field Value rowCause Value (Used in Apex or the Force.com API) Manual TerritoryManual

Manual Sharing Territory Manual

Apex Managed Sharing


Reason Field Value rowCause Value (Used in Apex or the Force.com API)

Defined by developer

Defined by developer

The displayed reason for Apex managed sharing is defined by the developer.

Access Levels
When determining a users access to a record, the most permissive level of access is used. Most share objects support the following access levels: Access Level Private API Name None Description Only the record owner and users above the record owner in the role hierarchy can view and edit the record. This access level only applies to the AccountShare object. The specified user or group can view the record only. The specified user or group can view and edit the record. The specified user or group can view, edit, transfer, share, and delete the record. Note: This access level can only be granted with Force.com managed sharing.

Read Only Read/Write Full Access

Read Edit All

165

Batch Apex

Sharing a Record Using Apex

Sharing a Record Using Apex


To access sharing programmatically, you must use the share object associated with the standard or custom object for which you want to share. For example, AccountShare is the sharing object for the Account object, ContactShare is the sharing object for the Contact object, and so on. In addition, all custom object sharing objects are named as follows, where MyCustomObject is the name of the custom object:
MyCustomObject__Share

Objects on the detail side of a master-detail relationship do not have an associated sharing object. The detail records access is determined by the masters sharing object and the relationships sharing setting. For more information, see Custom Object Security in the Salesforce online help. A share object includes records supporting all three types of sharing: Force.com managed sharing, user managed sharing, and Apex managed sharing. Sharing granted to users implicitly through organization-wide defaults, the role hierarchy, and profile permissions such as the View All and Modify All object-level permissions for the given object, View All Data, and Modify All Data are not tracked with this object. Every share object has the following properties: Property Name
objectNameAccessLevel

Description The level of access that the specified user or group has been granted for a share sObject. The name of the property is AccessLevel appended to the object name. For example, the property name for LeadShare object is LeadShareAccessLevel. Valid values are: Edit Read All Note: The All access level can only be used by Force.com managed sharing.

This field must be set to an access level that is higher than the organizations default access level for the parent object. For more information, see Access Levels on page 165.
ParentID RowCause UserOrGroupId

The ID of the object. This field cannot be updated. The reason why the user or group is being granted access. The reason determines the type of sharing, which controls who can alter the sharing record. This field cannot be updated. The user or group IDs to which you are granting access. A group can be a public group, role, or territory. This field cannot be updated.

You can share a standard or custom object with users or groups. For more information about the types of users and groups you can share an object with, see User and Group in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

Creating User Managed Sharing Using Apex


It is possible to manually share a record to a user or a group using Apex. If the owner of the record changes, the sharing is automatically deleted. The following class provides an example:
public class JobSharing { static boolean manualShareRead(Id recordId, Id userOrGroupId){ // Create new sharing object for the custom object Job. Job__Share jobShr = new Job__Share();

166

Batch Apex

Sharing a Record Using Apex

// Set the ID of record being shared. jobShr.ParentId = recordId; // Set the ID of user or group being granted access. jobShr.UserOrGroupId = userOrGroupId; // Set the access level. jobShr.AccessLevel = 'Read'; // Set rowCause to 'manual' for manual sharing. // This line can be omitted as 'manual' is the default value for sharing objects. jobShr.RowCause = Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Manual; // Insert the sharing record and capture the save result. // The false parameter allows for partial processing if multiple records passed // into the operation. Database.SaveResult sr = Database.insert(jobShr,false); // Process the save results. if(sr.isSuccess()){ // Indicates success return true; } else { // Get first save result error. Database.Error err = sr.getErrors()[0]; // Check if the error is related to trival access level. // Access levels equal or more permissive than the object's default // access level are not allowed. // These sharing records are not required and thus an insert exception is acceptable. if(err.getStatusCode() == StatusCode.FIELD_FILTER_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION err.getMessage().contains('AccessLevel')){ // Indicates success. return true; } else{ // Indicates failure. return false; } } } // Test for the manualShareRead method static testMethod void testManualShareRead(){ // Select users for the test. List<User> users = [select id from user where isActive = true limit 2]; Id user1Id = users[0].Id; Id user2Id = users[1].Id; // Create new job. Job__c j = new Job__c(); j.Name = 'Test Job'; j.OwnerId = user1Id; insert j; // Insert manual share for user who is not record owner. System.assertEquals(manualShareRead(j.Id, user2Id), true); // Query job sharing records. List<Job__Share> jShrs = [select id, userOrGroupId, accessLevel, rowCause from job__share where parentId = :j.Id and userOrGroupId= :user2Id]; // Test for only one manual share on job. System.assertEquals(jShrs.size(), 1, 'Set the object\'s sharing model to Private.'); &&

167

Batch Apex

Sharing a Record Using Apex

// Test attributes of manual share. System.assertEquals(jShrs[0].accessLevel, 'Read'); System.assertEquals(jShrs[0].rowCause, 'Manual'); System.assertEquals(jShrs[0].userOrGroupId, user2Id); // Test invalid job Id. delete j; // Insert manual share for deleted job id. System.assertEquals(manualShareRead(j.Id, user2Id), false); } }

Important: The objects organization-wide default access level must not be set to the most permissive access level. For custom objects, this is Public Read/Write. For more information, see Access Levels on page 165.

Creating Apex Managed Sharing


Apex managed sharing enables developers to programmatically manipulate sharing to support their applications behavior. This type of sharing is similar to Force.com managed sharing, only the application developer manages this sharing using Apex. Only users with Modify All Data permission can add or change Apex managed sharing on a record. Apex managed sharing is maintained across record owner changes. Note: Apex managed sharing is only available for custom objects.

Apex managed sharing must use an Apex sharing reason. Apex sharing reasons are a way for developers to track why they shared a record with a user or group of users. Using multiple Apex sharing reasons simplifies the coding required to make updates and deletions of sharing records. They also enable developers to share with the same user or group multiple times using different reasons. Apex sharing reasons are defined on an object's detail page. Each Apex sharing reason has a label and a name: The label displays in the Reason column when viewing the sharing for a record in the user interface. This allows users and administrators to understand the source of the sharing. The label is also enabled for translation through the Translation Workbench. The name is used when referencing the reason in the API and Apex.

All Apex sharing reason names have the following format:


MyReasonName__c

Apex sharing reasons can be referenced programmatically as follows:


Schema.CustomObject__Share.rowCause.SharingReason__c

For example, an Apex sharing reason called Recruiter for an object called Job can be referenced as follows:
Schema.Job__Share.rowCause.Recruiter__c

For more information, see Schema Methods on page 269. To create an Apex sharing reason: 1. Click Your Name Setup Create Objects.

168

Batch Apex

Sharing a Record Using Apex

2. Select the custom object. 3. Click New in the Apex Sharing Reasons related list. 4. Enter a label for the Apex sharing reason. The label displays in the Reason column when viewing the sharing for a record in the user interface. The label is also enabled for translation through the Translation Workbench. 5. Enter a name for the Apex sharing reason. The name is used when referencing the reason in the Force.com API and Apex. This name can contain only underscores and alphanumeric characters, and must be unique in your organization. It must begin with a letter, not include spaces, not end with an underscore, and not contain two consecutive underscores. 6. Click Save.

Apex Managed Sharing Example


The following example presumes that you are building a recruiting application and have a custom object called Job. You want the recruiter and hiring manager listed on the job to have full access to the record, similar to the record owner. The following trigger grants the recruiter and hiring manager access when the job record is created:
trigger JobApexSharing on Job__c (after insert) { if(trigger.isInsert){ // Create a new list of sharing objects for Job List<Job__Share> jobShrs = new List<Job__Share>(); // Declare variables for recruiting and hiring manager sharing Job__Share recruiterShr; Job__Share hmShr; for(Job__c job : trigger.new){ // Instantiate the sharing objects recruiterShr = new Job__Share(); hmShr = new Job__Share(); // Set the ID of record being shared recruiterShr.ParentId = job.Id; hmShr.ParentId = job.Id; // Set the ID of user or group being granted access recruiterShr.UserOrGroupId = job.Recruiter__c; hmShr.UserOrGroupId = job.Hiring_Manager__c; // Set the access level recruiterShr.AccessLevel = 'edit'; hmShr.AccessLevel = 'read'; // Set the Apex sharing reason for hiring manager and recruiter recruiterShr.RowCause = Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Recruiter__c; hmShr.RowCause = Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Hiring_Manager__c; // Add objects to list for insert jobShrs.add(recruiterShr); jobShrs.add(hmShr); } // Insert sharing records and capture save result // The false parameter allows for partial processing if multiple records are passed // into the operation Database.SaveResult[] lsr = Database.insert(jobShrs,false); // Create counter Integer i=0; // Process the save results for(Database.SaveResult sr : lsr){ if(!sr.isSuccess()){

169

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

// Get the first save result error Database.Error err = sr.getErrors()[0]; // Check if the error is related to a trivial access level // Access levels equal or more permissive than the object's default // access level are not allowed. // These sharing records are not required and thus an insert exception is // acceptable. if(!(err.getStatusCode() == StatusCode.FIELD_FILTER_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION && err.getMessage().contains('AccessLevel'))){ // Throw an error when the error is not related to trivial access level. trigger.newMap.get(jobShrs[i].ParentId). addError('Unable to grant sharing access due to following exception: ' + err.getMessage()); } } i++; } } }

Important: The objects organization-wide default access level must not be set to the most permissive access level. For custom objects, this is Public Read/Write. For more information, see Access Levels on page 165.

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing


Salesforce automatically recalculates sharing for all records on an object when its organization-wide sharing default access level is changed. The recalculation adds Force.com managed sharing when appropriate. In addition, all types of sharing are removed if the access they grant is considered redundant. For example, manual sharing which grants Read Only access to a user is deleted when the objects sharing model is changed from Private to Public Read Only. To recalculate Apex managed sharing, you must write an Apex class that implements a Salesforce-provided interface to do the recalculation. You must then associate the class with the custom object, on the custom object's detail page, in the Apex Sharing Recalculation related list. Note: Apex managed sharing recalculations are currently available through a limited release program. For information on enabling Apex managed sharing recalculations for your organization, contact salesforce.com. You can execute this class from the custom object detail page where the Apex sharing reason is specified. An administrator might need to recalculate the Apex managed sharing for an object if a locking issue prevented an Apex script from granting access to a user as defined by the applications logic. You can also use the Database.executeBatch method to programmatically invoke an Apex managed sharing recalculation. Note: Every time a custom object's organization-wide sharing default access level is updated, any Apex recalculation classes defined for associated custom object are also executed. To monitor or stop the execution of the Apex recalculation, click Your Name Setup Monitoring Apex Jobs. For more information, see Apex Job Queue in the Salesforce online help.

170

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

Creating an Apex Class for Recalculating Sharing


To recalculate Apex managed sharing, you must write an Apex class to do the recalculation. This class must implement the Salesforce-provided interface Database.Batchable. The Database.Batchable interface is used for all batch Apex processes, including recalculating Apex managed sharing. You can implement this interface more than once in your organization. For more information on the methods that must be implemented, see Using Batch Apex on page 156. Before creating an Apex managed sharing recalculation class, also consider the best practices.

Apex Managed Sharing Recalculation Example


For this example, suppose that you are building a recruiting application and have an object called Job. You want to validate that the recruiter and hiring manager listed on the job have access to the record. The following Apex class performs this validation:
global class JobSharingRecalc implements Database.Batchable<sObject> { // The start method is called at the beginning of a sharing recalculation. // This methods returns a SOQL query locator containing the records to be recalculated. // This method must be global. global Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){ return Database.getQueryLocator([SELECT Id, Hiring_Manager__c, Recruiter__c FROM Job__c]); } // The executeBatch method is called for each chunk of records returned from start. // This method must be global. global void execute(Database.BatchableContext List<sObject> scope){ // Create a map for the chunk of records passed into method. Map<ID, Job__c> jobMap = new Map<ID, Job__c>((List<Job__c>)scope); // Create a list of Job__Share objects to be inserted. List<Job__Share> newJobShrs = new List<Job__Share>(); // Locate all existing sharing records for the Job records in the batch. // Only records using an Apex sharing reason for this app should be returned. List<Job__Share> oldJobShrs = [select id from Job__Share where Id In :jobMap.keySet() and (rowCause = :Schema.Job__Share.rowCause.Recruiter__c or rowCause = :Schema.Job__Share.rowCause.Hiring_Manager__c)]; // Construct new sharing records for the hiring manager and recruiter // on each Job record. for(Job__c job : jobMap.values()){ Job__Share jobHMShr = new Job__Share(); Job__Share jobRecShr = new Job__Share(); // Set the ID of user (hiring manager) on the Job record being granted access. jobHMShr.UserOrGroupId = job.Hiring_Manager__c; // The hiring manager on the job should always have 'Read Only' access. jobHMShr.AccessLevel = 'Read'; // The ID of the record being shared. jobHMShr.ParentId = job.Id; // Set the rowCause to the Apex sharing reason for hiring manager. // This establishes the sharing record as Apex managed sharing. jobHMShr.RowCause = Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Hiring_Manager__c; // Add sharing record to list for insertion. newJobShrs.add(jobHMShr);

171

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

// Set the ID of user (recruiter) on the Job record being granted access. jobRecShr.UserOrGroupId = job.Recruiter__c; // The recruiter on the job should always have 'Read/Write' access. jobRecShr.AccessLevel = 'Edit'; // The ID of the record being shared. jobRecShr.ParentId = job.Id; // Set the rowCause to the Apex sharing reason for recruiter. // This establishes the sharing record as Apex managed sharing. jobRecShr.RowCause = Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Recruiter__c; // Add the sharing record to the list for insertion. newJobShrs.add(jobRecShr); } try { // Delete the existing sharing records. // This allows new sharing records to be written from scratch. Delete oldJobShrs; // Insert the new sharing records and capture the save result. // The false parameter allows for partial processing if multiple records are // passed into operation. Database.SaveResult[] lsr = Database.insert(newJobShrs,false); // Process the save results for insert. for(Database.SaveResult sr : lsr){ if(!sr.isSuccess()){ // Get the first save result error. Database.Error err = sr.getErrors()[0]; // Check if the error is related to trivial access level. // Access levels equal or more permissive than the object's default // access level are not allowed. // These sharing records are not required and thus an insert exception // is acceptable. if(!(err.getStatusCode() == StatusCode.FIELD_FILTER_VALIDATION_EXCEPTION && err.getMessage().contains('AccessLevel'))){ // Error is not related to trivial access level. // Send an email to the Apex job's submitter. Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); String[] toAddresses = new String[] {'admin@yourcompany.com'}; mail.setToAddresses(toAddresses); mail.setSubject('Apex Sharing Recalculation Exception'); mail.setPlainTextBody ('The Apex sharing recalculation threw the following exception: ' + err.getMessage()); Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail }); } } } } catch(DmlException e) { // Send an email to the Apex job's submitter on failure. Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); String[] toAddresses = new String[] {'admin@yourcompany.com'}; mail.setToAddresses(toAddresses); mail.setSubject('Apex Sharing Recalculation Exception'); mail.setPlainTextBody ('The Apex sharing recalculation threw the following exception: ' + e.getMessage());

172

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail }); } } // The finish method is called at the end of a sharing recalculation. // This method must be global. global void finish(Datbase.BatchableContext BC){ // Send an email to the Apex job's submitter notifying of job completion. Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); String[] toAddresses = new String[] {'admin@yourcompany.com'}; mail.setToAddresses(toAddresses); mail.setSubject('Apex Sharing Recalculation Completed.'); mail.setPlainTextBody ('The Apex sharing recalculation finished processing'); Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail }); } }

Testing Apex Managed Sharing Recalculations


To test an Apex class implementing the Database.Batchable interface, you must simulate a sharing recalculation by calling each method implemented by the interface individually. To test the QueryLocator object returned from the start method, you must use the Database.QueryLocator getQuery method. For more information, see Database Batch Apex Objects and Methods on page 301.
public class JobSharingTester { // Test for the JobSharingRecalc class. static testMethod void testApexSharing(){ // Instantiate the class implementing Database.Batchable interface. JobSharingRecalc recalc = new JobSharingRecalc(); // Declare variables used in staging an AsyncApexJob object. Integer totalItems; Integer itemsProcessed; Integer errs; // Create a new Job for use in test. // At least one Job must exist. Job__c j = new Job__c(); j.Name = 'Test Job'; j.Recruiter__c = UserInfo.getUserId(); j.Hiring_Manager__c = UserInfo.getUserId(); insert j; Test.startTest(); // Call the start method from batchable class. Database.QueryLocator ql = recalc.start(); // Test that the start method from the batchable class returned // the correct query locator. // You must use the QueryLocator.getQuery method to retrieve a string representation // of the query. System.assertEquals(ql.getQuery(), SELECT Id, Hiring_Manager__c, Recruiter__c from Job__c'); // Set variables for calling the executeBatch method from the batchable class: // Number of chunks in the entire batch excution. totalItems = 1; // Number of chunks processed in the entire batch excution. itemsProcessed = 0; // Number of errors in the entire batch excution. Only one error per chunk.

173

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

errs = 0; // Query records that would be returned from the start method chunking // of the query locator. // No more than 200 records should be returned. Map<ID, Job__c> jobMap = new Map<ID, JOB__c>( [SELECT Id, Hiring_Manager__c, Recruiter__c FROM Job__c limit 200]); // Call the execute method from the batchable class. recalc.execute(jobMap.values()); // Query jobs are passed in as arguments to the executeBatch method. // The query returns jobs and related sharing records that were inserted in // the execute method. List<Job__c> jobs = [SELECT Id, Hiring_Manager__c, Recruiter__c, (Select Id, ParentId, UserOrGroupId, AccessLevel, RowCause FROM Shares where (rowCause = :Schema.Job__Share.rowCause.Recruiter__c or rowCause = :Schema.Job__Share.rowCause.Hiring_Manager__c)) from Job__c WHERE Id In :jobMap.keySet()]; // Validate that Apex managed sharing exists on jobs. for(Job__c job : jobs){ // A maximum of two Apex managed sharing records should exist for each job. System.assert(job.Shares.size() <= 2); for(Job__Share jobShr : job.Shares){ // Test the sharing record for hiring manager on job. if(jobShr.RowCause == Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Hiring_Manager__c){ System.assertEquals(jobShr.UserOrGroupId,job.Hiring_Manager__c); System.assertEquals(jobShr.AccessLevel,'Read'); } // Test the sharing record for recruiter on job. else if(jobShr.RowCause == Schema.Job__Share.RowCause.Recruiter__c){ System.assertEquals(jobShr.UserOrGroupId,job.Recruiter__c); System.assertEquals(jobShr.AccessLevel,'Edit'); } } } // Set variables for calling the finish method from the batchable class: // Number of chunks in the entire batch excution. totalItems = 1; // Number of chunks processed in the entire batch excution. itemsProcessed = 1; // Number of errors in the entire batch excution. Only one error per chunk. errs = 0; // Call the finish method from the batchable class. recalc.finish(); Test.stopTest(); } }

Associating an Apex Class Used for Recalculation


An Apex class used for recalculation must be associated with a custom object. To associate an Apex managed sharing recalculation class with a custom object: 1. Click Your Name Setup Create Objects. 2. Select the custom object. 3. Click New in the Apex Sharing Recalculations related list.

174

Batch Apex

Recalculating Apex Managed Sharing

4. Choose the Apex class that recalculates the Apex sharing for this object. The class you choose must implement the Database.Batchable interface. You cannot associate the same Apex class multiple times with the same custom object. 5. Click Save.

175

Chapter 9
Debugging Apex
In this chapter ... Understanding the Debug Log Handling Uncaught Exceptions Understanding Execution Governors and Limits Using Governor Limit Email Warnings
Apex provides the following support for debugging code: Understanding the Debug Log and the Using the System Log Consoletools for debugging code Handling Uncaught Exceptionsuser-friendly error messages and stack traces Understanding Execution Governors and Limitsprevent runaway scripts from monopolizing shared resources Using Governor Limit Email Warningsused with the governor limits

176

Debugging Apex

Understanding the Debug Log

Understanding the Debug Log


A debug log records database operations, system processes, and errors that occur when executing a transaction or while running unit tests. The system generates a debug log for a user every time that user executes a transaction that is included in the filter criteria. You can retain and manage the debug logs for specific users. To view saved debug logs, click Your Name Setup Monitoring Debug Logs. The following are the limits for debug logs: Once a user is added, that user can record up to 20 debug logs. After a user reaches this limit, debug logs stop being recorded for that user. Click Reset on the Monitoring Debug logs page to reset the number of logs for that user back to 20. Any existing logs are not overwritten. Each debug log can only be 2 MB. Each organization can retain up to 50 MB of debug logs. Once your organization has reached 50 MB of debug logs, the oldest debug logs start being overwritten.

Debug Log Details


After you generate a debug log, the type and amount of information listed depends on the filter values you set for the user. However, the format for a debug is always the same. A debug log has the following sections: Header The header contains the following information: The version of the API used during the transaction. The log category and level used to generate the log. For example:

The following is an example of a header:


18.0 DB,INFO;WORKFLOW,INFO;VALIDATION,INFO;CALLOUT,INFO;APEX_CODE,INFO; APEX_PROFILING,INFO

In this example, the API version is 18.0, and the following debug log categories and levels have been set: Category Database Workflow Validation Callout Apex Code Apex Profiling Level INFO INFO INFO INFO INFO INFO

177

Debugging Apex

Understanding the Debug Log

Execution Units An execution unit is equivalent to a transaction. It contains everything that occurred within the transaction. The execution is delimited by EXECUTION_START and EXECUTION_FINISHED. Code Units A code unit is a discrete unit of work within a transaction. For example, a trigger is one unit of code, as is a webService method, or a validation rule. Note: A class is not a discrete unit of code.

Units of code are indicated by CODE_UNIT_STARTED and CODE_UNIT_FINISHED. Units of work can imbed other units of work. For example:
EXECUTION_STARTED CODE_UNIT_STARTED|[EXTERNAL]execute_anonymous_apex CODE_UNIT_STARTED|[EXTERNAL]MyTrigger on Account trigger event BeforeInsert for null CODE_UNIT_FINISHED <-- The trigger ends CODE_UNIT_FINISHED <-- The executeAnonymous ends EXECUTION_FINISHED

Units of code include, but are not limited to, the following: Triggers Workflow invocations and time-based workflow Validation rules Approval processes Apex lead convert @future method invocations Web service invocations executeAnonymous calls Visualforce property accesses on Apex controllers Visualforce actions on Apex controllers Execution of the batch Apex start and finish methods, as well as each execution of the execute method Execution of the Apex System.Schedule execute method Incoming email handling

Log Lines Included inside the units of code. These indicate what code or rules are being executed, or messages being specifically written to the debug log. For example:

Figure 8: Debug Log Line Example Log lines are made up of a set of fields, delimited by a pipe (|). The format is: Timestampspecified in the user's time zone, of the format HH:mm:ss.SSS

178

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Event identifierthe specific event that triggered the debug log being written to, such as SAVEPOINT_RESET or VALIDATION_RULE, and any additional information logged with that event, such as the method name or the line and character number where the code was executed.

Additional Log Data In addition, the log contains the following information: Cumulative resource usageLogged at the end of many code units, such as triggers, executeAnonymous, batch Apex message processing, @future methods, Apex test methods, Apex web service methods, and Apex lead convert. Cumulative profiling informationLogged once at the end of the transaction. Contains information about the most expensive queries (that used the most resources), DML invocations, and so on.

The following is an example debug log:


20.0 APEX_CODE,DEBUG;APEX_PROFILING,INFO;CALLOUT,INFO;DB,INFO; VALIDATION,INFO;WORKFLOW,INFO Execute Anonymous: System.debug('Hello World!'); 16:34:41.158|EXECUTION_STARTED 16:34:41.158|CODE_UNIT_STARTED|[EXTERNAL]|execute_anonymous_apex 16:34:41.161|LIMIT_USAGE_FOR_NS|[1]|SCRIPT_STATEMENTS|1|200000 16:34:41.161|METHOD_ENTRY|[1]|System.debug(ANY) 16:34:41.161|USER_DEBUG|[1]|DEBUG|Hello World! 16:34:41.162|METHOD_EXIT|[1]|System.debug(ANY) 16:34:41.162|CUMULATIVE_LIMIT_USAGE 16:34:41.162|LIMIT_USAGE_FOR_NS|SeattleTea| Number of SOQL queries: 0 out of 100 Number of query rows: 0 out of 10000 Number of SOSL queries: 0 out of 20 Number of DML statements: 0 out of 100 Number of DML rows: 0 out of 10000 Number of script statements: 1 out of 200000 Maximum heap size: 0 out of 3000000 Number of callouts: 0 out of 10 Number of Email Invocations: 0 out of 10 Number of fields describes: 0 out of 100 Number of record type describes: 0 out of 100 Number of child relationships describes: 0 out of 100 Number of picklist describes: 0 out of 100 Number of future calls: 0 out of 10 Number of find similar calls: 0 out of 10 Number of System.runAs() invocations: 0 out of 20 16:34:41.162|CUMULATIVE_LIMIT_USAGE_END 16:34:41.162|CODE_UNIT_FINISHED|execute_anonymous_apex 16:34:41.162|EXECUTION_FINISHED

Using the System Log Console


The System Log console is a separate window that displays debugging information, as well as its cumulative limits and source code. It can be considered a context-sensitive execution viewer, showing the source of an operation, what triggered that operation, and what occurred afterward. Use the System Log console to view debug logs that include database events, Apex processing, workflow, and validation logic. Access the System Log console from the Salesforce user interface by clicking Your Name System Log in the upper right corner of any page.

179

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Figure 9: The System Log Console To learn about the different sections of the System Log console, see System Log Console Sections in the Salesforce online help. To learn more about some typical ways you might use the System Log console, for example, evaluating Visualforce pages, tracking DML in your transaction or monitoring performance, see Using the System Log Console in the Salesforce online help. When using the System Log console or monitoring a debug log, you can specify the level of information that gets included in the log. Log category The type of information logged, such as information from Apex or workflow rules. Log level The amount of information logged. Event type The combination of log category and log level that specify which events get logged. Each event can log additional information, such as the line and character number where the event started, fields associated with the event, duration of the event in milliseconds, and so on.

Debug Log Categories


You can specify the following log categories. The amount of information logged for each category depends on the log level:

180

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Log Category
Database Workflow Validation Callout

Description Includes information about database activity, including every data manipulation language (DML) statement or inline SOQL or SOSL query. Includes information for workflow rules, such as the rule name, the actions taken, and so on. Includes information about validation rules, such as the name of the rule, whether the rule evaluated true or false, and so on. Includes the request-response XML that the server is sending and receiving from an external Web service. This is useful when debugging issues related to using Force.com Web services API calls. Includes information about Apex code and can include information such as log messages generated by calls to the System.debug method, DML statements, inline SOQL or SOSL queries, the start and completion of any triggers, and the start and completion of any test method, and so on. Includes cumulative profiling information, such as the limits for your namespace, the number of emails sent, and so on.

Apex Code

Apex Profiling

Debug Log Levels


You can specify the following log levels. The levels are listed from lowest to highest. Specific events are logged based on the combination of category and levels. Most events start being logged at the INFO level. The level is cumulative, that is, if you select FINE, the log will also include all events logged at DEBUG, INFO, WARN and ERROR levels. Note: Not all levels are available for all categories: only the levels that correspond to one or more events.

ERROR WARN INFO DEBUG FINE FINER FINEST

Debug Event Types


The following is an example of what is written to the debug log. The event is USER_DEBUG. The format is timestamp | event identifier:

Figure 10: Debug Log Line Example The event identifier is composed of the specific event that triggered the debug log being written to, such as SAVEPOINT_RESET or VALIDATION_RULE, and any additional information logged with that event, such as the method name or the line and character number where the code was executed.

181

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

In this example, the event identifier is made up of the following: Event name:
USER_DEBUG

Line number of the event in the code:


[1]

Logging level the System.Debug method was set to:


DEBUG

User-supplied string for the System.Debug method:


Hello world!

The following example of a log line is triggered by this code snippet.

Figure 11: Debug Log Line Code Snippet The following log line is recorded when the test reaches line 5 in the code:
15:51:01.071|DML_BEGIN|[5]|Op:Insert|Type:Invoice_Statement__c|Rows:1

In this example, the event identifier is made up of the following: Event name:
DML_BEGIN

Line number of the event in the code:


[5]

DML operation typeInsert:


Op:Insert

Object name:
Type:Invoice_Statement__c

Number of rows passed into the DML operation:


Rows:1

182

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

The following table lists the event types that are logged, what fields or other information get logged with each event, as well as what combination of log level and category cause an event to be logged. Event Name
CALLOUT_REQUEST CALLOUT_RESPONSE CODE_UNIT_FINISHED CODE_UNIT_STARTED

Fields or Information Logged With Event

Category Logged

Level Logged INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

Line and character number of the event Callout in the code, request headers Line and character number of the event Callout in the code, response body None Apex Code

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, code unit name, such as
MyTrigger on Account trigger event BeforeInsert for null

CUMULATIVE_LIMIT_USAGE None CUMULATIVE_LIMIT_USAGE_END None CUMULATIVE_PROFILING

Apex Profiling Apex Profiling Apex Profiling Apex Profiling Apex Profiling

INFO and above INFO and above FINE and above FINE and above FINE and above INFO and above

None

CUMULATIVE_PROFILING_BEGIN None CUMULATIVE_PROFILING_END None DML_BEGIN

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, operation (such as Insert, Update, and so on), record name or type, number of rows passed into DML operation Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code Package namespace Apex Code

DML_END EMAIL_QUEUE ENTERING_MANAGED_PKG EXCEPTION_THROWN EXECUTION_FINISHED EXECUTION_STARTED FATAL_ERROR HEAP_ALLOCATE IDEAS_QUERY_EXECUTE LIMIT_USAGE_FOR_NS

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above ERROR and above FINEST FINEST INFO and above

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, exception type, message None None Exception type, message, stack trace Apex Code Apex Code Apex Code

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, number of bytes Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code Namespace, following limits:
Number Number Number Number of of of of SOQL queries query rows SOSL queries DML statements

Apex Profiling

183

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Event Name

Fields or Information Logged With Event


Number of DML rows Number of script statements Maximum heap size Number of callouts Number of Email Invocations Number of fields describes Number of record type describes Number of child relationships describes Number of picklist describes Number of future calls Number of find similar calls Number of System.runAs() invocations

Category Logged

Level Logged

METHOD_ENTRY METHOD_EXIT

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, method signature Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, method signature

DEBUG DEBUG INFO and above

QUERY_MORE_ITERATIONS Line and character number of the event DB in the code, number of queryMore

iterations
SAVEPOINT_ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT_SET SLA_END

Line and character number of the event DB in the code, Savepoint name Line and character number of the event DB in the code, Savepoint name Number of cases, load time, processing Workflow time, number of case milestones to insert/update/delete, new trigger Milestone ID None Case ID Workflow Workflow Workflow

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

SLA_EVAL_MILESTONE SLA_NULL_START_DATE SLA_PROCESS_CASE SOQL_EXECUTE_BEGIN

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

Line and character number of the event DB in the code, number of aggregations, query source Line and character number of the event DB in the code, number of rows, duration in milliseconds Line and character number of the event DB in the code, query source Line and character number of the event DB in the code, number of rows, duration in milliseconds

SOQL_EXECUTE_END

INFO and above

SOSL_EXECUTE_BEGIN SOSL_EXECUTE_END

INFO and above INFO and above

184

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Event Name

Fields or Information Logged With Event

Category Logged

Level Logged FINE and above

STACK_FRAME_VARIABLE_LIST Frame number, variable list of the form: Apex Profiling Variable number | Value. For

example:
var1:50 var2:'Hello World'

STATEMENT_EXECUTE STATIC_VARIABLE_LIST

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code Variable list of the form: Variable number | Value. For example:
var1:50 var2:'Hello World'

FINEST FINE and above

Apex Profiling

SYSTEM_MODE_ENTER SYSTEM_MODE_EXIT TESTING_LIMITS

Mode name Mode name None

Apex Code Apex Code Apex Profiling Apex Profiling

FINEST FINEST INFO and above FINE and above DEBUG and above by default Note: If the user sets the log level for the
System.Debug

TOTAL_EMAIL_RECIPIENTS_QUEUED Number of emails sent USER_DEBUG

Line and character number of the event Apex Code in the code, logging level, user-supplied string

method, the event is logged at that level instead.


VALIDATION_ERROR VALIDATION_FAIL VALIDATION_FORMULA VALIDATION_PASS VALIDATION_RULE VF_APEX_CALL VF_PAGE_MESSAGE WF_ACTION WF_ACTION_TASK

Error message None Formula source, values None Rule name Element name, method name, return type Message text Action description

Validation Validation Validation Validation Validation Apex Code Apex Code Workflow

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

Task subject, action ID, rule, owner, due Workflow date

185

Debugging Apex

Using the System Log Console

Event Name
WF_ACTIONS_END WF_APPROVAL

Fields or Information Logged With Event Summer of actions performed Transition type, EntityName: NameField Id, process node name
EntityName: NameField Id EntityName: NameField Id

Category Logged Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow

Level Logged INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

WF_APPROVAL_REMOVE WF_APPROVAL_SUBMIT WF_ASSIGN WF_CRITERIA_BEGIN

Owner, assignee template ID


EntityName: NameField Id, rule

name, rule ID, trigger type (if rule respects trigger types)
WF_CRITERIA_END WF_EMAIL_ALERT WF_EMAIL_SENT WF_ENQUEUE_ACTIONS WF_ESCALATION_ACTION WF_ESCALATION_RULE

Boolean value indicating success (true or Workflow false) Action ID, rule Email template ID, recipients, CC emails Summary of actions enqueued Case ID, business hours None Boolean value indicating result (true or false) Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

WF_EVAL_ENTRY_CRITERIA Process name, email template ID,

WF_FIELD_UPDATE

EntityName: NameField Id, object Workflow

INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

or field name
WF_FORMULA WF_HARD_REJECT WF_NEXT_APPROVER WF_NO_PROCESS_FOUND WF_OUTBOUND_MSG

Formula source, values None Owner, next owner type, field None ID, rule

Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow

EntityName: NameField Id, action Workflow

WF_PROCESS_NODE WF_REASSIGN_RECORD WF_RESPONSE_NOTIFY WF_RULE_ENTRY_ORDER WF_RULE_EVAL_BEGIN WF_RULE_EVAL_END WF_RULE_EVAL_VALUE

Process name

Workflow

EntityName: NameField Id, owner Workflow

Notifier name, notifier email, notifier template ID Integer, indicating order Rule type None Value

Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow

186

Debugging Apex

Debugging Apex API Calls

Event Name
WF_RULE_FILTER WF_RULE_INVOCATION

Fields or Information Logged With Event Filter criteria


EntityName: NameField Id

Category Logged Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow Workflow

Level Logged INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above INFO and above

WF_RULE_NOT_EVALUATED None WF_SOFT_REJECT

Process name

WF_SPOOL_ACTION_BEGIN Node type WF_TIME_TRIGGER

EntityName: NameField Id, time Workflow

action, time action container, evaluation Datetime


WF_TIME_TRIGGERS_BEGIN None

Workflow

INFO and above

Debugging Apex API Calls


All API calls that invoke Apex support a debug facility that allows access to detailed information about the execution of the script, including any calls to System.debug(). In addition to the System Log console, a SOAP input header called DebuggingHeader allows you to set the logging granularity according to the levels outlined in the following table. Element Name
LogCategory

Type
string

Description Specify the type of information returned in the debug log. Valid values are: Db Workflow Validation Callout Apex_code Apex_profiling All Specifies the amount of information returned in the debug log. Only the Apex_code LogCategory uses the log category levels. Valid log levels are (listed from lowest to highest):
ERROR WARN INFO DEBUG FINE FINER FINEST

LogCategoryLevel

string

In addition, the following log levels are still supported as part of the DebuggingHeader for backwards compatibility.

187

Debugging Apex

Handling Uncaught Exceptions

Log Level
NONE DEBUGONLY DB PROFILE

Description Does not include any log messages. Includes lower level messages, as well as messages generated by calls to the System.debug method. Includes log messages generated by calls to the System.debug method, as well as every data manipulation language (DML) statement or inline SOQL or SOSL query. Includes log messages generated by calls to the System.debug method, every DML statement or inline SOQL or SOSL query, and the entrance and exit of every user-defined method. In addition, the end of the debug log contains overall profiling information for the portions of the request that used the most resources, in terms of SOQL and SOSL statements, DML operations, and Apex method invocations. These three sections list the locations in the code that consumed the most time, in descending order of total cumulative time, along with the number of times they were executed. Includes the request-response XML that the server is sending and receiving from an external Web service. This is useful when debugging issues related to using Force.com Web services API calls. Includes all messages generated by the PROFILE level as well as the following: Variable declaration statements Start of loop executions All loop controls, such as break and continue Thrown exceptions * Static and class initialization code * Any changes in the with sharing context

CALLOUT

DETAIL

The corresponding output header, DebuggingInfo, contains the resulting debug log. For more information, see DebuggingHeader on page 472.

Handling Uncaught Exceptions


If an Apex script has a bug or does not catch a script-level exception: The end user sees a simple explanation of the problem in the application interface. This error message includes the Apex stack trace. The developer specified in the LastModifiedBy field receives the error via email with the Apex stack trace and the customer's organization and user ID. No other customer data is returned with the report.

Understanding Execution Governors and Limits


Because Apex runs in a multitenant environment, the Apex runtime engine strictly enforces a number of limits to ensure that runaway Apex does not monopolize shared resources. These limits, or governors, track and enforce the statistics outlined in the following table. If some Apex code ever exceeds a limit, the associated governor issues a runtime exception that cannot be handled.

188

Debugging Apex

Understanding Execution Governors and Limits

Governor limits apply to an entire organization, as well as to specific namespaces. For example, if you install a managed package created by a salesforce.com ISV Partner from Force.com AppExchange, the components in the package belong to a namespace unique from other components in your organization. Consequently, any Apex code in that package can issue up to 150 DML statements while executing. In addition, any Apex code that is native to your organization can also issue up to 150 DML statements, meaning more than 150 DML statements might execute during a single request if code from the managed package and your native organization both execute. Conversely, if you install a package from AppExchange that is not created by a salesforce.com ISV Partner, the code from that package does not have its own separate governor limit count. Any resources it uses counts against the total for your organization. Cumulative resource messages and warning emails are also generated based on managed package namespaces as well. For more information on salesforce.com ISV Partner packages, see salesforce.com Partner Programs. Description Total number of SOQL queries issued1 Total number of SOQL queries issued for Batch Apex and future methods Total number of records retrieved by SOQL queries Total number of SOSL queries issued Total number of records retrieved by a single SOSL query Total number of DML statements issued2
database.emptyRecycleBin
1

Limit 100 200 50,000 20 200 150

Total number of records processed as a result of DML statements, Approval.process, or 10,000 Total number of executed code statements Total number of executed code statements for Batch Apex and future methods Total heap size
3

200,000 1,000,000 3 MB 6 MB 16 200 10 120 seconds 10 seconds 10 3 MB 10 100


6

Total heap size for Batch Apex and future methods Total stack depth for any Apex invocation that recursively fires triggers due to insert, update, or delete statements4 For loop list batch size Total number of callouts (HTTP requests or Web services calls) in a request Maximum timeout for all callouts (HTTP requests or Web services calls) in a request Default timeout of callouts (HTTP requests or Web services calls) in a request Total number of methods with the future annotation allowed per Apex invocation5 Maximum size of callout request or response (HTTP request or Web services call) Total number of sendEmail methods allowed Total number of describes allowed
1 7

In a SOQL query with parent-child relationship sub-queries, each parent-child relationship counts as an additional query. These types of queries have a limit of three times the number for top-level queries. The row counts from these relationship queries contribute to the row counts of the overall script execution.
2

Calls to the following methods count against the number of DML statements issued in a request:
Approval.process

189

Debugging Apex

Understanding Execution Governors and Limits


3 4

database.emptyRecycleBin delete and database.delete findSimilar insert and database.insert merge rollback runAs setSavePoint update and database.update upsert and database.upsert

Email services heap size is 18 MB.

Recursive Apex that does not fire any triggers with insert, update, or delete statements exists in a single invocation, with a single stack. Conversely, recursive Apex that fires a trigger spawns the trigger in a new Apex invocation, separate from the invocation of the code that caused it to fire. Because spawning a new invocation of Apex is a more expensive operation than a recursive call in a single invocation, there are tighter restrictions on the stack depth of these types of recursive calls.
5

Salesforce also imposes a limit on the number of future annotations: 200 method calls per full Salesforce user license per 24 hours. This is an organization-wide limit. For example, suppose your organization has five full Salesforce user licenses and 100 Customer Portal User licenses. Your entire organization is limited to only 1,000 method calls every 24 hours (5 * 200, not 105.) The HTTP request and response sizes are calculated as part of the total heap size. So regardless of this limit, don't exceed the 3 MB total heap size.
7

Describes include the following methods and objects: ChildRelationship objects RecordTypeInfo objects PicklistEntry objects fields calls

Limits apply individually to each testMethod. Use the Limits methods to determine the script execution limits for your code while it is running. For example, you can use the getDMLStatements method to determine the number of DML statements that have already been called by your program, or the getLimitDMLStatements method to determine the total number of DML statements available to your code in that context. For more efficient SOQL queries, particularly for queries inside of triggers, use selective (indexed) queries. Selective queries filter on primary keys, foreign keys, names, audit dates (such as LastModifiedDate), or External ID fields. In large organizations, non-selective queries could be stopped at runtime in order to prevent very long running operation times. If you need them for your application, contact your salesforce.com representative. Note: If you use a non-selective query in a trigger against an object that contains more than 100000 records an error is generated. You should include indexed fields in the WHERE clause to avoid these exceptions. Static variable values are reset between API batches, but governor limits are not. Do not use static variables to track state information on API batches, because Salesforce may break up a batch into smaller chunks than the batch size you specify. In addition to the execution governor limits, Apex has the following limits: Maximum number of characters for a class: 1 million Maximum number of characters for a trigger: 1 million Maximum amount of code used by all Apex scripts in an organization: 2 MB

190

Debugging Apex

Using Governor Limit Email Warnings

Note: This limit does not apply to certified managed packages installed from AppExchange, (that is, an app that has been marked AppExchange Certified). The code in those types of packages belong to a namespace unique from the code in your organization. For more information on AppExchange Certified packages, see the Force.com AppExchange online help. This limit also does not apply to any code included in a class defined with the @isTest annotation. If a SOQL query runs more than 120 seconds, the request can be canceled by Salesforce. Each Apex request is limited to 10 minutes of execution. A callout request to a given URL is limited to a maximum of 20 simultaneous requests. The maximum number of records that an event report returns for a user who is not a system administrator is 20,000, for system administrators, 100,000. Each organization is allowed 10 synchronous concurrent events, each not lasting longer than 5 seconds. If additional requests are made while 10 requests are running, it is denied. A user can have up to five query cursors open at a time. For example, if five cursors are open and a client application still logged in as the same user attempts to open a new one, the oldest of the five cursors is released. Cursor limits for different Force.com features are tracked separately. For example, you can have five Apex query cursors, five batch cursors, and five Visualforce cursors open at the same time. In a single transaction, you can only reference 10 unique namespaces. For example, suppose you have an object that executes a class in a managed package when the object is updated. Then that class updates a second object, which in turn executes a different class in a different package. Even though the second package wasn't accessed directly by the first, because it occurs in the same transaction, it's included in the number of namespaces being accessed in a single transaction.

When defining email services, note the following: An email service only processes messages it receives at one of its addresses. Salesforce limits the total number of messages that all email services combined, including On-Demand Email-to-Case, can process daily. Messages that exceed this limit are bounced, discarded, or queued for processing the next day, depending on how you configure the failure response settings for each email service. Salesforce calculates the limit by multiplying the number of user licenses by 1,000. For example, if you have ten licenses, your organization can process up to 10,000 email messages a day. Email service addresses that you create in your sandbox cannot be copied to your production organization. For each email service, you can tell Salesforce to send error email messages to a specified address instead of the sender's email address. Email services rejects email messages and notifies the sender if the email (combined body text, body HTML and attachments) exceeds approximately 10 MB (varies depending on language and character set).

See Also:
What are the Limitations of Apex? Future Annotation

Using Governor Limit Email Warnings


When an end-user invokes an Apex script that surpasses more than 50% of any governor limit, you can specify a user in your organization to receive an email notification of the event with additional details. To enable email warnings: 1. Log in to Salesforce as an administrator user. 2. Click Your Name Setup Manage Users Users. 3. Click Edit next to the name of the user who should receive the email notifications.

191

Debugging Apex

Using Governor Limit Email Warnings

4. Select the Send Apex Warning Emails option. 5. Click Save.

192

Chapter 10
Developing Apex in Managed Packages
In this chapter ... Package Versions Deprecating Apex Behavior in Package Versions
A package is a container for something as small as an individual component or as large as a set of related apps. After creating a package, you can distribute it to other Salesforce users and organizations, including those outside your company. An organization can create a single managed package that can be downloaded and installed by many different organizations. Managed packages differ from unmanaged packages by having some locked components, allowing the managed package to be upgraded later. Unmanaged packages do not include locked components and cannot be upgraded. This section includes the following topics related to developing Apex in managed packages: Package Versions Deprecating Apex Behavior in Package Versions

193

Developing Apex in Managed Packages

Package Versions

Package Versions
A package version is a number that identifies the set of components uploaded in a package. The version number has the format majorNumber.minorNumber.patchNumber (for example, 2.1.3). The major and minor numbers increase to a chosen value during every major release. The patchNumber is generated and updated only for a patch release. If there is no patchNumber, it is assumed to be zero (0). Unmanaged packages are not upgradeable, so each package version is simply a set of components for distribution. A package version has more significance for managed packages. Packages can exhibit different behavior for different versions. Publishers can use package versions to evolve the components in their managed packages gracefully by releasing subsequent package versions without breaking existing customer integrations using the package. When an existing subscriber installs a new package version, there is still only one instance of each component in the package, but the components can emulate older versions. For example, a subscriber may be using a managed package that contains an Apex class. If the publisher decides to deprecate a method in the Apex class and release a new package version, the subscriber still sees only one instance of the Apex class after installing the new version. However, this Apex class can still emulate the previous version for any code that references the deprecated method in the older version. Note the following when developing Apex in managed packages: The code contained in an Apex script that is part of a managed package is automatically obfuscated and cannot be viewed in an installing organization. The only exceptions are methods declared as global, meaning that the method signatures can be viewed in an installing organization. Managed packages receive a unique namespace. This namespace is automatically prepended to your class names, methods, variables, and so on, which helps prevent duplicate names in the installer's organization. In a single transaction, you can only reference 10 unique namespaces. For example, suppose you have an object that executes a class in a managed package when the object is updated. Then that class updates a second object, which in turn executes a different class in a different package. Even though the second package wasn't accessed directly by the first, because it occurs in the same transaction, it's included in the number of namespaces being accessed in a single transaction. The code contained in Apex that is part of a managed package is automatically obfuscated and cannot be viewed in an installing organization. The only exceptions are methods declared as global, meaning that the method signatures can be viewed in an installing organization. Package developers can use the deprecated annotation to identify methods, classes, exceptions, enums, interfaces, and variables that can no longer be referenced in subsequent releases of the managed package in which they reside. This is useful when you are refactoring code in managed packages as the requirements evolve. You can write test methods that change the package version context to a different package version by using the system method runAs. You cannot add a method to an interface or to an abstract or virtual class after the class has been uploaded in a Managed - Released package version. An Apex script contained in an unmanaged package that explicitly references a namespace cannot be uploaded.

Deprecating Apex
Package developers can use the deprecated annotation to identify methods, classes, exceptions, enums, interfaces, and variables that can no longer be referenced in subsequent releases of the managed package in which they reside. This is useful when you are refactoring code in managed packages as the requirements evolve. After you upload another package version as Managed - Released, new subscribers that install the latest package version cannot see the deprecated elements, while the elements continue to function for existing subscribers and API integrations. A deprecated item, such as a method or a class, can still be referenced internally by the package developer.

194

Developing Apex in Managed Packages

Behavior in Package Versions

Note: You cannot use the deprecated annotation in Apex classes or triggers in unmanaged packages.

Package developers can use Managed - Beta package versions for evaluation and feedback with a pilot set of users in different Salesforce organizations. If a developer deprecates an Apex identifier and then uploads a version of the package as Managed - Beta, subscribers that install the package version still see the deprecated identifier in that package version. If the package developer subsequently uploads a Managed - Released package version, subscribers will no longer see the deprecated identifier in the package version after they install it.

Behavior in Package Versions


A package component can exhibit different behavior in different package versions. This behavior versioning allows you to add new components to your package and refine your existing components, while still ensuring that your code continues to work seamlessly for existing subscribers. If a package developer adds a new component to a package and uploads a new package version, the new component is available to subscribers that install the new package version.

Versioning Apex Code Behavior


Apex has special syntax so that package developers can use conditional logic in classes and triggers to exhibit different behavior for different versions. This allows the package developer to continue to support existing behavior in classes and triggers in previous package versions while continuing to evolve the code. When subscribers install multiple versions of your package and write code that references Apex classes or triggers in your package, they must select the version that they are referencing. Within the Apex code that is being referenced in your package, you can conditionally execute different code paths based on the version setting of the calling Apex code that is making the reference. The package version setting of the calling code can be determined within the package code by accessing the Package.Version.Request object. Package developers can use this object and accompanying methods to determine the request context and exhibit different behavior for different versions of the package. The following sample shows different behavior in a trigger for different package versions
trigger oppValidation on Opportunity (before insert, before update) { for(Opportunity o : Trigger.new){ // New validation added in package version 1.5 // Applies to all version of the managed package, except 1.0 If(Package.Version.Request.isGreaterThan(Package.Version.1.0)){ If(o.Probability >= 50 && o.Description == NULL){ o.addError('All deals over 50% require a description'); } } // Validation applies to all versions of the managed package If(o.IsWon == true && o.LeadSource == NULL){ o.addError('A lead source must be provided for all Closed Won deals'); } } }

For a full list of methods that work with package versions, see Package Methods on page 311. Note: You cannot use the Package.Version.Request object in unmanaged packages.

195

Developing Apex in Managed Packages

Apex Code Items that Are Not Versioned

The request context is persisted if a class in the installed package invokes a method in another class in the package. For example, a subscriber has installed a GeoReports package that contains CountryUtil and ContinentUtil Apex classes. The subscriber creates a new GeoReportsEx class and uses the version settings to bind it to version 2.3 of the GeoReports package. If GeoReportsEx invokes a method in ContinentUtil which internally invokes a method in CountryUtil, the request context is propagated from ContinentUtil to CountryUtil and the Package.Version.Request variable in CountryUtil refers to version 2.3 of the GeoReports package.

Apex Code Items that Are Not Versioned


You can change the behavior of some Apex items across package versions. For example, you can deprecate a method so that new subscribers can no longer reference the package in a subsequent version. However, the following list of modifiers, keywords, and annotations cannot be versioned. If a package developer makes changes to one of the following modifiers, keywords, or annotations, the changes are reflected across all package versions. There are limitations on the changes that you can make to some of these items when they are used in Apex code in managed packages. Package developers can add or remove the following items:
@future @isTest with sharing without sharing transient

Package developers can make limited changes to the following items:


privatecan be changed to global publiccan be changed to global protectedcan be changed to global abstractcan be changed to virtual but cannot be removed finalcan be removed but cannot be added

Package developers cannot remove or change the following items:


global virtual

Package developers can add the webService keyword, but once it has been added, it cannot be removed. Note: You cannot deprecate webService methods or variables in managed package code.

Testing Behavior in Package Versions


When you change the behavior in an Apex class or trigger for different package versions, it is important to test that your code runs as expected in the different package versions. You can write test methods that change the package version context to a different package version by using the system method runAs. You can only use runAs in a test method. This method effectively sets the Package.Version.Request object in a test method. The following sample shows a trigger with different behavior for different package versions.
trigger oppValidation on Opportunity (before insert, before update) { for(Opportunity o : Trigger.new){

196

Developing Apex in Managed Packages

Testing Behavior in Package Versions

// Add a new validation to the package // Applies to versions of the managed package greater than 1.0 If(Package.Version.Request.isGreaterThan(Package.Version.1.0)){ If(o.Probability >= 50 && o.Description == NULL){ o.addError('All deals over 50% require a description'); } } // Add a new validation to the package. // This validation applies to all versions of the managed package. If(o.IsWon == true && o.LeadSource == NULL){ o.addError('A lead source must be provided for all Closed Won deals'); } } }

The following test class verifies the trigger's behavior:


@isTest public class OppTriggerTests{ static testMethod void testOppValidation(){ // Set up 50% opportunity with no description Opportunity o = new Opportunity(); o.Name = 'Test Job'; o.Probability = 50; o.StageName = 'Prospect'; o.CloseDate = System.today(); // Test running as latest package version try{ insert o; } catch(System.DMLException e){ System.assert( e.getMessage().contains( 'All deals over 50% require a description'), e.getMessage()); } // Run test as managed package version 1.0 System.runAs(Package.Version.1.0){ try{ insert o; } catch(System.DMLException e){ System.assert(false, e.getMessage()); } } // Set up a closed won opportunity with no lead source o = new Opportunity(); o.Name = 'Test Job'; o.Probability = 50; o.StageName = 'Prospect'; o.CloseDate = System.today(); o.StageName = 'Closed Won'; // Test running as latest package version try{ insert o; }

197

Developing Apex in Managed Packages

Testing Behavior in Package Versions

catch(System.DMLException e){ System.assert( e.getMessage().contains( 'A lead source must be provided for all Closed Won deals'), e.getMessage()); } // Run test as managed package version 1.0 System.runAs(Package.Version.1.0){ try{ insert o; } catch(System.DMLException e){ System.assert( e.getMessage().contains( 'A lead source must be provided for all Closed Won deals'), e.getMessage()); } } } }

198

Chapter 11
Exposing Apex Methods as Web Services
In this chapter ... WebService Methods
You can expose your Apex methods so that external applications can access your code and your application. To expose your Apex methods, use WebService Methods. Tip: Apex Web services allow an external application to invoke Apex methods through Web services. Apex callouts enable Apex to invoke external web or HTTP services.

199

Exposing Apex Methods as Web Services

WebService Methods

WebService Methods
Apex class methods can be exposed as custom Force.com Web services API calls. This allows an external application to invoke an Apex web service to perform an action in Salesforce. Use the webService keyword to define these methods. For example:
global class MyWebService { webService static Id makeContact(String lastName, Account a) { Contact c = new Contact(lastName = 'Weissman', AccountId = a.Id); insert c; return c.id; } }

A developer of an external application can integrate with an Apex class containing webService methods by generating a WSDL for the class. To generate a WSDL from an Apex class detail page: 1. In the application navigate to Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. 2. Click the name of a class that contains webService methods. 3. Click Generate WSDL.

Exposing Data with WebService Methods


Invoking a custom webService method always uses System context. Consequently, the current user's credentials are not used, and any user who has access to these methods can use their full power, regardless of permissions, field-level security, or sharing rules. Developers who expose methods with the webService keyword should therefore take care that they are not inadvertently exposing any sensitive data. Caution: Apex class methods that are exposed through the API with the webService keyword do not observe object permissions, field-level security, or sharing rules for any records, unless the methods are contained in a class defined using the with sharing keyword. Only classes defined using with sharing respect sharing rules for current user.

Considerations for Using the WebService Keyword


When using the webService keyword, keep the following considerations in mind: You cannot use the webService keyword when defining a class. However, you can use it to define top-level, outer class methods, and methods of an inner class. You cannot use the webService keyword to define an interface, or to define an interface's methods and variables. System-defined enums cannot be used in Web service methods. You cannot use the webService keyword in a trigger because you cannot define a method in a trigger. All classes that contain methods defined with the webService keyword must be declared as global. If a method or inner class is declared as global, the outer, top-level class must also be defined as global. Methods defined with the webService keyword are inherently global. These methods can be used by any Apex script that has access to the class. You can consider the webService keyword as a type of access modifier that enables more access than global. You must define any method that uses the webService keyword as static. You cannot deprecate webService methods or variables in managed package code. Because there are no SOAP analogs for certain Apex elements, methods defined with the webService keyword cannot take the following elements as parameters. While these elements can be used within the method, they also cannot be marked as return values.

200

Exposing Apex Methods as Web Services

Considerations for Using the WebService Keyword

Maps Sets Pattern objects Matcher objects Exception objects

You must use the webService keyword with any member variables that you want to expose as part of a Web service. You should not mark these member variables as static. Salesforce denies access to Web service and executeanonymous requests from an AppExchange package that has Restricted access. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

The following example shows a class with Web service member variables as well as a Web service method:
global class SpecialAccounts { global class AccountInfo { WebService String AcctName; WebService Integer AcctNumber; } WebService static Account createAccount(AccountInfo info) { Account acct = new Account(); acct.Name = info.AcctName; acct.AccountNumber = String.valueOf(info.AcctNumber); insert acct; return acct; } WebService static Id [] createAccounts(Account parent, Account child, Account grandChild) { insert parent; child.parentId = parent.Id; insert child; grandChild.parentId = child.Id; insert grandChild; Id [] results = new Id[3]; results[0] = parent.Id; results[1] = child.Id; results[2] = grandChild.Id; return results; } TestMethod static void testAccountCreate() { AccountInfo info = new AccountInfo(); info.AcctName = 'Manoj Cheenath'; info.AcctNumber = 12345; Account acct = SpecialAccounts.createAccount(info); System.assert(acct != null); } }

You can invoke this Web service using AJAX. For more information, see Apex in AJAX on page 86.

201

Exposing Apex Methods as Web Services

Overloading Web Service Methods

Overloading Web Service Methods


SOAP and WSDL do not provide good support for overloading methods. Consequently, Apex does not allow two methods marked with the webService keyword to have the same name. Web service methods that have the same name in the same class generate a compile-time error.

202

Chapter 12
Invoking Callouts Using Apex
In this chapter ... Adding Remote Site Settings SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document Invoking HTTP Callouts Using Certificates Callout Limits
An Apex callout enables you to tightly integrate your Apex with an external service by making a call to an external Web service or sending a HTTP request from an Apex script and then receiving the response. Apex provides integration with Web services that utilize SOAP and WSDL, or HTTP services (RESTful services). Note: Before any Apex callout can call an external site, that site must be registered in the Remote Site Settings page, or the callout fails. Salesforce prevents calls to unauthorized network addresses. To learn more about the two types of callouts, see: SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document on page 204 Invoking HTTP Callouts on page 211 Tip: Callouts enable Apex to invoke external web or HTTP services. Apex Web services allow an external application to invoke Apex methods through Web services.

203

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Adding Remote Site Settings

Adding Remote Site Settings


Before any Apex callout can call an external site, that site must be registered in the Remote Site Settings page, or the callout fails. Salesforce prevents calls to unauthorized network addresses. To add a remote site setting: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Your Name Setup Security Controls Remote Site Settings. Click New Remote Site. Enter a descriptive term for the Remote Site Name. Enter the URL for the remote site. Optionally, enter a description of the site. Click Save.

SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document


Classes can be automatically generated from a WSDL document that is stored on a local hard drive or network. Creating a class by consuming a WSDL document allows developers to make callouts to the external Web service in their Apex scripts. Note: Use Outbound Messaging to handle integration solutions when possible. Use callouts to third-party Web services only when necessary. To generate an Apex class from a WSDL: 1. In the application, click Your Name Setup Develop Apex Classes. 2. Click Generate from WSDL. 3. Click Browse to navigate to a WSDL document on your local hard drive or network, or type in the full path. This WSDL document is the basis for the Apex class you are creating. Note: The WSDL document that you specify might contain a SOAP endpoint location that references an outbound port. For security reasons, Salesforce restricts the outbound ports you may specify to one of the following: 80: This port only accepts HTTP connections. 443: This port only accepts HTTPS connections. 102466535 (inclusive): These ports accept HTTP or HTTPS connections.

4. Click Parse WSDL to verify the WSDL document contents. The application generates a default class name for each namespace in the WSDL document and reports any errors. Parsing will fail if the WSDL contains schema types or schema constructs that are not supported by Apex classes, or if the resulting classes exceed 1 million character limit on Apex classes. For example, the Salesforce SOAP API WSDL cannot be parsed. 5. Modify the class names as desired. While you can save more than one WSDL namespace into a single class by using the same class name for each namespace, Apex classes can be no more than 1 million characters total. 6. Click Generate Apex. The final page of the wizard shows which classes were successfully generated, along with any errors from other classes. The page also provides a link to view successfully-generated code.

204

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Invoking an External Service

The successfully-generated Apex class includes stub and type classes for calling the third-party Web service represented by the WSDL document. These classes allow you to call the external Web service from Apex. Note the following about the generated Apex: If a WSDL document contains an Apex reserved word, the word is appended with _x when the Apex class is generated. For example, limit in a WSDL document converts to limit_x in the generated Apex class. See Reserved Keywords on page 450. For details on handling characters in element names in a WSDL that are not supported in Apex variable names, see Considerations Using WSDLs on page 211. If an operation in the WSDL has an output message with more than one element, the generated Apex wraps the elements in an inner class. The Apex method that represents the WSDL operation returns the inner class instead of the individual elements.

After you have generated a class from the WSDL, you can invoke the external service referenced by the WSDL. Note: Before you can use the samples in the rest of this topic, you must copy the Apex class docSampleClass from Understanding the Generated Code and add it to your organization.

Invoking an External Service


To invoke an external service after using its WSDL document to generate an Apex class, create an instance of the stub in your Apex script and call the methods on it. For example, to invoke the StrikeIron IP address lookup service from Apex, you could write a script similar to the following:
// Create the stub strikeironIplookup.DNSSoap dns = new strikeironIplookup.DNSSoap(); // Set up the license header dns.LicenseInfo = new strikeiron.LicenseInfo(); dns.LicenseInfo.RegisteredUser = new strikeiron.RegisteredUser(); dns.LicenseInfo.RegisteredUser.UserID = 'you@company.com'; dns.LicenseInfo.RegisteredUser.Password = 'your-password'; // Make the Web service call strikeironIplookup.DNSInfo info = dns.DNSLookup('www.myname.com');

HTTP Header Support


You can set the HTTP headers on a Web service callout. For example, you can use this feature to set the value of a cookie in an authorization header. To set HTTP headers, add inputHttpHeaders_x and outputHttpHeaders_x to the stub. Note: In API versions 16.0 and earlier, HTTP responses for callouts are always decoded using UTF-8, regardless of the Content-Type header. In API versions 17.0 and later, HTTP responses are decoded using the encoding specified in the Content-Type header. The following samples work with the sample WSDL file in Understanding the Generated Code on page 208:

Sending HTTP Headers on a Web Service Callout


docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); stub.inputHttpHeaders_x = new Map<String, String>(); //Setting a basic authentication header stub.inputHttpHeaders_x.put('Authorization', 'Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ=='); //Setting a cookie header

205

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Supported WSDL Features

stub.inputHttpHeaders_x.put('Cookie', 'name=value'); //Setting a custom HTTP header stub.inputHttpHeaders_x.put('myHeader', 'myValue'); String input = 'This is the input string'; String output = stub.EchoString(input);

If a value for inputHttpHeaders_x is specified, it overrides the standard headers set.

Accessing HTTP Response Headers from a Web Service Callout Response


docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); stub.outputHttpHeaders_x = new Map<String, String>(); String input = 'This is the input string'; String output = stub.EchoString(input); //Getting cookie header String cookie = stub.outputHttpHeaders_x.get('Set-Cookie'); //Getting custom header String myHeader = stub.outputHttpHeaders_x.get('My-Header');

The value of outputHttpHeaders_x is null by default. You must set outputHttpHeaders_x before you have access to the content of headers in the response.

Supported WSDL Features


Apex supports only the document literal wrapped WSDL style and the following primitive and built-in datatypes: Schema Type
xsd:anyURI xsd:boolean xsd:date xsd:dateTime xsd:double xsd:float xsd:int xsd:integer xsd:language xsd:long xsd:Name xsd:NCName xsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:NMTOKEN xsd:NMTOKENS xsd:normalizedString

Apex Type String Boolean Date Datetime Double Double Integer Integer String Long String String Integer String String String

206

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Supported WSDL Features

Schema Type
xsd:NOTATION xsd:positiveInteger xsd:QName xsd:short xsd:string xsd:time xsd:token xsd:unsignedInt xsd:unsignedLong xsd:unsignedShort

Apex Type String Integer String Integer String Datetime String Integer Long Integer

Note: The Salesforce datatype anyType is not supported in WSDLs used to generate Apex code that is saved using API version 15.0 and later. For code saved using API version 14.0 and earlier, anyType is mapped to String. Apex also supports the following schema constructs:
xsd:all, in Apex code saved using API version 15.0 and later xsd:annotation, in Apex code saved using API version 15.0 and later xsd:attribute, in Apex code saved using API version 15.0 and later xsd:choice, in Apex code saved using API version 15.0 and later xsd:element. In Apex code saved using API version 15.0 and later, the ref attribute is also supported with the following

restrictions: You cannot call a ref in a different namespace. A global element cannot use ref. If an element contains ref, it cannot also contain name or type.

xsd:sequence

The following data types are only supported when used as call ins, that is, when an external Web service calls an Apex Web service method. These data types are not supported as callouts, that is, when an Apex Web service method calls an external Web service. blob decimal enum

Apex does not support any other WSDL constructs, types, or services, including: RPC/encoded services WSDL files with mulitple portTypes, multiple services, or multiple bindings WSDL files that import external schemas. For example, the following WSDL fragment imports an external schema, which is not supported:
<wsdl:types> <xsd:schema elementFormDefault="qualified"

207

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Understanding the Generated Code

targetNamespace="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01/"> <xsd:include schemaLocation="AmazonS3.xsd"/> </xsd:schema> </wsdl:types>

However, an import within the same schema is supported. In the following example, the external WSDL is pasted into the WSDL you are converting:
<wsdl:types> <xsd:schema xmlns:tns="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01/"> <xsd:element name="CreateBucket"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> [...] </xsd:schema> </wsdl:types>

Any schema types not documented in the previous table WSDLs that exceed the size limit, including the Salesforce WSDLs

Understanding the Generated Code


The following example shows how an Apex class is created from a WSDL document. The following code shows a sample WSDL document:
<wsdl:definitions xmlns:http="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/http/" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/" xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soapenc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/" xmlns:tns="http://doc.sample.com/docSample" targetNamespace="http://doc.sample.com/docSample" xmlns:wsdl="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/"> <!-- Above, the schema targetNamespace maps to the Apex class name. --> <!-- Below, the type definitions for the parameters are listed. Each complexType and simpleType parameteris mapped to an Apex class inside the parent class for the WSDL. Then, each element in the complexType is mapped to a public field inside the class. --> <wsdl:types> <s:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://doc.sample.com/docSample"> <s:element name="EchoString"> <s:complexType> <s:sequence> <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="input" type="s:string" /> </s:sequence> </s:complexType> </s:element> <s:element name="EchoStringResponse"> <s:complexType> <s:sequence> <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="EchoStringResult" type="s:string" /> </s:sequence> </s:complexType>

208

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Understanding the Generated Code

</s:element> </s:schema> </wsdl:types> <!--The stub below defines operations. --> <wsdl:message name="EchoStringSoapIn"> <wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:EchoString" /> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:message name="EchoStringSoapOut"> <wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:EchoStringResponse" /> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:portType name="DocSamplePortType"> <wsdl:operation name="EchoString"> <wsdl:input message="tns:EchoStringSoapIn" /> <wsdl:output message="tns:EchoStringSoapOut" /> </wsdl:operation> </wsdl:portType> <!--The code below defines how the types map to SOAP. --> <wsdl:binding name="DocSampleBinding" type="tns:DocSamplePortType"> <wsdl:operation name="EchoString"> <soap:operation soapAction="urn:dotnet.callouttest.soap.sforce.com/EchoString" style="document" /> <wsdl:input> <soap:body use="literal" /> </wsdl:input> <wsdl:output> <soap:body use="literal" /> </wsdl:output> </wsdl:operation> </wsdl:binding> <!-- Finally, the code below defines the endpoint, which maps to the endpoint in the class --> <wsdl:service name="DocSample"> <wsdl:port name="DocSamplePort" binding="tns:DocSampleBinding"> <soap:address location="http://www.salesforcesampletest.org/WebServices/DocSample.asmx" /> </wsdl:port> </wsdl:service> </wsdl:definitions>

From this WSDL document, the following Apex class can be generated:
//Generated by wsdl2apex public class docSample { public class EchoStringResponse_element { public String EchoStringResult; private String[] EchoStringResult_type_info = new String[]{ 'EchoStringResult', 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema', 'string','0','1','false'}; private String[] apex_schema_type_info = new String[]{ 'http://doc.sample.com/docSample', 'true'}; private String[] field_order_type_info = new String[]{ 'EchoStringResult'};

209

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Understanding the Generated Code

} public class DocSamplePort { public String endpoint_x = 'http://www.salesforcesampletest.org/WebServices/DocSample.asmx'; private String[] ns_map_type_info = new String[]{ 'http://doc.sample.com/docSample', 'docSample'}; public String EchoString(String input) { docSample.EchoString_element request_x = new docSample.EchoString_element(); docSample.EchoStringResponse_element response_x; request_x.input = input; Map<String, docSample.EchoStringResponse_element> response_map_x = new Map<String, docSample.EchoStringResponse_element>(); response_map_x.put('response_x', response_x); WebServiceCallout.invoke( this, request_x, response_map_x, new String[]{endpoint_x, 'urn:dotnet.callouttest.soap.sforce.com/EchoString', 'http://doc.sample.com/docSample', 'EchoString', 'http://doc.sample.com/docSample', 'EchoStringResponse', 'docSample.EchoStringResponse_element'} ); response_x = response_map_x.get('response_x'); return response_x.EchoStringResult; } } public class EchoString_element { public String input; private String[] input_type_info = new String[]{ 'input', 'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema', 'string','0','1','false'}; private String[] apex_schema_type_info = new String[]{ 'http://doc.sample.com/docSample', 'true'}; private String[] field_order_type_info = new String[]{'input'}; } }

Note the following mappings from the original WSDL document: The WSDL target namespace maps to the Apex class name. Each complex type becomes a class. Each element in the type is a public field in the class. The WSDL port name maps to the stub class. Each operation in the WSDL maps to a public method.

The class generated above can be used to invoke external Web services. The following code shows how to call the echoString method on the external server:
docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); String input = 'This is the input string'; String output = stub.EchoString(input);

210

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Considerations Using WSDLs

Considerations Using WSDLs


Be aware of the following when generating Apex classes from a WSDL. Mapping Headers Headers defined in the WSDL document become public fields on the stub in the generated class. This is similar to how the AJAX Toolkit and .NET works. Understanding Runtime Events The following checks are performed when an Apex script is making a callout to an external service. For information on the timeout limits when making an HTTP request or a Web services call, see Callout Limits on page 214. Circular references in Apex classes are not allowed. More than one loopback connection to Salesforce domains is not allowed. To allow an endpoint to be accessed, it should be registered in Your Name Setup Security Remote Site Settings. To prevent database connections from being held up, no transactions can be open.

Understanding Unsupported Characters in Variable Names A WSDL file can include an element name that is not allowed in an Apex variable name. The following rules apply when generating Apex variable names from a WSDL file: If the first character of an element name is not alphabetic, an x character is prepended to the generated Apex variable name. If the last character of an element name is not allowed in an Apex variable name, an x character is appended to the generated Apex variable name. If an element name contains a character that is not allowed in an Apex variable name, the character is replaced with an underscore (_) character. If an element name contains two characters in a row that are not allowed in an Apex variable name, the first character is replaced with an underscore (_) character and the second one is replaced with an x character. This avoids generating a variable name with two successive underscores, which is not allowed in Apex. Suppose you have an operation that takes two parameters, a_ and a_x. The generated Apex has two variables, both named a_x. The class will not compile. You must manually edit the Apex and change one of the variable names.

Debugging Classes Generated from WSDL Files Salesforce.com tests code with Web services API, .NET, and Axis. If you use other tools, you might encounter issues. You can use the debugging header to return the XML in request and response SOAP messages to help you diagnose problems. For more information, see Web Services API Calls and SOAP Headers for Apex on page 460.

Invoking HTTP Callouts


Apex provides several built-in classes to work with HTTP services and create HTTP requests like GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE. You can use these HTTP classes to integrate to REST-based services. They also allow you to integrate to SOAP-based web services as an alternate option to generating Apex scripts from a WSDL. By using the HTTP classes, instead of starting with a WSDL, you take on more responsibility for handling the construction of the SOAP message for the request and response.

211

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Using Certificates

For more information and samples, see HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes on page 379. Also, the Force.com Toolkit for Google Data APIs makes extensive use of HTTP callouts.

Using Certificates
You can use two-way SSL authentication by sending a certificate generated in Salesforce or signed by a certificate authority (CA) with your callout. This enhances security as the target of the callout receives the certificate and can use it to authenticate the request against its keystore. To enable two-way SSL authentication for a callout: 1. Generate a certificate. 2. Integrate the certificate with your code. See Using Certificates with SOAP Services and Using Certificates with HTTP Requests. 3. If you are connecting to a third-party and you are using a self-signed certificate, share the Salesforce certificate with them so that they can add the certificate to their keystore. If you are connecting to another application used within your organization, configure your Web or application server to request a client certificate. This process depends on the type of Web or application server you use. For an example of how to set up two-way SSL with Apache Tomcat, see wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Making_Authenticated_Web_Service_Callouts_Using_Two-Way_SSL. 4. Configure the remote site settings for the callout. Before any Apex callout can call an external site, that site must be registered in the Remote Site Settings page, or the callout fails.

Generating Certificates
You can use a self-signed certificate generated in Salesforce or a certificate signed by a certificate authority (CA). To generate a certificate for a callout: 1. Go to Your Name Setup Security Controls Certificate and Key Management 2. Select either Create Self-Signed Certificate or Create CA-Signed Certificate, based on what kind of certificate your external website accepts. You can't change the type of a certificate after you've created it. 3. Enter a descriptive label for the Salesforce certificate. This name is used primarily by administrators when viewing certificates. 4. Enter the Unique Name. This name is automatically populated based on the certificate label you enter. This name can contain only underscores and alphanumeric characters, and must be unique in your organization. It must begin with a letter, not include spaces, not end with an underscore, and not contain two consecutive underscores. Use the Unique Name when referring to the certificate using the Force.com Web services API or Apex. 5. Select a Key Size for your generated certificate and keys. Selecting 2048 (the default) generates a certificate using 2048-bit keys and is valid for two years. Selecting 1024 generates a certificate using 1024-bit keys and is valid for one year. Salesforce.com recommends that you specify 2048 for security reasons. Note: Once you save a Salesforce certificate, you can't change the key size.

6. If you're creating a CA-signed certificate, you must also enter the following information. These fields are joined together to generate a unique certificate. Field
Common Name

Description The fully qualified domain name of the company requesting the signed certificate. This is generally of the form: http://www.mycompany.com.

212

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Using Certificates with SOAP Services

Field
Email Address Company Department City State Country Code

Description The email address associated with this certificate. Either the legal name of your company, or your legal name. The branch of your company using the certificate, such as marketing or accounting. The city where the company resides. The state where the company resides. A two-letter code indicating the country where the company resides. For the United States, the value is US.

7. Click Save. After you successfully save a Salesforce certificate, the certificate and corresponding keys are automatically generated. After you create a CA-signed certificate, you must upload the signed certificate before you can use it. See Uploading Certificate Authority (CA)-Signed Certificates in the Salesforce online help.

Using Certificates with SOAP Services


After you have generated a certificate in Salesforce, you can use it to support two-way authentication for a callout to a SOAP Web service. To integrate the certificate with your Apex: 1. Receive the WSDL for the Web service from the third party or generate it from the application you want to connect to. 2. Generate Apex classes from the WSDL for the Web service. See SOAP Services: Defining a Class from a WSDL Document on page 204. 3. The generated Apex classes include a stub for calling the third-party Web service represented by the WSDL document. Edit the Apex classes, and assign a value to a clientCertName_x variable on an instance of the stub class. The value must match the Unique Name of the certificate you generated using Your Name Setup Security Controls Certificate and Key Management. The following example illustrates the last step of the previous procedure and works with the sample WSDL file in Understanding the Generated Code on page 208. This example assumes that you previously generated a certificate with a Unique Name of DocSampleCert.
docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); stub.clientCertName_x = 'DocSampleCert'; String input = 'This is the input string'; String output = stub.EchoString(input);

There is a legacy process for using a certificate obtained from a third party for your organization. Encode your client certificate key in base64, and assign it to the clientCert_x variable on the stub. This is inherently less secure than using a Salesforce certificate because it does not follow security best practices for protecting private keys. When you use a Salesforce certificate, the private key is not shared outside Salesforce. Note: Do not use a client certificate generated from Your Name Setup Develop API Generate Client Certificate. You must use a certificate obtained from a third party for your organization if you use the legacy process.

213

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Using Certificates with HTTP Requests

The following example illustrates the legacy process and works with the sample WSDL file in Understanding the Generated Code on page 208.
docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); stub.clientCert_x = 'MIIGlgIBAzCCBlAGCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCBkEEggY9MIIGOTCCAe4GCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCAd8EggHb'+ 'MIIB1zCCAdMGCyqGSIb3DQEMCgECoIIBgjCCAX4wKAYKKoZIhvcNAQwBAzAaBBSaUMlXnxjzpfdu'+ '6YFwZgJFMklDWFyvCnQeuZpN2E+Rb4rf9MkJ6FsmPDA9MCEwCQYFKw4DAhoFAAQU4ZKBfaXcN45w'+ '9hYm215CcA4n4d0EFJL8jr68wwKwFsVckbjyBz/zYHO6AgIEAA=='; // Password for the keystore stub.clientCertPasswd_x = 'passwd'; String input = 'This is the input string'; String output = stub.EchoString(input);

Using Certificates with HTTP Requests


After you have generated a certificate in Salesforce, you can use it to support two-way authentication for a callout to an HTTP request. To integrate the certificate with your Apex: 1. Generate a certificate. Note the Unique Name of the certificate. 2. In your Apex, use the setClientCertificateName method of the HttpRequest class.The value used for the argument for this method must match the Unique Name of the certificate that you generated in the previous step. The following example illustrates the last step of the previous procedure. This example assumes that you previously generated a certificate with a Unique Name of DocSampleCert.
HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setClientCertificateName('DocSampleCert');

Callout Limits
The following limits apply when an Apex script makes a callout to an HTTP request or a Web services call. The Web services call can be a Web services API call or any external Web services call. A single Apex transaction can make a maximum of 10 callouts to an HTTP request or an API call. The default timeout is 10 seconds. A custom timeout can be defined for each callout. The minimum is 1 millisecond and the maximum is 60 seconds. See the following examples for how to set custom timeouts for Web services or HTTP callouts. The maximum cumulative timeout for callouts by a single Apex transaction is 120 seconds. This time is additive across all callouts invoked by the Apex transaction.

Setting Callout Timeouts


The following example sets a custom timeout for Web services callouts. The example works with the sample WSDL file and the generated DocSamplePort class described in Understanding the Generated Code on page 208. Set the timeout value in milliseconds by assigning a value to the special timeout_x variable on the stub.
docSample.DocSamplePort stub = new docSample.DocSamplePort(); stub.timeout_x = 2000; // timeout in milliseconds

214

Invoking Callouts Using Apex

Callout Limits

The following is an example of setting a custom timeout for HTTP callouts:


HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setTimeout(2000); // timeout in milliseconds

215

Chapter 13
Reference
In this chapter ... Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations Apex Standard Classes and Methods Apex Classes Apex Interfaces
The Apex reference contains information about the Apex language. Data manipulation language (DML) operationsused to manipulate data in the database Standard classes and methodsavailable for primitive data types, collections, sObjects, and other parts of Apex Apex classesprebuilt classes available for your use Apex interfaces on page 419interfaces you can implement

216

Reference

Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations

Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations


Use data manipulation language (DML) operations to retrieve, insert, delete, and update data in a database. You can execute DML operations using two different forms: Apex DML statements, such as:
insert SObject[]

Apex DML database methods, such as:


Database.SaveResult[] result = Database.Insert(SObject[])

While most DML operations are available in either form, some exist only in one form or the other. The different DML operation forms enable different types of exception processing: Use DML statements if you want any error that occurs during bulk DML processing to be thrown as an Apex exception that immediately interrupts control flow (by using try. . .catch blocks). This behavior is similar to the way exceptions are handled in most database procedural languages. Use DML database methods if you want to allow partial success of a bulk DML operationif a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. Your application can then inspect the rejected records and possibly retry the operation. When using this form, you can write code that never throws DML exception errors. Instead, your code can use the appropriate results array to judge success or failure. Note that DML database methods also include a syntax that supports thrown exceptions, similar to DML statements.

The following Apex DML operations are available:


convertLead1 delete insert merge2 undelete update upsert

System Context and Sharing Rules


Most DML operations execute in system context, ignoring the current user's profile permissions, field-level security, organization-wide defaults, position in the role hierarchy, and sharing rules. However, when a DML operation is called in a class defined with the with sharing keywords, the current user's sharing rules are taken into account. For more information, see Using the with sharing or without sharing Keywords on page 111.

String Field Truncation and API Version


Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

1 2

convertLead is only available as a database method. merge is only available as an Apex DML statement.

217

Reference

ConvertLead Operation

ConvertLead Operation
The convertLead DML operation converts a lead into an account and contact, as well as (optionally) an opportunity. Note: convertLead is only available as a database method.

Database Method Syntax


LeadConvertResult Database.convertLead(LeadConvert leadToConvert, Boolean opt_allOrNone) LeadConvertResult[] Database.convertLead(LeadConvert[] leadsToConvert, Boolean opt_allOrNone)

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

Rules and Guidelines


When converting leads, consider the following rules and guidelines: Field mappings: The system automatically maps standard lead fields to standard account, contact, and opportunity fields. For custom lead fields, your Salesforce administrator can specify how they map to custom account, contact, and opportunity fields. For more information about field mappings, see the Salesforce online help. Merged fields: If data is merged into existing account and contact objects, only empty fields in the target object are overwrittenexisting data (including IDs) are not overwritten. The only exception is if you specify setOverwriteLeadSource on the LeadConvert object to true, in which case the LeadSource field in the target contact object is overwritten with the contents of the LeadSource field in the source LeadConvert object. Record types: If the organization uses record types, the default record type of the new owner is assigned to records created during lead conversion. The default record type of the user converting the lead determines the lead source values available during conversion. If the desired lead source values are not available, add the values to the default record type of the user converting the lead. For more information about record types, see the Salesforce online help. Picklist values: The system assigns the default picklist values for the account, contact, and opportunity when mapping any standard lead picklist fields that are blank. If your organization uses record types, blank values are replaced with the default picklist values of the new record owner. Automatic feed subscriptions: When you convert a lead into an account, contact, and (optionally) an opportunity, the owner of the generated records is automatically subscribed and the lead owner is unsubscribed from the lead record. Any users that were subscribed to the lead are now subscribed to the generated records and unsubscribed from the lead. This means that the lead owner and other users that were subscribed to the lead see any changes to the account, contact, and opportunity records in their news feed. The subscription occurs unless the user has selected the Stop automatically following records checkbox in Your Name Setup My Chatter Settings My Feeds. A user can subscribe to a record so that changes to the record are displayed in the news feed on the user's home page. This is a useful way to stay up-to-date with changes to records in Salesforce.

Basic Steps for Converting Leads


Converting leads involves the following basic steps: 1. Your application determines the IDs of any lead(s) to be converted. 2. Optionally, your application determines the IDs of any account(s) into which to merge the lead. Your application can use SOQL to search for accounts that match the lead name, as in the following example:
select id, name from account where name='CompanyNameOfLeadBeingMerged'

218

Reference

ConvertLead Operation

3. Optionally, your application determines the IDs of the contact or contacts into which to merge the lead. The application can use SOQL to search for contacts that match the lead contact name, as in the following example:
select id, name from contact where firstName='FirstName' and lastName='LastName' and accountId = '001...'

4. Optionally, the application determines whether opportunities should be created from the leads. 5. The application queries the LeadSource table to obtain all of the possible converted status options (SELECT ... FROM LeadStatus WHERE IsConverted='1'), and then selects a value for the converted status. 6. The application calls convertLead. 7. The application iterates through the returned result or results and examines each LeadConvertResult object to determine whether conversion succeeded for each lead. 8. Optionally, when converting leads owned by a queue, the owner must be specified. This is because accounts and contacts cannot be owned by a queue. Even if you are specifying an existing account or contact, you must still specify an owner.

LeadConvert Object Methods


The convertLead database method accepts up to 100 LeadConvert objects. A LeadConvert object supports the following methods: Name
getAccountId getContactId getConvertedStatus getLeadID getOpportunityName getOwnerID isDoNotCreateOpportunity

Arguments

Return Type ID ID String ID String ID Boolean Boolean

Description Gets the ID of the account into which the lead will be merged. Gets the ID of the contact into which the lead will be merged. Get the lead status value for a converted lead Get the ID of the lead to convert. Get the name of the opportunity to create. Get the ID of the person to own any newly created account, contact, and opportunity. Indicates whether an Opportunity is created during lead conversion (false, the default) or not (true). Indicates whether the LeadSource field on the target Contact object is overwritten with the contents of the LeadSource field in the source Lead object (true), or not (false, the default). Indicates whether a notification email is sent to the owner specified by setOwnerId (true) or not (false, the default). Sets the ID of the account into which the lead will be merged. This value is required only when updating an existing account, including person accounts. Otherwise, if setAccountID is specified, a new account is created. Sets the ID of the contact into which the lead will be merged (this contact must be associated with the account specified with setAccountId, and setAccountId must be specified). This value is required only when updating an existing contact.

isOverWriteLeadSource

isSendNotificationEmail

Boolean ID ID Void

setAccountId

setContactId

ID ID

Void

219

Reference

ConvertLead Operation

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description Important: If you are converting a lead into a person account, do not specify setContactId or an error will result. Specify only setAccountId of the person account. If setContactID is specified, then the application creates a new contact that is implicitly associated with the account. The contact name and other existing data are not overwritten (unless setOverwriteLeadSource is set to true, in which case only the LeadSource field is overwritten).

setConvertedStatus

String Status Void

Sets the lead status value for a converted lead. This field is required. Specifies whether to create an opportunity during lead conversion. The default value is false: opportunities are created by default. Set this flag to true only if you do not want to create an opportunity from the lead. Sets the ID of the lead to convert. This field is required. Sets the name of the opportunity to create. If no name is specified, this value defaults to the company name of the lead. The maximum length of this field is 80 characters. If setDoNotCreateOpportunity is true, no Opportunity is created and this field must be left blank; otherwise, an error is returned. Specifies whether to overwrite the LeadSource field on the target contact object with the contents of the LeadSource field in the source lead object. The default value is false, to not overwrite the field. If you specify this as true, you must also specify setContactId for the target contact. Specifies the ID of the person to own any newly created account, contact, and opportunity. If the application does not specify this value, the owner of the new object will be the owner of the lead. This method is not applicable when merging with existing objectsif setOwnerId is specified, the ownerId field is not overwritten in an existing account or contact. Specifies whether to send a notification email to the owner specified by setOwnerId. The default value is false, that is, to not send email.

setDoNotCreateOpportunity Boolean Void CreateOpportunity

setLeadId setOpportunityName

ID ID

Void

String OppName Void

setOverwriteLeadSource Boolean Void Oewieedore vrrtLaSuc

setOwnerId

ID ID

Void

setSendNotificationEmail Boolean SendEmail

Void

LeadConvertResult Object
An array of LeadConvertResult objects is returned with the convertLead database method. Each element in the LeadConvertResult array corresponds to the SObject array passed as the SObject[] parameter in the convertLead database method, that is, the first element in the LeadConvertResult array matches the first element passed in the SObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one SObject is passed in, the LeadConvertResults array contains a single element. A LeadConvertResult object has the following methods:

220

Reference

Delete Operation

Name
getAccountId

Type ID

Description The ID of the new account (if a new account was specified) or the ID of the account specified when convertLead was invoked The ID of the new contact (if a new contact was specified) or the ID of the contact specified when convertLead was invoked

getContactId

ID

getErrors

Database.Error If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error []Database.Error [] objects providing the error code and description. For more information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304. ID ID Boolean The ID of the converted lead The ID of the new opportunity, if one was created when convertLead was invoked A Boolean value that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise

getLeadId getOpportunityId

isSuccess

Database Method Example


Lead myLead = new Lead(lastname = 'Fry', company='Fry And Sons'); insert myLead; Database.LeadConvert lc = new database.LeadConvert(); lc.setLeadId(myLead.id); LeadStatus convertStatus = [Select Id, MasterLabel from LeadStatus where IsConverted=true limit 1]; lc.setConvertedStatus(convertStatus.MasterLabel); Database.LeadConvertResult lcr = Database.convertLead(lc); System.assert(lcr.isSuccess());

Delete Operation
The delete DML operation deletes one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations data. delete is analogous to the delete() statement in the Web services API.

DML Statement Syntax


delete sObject | Record.ID

Database Method Syntax


DeleteResult Database.Delete((sObject recordToDelete | RecordID ID), Boolean opt_allOrNone) DeleteResult[]Database. Delete((sObject[] recordsToDelete | RecordIDs LIST<>IDs{}), Boolean opt_allOrNone)

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

Rules and Guidelines


When deleting sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines:

221

Reference

Delete Operation

To ensure referential integrity, delete supports cascading deletions. If you delete a parent object, you delete its children automatically, as long as each child record can be deleted. For example, if you delete a case record, Apex automatically deletes any CaseComment, CaseHistory, and CaseSolution records associated with that case. However, if a particular child record is not deletable or is currently being used, then the delete operation on the parent case record fails.

Certain sObjects cannot be deleted. To delete an sObject record, the deletable property of the sObject must be set to true. Also, see sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234. You can pass a maximum of 10,000 sObject records to a single delete method.

DeleteResult Object
An array of Database.DeleteResult objects is returned with the delete database method. Each element in the DeleteResult array corresponds to the sObject array passed as the sObject[] parameter in the delete database method, that is, the first element in the DeleteResult array matches the first element passed in the sObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one sObject is passed in, the DeleteResults array contains a single element. A Database.DeleteResult object has the following methods: Name
getErrors

Type

Description

Database.Error If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error objects [] providing the error code and description. For more information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304. ID The ID of the sObject you were trying to delete. If this field contains a value, the object was successfully deleted. If this field is empty, the operation was not successful for that object. A Boolean value that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise

getId

isSuccess

Boolean

DML Statement Example


The following example deletes an account named 'DotCom':
Account[] doomedAccts = [select id, name from account where name = 'DotCom']; try { delete doomedAccts; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

Database Method Example


The following example deletes an account named 'DotCom':
public class DmlTest { Account[] doomedAccts = [select id, name from account where name = 'DotCom']; Database.DeleteResult[] DR_Dels = Database.delete(doomedAccts); }

222

Reference

Insert Operation

Insert Operation
The insert DML operation adds one or more sObjects, such as individual accounts or contacts, to your organizations data. insert is analogous to the INSERT statement in SQL.

DML Statement Syntax


insert sObject insert sObject[]

Database Method Syntax


SaveResult Database.insert(sObject recordToInsert, Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions opt_DMLOptions) SaveResult[] Database.insert(sObject[] recordsToInsert, Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions opt_DMLOptions)

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. For example:
Database.SaveResult[] MySaveResult = Database.Insert(MyAccounts, false);

The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. For example:
//AssignmentRuleHeader //UseDefaultRule database.DMLOptions dmo = new database.DMLOptions(); dmo.AssignmentRuleHeader.UseDefaultRule= true; Lead l = new Lead(company='ABC', lastname='Smith'); l.setOptions(dmo); insert l;

For more information, see Database DMLOptions Methods on page 301.

Rules and Guidelines


When inserting sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines: Certain sObjects cannot be created. To create an sObject record, the createable property of the sObject must be set to true. You must supply a non-null value for all required fields. You can pass a maximum of 10,000 sObject records to a single insert method. The insert statement automatically sets the ID value of all new sObject records. Inserting a record that already has an IDand therefore already exists in your organization's dataproduces an error. See Lists on page 34 for information. The insert statement can only set the foreign key ID of related sObject records. Fields on related records cannot be updated with insert. For example, if inserting a new contact, you can specify the contact's related account record by setting the value of the AccountId field. However, you cannot change the account's name without updating the account itself with a separate DML call.

223

Reference

Insert Operation

The insert statement is not supported with some sObjects. See sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234. This operation checks each batch of records for duplicate ID values. If there are duplicates, the first five are processed. For the sixth and all additional duplicate IDs, the SaveResult for those entries is marked with an error similar to the following: Maximum number of duplicate updates in one batch (5 allowed). Attempt to update Id more than once in this API call: number_of_attempts.

SaveResult Object
An array of SaveResult objects is returned with the insert and update database methods. Each element in the SaveResult array corresponds to the sObject array passed as the sObject[] parameter in the database method, that is, the first element in the SaveResult array matches the first element passed in the sObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one sObject is passed in, the SaveResults array contains a single element. A SaveResult object has the following methods: Name
getErrors

Type Database.Error []

Description If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error objects providing the error code and description. For more information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304. The ID of the sObject you were trying to insert or update. If this field contains a value, the object was successfully inserted or updated. If this field is empty, the operation was not successful for that object. A Boolean that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise.

getId

ID

isSuccess

Boolean

DML Statement Example


The following example inserts an account named 'Acme':
Account newAcct = new Account(name = 'Acme'); try { insert newAcct; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

Database Method Example


The following example inserts an account named 'Acme':
Account a = new Account(name = 'Acme'); Database.SaveResult[] lsr = Database.insert(new Account[]{a, new Account(name = 'Acme')},

224

Reference

Merge Statement

false); // Iterate through the Save Results for(Database.SaveResult sr:lsr){ if(!sr.isSuccess()) Database.Error err = sr.getErrors()[0]; }

Merge Statement
The merge statement merges up to three records of the same sObject type into one of the records, deleting the others, and re-parenting any related records. Note: This DML operation does not have a matching database system method.

Syntax
merge sObject sObject merge sObject sObject[] merge sObject ID merge sObject ID[]

The first parameter represents the master record into which the other records are to be merged. The second parameter represents the one or two other records that should be merged and then deleted. You can pass these other records into the merge statement as a single sObject record or ID, or as a list of two sObject records or IDs.

Rules and Guidelines


When merging sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines: Only leads, contacts, and accounts can be merged. See sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234. You can pass a master record and up to two additional sObject records to a single merge method.

For more information on merging leads, contacts and accounts, see the Salesforce online help.

Example
The following example merges two accounts named 'Acme Inc.' and 'Acme' into a single record:
List<Account> ls = new List<Account>{new Account(name='Acme Inc.'),new Account(name='Acme')}; insert ls; Account masterAcct = [select id, name from account where name = 'Acme Inc.' limit 1]; Account mergeAcct = [select id, name from account where name = 'Acme' limit 1]; try { merge masterAcct mergeAcct; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

225

Reference

Undelete Operation

Undelete Operation
The undelete DML operation restores one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations Recycle Bin. undelete is analogous to the UNDELETE statement in SQL.

DML Statement Syntax


undelete sObject | Record.ID undelete sObject[] | LIST<>ID[]

Database Method Syntax


UndeleteResult Database.Undelete((sObject recordToUndelete | RecordID ID), Boolean opt_allOrNone) UndeleteResult[] Database.Undelete((sObject[] recordsToUndelete | RecordIDs LIST<>IDs{}), Boolean opt_allOrNone)

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

Rules and Guidelines


When undeleting sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines: To ensure referential integrity, undelete restores the record associations for the following types of relationships: Parent accounts (as specified in the Parent Account field on an account) Parent cases (as specified in the Parent Case field on a case) Master solutions for translated solutions (as specified in the Master Solution field on a solution) Managers of contacts (as specified in the Reports To field on a contact) Products related to assets (as specified in the Product field on an asset) Opportunities related to quotes (as specified in the Opportunity field on a quote) All custom lookup relationships Relationship group members on accounts and relationship groups, with some exceptions Tags An article's categories, publication state, and assignments Note: Salesforce only restores lookup relationships that have not been replaced. For example, if an asset is related to a different product prior to the original product record being undeleted, that asset-product relationship is not restored. Certain sObjects cannot be undeleted. To verify if an sObject record can be undeleted, check that the undeletable property of the sObject is set to true. You can pass a maximum of 10,000 sObject records to a single undelete method. You can undelete records that were deleted as the result of a merge, but the child objects will have been re-parented, which cannot be undone. Use the ALL ROWS parameters with a SOQL query to identify deleted records, including records deleted as a result of a merge. See Querying All Records with a SOQL Statement on page 63. Undelete is not supported with some sObjects. See sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234.

226

Reference

Undelete Operation

UndeleteResult Object
An array of Database.UndeleteResult objects is returned with the undelete database method. Each element in the UndeleteResult array corresponds to the sObject array passed as the sObject[] parameter in the undelete database method, that is, the first element in the UndeleteResult array matches the first element passed in the sObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one sObject is passed in, the UndeleteResults array contains a single element. An undeleteResult object has the following methods: Name
getErrors

Type Database.Error []

Description If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error objects providing the error code and description. For more information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304. The ID of the sObject you were trying to undelete. If this field contains a value, the object was successfully undeleted. If this field is empty, the operation was not successful for that object. A Boolean value that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise

getId

ID

isSuccess

Boolean

DML Statement Example


The following example undeletes an account named 'Trump'. The ALL ROWS keyword queries all rows for both top level and aggregate relationships, including deleted records and archived activities.
Account a = new Account(name='AC1'); insert(a); insert(new Contact(lastName='Carter',accountId=a.id)); Account[] savedAccts = [select id, name from account where name = 'Trump' ALL ROWS]; try { undelete savedAccts; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

Database Method Example


The following example undeletes an account named 'Trump'. The ALL ROWS keyword queries all rows for both top level and aggregate relationships, including deleted records and archived activities.
public class DmlTest2 { public void undeleteExample() { Account[] SavedAccts = [select id, name from account where name = 'Trump' ALL ROWS]; Database.UndeleteResult[] UDR_Dels = Database.undelete(SavedAccts);

227

Reference

Update Operation

for(integer i =0; i< 10; i++) if(UDR_Dels[i].getErrors().size()>0){ // Process any errors here } } }

Update Operation
The update DML operation modifies one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, in your organizations data. update is analogous to the UPDATE statement in SQL.

DML Statement Syntax


update sObject update sObject[]

Database Method Syntax


UpdateResult Update(sObject recordToUpdate, Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions opt_DMLOptions) UpdateResult[] Update(sObject[] recordsToUpdate[], Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions opt_DMLOptions)

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. For more information, see Database DMLOptions Methods on page 301.

Rules and Guidelines


When updating sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines: Certain sObjects cannot be updated. To update an sObject record, the updateable property of the sObject must be set to true. When updating required fields you must supply a non-null value. Unlike the Web services API, Apex allows you to change field values to null without updating the fieldsToNull array on the sObject record. The API requires an update to this array due to the inconsistent handling of null values by many SOAP providers. Because Apex runs solely on the Force.com platform, this workaround is unnecessary. The ID of an updated sObject record cannot be modified, but related record IDs can. This operation checks each batch of records for duplicate ID values. If there are duplicates, the first five are processed. For the sixth and all additional duplicate IDs, the SaveResult for those entries is marked with an error similar to the following: Maximum number of duplicate updates in one batch (5 allowed). Attempt to update Id more than once in this API call: number_of_attempts. The update statement automatically modifies the values of certain fields such as LastModifiedDate, LastModifiedById, and SystemModstamp. You cannot explicitly specify these values in your Apex. You can pass a maximum of 10,000 sObject records to a single update method. A single update statement can only modify one type of sObject at a time. For example, if updating an account field through an existing contact that has also been modified, two update statements are required:
// Use a SOQL query to access data for a contact Contact c = [select account.name from contact

228

Reference

Update Operation

where lastName = 'Carter' limit 1]; // Now we can change fields for both the contact and its // associated account c.account.name = 'salesforce.com'; c.lastName = 'Roth'; // To update the database, the two types of records must be // updated separately update c; // This only changes the contact's last name update c.account; // This updates the account name

Update is not supported with some sObjects. See sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234.

SaveResult Object
An array of SaveResult objects is returned with the insert and update database methods. Each element in the SaveResult array corresponds to the sObject array passed as the sObject[] parameter in the database method, that is, the first element in the SaveResult array matches the first element passed in the sObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one sObject is passed in, the SaveResults array contains a single element. A SaveResult object has the following methods: Name
getErrors

Type Database.Error []

Description If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error objects providing the error code and description. For more information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304. The ID of the sObject you were trying to insert or update. If this field contains a value, the object was successfully inserted or updated. If this field is empty, the operation was not successful for that object. A Boolean that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise.

getId

ID

isSuccess

Boolean

DML Statement Example


The following example updates the billingcity field on a single account named 'Acme':
Account a = new Account(name='Acme2'); insert(a); Account myAcct = [select id, name, billingcity from account where name = 'Acme2' limit 1]; myAcct.billingcity = 'San Francisco'; try { update myAcct; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

229

Reference

Upsert Operation

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

Database Method Example


The following example updates the billingcity field on a single account named 'Acme':
Account myAcct = [select id, name, billingcity from account limit 1]; myAcct.billingcity = 'San Francisco'; Database.SaveResult SR = database.update(myAcct); for(Database.Error err: SR.getErrors()) { // process any errors here }

Upsert Operation
The upsert DML operation creates new sObject records and updates existing sObject records within a single statement, using an optional custom field to determine the presence of existing objects.

DML Statement Syntax


upsert sObject opt_external_id upsert sObject[] opt_external_id
opt_external_id is an optional variable that specifies the custom field that should be used to match records that already exist in your organization's data. This custom field must be created with the External Id attribute selected. Additionally, if the field does not have the Unique attribute selected, the context user must have the View All object-level permission for the target object or the View All Data permission so that upsert does not accidentally insert a duplicate record.

If opt_external_id is not specified, the sObject record's ID field is used by default. Note: Custom field matching is case-insensitive only if the custom field has the Unique and Treat "ABC" and "abc" as duplicate values (case insensitive) attributes selected as part of the field definition. If this is the case, ABC123 is matched with abc123. For more information, see Creating Custom Fields in the Salesforce online help.

Database Method Syntax


UpsertResult Database.Upsert(sObject recordToUpsert, Schema.SObjectField External_ID_Field, Boolean opt_allOrNone) UpsertResult[] Database.Upsert(sObject[] recordsToUpsert, Schema.SObjectField External_ID_Field, Boolean opt_allOrNone)

The optional External_ID_Field parameter is an optional variable that specifies the custom field that should be used to match records that already exist in your organization's data. This custom field must be created with the External Id attribute selected. Additionally, if the field does not have the Unique attribute selected, the context user must have the View All object-level permission for the target object or the View All Data permission so that upsert does not accidentally insert a duplicate record. The External_ID_Field is of type Schema.SObjectField, that is, a field token. Find the token for the field by using the fields special method. For example, Schema.SObjectField f = Account.Fields.MyExternalId. If External_ID_Field is not specified, the sObject record's ID field is used by default.

230

Reference

Upsert Operation

Note: Custom field matching is case-insensitive only if the custom field has the Unique and Treat "ABC" and "abc" as duplicate values (case insensitive) attributes selected as part of the field definition. If this is the case, ABC123 is matched with abc123. For more information, see Creating Custom Fields in the Salesforce online help. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

How Upsert Chooses to Insert or Update


Upsert uses the sObject record's primary key (or the external ID, if specified) to determine whether it should create a new object record or update an existing one: If the key is not matched, then a new object record is created. If the key is matched once, then the existing object record is updated. If the key is matched multiple times, then an error is generated and the object record is neither inserted or updated.

Rules and Guidelines


When upserting sObject records, consider the following rules and guidelines: Certain sObjects cannot be inserted or updated. To insert an sObject record, the createable property of the sObject must be set to true. To update an sObject record, the updateable property of the sObject must be set to true. You must supply a non-null value for all required fields on any record that will be inserted. The ID of an sObject record cannot be modified, but related record IDs can. This action is interpreted as an update. The upsert statement automatically modifies the values of certain fields such as LastModifiedDate, LastModifiedById, and SystemModstamp. You cannot explicitly specify these values in your Apex. Each upsert statement consists of two operations, one for inserting records and one for updating records. Each of these operations is subject to the runtime limits for insert and update, respectively. For example, if you upsert more than 10,000 records and all of them are being updated, you receive an error. (See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188) The upsert statement can only set the ID of related sObject records. Fields on related records cannot be modified with upsert. For example, if updating an existing contact, you can specify the contact's related account record by setting the value of the AccountId field. However, you cannot change the account's name without updating the account itself with a separate DML statement. Upsert is not supported with some sObjects. See sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations on page 234. You can use foreign keys to upsert sObject records if they have been set as reference fields. For more information, see http://www.salesforce.com/us/developer/docs/api/index_CSH.htm#field_types.htm in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

UpsertResult Object
An array of Database.UpsertResult objects is returned with the upsert database method. Each element in the UpsertResult array corresponds to the sObject array passed as the sObject[] parameter in the upsert database method, that is, the first element in the UpsertResult array matches the first element passed in the sObject array, the second element corresponds with the second element, and so on. If only one sObject is passed in, the UpsertResults array contains a single element. An UpsertResult object has the following methods: Name
getErrors

Type Database.Error []

Description If an error occurred, an array of one or more database error objects providing the error code and description. For more

231

Reference

Upsert Operation

Name

Type

Description information, see Database Error Object Methods on page 304.

getId

ID

The ID of the sObject you were trying to update or insert. If this field contains a value, the object was successfully updated or inserted. If this field is empty, the operation was not successful for that object. A Boolean value that is set to true if the record was created, false if the record was updated. A Boolean value that is set to true if the DML operation was successful for this object, false otherwise.

isCreated

Boolean

isSuccess

Boolean

DML Statement Examples


The following example updates the city name for all existing accounts located in the city formerly known as Bombay, and also inserts a new account located in San Francisco:
Account[] acctsList = [select id, name, billingcity from account where billingcity = 'Bombay']; for (Account a : acctsList) { a.billingcity = 'Mumbai'; } Account newAcct = new Account(name = 'Acme', billingcity = 'San Francisco'); acctsList.add(newAcct); try { upsert acctsList; } catch (DmlException e) { // Process exception here }

Note: For more information on processing DmlExceptions, see Bulk DML Exception Handling on page 236.

This next example uses upsert and an external ID field Line_Item_Id__c on the Asset object to maintain a one-to-one relationship between an asset and an opportunity line item. Use of upsert with an external ID can reduce the number of DML statements in your code, and help you to avoid hitting governor limits (see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188). Note: This example requires the addition of a custom text field on the Asset object named Line_Item_Id__c. This field must be flagged as an external ID. For information on custom fields, see the Salesforce online help.

public void upsertExample() { Opportunity opp = [Select Id, Name, AccountId, (Select Id, PricebookEntry.Product2Id, PricebookEntry.Name From OpportunityLineItems) From Opportunity Where HasOpportunityLineItem = true Limit 1];

232

Reference

Upsert Operation

Asset[] assets = new Asset[]{}; // Create an asset for each line item on the opportunity for (OpportunityLineItem lineItem:opp.OpportunityLineItems) { //This code populates the line item Id, AccountId, and Product2Id for each asset Asset asset = new Asset(Name = lineItem.PricebookEntry.Name, Line_Item_ID__c = lineItem.Id, AccountId = opp.AccountId, Product2Id = lineItem.PricebookEntry.Product2Id); assets.add(asset); } try { upsert assets Line_Item_ID__c; // // // // This line upserts the assets list with the Line_Item_Id__c field specified as the Asset field that should be used for matching the record that should be upserted.

} catch (DmlException e) { System.debug(e.getMessage()); } }

DML Statement Example


The following is an example that uses the database upsert method:
/* This class demonstrates and tests the use of the * partial processing DML operations */ public class dmlSamples { /* This method accepts a collection of lead records and creates a task for the owner(s) of any leads that were created as new, that is, not updated as a result of the upsert operation */ public static List<Database.upsertResult> upsertLeads(List<Lead> leads) /* Perform the upsert. In this case the unique identifier for the insert or update decision is the Salesforce record ID. If the record ID is null the row will be inserted, otherwise an update will be attempted. */ List<Database.upsertResult> uResults = Database.upsert(leads,false); /* This is the list for new tasks that will be inserted when new leads are created. */ List<Task> tasks = new List<Task>(); for(Database.upsertResult result:uResults) { if (result.isSuccess() && result.isCreated()) tasks.add(new Task(subject = 'Follow-up', whoId = result.getId())); } /* If there are tasks to be inserted, insert them */ Database.insert(tasks); return uResults; } public static testMethod void testUpsertLeads() { /* We only need to test the insert side of upsert */ List<Lead> leads = new List<Lead>(); /* Create a set of leads for testing */ for(Integer i = 0;i < 100; i++) { leads.add(new Lead(lastName = 'testLead', company = 'testCompany'));

233

Reference

sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations

} /* Switch to the runtime limit context */ Test.startTest(); /* Exercise the method */ List<Database.upsertResult> results = DmlSamples.upsertLeads(leads); /* Switch back to the test context for limits */ Test.stopTest(); /* ID set for asserting the tasks were created as expected */ Set<Id> ids = new Set<Id>(); /* Iterate over the results, asserting success and adding the new ID to the set for use in the comprehensive assertion phase below. */ for(Database.upsertResult result:results) { System.assert(result.isSuccess()); ids.add(result.getId()); } /* Assert that exactly one task exists for each lead that was inserted. */ for(Lead l:[select id, (select subject from Tasks) from lead where Id in :ids]) { System.assertEquals(1,l.tasks.size()); } } }

sObjects That Do Not Support DML Operations


DML operations are not supported with the following sObjects in Apex: AccountTerritoryAssignmentRule AccountTerritoryAssignmentRuleItem ApexComponent ApexPage BusinessHours BusinessProcess CategoryNode CurrencyType DatedConversionRate ProcessInstance* Profile RecordType SelfServiceUser* StaticResource UserAccountTeamMember UserTerritory WebLink

* You cannot create, update or delete these sObjects in the Web services API.

234

Reference

sObjects That Cannot Be Used Together in DML Operations

sObjects That Cannot Be Used Together in DML Operations


Some sObjects require that you perform DML operations on only one type per transaction. For example, you cannot insert an account, then insert a user or a group member in a single transaction. The following sObjects cannot be used together in a transaction: Group You can only insert and update a group in a transaction with other sObjects. Other DML operations are not allowed. GroupMember You can only insert and update a group member in a transaction with other sObjects in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 14.0 and earlier. QueueSObject User You can insert a user in a transaction with other sObjects in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 14.0 and earlier. You can insert a user in a transaction with other sObjects in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 15.0 and later if UserRoleId is specified as null. You can update a user in a transaction with other sObjects in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 14.0 and earlier You can update a user in a transaction with other sObjects in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 15.0 and later if the following fields are not also updated:
UserRoleId IsActive ForecastEnabled IsPortalEnabled Username ProfileId

UserRole UserTerritory Territory Custom settings in Apex code that is saved using Salesforce API version 17.0 and earlier.

For these sObjects, there are no restrictions on delete DML operations. Important: The primary exception to this is when you are using the runAs method in a test. For more information, see System Methods on page 313. You can perform DML operations on more than one type of sObject in a single class using the following process: 1. Create a method that performs a DML operation on one type of sObject. 2. Create a second method that uses the future annotation to manipulate a second sObject type. If you are using a Visualforce page with a custom controller, you can only perform DML operations on a single type of sObject within a single request or action. However, you can perform DML operations on different types of sObjects in subsequent requests, for example, you could create an account with a save button, then create a user with a submit button.

235

Reference

Bulk DML Exception Handling

Bulk DML Exception Handling


Exceptions that arise from a bulk DML call (including any recursive DML operations in triggers that are fired as a direct result of the call) are handled differently depending on where the original call came from: When errors occur because of a bulk DML call that originates directly from the Apex DML statements, or if the all_or_none parameter of a database DML method was specified as true, the runtime engine follows the all or nothing rule: during a single operation, all records must be updated successfully or the entire operation rolls back to the point immediately preceding the DML statement. When errors occur because of a bulk DML call that originates from the Web services API, the runtime engine attempts at least a partial save: 1. During the first attempt, the runtime engine processes all records. Any record that generates an error due to issues such as validation rules or unique index violations is set aside. 2. If there were errors during the first attempt, the runtime engine makes a second attempt which includes only those records that did not generate errors. All records that didn't generate an error during the first attempt are processed, and if any record generates an error (perhaps because of race conditions) it is also set aside. 3. If there were additional errors during the second attempt, the runtime engine makes a third and final attempt which includes only those records that did not generate errors during the first and second attempts. If any record generates an error, the entire operation fails with the error message, Too many batch retries in the presence of Apex triggers and partial failures. Note: During the second and third attempts, governor limits are reset to their original state before the first attempt. See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188.

Apex Standard Classes and Methods


Apex provides standard classes that contain both static and instance methods for expressions of primitive data types, as well as more complex objects. Standard static methods are similar to Java and are always of the form:
Class.method(args)

Standard static methods for primitive data types do not have an implicit parameter, and are invoked with no object context. For example, the following expression rounds the value of 1.75 to the nearest Integer without using any other values.
Math.roundToLong(1.75);

All instance methods occur on expressions of a particular data type, such as a list, set, or string. For example:
String s = 'Hello, world'; Integer i = s.length();

Note: If a method is called with an object expression that evaluates to null, the Apex runtime engine throws a null pointer exception.

236

Reference

Primitives Methods

Some classes use a namespace as a grouping mechanism for their methods. For example, the message class uses the ApexPages namespace.
ApexPages.Message myMsg = new ApexPages.Message(ApexPages.FATAL, 'My Error Message');

The Apex standard classes are grouped into the following categories: Primitives Collections Enums sObjects System Exceptions

Primitives Methods
Apex Primitive Methods
Many primitive data types in Apex have methods that can be used to do additional manipulation of the data. The primitives that have methods are: Blob Boolean Date Datetime Decimal Double Long String Time

Blob Methods The following is the system static method for Blob. Name
valueOf

Arguments String S

Return Type Blob

Description Casts the specified String S to a Blob. For example:


String myString = 'StringToBlob'; Blob myBlob = Blob.valueof(myString);

The following are the instance methods for Blob.

237

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
size

Arguments

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the number of characters in the blob. For example:


String myString = 'StringToBlob'; Blob myBlob = Blob.valueof(myString); Integer size = myBlob.size();

toString

String

Casts the blob into a String.

For more information on Blobs, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Boolean Methods The following are the static methods for Boolean. Name
valueOf

Arguments anyType x

Return Type Boolean

Description Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to a Boolean. For more information on the anyType data type, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

For more information on Boolean, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Date Methods The following are the system static methods for Date. Name
daysInMonth

Arguments Integer year Integer month

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the number of days in the month for the specified year and month (1=Jan) The following example finds the number of days in the month of February in the year 1960:
Integer numberDays = date.daysInMonth(1960, 2);

isLeapYear newInstance

Integer year Integer year Integer month Integer date

Boolean Date

Returns true if the specified year is a leap year Constructs a Date from Integer representations of the year, month (1=Jan), and day. The following example creates the date February 17th, 1960:
Date myDate = date.newinstance(1960, 2, 17);

parse

String Date

Date

Constructs a Date from a String. The format of the String depends on the local date format. The following example works in some locales:
date mydate = date.parse('12/27/2009');

238

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
today valueOf

Arguments

Return Type Date

Description Returns the current date in the current user's time zone Returns a Date that contains the value of the specified String. The String should use the standard date format yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss in the local time zone. For example:
string string string string string string string + '-' minute year = '2008'; month = '10'; day = '5'; hour = '12'; minute = '20'; second = '20'; stringDate = year + '-' + month + day + ' ' + hour + ':' + + ':' + second;

String s

Date

Date myDate = date.valueOf(stringDate);

valueOf

anyType x

Date

Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to a Date. For more information on the anyType data type, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.

The following are the instance methods for Date. Name


addDays

Arguments Integer addlDays

Return Type Date

Description Adds the specified number of addlDays to a Date. For example:


date myDate = date.newInstance(1960, 2, 17); date newDate = mydate.addDays(2);

addMonths addYears day dayOfYear daysBetween

Integer addlMonths Date Integer addlYears Date Integer Integer Date compDate Integer

Adds the specified number of addlMonths to a Date Adds the specified number of addlYears to a Date Returns the day-of-month component of a Date. For example, February 5, 1999 would be day 5. Returns the day-of-year component of a Date. For example, February 5, 1999 would be day 36. Returns the number of days between the Date that called the method and the compDate. If the Date that calls the method occurs after the compDate, the return value is negative. For example:
date startDate = date.newInstance(2008, 1, 1); date dueDate = date.newInstance(2008, 1, 30); integer numberDaysDue = startDate.daysBetween(dueDate);

239

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
format isSameDay

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the Date as a string Returns true if the Date that called the method is the same as the compDate. For example:
date myDate = date.today(); date dueDate = date.newInstance(2008, 1, 30); boolean dueNow = myDate.isSameDay(dueDate);

Date compDate

Boolean

month monthsBetween

Integer Date compDate Integer

Returns the month component of a Date (1=Jan) Returns the number of months between the Date that called the method and the compDate, ignoring the difference in dates. For example, March 1 and March 30 of the same year have 0 months between them. Returns the first of the month for the Date that called the method. For example, July 14, 1999 returns July 1, 1999. Returns the start of the week for the Date that called the method, depending on the context user's locale. For example, the start of a week is Sunday in the United States locale, and Monday in European locales. For example:
date myDate = date.today(); date weekStart = myDate.toStartofWeek();

toStartOfMonth

Date

toStartOfWeek

Date

year

Integer

Returns the year component of a Date

For more information on Dates, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Datetime Methods The following are the system static methods for Datetime. Name
newInstance

Arguments Long l

Return Type Datetime

Description Constructs a DateTime and initializes it to represent the specified number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 GMT Constructs a DateTime from the specified date and time in the local time zone. Constructs a Datetime from Integer representations of the year, month (1=Jan), and day at midnight in the local time zone. For example:
datetime myDate = datetime.newInstance(2008, 12, 1);

newInstance

Date Date Time Time

Datetime

newInstance

Integer year Integer month Integer day

Datetime

240

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
newInstance

Arguments Integer year Integer month Integer day Integer hour Integer minute Integer second

Return Type Datetime

Description Constructs a Datetime from Integer representations of the year, month (1=Jan), day, hour, minute, and second in the local time zone. For example:
Datetime myDate = datetime.newInstance(2008, 12, 1, 12, 30, 2);

newInstanceGmt

Date date Time time

Datetime

Constructs a DateTime from the specified date and time in the GMT time zone. Constructs a Datetime from Integer representations of the year, month (1=Jan), and day at midnight in the GMT time zone Constructs a Datetime from Integer representations of the year, month (1=Jan), day, hour, minute, and second in the GMT time zone

newInstanceGmt

Integer year Integer month Integer date

Datetime

newInstanceGmt

Integer year Integer month Integer date Integer hour Integer minute Integer second

Datetime

now

Datetime

Returns the current Datetime based on a GMT calendar. For example:


datetime myDateTime = datetime.now();

The format of the returned datetime is: 'MM/DD/YYYY


HH:MM PERIOD' parse

String datetime

Datetime

Constructs a Datetime from the String datetime in the local time zone and format. The following example works in some locales:
datetime myDateTime = datetime.now(); string mydtstring = mydatetime.format(); system.assertequals('12/27/2009 11:46 AM', mydtstring);

valueOf

String s

Datetime

Returns a Datetime that contains the value of the specified String. The String should use the standard date format yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss in the local time zone. For example:
string string string string string string year = '2008'; month = '10'; day = '5'; hour = '12'; minute = '20'; second = '20';

241

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
string stringDate = year + '-' + month + '-' + day + ' ' + hour + ':' + minute + ':' + second; Datetime myDate = datetime.valueOf(stringDate);

valueOf

anyType x

Datetime

Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to a Datetime. For more information on the anyType data type, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. Returns a Datetime that contains the value of the specified String. The String should use the standard date format yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss in the GMT time zone

valueOfGmt

String s

Datetime

The following are the instance methods for Datetime. Name


addDays

Arguments Integer addlDays

Return Type Datetime

Description Adds the specified number of addlDays to a Datetime. For example:


datetime myDate = datetime.newInstance (1960, 2, 17); datetime newDate = mydate.addDays(2);

addHours addMinutes addMonths addSeconds addYears date dateGMT day

Integer addlHours

Datetime

Adds the specified number of addlHours to a Datetime Adds the specified number of addlMinutes to a Datetime Adds the specified number of addlMonths to a Datetime Adds the specified number of addlSeconds to a Datetime Adds the specified number of addlYears to a Datetime Returns the Date component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user. Return the Date component of a Datetime in the GMT timezone Returns the day-of-month component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user. For example, February 5, 1999 08:30:12 would be day 5. Returns the day-of-month component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone. For example, February 5, 1999 08:30:12 would be day 5.

Integer addlMinutes Datetime Integer addlMonths Datetime

Integer addlSeconds Datetime Integer addlYears Datetime Date Date Integer

dayGmt

Integer

242

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
dayOfYear

Arguments

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the day-of-year component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user. For example, February 5, 2008 08:30:12 would be day 36.
Datetime myDate = datetime.newInstance (2008, 2, 5, 8, 30, 12); system.assertEquals (myDate.dayOfYear(), 36);

dayOfYearGmt

Integer

Returns the day-of-year component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone. For example, February 5, 1999 08:30:12 would be day 36. Returns a Datetime as a string using the local time zone of the current user. If the time zone cannot be determined, GMT is used. Returns a Datetime as a string using the supplied Java simple date format and the local time zone of the current user. If the time zone cannot be determined, GMT is used. For example:
datetime myDT = Datetime.now(); String myDate = myDT.format('h:mm a');

format

String

format

String dateFormat

String

For more information on the Java simple date format, see


ht:/aasncmjs/../osaijv/etSmlDtFra.tl tp/jv.u.o/2e142dc/p/aatx/ipeaeomthm. format

String dateFormat String timezone

String

Returns a Datetime as a string using the supplied Java simple date format and time zone. If the supplied time zone is not in the correct format, GMT is used. For more information on the Java simple date format, see
ht:/aasncmjs/../osaijv/etSmlDtFra.tl tp/jv.u.o/2e142dc/p/aatx/ipeaeomthm.

formatGmt

StringdateFormat

String

Returns a Datetime as a string using the supplied Java simple date format and the GMT time zone. For more information on the Java simple date format, see
ht:/aasncmjs/../osaijv/etSmlDtFra.tl tp/jv.u.o/2e142dc/p/aatx/ipeaeomthm.

formatLong getTime hour hourGmt

String Long Integer Integer

Returns a Datetime using the local time zone of the current user, including seconds and time zone Returns the number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 GMT represented by this DateTime object Returns the hour component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user Returns the hour component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone

243

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
isSameDay

Arguments Datetime compDt

Return Type Boolean

Description Returns true if the Datetime that called the method is the same as the compDt in the local time zone of the context user. For example:
datetime myDate = datetime.now(); datetime dueDate = datetime.newInstance(2008, 1, 30); boolean dueNow = myDate.isSameDay(dueDate);

millisecond millisecondGmt minute minuteGmt month monthGmt second secondGmt time timeGmt year yearGmt

Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Time Time Integer Integer

Return the millisecond component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user. Return the millisecond component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone. Returns the minute component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user Returns the minute component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone Returns the month component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user (1=Jan) Returns the month component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone (1=Jan) Returns the second component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user Returns the second component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone Returns the time component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user Returns the time component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone Returns the year component of a Datetime in the local time zone of the context user Returns the year component of a Datetime in the GMT time zone

For more information about the Datetime, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Decimal Methods The following are the system static methods for Decimal. Name
valueOf

Arguments Double d

Return Type Decimal

Description Returns a Decimal that contains the value of the specified Double.

244

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
valueOf valueOf

Arguments Long l String s

Return Type Decimal Decimal

Description Returns a Decimal that contains the value of the specified Long. Returns a Decimal that contains the value of the specified String. As in Java, the string is interpreted as representing a signed Decimal. For example:
String temp = '12.4567'; Decimal myDecimal = decimal.valueOf(temp);

The following are the instance methods for Decimal. Name


abs divide

Arguments

Return Type Decimal

Description Returns the absolute value of the Decimal. Divides this Decimal by divisor, and sets the scale, that is, the number of decimal places, of the result using scale. In the following example, D has the value of 0.190:
Decimal D = 19; D.Divide(100, 3);

Decimal divisor, Integer scale

Decimal

divide

Decimal divisor, Integer scale, Object


roundingMode

Decimal

Divides this Decimal by divisor, sets the scale, that is, the number of decimal places, of the result using scale, and if necessary, rounds the value using roundingMode. For more information about the valid values for roundingMode, see Rounding Mode on page 247. For example:
Decimal myDecimal = 12.4567; Decimal divDec = myDecimal.divide (7, 2, System.RoundingMode.UP); system.assertEquals(divDec, 1.78);

doubleValue format intValue longValue pow

Double String Integer Long Integer exponent Decimal

Returns the Double value of this Decimal. Returns the String value of this Decimal, using scientific notation if an exponent is needed. Returns the Integer value of this Decimal. Returns the Long value of this Decimal. Returns the value of this decimal raised to the power of exponent. The value of exponent must be between 0 and 32,767. For example:
Decimal myDecimal = 4.12; Decimal powDec = myDecimal.pow(2); system.assertEquals(powDec, 16.9744);

245

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description If you use MyDecimal.pow(0), 1 is returned. The Math method pow does accept negative values.

precision

Integer

Returns the total number of digits for the Decimal. For example, if the Decimal value was 123.45, precision returns 5. If the Decimal value is 123.123, precision returns 6. For example:
Decimal D1 = 123.45; Integer precision1 = D1.precision(); system.assertEquals(precision1, 5); Decimal D2 = 123.123; Integer precision2 = D2.precision(); system.assertEquals(precision2, 6);

round

Long

Returns the rounded approximation of this Decimal. The number is rounded to zero decimal places using half-even rounding mode, that is, it rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case, this mode rounds towards the even neighbor. Note that this rounding mode statistically minimizes cumulative error when applied repeatedly over a sequence of calculations. For more information about half-even rounding mode, see Rounding Mode on page 247. For example:
Decimal D1 = 5.5; Long L1 = D1.round(); system.assertEquals(L1, 6); Decimal D2= 5.2; Long L2= D2.round(); system.assertEquals(L2, 5); Decimal D3= -5.7; Long L3= D3.round(); system.assertEquals(L3, -6);

round

System.RoundingMode Long
roundingMode

Returns the rounded approximation of this Decimal. The number is rounded to zero decimal places using the rounding mode specified by roundingMode. For more information about the valid values for roundingMode, see Rounding Mode on page 247. Returns the scale of the Decimal, that is, the number of decimal places. Sets the scale of the Decimal to the given number of decimal places, using half-even rounding, if necessary. Half-even rounding mode rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case, this mode rounds towards the even neighbor. For more information about half-even rounding mode, see

scale setScale

Integer Integer scale Decimal

246

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description Rounding Mode on page 247. The value of scale must be between 33 and 33. If you do not explicitly set the scale for a Decimal, the scale is determined by the item from which the Decimal is created: If the Decimal is created as part of a query, the scale is based on the scale of the field returned from the query. If the Decimal is created from a String, the scale is the number of characters after the decimal point of the String. If the Decimal is created from a non-decimal number, the scale is determined by converting the number to a String and then using the number of characters after the decimal point.

setScale

Integer scale, Decimal System.RoundingMode


roundingMode

Sets the scale of the Decimal to the given number of decimal places, using the rounding mode specified by roundingMode , if necessary. For more information about the valid values for roundingMode, see Rounding Mode on page 247.The value of scale must be between -32,768 and 32,767. If you do not explicitly set the scale for a Decimal, the scale is determined by the item from which the Decimal is created: If the Decimal is created as part of a query, the scale is based on the scale of the field returned from the query. If the Decimal is created from a String, the scale is the number of characters after the decimal point of the String. If the Decimal is created from a non-decimal number, the scale is determined by converting the number to a String and then using the number of characters after the decimal point.

stripTrailingZeros toPlainString

Decimal String

Returns the Decimal with any trailing zeros removed. Returns the String value of this Decimal, without using scientific notation.

For more information on Decimal, see Primitive Data Types on page 28.

Rounding Mode
Rounding mode specifies the rounding behavior for numerical operations capable of discarding precision. Each rounding mode indicates how the least significant returned digit of a rounded result is to be calculated. The following are the valid values for roundingMode.

247

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
CEILING

Description Rounds towards positive infinity. That is, if the result is positive, this mode behaves the same as the UP rounding mode; if the result is negative, it behaves the same as the DOWN rounding mode. Note that this rounding mode never decreases the calculated value. For example: Input number 5.5: CEILING round mode result: 6 Input number 1.1: CEILING round mode result: 2 Input number -1.1: CEILING round mode result: -1 Input number -2.7: CEILING round mode result: -2 Rounds towards zero. This rounding mode always discards any fractions (decimal points) prior to executing. Note that this rounding mode never increases the magnitude of the calculated value. For example: Input number 5.5: DOWN round mode result: 5 Input number 1.1: DOWN round mode result: 1 Input number -1.1: DOWN round mode result: -1 Input number -2.7: DOWN round mode result: -2 Rounds towards negative infinity. That is, if the result is positive, this mode behaves the same as theDOWN rounding mode; if negative, this mode behaves the same as the UP rounding mode. Note that this rounding mode never increases the calculated value. For example: Input number 5.5: FLOOR round mode result: 5 Input number 1.1: FLOOR round mode result: 1 Input number -1.1: FLOOR round mode result: -2 Input number -2.7: FLOOR round mode result: -3 Rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case this mode rounds down. This rounding mode behaves the same as the UP rounding mode if the discarded fraction (decimal point) is > 0.5; otherwise, it behaves the same as DOWN rounding mode. For example: Input number 5.5: HALF_DOWN round mode result: 5 Input number 1.1: HALF_DOWN round mode result: 1 Input number -1.1: HALF_DOWN round mode result: -1 Input number -2.7: HALF_DOWN round mode result: -2 Rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case, this mode rounds towards the even neighbor. This rounding mode behaves the same as the HALF_UP rounding mode if the digit to the left of the discarded fraction (decimal point) is odd. It behaves the same as the HALF_DOWN rounding method if it is even. For example: Input number 5.5: HALF_EVEN round mode result: 6 Input number 1.1: HALF_EVEN round mode result: 1 Input number -1.1: HALF_EVEN round mode result: -1 Input number -2.7: HALF_EVEN round mode result: -3 Note that this rounding mode statistically minimizes cumulative error when applied repeatedly over a sequence of calculations.

DOWN

FLOOR

HALF_DOWN

HALF_EVEN

248

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
HALF_UP

Description Rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case, this mode rounds up. This rounding method behaves the same as the UP rounding method if the discarded fraction (decimal point) is >= 0.5; otherwise, this rounding method behaves the same as the DOWN rounding method. For example: Input number 5.5: HALF_UP round mode result: 6 Input number 1.1: HALF_UP round mode result: 1 Input number -1.1: HALF_UP round mode result: -1 Input number -2.7: HALF_UP round mode result: -3 Asserts that the requested operation has an exact result, which means that no rounding is necessary. If this rounding mode is specified on an operation that yields an inexact result, an Exception is thrown. For example: Input number 5.5: UNNECESSARY round mode result: Exception Input number 1.0: UNNECESSARY round mode result: 1 Rounds away from zero. This rounding mode always truncates any fractions (decimal points) prior to executing. Note that this rounding mode never decreases the magnitude of the calculated value. For example: Input number 5.5: UP round mode result: 6 Input number 1.1: UP round mode result: 2 Input number -1.1: UP round mode result: -2 Input number -2.7: UP round mode result: -3

UNNECESSARY

UP

Double Methods The following are the system static methods for Double. Name
valueOf

Arguments anyType x

Return Type Double

Description Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to a Double. For more information on the anyType data type, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. Returns a Double that contains the value of the specified String. As in Java, the String is interpreted as representing a signed decimal. For example:
Double DD1 = double.valueOf('3.14159');

valueOf

String s

Double

The following are the instance methods for Double. Name


format

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the String value for this Double

249

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
intValue

Arguments

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the Integer value of this Double by casting it to an Integer. For example:
Double DD1 = double.valueOf('3.14159'); Integer value = DD1.intValue(); system.assertEquals(value, 3);

longValue round

Long Long

Returns the Long value of this Double Returns the rounded value of this Double. The number is rounded to zero decimal places using half-even rounding mode, that is, it rounds towards the nearest neighbor unless both neighbors are equidistant, in which case, this mode rounds towards the even neighbor. Note that this rounding mode statistically minimizes cumulative error when applied repeatedly over a sequence of calculations. For more information about half-even rounding mode, see Rounding Mode on page 247. For example:
Double D1 = 5.5; Long L1 = D1.round(); system.assertEquals(L1, 6); Double D2= 5.2; Long L2= D2.round(); system.assertEquals(L2, 5); Double D3= -5.7; Long L3= D3.round(); system.assertEquals(L3, -6);

For more information on Double, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Integer Methods The following are the system static methods for Integer. Name
valueOf

Arguments anyType x

Return Type Integer

Description Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to an Integer. For more information on the anyType data type, see File Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. Returns an Integer that contains the value of the specified String. As in Java, the String is interpreted as representing a signed decimal integer. For example:
Integer myInt = integer.valueOf('123');

valueOf

String s

Integer

The following are the instance methods for Integer.

250

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
format

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the integer as a string

For more information on integers, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. Long Methods The following are the system static methods for Long. Name
valueOf

Arguments String s

Return Type Long

Description Returns a Long that contains the value of the specified String. As in Java, the string is interpreted as representing a signed decimal Long. For example:
Long L1 = long.valueOf('123456789');

The following are the instant method for Long. Name


format intValue

Arguments

Return Type String Integer

Description Returns the String format for this Long Returns the Integer value for this Long.

For more information on Long, see Primitive Data Types on page 28. String Methods The following are the system static methods for String. Name Arguments Return Type String Description Returns a String with the escape character (\) added before any single quotation marks in the String s. This method is useful when creating a dynamic SOQL statement, to help prevent SOQL injection. For more information on dynamic SOQL, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151. See also Splitting String Example on page 256. Treat the current string as a pattern that should be used for substitution in the same manner as apex:outputText.

escapeSingleQuotes String s

format

String s List<String>
arguments

String

fromCharArray valueOf

List<Integer>
charArray

String String

Returns a String from the values of the list of integers. Returns a String that represents the specified Date in the standard yyyy-MM-dd format. For example:
Date myDate = Date.Today(); String sDate = String.valueOf(myDate);

Date d

251

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
valueOf

Arguments Datetime dt

Return Type String

Description Returns a String that represents the specified Datetime in the standard yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss format for the local time zone Returns a String that represents the specified Decimal. Casts x, a history tracking table field of type anyType, to a String. For example:
Double myDouble = 12.34; String myString = String.valueOf(myDouble); System.assertEquals('12.34', myString);

valueOf valueOf

Decimal d anyType x*

String String

For more information on the anyType data type, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide.
valueOfGmt

Datetime dt

String

Returns a String that represents the specified Datetime in the standard yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss format for the GMT time zone

The following are the instance methods for String. Name


compareTo

Arguments

Return Type

Description Compares two strings lexicographically, based on the Unicode value of each character in the Strings. The result is: A negative Integer if the String that called the method lexicographically precedes compString A positive Integer if the String that called the method lexicographically follows compString Zero if the Strings are equal If there is no index position at which the Strings differ, then the shorter String lexicographically precedes the longer String. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcde'; String myString2 = 'abcd'; Integer result = myString1.compareTo(myString2); System.assertEquals(result, 1);

String compString Integer

Note that this method returns 0 whenever the equals method returns true.
contains

String compString Boolean

Returns true if and only if the String that called the method contains the specified sequence of characters in the compString. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcde'; String myString2 = 'abcd'; Boolean result =

252

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
myString1.contains(myString2); System.assertEquals(result, true);

endsWith equals

String suffix

Boolean

Returns true if the String that called the method ends with the specified suffix Returns true if the compString is not null and represents the same binary sequence of characters as the String that called the method. This method is true whenever the compareTo method returns 0. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcde'; String myString2 = 'abcd'; Boolean result = myString1.equals(myString2); System.assertEquals(result, false);

String compString Boolean

Note that the == operator also performs String comparison, but is case-insensitive to match Apex semantics. (== is case-sensitive for ID comparison for the same reason.)
equalsIgnoreCase String compString Boolean

Returns true if the compString is not null and represents the same sequence of characters as the String that called the method, ignoring case. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcd'; String myString2 = 'ABCD'; Boolean result = myString1.equalsIgnoreCase(myString2); System.assertEquals(result, true);

indexOf

String subString

Integer

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified substring. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1. Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified substring from the point of index i. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcd'; String myString2 = 'bc'; Integer result = myString1.indexOf(myString2, 0); System.assertEquals(result, 1);

indexOf

String substring Integer i

Integer

lastIndexOf

String substring

Integer

Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified substring. If the substring does not occur, this method returns -1.

253

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name
length

Arguments

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the number of 16-bit Unicode characters contained in the String. For example:
String myString = 'abcd'; Integer result = myString.length(); System.assertEquals(result, 4);

replace

String target String replacement

String

Replaces each substring of a string that matches the literal target sequence target with the specified literal replacement sequence replacement Replaces each substring of a string that matches the regular expression regExp with the replacement sequence replacement. See
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/ api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html for

replaceAll

String regExp String replacement

String

information on regular expressions.


replaceFirst

String regExp String replacement

String

Replaces the first substring of a string that matches the regular expression regExp with the replacement sequence replacement. See
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/ api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html for

information on regular expressions.


split

String regExp Integer limit

String[]

Returns a list that contains each substring of the String that is terminated by the regular expression regExp, or the end of the String. See
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/ api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html for

information on regular expressions. The substrings are placed in the list in the order in which they occur in the String. If regExp does not match any part of the String, the resulting list has just one element containing the original String. The optional limit parameter controls the number of times the pattern is applied and therefore affects the length of the list: If limit is greater than zero, the pattern is applied at most limit - 1 times, the list's length is no greater than limit, and the list's last entry contains all input beyond the last matched delimiter. If limit is non-positive then the pattern is applied as many times as possible and the list can have any length. If limit is zero then the pattern is applied as many times as possible, the list can have any length, and trailing empty strings are discarded.

For example, for String s = 'boo:and:foo':

254

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
s.split(':', 2) results in {'boo', 'and:foo'} s.split(':', 5) results in {'boo', 'and', 'foo'} s.split(':', -2) results in {'boo', 'and', 'foo'} s.split('o', 5) results in {'b', '', ':and:f', '', ''} s.split('o', -2) results in {'b', '', ':and:f', '', ''} s.split('o', 0) results in {'b', '', ':and:f'}

See also Splitting String Example on page 256.


startsWith substring

String prefix

Boolean

Returns true if the String that called the method begins with the specified prefix Returns a new String that begins with the character at the specified startIndex and extends to the end of the String Returns a new String that begins with the character at the specified startIndex and extends to the character at endIndex - 1. For example:
'hamburger'.substring(4, 8); // Returns "urge" 'smiles'.substring(1, 5); // Returns "mile"

Integer startIndex String

substring

Integer startIndex, String Integer endIndex

toLowerCase toLowerCase toUpperCase

String String locale String String

Converts all of the characters in the String to lowercase using the rules of the default locale Converts all of the characters in the String to lowercase using the rules of the specified locale Converts all of the characters in the String to uppercase using the rules of the default locale. For example:
String myString1 = 'abcd'; String myString2 = 'ABCD'; myString1 = myString1.toUpperCase(); Boolean result = myString1.equals(myString2); System.assertEquals(result, true);

toUpperCase trim

String locale

String String

Converts all of the characters in the String to the uppercase using the rules of the specified locale Returns a String that no longer contains any white space characters, including leading and trailing spaces, tabs, newline characters, and so on

255

Reference

Apex Primitive Methods

For more information on Strings, see Primitive Data Types on page 28.

Splitting String Example


In the following example, a string is split, using a backslash as a delimiter:
public String removePath(String filename) { if (filename == null) return null; List<String> parts = filename.split('\\\\'); filename = parts[parts.size()-1]; return filename; } static testMethod void testRemovePath() { System.assertEquals('PPDSF100111.csv', EmailUtilities.getInstance(). removePath('e:\\processed\\PPDSF100111.csv')); }

Time Methods The following are the system static methods for Time. Name
newInstance

Arguments Integer hour Integer minutes Integer seconds Integer


milliseconds

Return Type Time

Description Constructs a Time from Integer representations of the hour, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds. The following example creates a time of 18:20:2:20:
Time myTime = Time.newInstance(18, 30, 2, 20);

The following are the instance methods for Time. Name


addHours

Arguments Integer addlHours

Return Type Time

Description Adds the specified number of addlHours to a Time Adds the specified number of addlMilliseconds to a Time Adds the specified number of addlMinutes to a Time. For example:
Time myTime = Time.newInstance(18, 30, 2, 20); Integer myMinutes = myTime.minute(); myMinutes = myMinutes + 5; System.assertEquals(myMinutes, 35);

addMilliseconds Integer Time addlMilliseconds addMinutes

Integer
addlMinutes

Time

addSeconds

Integer
addlSeconds

Time

Adds the specified number of addlSeconds to a Time

256

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
hour

Arguments

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the hour component of a Time. For example:


Time myTime = Time.newInstance(18, 30, 2, 20); myTime = myTime.addHours(2); Integer myHour = myTime.hour(); System.assertEquals(myHour, 20);

millisecond minute second

Integer Integer Integer

Returns the millisecond component of a Time Returns the minute component of a Time Returns the second component of a Time

For more information on time, see Primitive Data Types on page 28.

Apex Collection Methods


Apex Collection Methods
All the collections in Apex have methods associated with them for assigning, retrieving, and manipulating the data. The collection methods are: List Map Set Note: There is no limit on the number of items a collection can hold. However, there is a general limit on heap size.

List Methods The list methods are all instance methods, that is, they operate on a particular instance of a list. For example, the following removes all elements from myList:
myList.clear();

Even though the clear method does not include any parameters, the list that calls it is its implicit parameter. The following are the instance parameters for List. Note: In the table below, List_elem represents a single element of the same type as the list.

257

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
add

Arguments Any typee

Return Type Void

Description Adds an element e to the end of the list. For example:


List<Integer> myList = new List<Integer>(); myList.add(47); Integer myNumber = myList.get(0); system.assertEquals(myNumber, 47);

add

Integer i Any type e

Void

Inserts an element e into the list at index position i. In the following example, a list with six elements is created, and integers are added to the first and second index positions.
List<Integer> myList = new Integer[6]; myList.add(0, 47); myList.add(1, 52); system.assertEquals(myList.get(1), 52);

addAll addAll

List l Set s

Void Void

Adds all of the elements in list l to the list that calls the method. Note that both lists must be of the same type. Add all of the elements in set s to the list that calls the method. Note that the set and the list must be of the same type. Removes all elements from a list, consequently setting the list's length to zero Makes a duplicate copy of a list. Note that if this is a list of sObject records, the duplicate list will only be a shallow copy of the list. That is, the duplicate will have references to each object, but the sObject records themselves will not be duplicated. For example:
Account a = new Account(name='Acme', billingcity='New York'); Account b = new Account(); Account[] l1 = new Account[]{a,b}; Account[] l2 = l1.clone(); l1[0].billingcity = 'San Francisco'; System.assertEquals( l1[0].billingcity, 'San Francisco'); System.assertEquals( l2[0].billingcity, 'San Francisco');

clear clone

Void List (of same type)

To also copy the sObject records, you must use the deepClone method.

258

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
deepClone

Arguments Boolean
opt_preserve_id

Return Type List (of same object type)

Description Makes a duplicate copy of a list of sObject records, including the sObject records themselves. For example:
Account a = new Account(name='Acme', billingcity='New York'); Account b = new Account(); Account[] l1 = new Account[]{a,b}; Account[] l2 = l1.deepClone(); l1[0].billingcity = 'San Francisco'; System.assertEquals( l1[0].billingcity, 'San Francisco'); System.assertEquals( l2[0].billingcity, 'New York');

Note: deepClone only works with lists of sObjects, not with lists of primitives. The optional opt_preserve_id argument determines whether the ID of the original objects are preserved or cleared in the duplicates. To make a shallow copy of a list without duplicating the sObject records it contains, use the clone() method.
get

Integer i

Array_elem

Returns the list element stored at index i. For example,


List<Integer> myList = new List<Integer>(); myList.add(47); Integer myNumber = myList.get(0); system.assertEquals(myNumber, 47);

To reference an element of a one-dimensional list of primitives or sObjects, you can also follow the name of the list with the element's index position in square brackets. For example:
List<String> colors = new String[3]; colors[0] = 'Red'; colors[1] = 'Blue'; colors[2] = 'Green';

getSObjectType

Schema.SObjectType Returns the token of the sObject type that makes up a list of sObjects. Use this with describe information to determine if a list contains sObjects of a particular type. For example:
public class listTest { { // Create a generic sObject variable s SObject s = Database.query ('SELECT Id FROM Account LIMIT 1'); // Verify if that sObject variable is

259

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
// an Account token System.assertEquals(s.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); // Create a list of generic sObjects List<sObject> l = new Account[]{}; // Verify if the list of sObjects // contains Account tokens System.assertEquals(l.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); } }

Note that this method can only be used with lists that are composed of sObjects. For more information, see Understanding Apex Describe Information on page 143.
isEmpty iterator

Boolean Iterator

Returns true if the list has zero elements Returns an instance of an iterator. From the iterator, you can use the iterable methods hasNext and next to iterate through the list. For example:
global class CustomIterable implements Iterator<Account>{ List<Account> accs {get; set;} Integer i {get; set;} public CustomIterable(){ accs = [SELECT id, name, numberofEmployees FROM Account WHERE name = 'false']; i = 0; } global boolean hasNext(){ if(i >= accs.size()) return false; else return true; } global Account next(){ if(i == 8){ i++; return null;} i=i+1; return accs[i-1]; } }

Note: You do not have to implement the iterable interface to use the iterable methods with a list.

260

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
remove

Arguments Integer i

Return Type
Array_elem

Description Removes the element that was stored at the ith index of a list, returning the element that was removed. For example:
List<String> colors = new String[3]; colors[0] = 'Red'; colors[1] = 'Blue'; colors[2] = 'Green'; String S1 = colors.remove(2); system.assertEquals(S1, 'Green');

set

Integer i Any typee

Void

Assigns e to the position at list index i. For example:


List<Integer> myList = new Integer[6]; myList.set(0, 47); myList.set(1, 52); system.assertEquals(myList.get(1), 52);

To set an element of a one-dimensional list of primitives or sObjects, you can also follow the name of the list with the element's index position in square brackets. For example:
List<String> colors = new String[3]; colors[0] = 'Red'; colors[1] = 'Blue'; colors[2] = 'Green';

size

Integer

Returns the number of elements in the list. For example:


List<Integer> myList = new List<Integer>(); Integer size = myList.size(); system.assertEquals(size, 0); List<Integer> myList2 = new Integer[6]; Integer size2 = myList2.size(); system.assertEquals(size2, 6);

sort

Void

Sorts the items in the list in ascending order. You can only use this method with lists composed of primitive data types. In the following example, the list has three elements. When the list is sorted, the first element is null because it has no value assigned while the second element has the value of 5:
List<Integer> L1 = new Integer[3]; // Assign values to the first // two elements L1[0] = 10; L1[1] = 5; L1.sort(); // First element is null, second is 5 system.assertEquals(L1.get(1), 5);

261

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

For more information on lists, see Lists on page 34. Map Methods The map methods are all instance methods, that is, they operate on a particular instance of a map. The following are the instance methods for maps. Note: In the table below:
Key_type represents the primitive type of a map key. Value_type represents the primitive or sObject type of a map

value. Name
clear clone

Arguments

Return Type Void

Description Removes all of the key-value mappings from the map

Map (of same type) Makes a duplicate copy of the map. Note that if this is a map with sObject record values, the duplicate map will only be a shallow copy of the map. That is, the duplicate will have references to each sObject record, but the records themselves are not duplicated. For example:
Account a = new Account(name='Acme', billingcity='New York'); Map<Integer, Account> map1 = new Map<Integer, Account> {}; map1.put(1, a); Map<Integer, Account> map2 = map1.clone(); map1.get(1).billingcity = 'San Francisco'; System.assertEquals(map1.get(1).billingcity, 'San Francisco'); System.assertEquals(map2.get(1).billingcity, 'San Francisco');

To also copy the sObject records, you must use the deepClone method.
containsKey

Key type key

Boolean

Returns true if the map contains a mapping for the specified key. For example:
Map<string, string> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); Boolean contains = colorCodes.containsKey('Blue'); System.assertEquals(contains, True);

262

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
deepClone

Arguments

Return Type Map (of the same type)

Description Makes a duplicate copy of a map, including sObject records if this is a map with sObject record values. For example:
Account a = new Account(name='Acme', billingcity='New York'); Map<Integer, Account> map1 = new Map<Integer, Account> {}; map1.put(1, a); Map<Integer, Account> map2 = map1.deepClone(); map1.get(1).billingcity = 'San Francisco'; System.assertEquals(map1.get(1). billingcity, 'San Francisco'); System.assertEquals(map2.get(1). billingcity, 'New York');

To make a shallow copy of a map without duplicating the sObject records it contains, use the clone() method.
get

Key type key

Value_type

Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped, or null if the map contains no value for this key. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); String code = colorCodes.get('Blue'); System.assertEquals(code, '0000A0'); // The following is not a color // in the map String code2 = colorCodes.get('Magenta'); System.assertEquals(code2, null);

getSObjectType

Schema.SObjectType Returns the token of the sObject type that makes up the map values. Use this with describe information, to determine if a map contains sObjects of a particular type. For example:
public class mapTest { { // Create a generic sObject variable s SObject s = Database.query ('SELECT Id FROM Account LIMIT 1'); // Verify if that sObject variable // is an Account token System.assertEquals(s.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); // Create a map of generic sObjects Map<Integer, Account> M = new Map<Integer, Account>(); // Verify if the list of sObjects // contains Account tokens

263

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
System.assertEquals(M.getSObjectType(), Account.sObjectType); } }

Note that this method can only be used with maps that have sObject values. For more information, see Understanding Apex Describe Information on page 143.
isEmpty

Boolean

Returns true if the map has zero key-value pairs. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); Boolean empty = colorCodes.isEmpty(); system.assertEquals(empty, true);

keySet

Set of Key_type

Returns a set that contains all of the keys in the map. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); Set <String> colorSet = new Set<String>(); colorSet = colorCodes.keySet();

put

Key key, Value value

Value_type

Associates the specified value with the specified key in the map. If the map previously contained a mapping for this key, the old value is returned by the method and then replaced. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'ff0000'); colorCodes.put('Red', '#FF0000'); // Red is now #FF0000

putAll

Map m

Void

Copies all of the mappings from the specified map m to the original map. The new mappings from m replace any mappings that the original map had. If the map is of IDs or Strings to sObjects, adds the list of sObject records l to the map in the same way as the Map constructor with this input.

putAll

sObject[] l

remove

Key key

Value_type

Removes the mapping for this key from the map if it is present. The value is returned by the method and then removed. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); String myColor = colorCodes.remove('Blue'); String code2 =

264

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
colorCodes.get('Blue'); System.assertEquals(code2, null);

size

Integer

Returns the number of key-value pairs in the map. For example:


Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); Integer mSize = colorCodes.size(); system.assertEquals(mSize, 2);

values

list of Value_type Returns a list that contains all of the values in the map in arbitrary order. For example:
Map<String, String> colorCodes = new Map<String, String>(); colorCodes.put('Red', 'FF0000'); colorCodes.put('Blue', '0000A0'); List<String> colors = new List<String>(); colors = colorCodes.values();

For more information on maps, see Maps on page 37. Set Methods The set methods work on a set, that is, an unordered collection of primitives or sObjects that was initialized using the set keyword. The set methods are all instance methods, that is, they all operate on a particular instance of a set. The following are the instance methods for sets. Note: In the table below, Set_elem represents a single element in the set.

Name
add

Arguments Set element e

Return Type Boolean

Description Adds an element to the set if it is not already present. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call. For example:
set<string> myString = new Set<String>{'a', 'b', 'c'}; Boolean result; result = myString.add('d'); system.assertEquals(result, true);

addAll

List l

Boolean

Adds all of the elements in the specified list to the set if they are not already present. This method results in the union of the list and the set. The list must be of the same type as the set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call.

265

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
addAll

Arguments Set s

Return Type Boolean

Description Adds all of the elements in the specified set to the set that calls the method if they are not already present. This method results in the union of the two sets. The specified set must be of the same type as the original set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call. For example:
set<string> myString = new Set<String>{'a', 'b'}; set<string> sString = new Set<String>{'c'}; Boolean result1; result1 = myString.addAll(sString); system.assertEquals(result1, true);

clear clone contains

Void Set (of same type) Set element e Boolean

Removes all of the elements from the set Makes a duplicate copy of the set Returns true if the set contains the specified element. For example:
set<string> myString = new Set<String>{'a', 'b'}; Boolean result; result = myString.contains('z'); system.assertEquals(result, false);

containsAll

List l

Boolean

Returns true if the set contains all of the elements in the specified list. The list must be of the same type as the set that calls the method. Returns true if the set contains all of the elements in the specified set. The specified set must be of the same type as the original set that calls the method. For example:
set<string> myString = new Set<String>{'a', 'b'}; set<string> sString = new Set<String>{'c'}; set<string> rString = new Set<String>{'a', 'b', 'c'}; Boolean result1, result2; result1 = myString.addAll(sString); system.assertEquals(result1, true); result2 = myString.containsAll(rString); system.assertEquals(result2, true);

containsAll

Set s

Boolean

266

Reference

Apex Collection Methods

Name
isEmpty

Arguments

Return Type Boolean

Description Returns true if the set has zero elements. For example:
Set<integer> mySet = new Set<integer>(); Boolean result; result = mySet.isEmpty(); system.assertEquals(result, true);

remove

Set Elemente

Boolean

Removes the specified element from the set if it is present. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call.

removeAll

List l

Boolean

Removes the elements in the specified list from the set if they are present. This method results in the relative compliment of the two sets. The list must be of the same type as the set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call. For example:
Set<integer> mySet = new Set<integer>{1, 2, 3}; List<integer> myList = new List<integer>{1, 3}; Boolean result = mySet.removeAll(myList); System.assertEquals(result, true); Integer result2 = mySet.size(); System.assertEquals(result2, 1);

removeAll

Set s

Boolean

Removes the elements in the specified set from the original set if they are present. This method results in the relative compliment of the two sets. The specified set must be of the same type as the original set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call.

retainAll

List l

Boolean

Retains only the elements in this set that are contained in the specified list. This method results in the intersection of the list and the set. The list must be of the same type as the set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call. For example:
Set<integer> mySet = new Set<integer>{1, 2, 3}; List<integer> myList = new List<integer>{1, 3}; Boolean result = mySet.retainAll(myList);

267

Reference

Enum Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description
System.assertEquals(result, true);

retainAll

Set s

Boolean

Retains only the elements in the original set that are contained in the specified set. This method results in the intersection of the two sets. The specified set must be of the same type as the original set that calls the method. This method returns true if the original set changed as a result of the call.

size

Integer

Returns the number of elements in the set (its cardinality). For example:
Set<integer> mySet = new Set<integer>{1, 2, 3}; List<integer> myList = new List<integer>{1, 3}; Boolean result = mySet.retainAll(myList); System.assertEquals(result, true); Integer result2 = mySet.size(); System.assertEquals(result2, 2);

For more information on sets, see Sets on page 36.

Enum Methods
Although Enum values cannot have user-defined methods added to them, all Enum values, including system Enum values, have the following methods defined in Apex: Name
name ordinal

Return Type String Integer

Description Returns the name of the Enum item as a String. Returns the position of the item in the list of Enum values, starting with zero.

In addition, Enum has the following method. Name


values

Return Type List<Enum type>

Description Returns the values of the Enum as a list of the same Enum type.

For example:
Integer i = StatusCode.DELETE_FAILED.ordinal(); String s = StatusCode.DELETE_FAILED.name();

268

Reference

sObject Methods

List<StatusCode> values = StatusCode.values();

For more information about Enum, see Enums on page 39.

sObject Methods
Apex sObject Methods
The term sObject refers to any object that can be stored in the Salesforce platform database. The following Apex sObject methods include methods that can be used with every sObject, as well as more general classes used to describe sObject structures: Schema sObject sObject Describe Results Field Describe Results Custom Settings

Schema Methods The following table lists the system methods for Schema. Name
getGlobalDescribe

Arguments

Return Type Map<String, Schema.SObjectType>

Description Returns a map of all sObject names (keys) to sObject tokens (values) for the standard and custom objects defined in your organization. For example:
Map<String, Schema.SObjectType> gd = Schema.getGlobalDescribe();

For more information, see Accessing All sObjects on page 146.


describeDataCategoryGroups String

List<Schema.Describe List<sObjectNames> DataCategoryGroupResult>

Returns a list of the category groups associated with the specified objects. You can specify one of the following sObjectNames: KnowledgeArticleVersionto retrieve category groups associated with article types. Questionto retrieve category groups associated with questions.

269

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description For more information and code examples using describeDataCategoryGroups, see Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject. For additional information about articles and questions, see Managing Articles and Translations in the Salesforce online help and Answers Overview in the Salesforce online help in the Salesforce online help.

describeDataCategoryGroupStructures pairs,

List<Schema.Describe Returns available category topCategoriesOnly DataCategoryGroupStructureResult> groups along with their data category structure for objects specified in the request. For additional information and code examples using describeDataCategoryGroupStructures, see Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject.

Describe Data Category Group Structure Arguments


The describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method returns the available category groups along with their data category structure. The following are the arguments for this method. Name pairs Return Type Description

List<Schema.DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair> Specify one or more category groups and objects to query Schema.DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair. Visible data categories are retrieved for the specified object. For more information on category group visibility, see About Category Group Visibility in the Salesforce online help in the Salesforce online help.

topCategoriesOnly

Boolean

Specify true to return only the top visible category which classify the object. Specify false to return all the visible parent and child categories. Both values depend on the user's role category group visibility settings. For more information on category group visibility, see About Category Group Visibility in the Salesforce online help in the Salesforce online help.

270

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Schema.DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair Object
Schema.DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair specifies a category group and an associated object. It is used by the describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method to return the categories available to this object. The following table lists all the methods for Schema.DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair. Name
getDataCategoryGroupName getSobject setDataCategoryGroupName setSobject

Arguments

Return Type String String String

Description Returns the unique name used by the API to access the data category group Returns the object name associated with the data category group Specifies the unique name used by the API to access the data category group The sObjectName is the object name associated with the data category group. Valid values are:
KnowledgeArticleVersionfor article

String sObjectName

Void

types.
Questionfor questions from Answers.

Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult Object
The describeDataCategoryGroups method returns a Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult object containing the list of the category groups associated with the specified object. The following is an example of how to instantiate a data category group describe result object:
List <String> objType = new List<String>(); objType.add('KnowledgeArticleVersion'); objType.add('Question'); List<Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupResult> describeCategoryResult = Schema.describeDataCategoryGroups(objType);

For additional information and code examples using describeDataCategoryGroups, see Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject. The following table lists all the methods available as part of the data category group describe result. None of the methods take an argument. Name
getCategoryCount getDescription getLabel getName

Return Type Integer String String String

Description Returns the number of visible data categories in the data category group Returns the description of the data category group Returns the label for the data category group used in the Salesforce user interface Returns the unique name used by the API to access to the data category group

271

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name
getSobject

Return Type String

Description Returns the object name associated with the data category group

Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult object
The describeDataCategoryGroupStructures method returns a list of Schema.Describe DataCategoryGroupStructureResult objects containing the category groups and categories associated with the specified object. The following is an example of how to instantiate a data category group structure describe result object:
List <DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair> pairs = new List<DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair>(); DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair pair1 = new DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair(); pair1.setSobject('KnowledgeArticleVersion'); pair1.setDataCategoryGroupName('Regions'); DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair pair2 = new DataCategoryGroupSobjectTypePair(); pair2.setSobject('Questions'); pair2.setDataCategoryGroupName('Regions'); pairs.add(pair1); pairs.add(pair2); List<Schema.DescribeDataCategoryGroupStructureResult>results = Schema.describeDataCategoryGroupStructures(pairs, true);

For additional information and code examples using describeDataCategoryGroupStructures, see Accessing All Data Categories Associated with an sObject. The following table lists all the methods available as part of the data category group structure describe result. None of the methods take an argument. Name
getDescription getLabel getName getSobject getTopCategories

Return Type String String String String List<Schema.DataCategory>

Description Returns the description of the data category group Returns the label for the data category group used in the Salesforce user interface Returns the unique name used by the API to access to the data category group Returns the name of object associated with the data category group Returns a Schema.DataCategory object, that contains the top categories visible depending on the user's role category group visibility settings. For more information on category group visibility, see About Category Group Visibility in the Salesforce online help in the Salesforce online help.

272

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Schema.DataCategory Object
A Schema.DataCategory object represents the categories within a category group. The Schema.DataCategory object is returned by the getTopCategories method. The following table lists all the methods for the Schema.DataCategory object. None of these methods take an argument. Name
getChildCategories getLabel getName

Return Type List<Schema.DataCategory> String String

Description Returns a recursive object that contains the visible sub categories in the data category Returns the label for the data category used in the Salesforce user interface Returns the unique name used by the API to access to the data category

sObject Methods sObject methods are all instance methods, that is, they are called by and operate on a particular instance of an sObject, such as an account or contact. The following are the instance methods for sObjects. Name
addError

Arguments String errorMsg

Return Type Void

Description Marks a record with a custom error message and prevents any DML operation from occurring. When used on Trigger.new in before insert and before update triggers, and on Trigger.old in before delete triggers, the error message is displayed in the application interface. See Triggers on page 68 and Trigger Exceptions on page 79. When used in Visualforce controllers, the generated message is added to the collection of errors for the page. For more information, see Validation Rules and Standard Controllers in the Visualforce Developer's Guide.

field.addError

String errorMsg

Void

Places the specified error message on the field that calls this method in the application interface and prevents any DML operation from occurring. For example:
Trigger.new.myField__C.addError('bad');

Note: When used on Trigger.new in before insert and before update triggers, and on Trigger.old in before delete triggers, the error appears in the application interface. When used in Visualforce controllers, if there is an inputField component bound to field, the message is attached to the component. For more information, see Validation Rules and Standard Controllers in the Visualforce Developer's Guide.

273

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description This method is highly specialized because the field identifier is not actually the invoking objectthe sObject record is the invoker. The field is simply used to identify the field that should be used to display the error. This method will likely change in future versions of Apex.

See Triggers on page 68 and Trigger Exceptions on page 79.


clear clone

Void Boolean Boolean


opt_IsDeepClone

Clears all field values Creates a copy of the sObject record. The optional opt_preserve_id argument determines whether the ID of the original object is preserved or cleared in the duplicate. The optional opt_IsDeepClone argument determines whether the method creates a full copy of the sObject, or just a reference: If set to true, the method creates a full copy of the sObject. All fields on the sObject are duplicated in memory, including relationship fields. Consequently, if you make changes to a field on the cloned sObject, the original sObject is not affected. If set to false, the method creates a reference to the original sObject. Consequently, if you make changes to a field on the cloned sObject, the original sObject is also affected.

sObject (of same

opt_preserve_id, type)

get

String fieldName

Object

Returns the value for the field specified by fieldName, such as AccountNumber. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

get

Schema.sObjectField Object
Field

Returns the value for the field specified by the field token Schema.sObjectField (for example, Schema.Account.AccountNumber). For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

getOptions

Database.DMLOptions Returns the database.DMLOptions object for the sObject. For more information, see Database DMLOptions Methods on page 301.

getSObject

String fieldName

sObject

Returns the value for the field specified by fieldName. This method is primarily used with dynamic DML to access values for external IDs. For more information, see Dynamic DML on page 152.

274

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name
getSObject

Arguments
fieldName

Return Type

Description Returns the value for the field specified by the field token Schema.fieldName (for example, Schema.Account.MyExternalId). This method is primarily used with dynamic DML to access values for external IDs. For more information, see Dynamic DML on page 152.

Schema.SObjectField sObject

getSObjects

String fieldName

sObject[]

Returns the values for the field specified by fieldName. This method is primarily used with dynamic DML to access values for associated objects, such as child relationships. For more information, see Dynamic DML on page 152.

getSObjects

Schema.SObjectType sObject[]
fieldName

Returns the value for the field specified by the field token Schema.fieldName (for example, Schema.Account.Contact).This method is primarily used with dynamic DML to access values for associated objects, such as child relationships. For more information, see Dynamic DML on page 152.

getSObjectType

Schema.SObjectType Returns the token for this sObject. This method is primarily used with describe information. For more information, see Understanding Apex Describe Information on page 143.

put

String fieldName, Object value

Object

Sets the value for the field specified by fieldName and returns the previous value for the field. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

put

Schema.SObjectField Object fieldName, Object


value

Sets the value for the field specified by the field token Schema.sObjectField (for example, Schema.Account.AccountNumber) and returns the previous value for the field. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

putSObject

String fieldName, sObject value

sObject

Sets the value for the field specified by fieldName. This method is primarily used with dynamic DML for setting external IDs. The method returns the previous value of the field. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

putSObject

Schema.sObjectType sObject fieldName, sObject


value

Sets the value for the field specified by the token Schema.sObjectType. This method is primarily used with dynamic DML for setting external IDs. The method returns the previous value of the field. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

275

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name
setOptions

Arguments
DMLOptions

Return Type

Description Sets the DMLOptions object for the sObject. For more information, see Database DMLOptions Methods on page 301.

database.DMLOptions Void

For more information on sObjects, see sObject Types on page 31. sObject Describe Result Methods The following table describes the methods available for the sObject describe result, the DescribeSObjectResult object. None of the methods take an argument. Name
fields

Data Type Special

Description Returns a special data type that should not be used by itself. Instead, fields should always be followed by either a field member variable name or the getMap method. For example,
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Schema.SObjectType.Account.fields.Name;

For more information, see Understanding Apex Describe Information on page 143.
getChildRelationships

List<Schema.ChildRelationship> Returns a list of child relationships, which are the names of the sObjects that have a foreign key to the sObject being described. For example, the Account object includes Contacts and Opportunities as child relationships. String Returns the three-character prefix code for the object. Record IDs are prefixed with three-character codes that specify the type of the object (for example, accounts have a prefix of 001 and opportunities have a prefix of 006). The DescribeSobjectResult object returns a value for objects that have a stable prefix. For object types that do not have a stable or predictable prefix, this field is blank. Client applications that rely on these codes can use this way of determining object type to ensure forward compatibility.

getKeyPrefix

getLabel

String

Returns the object's label, which may or may not match the object name. For example, an organization in the medical industry might change the label for Account to Patient. This label is then used in the Salesforce user interface. See the Salesforce online help for more information. Returns the object's plural label, which may or may not match the object name. For example, an

getLabelPlural

String

276

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name

Data Type

Description organization in the medical industry might change the plural label for Account to Patients. This label is then used in the Salesforce user interface. See the Salesforce online help for more information.

getLocalName

String

Returns the name of the object, similar to the getName method. However, if the object is part of the current namespace, the namespace portion of the name is omitted. Returns the name of the object Returns a list of the record types supported by this object. The current user is not required to have access to a record type to see it in this list. Returns a map that matches record IDs to their associated record types. The current user is not required to have access to a record type to see it in this map. Returns a map that matches record names to their associated record type. The current user is not required to have access to a record type to see it in this map. Returns the Schema.SObjectType object for the sObject. You can use this to create a similar sObject. For more information, see Schema.SObjectType on page 284. Returns true if the current user can see this field, false otherwise Returns true if the object can be created by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if the object is a custom object, false if it is a standard object Returns true if the object is a custom setting, false otherwise Returns true if the object can be deleted by the current user, false otherwise Reserved for future use. Returns true if Chatter feeds are enabled for the object, false otherwise. This method is only available for Apex classes and triggers saved using Salesforce API version 19.0 and later. Returns true if the object can be merged with other objects of its type by the current user, false otherwise. true is returned for leads, contacts, and accounts.

getName getRecordTypeInfos

String List<Schema.RecordTypeInfo>

getRecordTypeInfosByID

Map<ID, Schema.RecordTypeInfo>

getRecordTypeInfosByName Map<String,

Schema.RecordTypeInfo>

getSobjectType

Schema.SObjectType

isAccessible isCreateable isCustom isCustomSetting isDeletable isDeprecatedAndHidden isFeedEnabled

Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

isMergeable

Boolean

277

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name
isQueryable isSearchable isUndeletable isUpdateable

Data Type Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

Description Returns true if the object can be queried by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if the object can be searched by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if the object cannot be undeleted by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if the object can be updated by the current user, false otherwise

ChildRelationship Methods
If an sObject is a parent object, you can access the child relationship as well as the child sObject using the ChildRelationship object methods. A ChildRelationship object is returned from the sObject describe result using the getChildRelationship method. For example:
Schema.DescribeSObjectResult R = Account.SObjectType.getDescribe(); List<Schema.ChildRelationship> C = R.getChildRelationships();

You can only use 100 getChildRelationships method calls per Apex request. For more information about governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. The following table describes the methods available as part of the ChildRelationship object. None of the methods take an argument. Name
getChildSObject getField getRelationshipName isCascadeDelete

Data Type Schema.SObjectType Schema.SObjectField String Boolean Boolean

Description Returns the token of the child sObject on which there is a foreign key back to the parent sObject. Returns the token of the field that has a foreign key back to the parent sObject. Returns the name of the relationship. Returns true if the child object is deleted when the parent object is deleted, false otherwise. Reserved for future use.

isDeprecatedAndHidden

RecordTypeInfo Methods
If an sObject has a record type associated with it, you can access information about the record type using the RecordTypeInfo object methods. A RecordTypeInfo object is returned from the sObject describe result using the getRecordTypeInfos method. For example:
Schema.DescribeSObjectResult R = Account.SObjectType.getDescribe(); List<Schema.RecordTypeInfo> RT = R.getRecordTypeInfos();

278

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

In addition to the getRecordTypeInfos method, you can use the getRecordTypeInfosById and the getRecordTypeInfosByName methods. These methods return maps that associate RecordTypeInfo with record IDs and record names, respectively. You can only return 100 RecordTypeInfo objects per Apex request. For more information about governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. The following example assumes at least one record type has been created for the Account object:
RecordType rt = [select id,name from RecordType where SobjectType='Account' limit 1]; Schema.DescribeSObjectResult d = Schema.SObjectType.Account; Map<Id,Schema.RecordTypeInfo> rtMapById = d.getRecordTypeInfosById(); Schema.RecordTypeInfo rtById = rtMapById.get(rt.id); Map<String,Schema.RecordTypeInfo> rtMapByName = d.getRecordTypeInfosByName(); Schema.RecordTypeInfo rtByName = rtMapByName.get(rt.name); System.assertEquals(rtById,rtByName);

The following table describes the methods available as part of the RecordTypeInfo object. None of the methods take an argument. Name
getName getRecordTypeId isAvailable

Data Type String ID Boolean

Description Returns the name of this record type Returns the ID of this record type Returns true if this record type is available to the current user, false otherwise. Use this method to display a list of available record types to the user when he or she is creating a new record. Returns true if this is the default record type mapping, false otherwise.

isDefaultRecordTypeMapping Boolean

Describe Field Result Methods The following table describes the methods available as part of the field describe result. The following is an example of how to instantiate a field describe result object:
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Account.AccountNumber.getDescribe();

None of the methods take an argument. Name


getByteLength getCalculatedFormula getController getDefaultValue getDefaultValueFormula

Data Type Integer String Schema.sObjectField Object String

Description For variable-length fields (including binary fields), returns the maximum size of the field, in bytes Returns the formula specified for this field Returns the token of the controlling field Returns the default value for this field Returns the default value specified for this field if a formula is not used

279

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name
getDigits getInlineHelpText

Data Type Integer String

Description Returns the maximum number of digits specified for the field. This method is only valid with Integer fields Returns the content of the field-level help. For more information, see Defining Field-Level Help in the Salesforce online help. Returns the text label that is displayed next to the field in the Salesforce user interface. This label can be localized. For string fields, returns the maximum size of the field in Unicode characters (not bytes) Returns the name of the field, similar to the getName method. However, if the field is part of the current namespace, the namespace portion of the name is omitted. Returns the field name used in Apex Returns a list of PicklistEntry objects. A runtime error is returned if the field is not a picklist. For fields of type Double, returns the maximum number of digits that can be stored, including all numbers to the left and to the right of the decimal point (but excluding the decimal point character) Returns a list of Schema.sObjectType objects for the parent objects of this field. If the isNamePointing method returns true, there is more than one entry in the list, otherwise there is only one. Returns the name of the relationship. For more information about relationships and relationship names, see Understanding Relationship Names in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. Returns 1 if the field is a child, 0 otherwise. For more information about relationships and relationship names, see Understanding Relationship Names in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. For fields of type Double, returns the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. Any extra digits to the right of the decimal point are truncated. This method returns a fault response if the number has too many digits to the left of the decimal point. Returns one of the SoapType enum values, depending on the type of field. For more information, see Schema.SOAPType Enum Values on page 285. Returns the token for this field Returns one of the DisplayType enum values, depending on the type of field. . For more

getLabel

String

getLength getLocalName

Integer String

getName getPicklistValues getPrecision

String List <Schema.PicklistEntry> Integer

getReferenceTo

List <Schema.sObjectType>

getRelationshipName

String

getRelationshipOrder

Integer

getScale

Integer

getSOAPType

Schema.SOAPType

getSObjectField getType

Schema.sObjectField Schema.DisplayType

280

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name

Data Type

Description information, see Schema.DisplayType Enum Values on page 283.

isAccessible isAutoNumber

Boolean Boolean

Returns true if the current user can see this field, false otherwise Returns true if the field is an Auto Number field, false otherwise. Analogous to a SQL IDENTITY type, Auto Number fields are read-only, non-createable text fields with a maximum length of 30 characters. Auto Number fields are used to provide a unique ID that is independent of the internal object ID (such as a purchase order number or invoice number). Auto Number fields are configured entirely in the Salesforce user interface.

isCalculated

Boolean

Returns true if the field is a custom formula field, false otherwise. Note that custom formula fields are always read-only. Returns true if the field is case sensitive, false otherwise Returns true if the field can be created by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if the field is a custom field, false if it is a standard object Returns true if the field receives a default value when created, false otherwise. If true, Salesforce implicitly assigns a value for this field when the object is created, even if a value for this field is not passed in on the create call. For example, in the Opportunity object, the Probability field has this attribute because its value is derived from the Stage field. Similarly, the Owner has this attribute on most objects because its value is derived from the current user (if the Owner field is not specified). Returns true if the picklist is a dependent picklist, false otherwise Reserved for future use. Returns true if the field is used as an external ID, false otherwise Returns true if the field can be used as part of the filter criteria of a WHERE statement, false otherwise Returns true if the field can be included in the GROUP BY clause of a SOQL query, false otherwise. This method is only available for Apex

isCaseSensitive isCreateable isCustom isDefaultedOnCreate

Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

isDependentPicklist isDeprecatedAndHidden isExternalID isFilterable isGroupable

Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

281

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Name

Data Type

Description classes and triggers saved using API version 18.0 and higher.

isHtmlFormatted

Boolean

Returns true if the field has been formatted for HTML and should be encoded for display in HTML, false otherwise. One example of a field that returns true for this method is a hyperlink custom formula field. Another example is a custom formula field that has an IMAGE text function. Returns true if the field can be used to specify a record in an upsert method, false otherwise Returns true if the field is a name field, false otherwise. This method is used to identify the name field for standard objects (such as AccountName for an Account object) and custom objects. Objects can only have one name field, except where the FirstName and LastName fields are used instead (such as on the Contact object). If a compound name is present, for example, the Name field on a person account, isNameField is set to true for that record.

isIdLookup isNameField

Boolean Boolean

isNamePointing

Boolean

Returns true if the field can have multiple types of objects as parents. For example, a task can have both the Contact/Lead ID (WhoId) field and the Opportunity/Account ID (WhatId) field return true for this method. because either of those objects can be the parent of a particular task record. This method returns false otherwise. Returns true if the field is nillable, false otherwise. A nillable field can have empty content. A non-nillable field must have a value for the object to be created or saved. Returns true if the field is a restricted picklist, false otherwise Returns true if a query can sort on the field, false otherwise Returns true if the value for the field must be unique, false otherwise Returns true if the field can be edited by the current user, false otherwise Returns true if writing to the detail object requires read sharing instead of read/write sharing of the parent.

isNillable

Boolean

isRestrictedPicklist isSortable isUnique isUpdateable

Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

isWriteRequiresMasterRead Boolean

282

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Schema.DisplayType Enum Values


A Schema.DisplayType enum value is returned by the field describe result's getType method. For more information, see Field Types in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. For more information about the methods shared by all enums, see Enum Methods on page 268. Type Field Value
anytype

What the Field Object Contains Any value of the following types: String, Picklist, Boolean, Integer, Double, Percent, ID, Date, DateTime, URL, or Email. Base64-encoded arbitrary binary data (of type base64Binary) Boolean (true or false) values Comboboxes, which provide a set of enumerated values and allow the user to specify a value not in the list Currency values Date values DateTime values Double values Email addresses Encrypted string Primary key field for an object Integer values Multi-select picklists, which provide a set of enumerated values from which multiple values can be selected Percent values Phone numbers. Values can include alphabetic characters. Client applications are responsible for phone number formatting. Single-select picklists, which provide a set of enumerated values from which only one value can be selected Cross-references to a different object, analogous to a foreign key field String values String values that are displayed as multiline text fields Time values URL values that are displayed as hyperlinks

base64 Boolean Combobox Currency Date DateTime Double Email EncryptedString ID Integer MultiPicklist Percent Phone Picklist Reference String TextArea Time URL

Schema.PicklistEntry Methods
Picklist fields contain a list of one or more items from which a user chooses a single item. They display as drop-down lists in the Salesforce user interface. One of the items can be configured as the default item.

283

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

A Schema.PicklistEntry object is returned from the field describe result using the getPicklistValues method. For example:
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Account.Industry.getDescribe(); List<Schema.PicklistEntry> P = F.getPicklistValues();

You can only use 100 getPicklistValue method calls per Apex request. For more information about governor limits, see Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188. The following table describes the methods available as part of the PicklistEntry object. None of the methods take an argument. Name
getLabel getValue isActive

Data Type String String Boolean Boolean

Description Returns the display name of this item in the picklist Returns the value of this item in the picklist Returns true if this item must be displayed in the drop-down list for the picklist field in the user interface, false otherwise Returns true if this item is the default value for the picklist, false otherwise. Only one item in a picklist can be designated as the default.

isDefaultValue

Schema.sObjectField
A Schema.sObjectField object is returned from the field describe result using the getControler and getSObjectField methods. For example:
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Account.Industry.getDescribe(); Schema.sObjectField T = F.getSObjectField();

The following table describes the method available as part of the sObjectField object. This method does not take an argument. Name
getDescribe

Data Type

Description

Schema.DescribeFieldResult Returns the describe field result for this field.

Schema.sObjectType
A Schema.sObjectType object is returned from the field describe result using the getReferenceTo method, or from the sObject describe result using the getSObjectType method. For example:
Schema.DescribeFieldResult F = Account.Industry.getDescribe(); List<Schema.sObjectType> P = F.getReferenceTo();

The following table describes the methods available as part of the sObjectType object. Name
getDescribe newSObject newSObject

Argument

Data Type

Description

Schema.DescribeSObjectResult Returns the describe sObject result for this field. sObject Id Id sObject Constructs a new sObject of this type. Constructs a new sObject of this type, with the specified Id.

284

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Schema.SOAPType Enum Values


A schema.SOAPType enum value is returned by the field describe result getSoapType method. For more information, see SOAPTypes in the Web Services API Developer's Guide. For more information about the methods shared by all enums, see Enum Methods on page 268. Type Field Value
anytype

What the Field Object Contains Any value of the following types: String, Boolean, Integer, Double, ID, Date or DateTime. Base64-encoded arbitrary binary data (of type base64Binary) Boolean (true or false) values Date values DateTime values Double values Primary key field for an object Integer values String values Time values

base64 Boolean Date DateTime Double ID Integer String Time

Custom Settings Methods Custom settings methods are all instance methods, that is, they are called by and operate on a particular instance of a custom setting. There are two types of custom settings: hierarchy and list. The methods are divided into those that work with list custom settings, and those that work with hierarchy custom settings. The following are the instance methods for list custom settings. Table 1: List Custom Settings Methods Name
getAll

Arguments

Return Type Map<String


Data_set_name,

Description Returns a map of the data sets defined for the custom setting. Returns the custom setting data set for the specified dataset_name. This method returns the exact same object as getValues(dataset_name). Returns the custom setting data set for the specified dataset_name. This method returns the exact same object as getInstance(dataset_name).

CustomSetting__c>
getInstance

String
dataset_name

CustomSetting__c

getValues

String
dataset_name

CustomSetting__c

The following are the instance methods for hierarchy custom settings:

285

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

Table 2: Hierarchy Custom Settings Methods Name


getInstance

Arguments

Return Type CustomSetting__c

Description Returns the lowest level custom setting record based on the running user. For example, if you have data defined for the user Uriel Jones, for the profile System Administrator, and for the organization as a whole, and the user running the code is Uriel Jones, this method returns the data set defined for Uriel Jones. If the running user was Barbara Mahonie, who also shared the System Administrator profile, but no data was defined for Barbara as a user, this method returns the data set defined at the profile level. Returns the custom setting data set for the specified User_Id. Use this when you want to explicitly retrieve data for the custom setting at the user level. Returns the custom setting data set for the specified Profile_Id. Use this when you want to explicitly retrieve data for the custom setting at the profile level. Returns the custom setting data set for the organization. Returns the custom setting data set for the specified User_Id. Use this if you only want the subset of custom setting data that has been defined at the user level. For example, suppose you have a custom setting field that has been assigned a value of "foo" at the organizational level, but has no value assigned at the user or profile level. Using getValues(User_Id) returns NULL for this custom setting field. Returns the custom setting data set for the specified Profile_Id. Use this if you only want the subset of custom setting data that has been defined at the profile level. For example, suppose you have a custom setting field that has been assigned a value of "foo" at the organizational level, but has no value assigned at the user or profile level. Using getValues(Profile_Id) returns NULL for this custom setting field..

getInstance

ID User_Id

CustomSetting__c

getInstance

ID Profile_Id

CustomSetting__c

getOrgDefaults getValues

CustomSetting__c ID User_Id CustomSetting__c

getValues

ID Profile_Id

CustomSetting__c

For more information on custom settings, see Custom Settings Overview in the Salesforce online help.

Custom Setting Examples


The following example uses a list custom setting called Games. Games has a field called GameType. This example determines if the value of the first data set is equal to the string PC.
List<Games__C> mcs = Games__c.getall().values(); boolean textField = null; if (mcs[0].GameType__c == 'PC') { textField = true; } system.assertEquals(textField, true);

286

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

The following example uses a custom setting from Country and State Code Custom Settings Example. This example demonstrates that the getValues and getInstance methods list custom setting return identical values.
Foundation_Countries__c myCS1 = Foundation_Countries__c.getValues('United States'); String myCCVal = myCS1.Country_code__c; Foundation_Countries__c myCS2 = Foundation_Countries__c.getInstance('United States'); String myCCInst = myCS2.Country_code__c; system.assertEquals(myCCinst, myCCVal);

Hierarchy Custom Setting Examples


In the following example, the hierarchy custom setting GamesSupport has a field called Corporate_number. The code returns the value for the profile specified with pid.
GamesSupport__c mhc = GamesSupport__c.getInstance(pid); string mPhone = mhc.Corporate_number__c;

The example is identical if you choose to use the getValues method. The following example uses a hierarchy custom setting called Hierarchy. Hierarchy has two fields: OverrideMe and DontOverrideMe. In addition, a user named Robert has a System Administrator profile. The organization, profile, and user settings for this example are as follows: Organization settings OverrideMeHello
DontOverrideMeWorld

Profile settings
OverrideMeGoodbye DontOverrideMe is not set.

User settings
OverrideMeFluffy DontOverrideMe is not set.

The following example demonstrates the result of the getInstance method if Robert calls it in his organization:
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getInstance(); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Fluffy'); System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == 'World');

If Robert passes his user ID specified by RobertId to getInstance, the results are the same. This is because the lowest level of data in the custom setting is specified at the user level.
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getInstance(RobertId); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Fluffy'); System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == 'World');

If Robert passes the System Administrator profile ID specified by SysAdminID to getInstance, the result is different. The data specified for the profile is returned:
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getInstance(SysAdminID); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Goodbye'); System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == 'World');

287

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

When Robert tries to return the data set for the organization using getOrgDefaults, the result is:
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getOrgDefaults(); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Hello'); System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == 'World');

By using the getValues method, Robert can get the hierarchy custom setting values specific to his user and profile settings. For example, if Robert passes his user ID RobertId to getValues, the result is:
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getValues(RobertId); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Fluffy'); // Note how this value is null, because you are returning // data specific for the user System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == null);

If Robert passes his System Administrator profile ID SysAdminID to getValues, the result is:
Hierarchy__c CS = Hierarchy__c.getValues(SysAdminID); System.Assert(CS.OverrideMe__c == 'Goodbye'); // Note how this value is null, because you are returning // data specific for the profile System.assert(CS.DontOverrideMe__c == null);

Country and State Code Custom Settings Example


This example illustrates using two custom setting objects for storing related information, and a Visualforce page to display the data in a set of related picklists. In the following example, country and state codes are stored in two different custom settings: Foundation_Countries and Foundation_States. The Foundation_Countries custom setting is a list type custom setting, and has a single field, Country_Code.

The Foundation_States custom setting is also a List type of custom setting and has the following fields:
Country Code State Code State Name

288

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

The Visualforce page shows two picklists: one for country, and one for state.

<apex:page controller="CountryStatePicker"> <apex:form > <apex:actionFunction name="rerenderStates" rerender="statesSelectList" > <apex:param name="firstParam" assignTo="{!country}" value="" /> </apex:actionFunction> <table><tbody> <tr> <th>Country</th> <td> <apex:selectList id="country" styleclass="std" size="1" value="{!country}" onChange="rerenderStates(this.value)"> <apex:selectOptions value="{!countriesSelectList}"/> </apex:selectList> </td> </tr> <tr id="state_input"> <th>State/Province</th> <td> <apex:selectList id="statesSelectList" styleclass="std" size="1" value="{!state}"> <apex:selectOptions value="{!statesSelectList}"/> </apex:selectList>

289

Reference

Apex sObject Methods

</td> </tr> </tbody></table> </apex:form> </apex:page>

The Apex controller CountryStatePicker finds the values entered into the custom settings, then returns them to the Visualforce page.
public with sharing class CountryStatePicker { // Variables to store country and state selected by user public String state { get; set; } public String country {get; set;} // Generates country dropdown from country settings public List<SelectOption> getCountriesSelectList() { List<SelectOption> options = new List<SelectOption>(); options.add(new SelectOption('', '-- Select One --')); // Find all the countries in the custom setting Map<String, Foundation_Countries__c> countries = Foundation_Countries__c.getAll(); // Sort them by name List<String> countryNames = new List<String>(); countryNames.addAll(countries.keySet()); countryNames.sort(); // Create the Select Options. for (String countryName : countryNames) { Foundation_Countries__c country = countries.get(countryName); options.add(new SelectOption(country.country_code__c, country.Name)); } return options; } // To generate the states picklist based on the country selected by user. public List<SelectOption> getStatesSelectList() { List<SelectOption> options = new List<SelectOption>(); // Find all the states we have in custom settings. Map<String, Foundation_States__c> allstates = Foundation_States__c.getAll(); // Filter states that belong to the selected country Map<String, Foundation_States__c> states = new Map<String, Foundation_States__c>(); for(Foundation_States__c state : allstates.values()) { if (state.country_code__c == this.country) { states.put(state.name, state); } } // Sort the states based on their names List<String> stateNames = new List<String>(); stateNames.addAll(states.keySet()); stateNames.sort(); // Generate the Select Options based on the final sorted list for (String stateName : stateNames) { Foundation_States__c state = states.get(stateName); options.add(new SelectOption(state.state_code__c, state.state_name__c)); } // If no states are found, just say not required in the dropdown. if (options.size() > 0) { options.add(0, new SelectOption('', '-- Select One --')); } else {

290

Reference

System Methods

options.add(new SelectOption('', 'Not Required')); } return options; } }

System Methods
Apex System Methods
The following Apex system methods are specialized classes and methods for manipulating data: ApexPages Approval Database Database Batch Database DMLOptions Database EmptyRecycleBinResult Database Error

Limits Math Package Search System Test

ApexPages Methods Use ApexPages to add and check for messages associated with the current page, as well as to reference the current page. In addition, ApexPages is used as a namespace for the PageReference and Message classes. The following table lists the ApexPages methods: Name
addMessage addMessages getMessages hasMessages hasMessages

Arguments sObject
ApexPages.Message

Return Type Void Void

Description Add a message to the current page context. Adds a list of messages to the current page context based on a thrown exception.

Exception ex

ApexPages.Message[] Returns a list of the messages associated with the current context. Boolean ApexPages.Severity Boolean Returns true if there are messages associated with the current context, false otherwise. Returns true if messages of the specified severity exist, false otherwise.

291

Reference

Apex System Methods

Approval Methods The following table lists the static Approval methods. Approval is also used as a namespace for the ProcessRequest and ProcessResult classes. Name
process

Arguments

Return Type

Description

Approval.ProcessRequest Approval.ProcessResult Submits a new approval request and approves or rejects ProcessRequest existing approval requests. For example:
// Insert an account Account a = new Account(Name='Test', annualRevenue=100.0); insert a; // Create an approval request for the account Approval.ProcessSubmitRequest req1 = new Approval.ProcessSubmitRequest(); req1.setObjectId(a.id); // Submit the approval request for the account Approval.ProcessResult result = Approval.process(req1);

process

Approval.ProcessRequest Approval.ProcessResult Submits a new approval request and approves or rejects ProcessRequests existing approval requests. Boolean
opt_allOrNone

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows for partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and an approval fails, the remainder of the approval processes can still succeed.

process

Approval.ProcessRequest Approval.ProcessResult Submits a list of new approval requests, and approves or [] [] rejects existing approval requests.
ProcessRequests

process

Approval.ProcessRequest Approval.ProcessResult Submits a list of new approval requests, and approves or [] [] rejects existing approval requests.
ProcessRequests

Boolean
opt_allOrNone

The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows for partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and an approval fails, the remainder of the approval processes can still succeed.

For more information on Apex approval processing, see Apex Approval Processing Classes on page 403. Database Methods The following are the system static methods for Database.

292

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
convertLead

Arguments LeadConvert
leadToConvert,

Return Type

Description

Database. Converts a lead into an account and contact, as well LeadConvertResult as (optionally) an opportunity The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. Database. LeadConvert Result[] Converts a list of LeadConvert objects into accounts and contacts, as well as (optionally) opportunties. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. Returns the number of records that a dynamic SOQL query would return when executed. For example,
String QueryString = 'SELECT count() FROM Account'; Integer I = Database.countQuery(QueryString);

Boolean opt_allOrNone

convertLead

LeadConvert[]
leadsToConvert

Boolean opt_allOrNone

countQuery

String query

Integer

For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.


delete

SObject recordToDelete Boolean opt_allOrNone

DeleteResult

Deletes an existing sObject record, such as an individual account or contact, from your organization's data. delete is analogous to the delete() statement in the Web services API. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

delete

SObject[] recordsToDelete DeleteResult[] Boolean opt_allOrNone

Deletes a list of existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations data. delete is analogous to the delete() statement in the Web services API. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails,

293

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

delete

RecordID ID Boolean opt_allOrNone

DeleteResult

Deletes existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations data. delete is analogous to the delete() statement in the Web services API. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

delete

RecordIDs []IDs Boolean opt_allOrNone

DeleteResult[]

Deletes a list of existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations data. delete is analogous to the delete() statement in the Web services API. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

emptyRecycleBin RecordIds []Ids

Database. Permanently deletes the specified records from the EmptyRecycleBin recycle bin. Note the following: Result[] After records are deleted using this method they cannot be undeleted. Only 10,000 records can be specified for deletion. The logged in user can delete any record that he or she can query in their recycle bin, or the recycle bins of any subordinates. If the logged in user has Modify All Data permission, he or she can query and delete records from any recycle bin in the organization. Cascade delete record IDs should not be included in the list of IDs; otherwise an error occurs. For example, if an account record is deleted, all related contacts, opportunities, contracts, and so on are also deleted. Only include the Id of the top level account. All related records are automatically removed. Deleted items are added to the number of items processed by a DML statement, and the method

294

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description call is added to the total number of DML statements issued. The emptyRecycleBin method uses the DML governor limits.

emptyRecycleBin sObject sObject

Database. Permanently deletes the specified sObject from the EmptyRecycleBin recycle bin. Note the following: Result After an sObject is deleted using this method it cannot be undeleted. Only 10,000 sObjects can be specified for deletion. The logged in user can delete any sObject that he or she can query in their recycle bin, or the recycle bins of any subordinates. If the logged in user has Modify All Data permission, he or she can query and delete sObjects from any recycle bin in the organization. Do not include an sObject that was deleted due to a cascade delete; otherwise an error occurs. For example, if an account is deleted, all related contacts, opportunities, contracts, and so on are also deleted. Only include sObjects of the top level account. All related sObjects are automatically removed. Deleted items are added to the number of items processed by a DML statement, and the method call is added to the total number of DML statements issued. The emptyRecycleBin method uses the DML governor limits. Permanently deletes the specified sObjects from EmptyRecycleBin the recycle bin. Note the following: Result[] After an sObject is deleted using this method it cannot be undeleted. Only 10,000 sObjects can be specified for deletion. The logged in user can delete any sObject that he or she can query in their recycle bin, or the recycle bins of any subordinates. If the logged in user has Modify All Data permission, he or she can query and delete sObjects from any recycle bin in the organization. Do not include an sObject that was deleted due to a cascade delete; otherwise an error occurs. For example, if an account is deleted, all related contacts, opportunities, contracts, and so on are also deleted. Only include sObjects of the top level account. All related sObjects are automatically removed. Deleted items are added to the number of items processed by a DML statement, and the method

emptyRecycleBin sObjects []listOfSObjects Database.

295

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description call is added to the total number of DML statements issued. The emptyRecycleBin method uses the DML governor limits.

executeBatch

sObject className

ID

Executes the specified class as a batch Apex job. For more information, see Using Batch Apex on page 156. Note: The class called by the executeBatch method implements the execute method.

executeBatch

sObject className, Integer ID


scope

Executes the specified class as a batch Apex job. The value for scope must be greater than 0. For more information, see Using Batch Apex on page 156. Note: The class called by the executeBatch method implements the execute method.

getQueryLocator sObject [] listOfQueries

QueryLocator

Creates a QueryLocator object used in batch Apex or Visualforce. For more information, see Database Batch Apex Objects and Methods on page 301, Understanding Apex Managed Sharing on page 163, and StandardSetController Class on page 365. You can't use getQueryLocator with any query that contains an aggregate function.

getQueryLocator String query

QueryLocator

Creates a QueryLocator object used in batch Apex or Visualforce. For more information, see Database Batch Apex Objects and Methods on page 301, Understanding Apex Managed Sharing on page 163, and StandardSetController Class on page 365. You can't use getQueryLocator with any query that contains an aggregate function.

insert

sObject recordToInsert Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions


opt_DMLOptions

SaveResult

Adds an sObject, such as an individual account or contact, to your organization's data. insert is analogous to the INSERT statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

296

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

insert

sObject [] recordsToInsert SaveResult[] Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions


opt_DMLOptions

Adds one or more sObjects, such as individual accounts or contacts, to your organizations data. insert is analogous to the INSERT statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

query

String query

sObject[]

Creates a dynamic SOQL query at runtime. This method can be used wherever a static SOQL query can be used, such as in regular assignment statements and for loops. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

rollback

System.Savepoint sp

Void

Restores the database to the state specified by the savepoint variable. Any emails submitted since the last savepoint are also rolled back and not sent. Note: Static variables are not reverted during a rollback. If you try to run the trigger again, the static variables retain the values from the first run. Each rollback counts against the total number of DML statements. You will receive a runtime error if you try to rollback the database additional times.

297

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
setSavepoint

Arguments

Return Type System.Savepoint

Description Returns a savepoint variable that can be stored as a local variable, then used with the rollback method to restore the database to that point. If you set more than one savepoint, then roll back to a savepoint that is not the last savepoint you generated, the later savepoint variables become invalid. For example, if you generated savepoint SP1 first, savepoint SP2 after that, and then you rolled back to SP1, the variable SP2 would no longer be valid. You will receive a runtime error if you try to use it. References to savepoints cannot cross trigger invocations, because each trigger invocation is a new execution context. If you declare a savepoint as a static variable then try to use it across trigger contexts you will receive a runtime error. Each savepoint you set counts against the total number of DML statements.

undelete

sObject recordToUndelete UndeleteResult Boolean opt_allOrNone

Restores an existing sObject record, such as an individual account or contact, from your organization's Recycle Bin. undelete is analogous to the UNDELETE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

undelete

sObject []
recordsToUndelete

UndeleteResult[]

Boolean opt_allOrNone

Restores one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations Recycle Bin. undelete is analogous to the UNDELETE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

undelete

RecordID ID Boolean opt_allOrNone

UndeleteResult

Restores an existing sObject record, such as an individual account or contact, from your organization's Recycle Bin. undelete is analogous to the UNDELETE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you

298

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

undelete

RecordIDs[] ID Boolean opt_allOrNone

UndeleteResult []

Restores one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, from your organizations Recycle Bin. undelete is analogous to the UNDELETE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

update

sObject recordToUpdate Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions


opt_DMLOptions

Database.SaveResult Modifies an existing sObject record, such as an individual account or contact, in your organization's data. update is analogous to the UPDATE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

update

sObject [] recordsToUpdate Database.SaveResult [] Boolean opt_allOrNone | database.DMLOptions


opt_DMLOptions

Modifies one or more existing sObject records, such as individual accounts or contacts, in your organizations data. update is analogous to the UPDATE statement in SQL. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why.

299

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description The optional opt_DMLOptions parameter specifies additional data for the transaction, such as assignment rule information or truncation behavior. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

upsert

sObject recordToUpsert Schema.SObjectField


External_ID_Field

Database.UpsertResult Creates a new sObject record or updates an existing sObject record within a single statement, using an optional custom field to determine the presence of existing objects. The External_ID_Field is of type Schema.SObjectField, that is, a field token. Find the token for the field by using the fields special method. For example, Schema.SObjectField f = Account.Fields.MyExternalId. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

Boolean opt_allOrNone

upsert

sObject [] recordsToUpsert Database.UpsertResult Cusing an optional custom field to determine the [] presence of existing objects. Schema.SObjectField External_ID_Field The External_ID_Field is of type Schema.SObjectField, that is, a field token. Find Boolean opt_allOrNone the token for the field by using the fields special method. For example, Schema.SObjectField f = Account.Fields.MyExternalId. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether the operation allows partial success. If you specify false for this parameter and a record fails, the remainder of the DML operation can still succeed. This method returns a result object that can be used to verify which records succeeded, which failed, and why. Apex classes and triggers saved (compiled) using API version 15.0 and higher produce a runtime error if you assign a String value that is too long for the field.

300

Reference

Apex System Methods

For additional information on the database DML operations, see Apex Data Manipulation Language (DML) Operations on page 217. Database Batch Apex Objects and Methods

Database.QueryLocator Method
The following table lists the method for the Database.QueryLocator object: Name
getQuery

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the query used to instantiate the Database.QueryLocator object. This is useful when testing the start method. For example:
System.assertEquals(QLReturnedFromStart. getQuery(), Database.getQueryLocator([SELECT Id FROM Account]).getQuery() );

You cannot use the FOR UPDATE keywords with a getQueryLocator query to lock a set of records. The start method automatically locks the set of records in the batch.

Database DMLOptions Methods Use the database.DMLOptions object to provide extra information during a transaction, for example, specifying the truncation behavior of fields or assignment rule information. DMLOptions is only available for Apex saved against API versions 15.0 and higher. The Database.DMLOptions object has the following methods:
allowFieldTruncation Method assignmentRuleHeader Method emailHeader Method localeOptions Method

allowFieldTruncation Method
The allowFieldTruncation method specifies the truncation behavior of strings. In Apex saved against API versions previous to 15.0, if you specify a value for a string and that value is too large, the value is truncated. For API version 15.0 and later, if a value is specified that is too large, the operation fails and an error message is returned. The allowFieldTruncation method allows you to specify that the previous behavior, truncation, be used instead of the new behavior in Apex saved against API versions 15.0 and later. The allowFieldTruncation method takes a Boolean value. If true, the method truncates String values that are too long, which is the behavior in API versions 14.0 and earlier. For example:
Database.DMLOptions dml = new Database.DMLOptions(); dml.allowFieldTruncation = true;

assignmentRuleHeader Method
The assignmentRuleHeader method specifies the assignment rule to be used when creating an account, case, or lead.

301

Reference

Apex System Methods

Note: The database.DMLOptions object supports assignment rules for cases and leads, but not for accounts or territory management. The following are the options that can be set with the assignmentRuleHeader: Name
assignmentRuleID

Type ID

Description Specify the ID of a specific assignment rule to run for the case or lead. The assignment rule can be active or inactive. The ID can be retrieved by querying the AssignmentRule sObject. If specified, do not specify useDefaultRule. If the value is not in correct ID format (15-character or 18-character Salesforce ID), the call fails and an exception is returned.

useDefaultRule

Boolean

If specified as true for a case or lead, the system uses the default (active) assignment rule for the case or lead. If specified, do not specify an assignmentRuleId.

The following example uses the useDefaultRule option:


Database.DMLOptions dmo = new Database.DMLOptions(); dmo.assignmentRuleHeader.useDefaultRule= true; Lead l = new Lead(company='ABC', lastname='Smith'); l.setOptions(dmo); insert l;

The following example uses the assignmentRuleID option:


Database.DMLOptions dmo = new Database.DMLOptions(); dmo.assignmentRuleHeader.assignmentRuleId= '01QD0000000EqAn'; Lead l = new Lead(company='ABC', lastname='Smith'); l.setOptions(dmo); insert l;

emailHeader Method
The Salesforce user interface allows you to specify whether or not to send an email when the following events occur: Creation of a new case or task Creation of a case comment Conversion of a case email to a contact New user email notification Lead queue email notification Password reset

In Apex saved against API version 15.0 or later, the Database.DMLOptions emailHeader method enables you to specify additional information regarding the email that gets sent when one of the events occurs because of the code's execution. The following are the options that can be set with the emailHeader method:

302

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
triggerAutoResponseEmail

Type Boolean

Description Indicates whether to trigger auto-response rules (true) or not (false), for leads and cases. In the Salesforce user interface, this email can be automatically triggered by a number of events, for example creating a case or resetting a user password. If this value is set to true, when a case is created, if there is an email address for the contact specified in ContactID, the email is sent to that address. If not, the email is sent to the address specified in SuppliedEmail. Indicates whether to trigger email outside the organization (true) or not (false). In the Salesforce user interface, this email can be automatically triggered by creating, editing, or deleting a contact for a case. Indicates whether to trigger email that is sent to users in the organization (true) or not (false). In the Salesforce user interface, this email can be automatically triggered by a number of events; resetting a password, creating a new user, adding comments to a case, or creating or modifying a task.

triggerOtherEmail

Boolean

triggerUserEmail

Boolean

In the following example, the triggerAutoResponseEmail option is specified:


Account a = new Account(name='Acme Plumbing'); insert a; Contact c = new Contact(email='jplumber@salesforce.com', firstname='Joe',lastname='Plumber', accountid=a.id); insert c; Database.DMLOptions dlo = new Database.DMLOptions(); dlo.EmailHeader.triggerAutoResponseEmail = true; Case ca = new Case(subject='Plumbing Problems', contactid=c.id); database.insert(ca, dlo);

Email sent through Apex because of a group event includes additional behaviors. A group event is an event for which IsGroupEvent is true. The EventAttendee object tracks the users, leads, or contacts that are invited to a group event. Note the following behaviors for group event email sent through Apex: Sending a group event invitation to a user respects the triggerUserEmail option Sending a group event invitation to a lead or contact respects the triggerOtherEmail option Email sent when updating or deleting a group event also respects the triggerUserEmail and triggerOtherEmail options, as appropriate

localeOptions Method
The localeOptions method specifies the language of any labels that are returned by Apex. The value must be a valid user locale (language and country), such as de_DE or en_GB. The value is a String, 2-5 characters long. The first two characters are always an ISO language code, for example 'fr' or 'en.' If the value is further qualified by a country, then the string also has an underscore (_) and another ISO country code, for example 'US' or 'UK.' For example, the string for the United States is 'en_US', and the string for French Canadian is 'fr_CA.' For a list of the languages that Salesforce supports, see What languages does Salesforce support? in the Salesforce online help.

303

Reference

Apex System Methods

Database EmptyRecycleBinResult Methods A list of Database.EmptyRecycleBinResult objects is returned by the Database.emptyRecycleBin method. Each object in the list corresponds to either a record Id or an sObject passed as the parameter in the Database.emptyRecycleBin method. The first index in the EmptyRecycleBinResult list matches the first record or sObject specified in the list, the second with the second, and so on. The following are all instance methods, that is, they work on a specific instance of an EmptyRecyclelBinResult object. None of these methods take any arguments. Name
getErrors

Return Type Database.Errors []

Description If an error occurred during the delete for this record or sObject, a list of one or more Database.Error objects is returned. If no errors occurred, this list is empty. Returns the ID of the record or sObject you attempted to deleted. Returns true if the record or sObject was successfully removed from the recycle bin; otherwise false.

getId isSuccess

ID Boolean

Database Error Object Methods A Database.error object contains information about an error that occurred, during a DML operation or other operation. All DML operations that are executed with their database system method form return an error object if they fail. All error objects have access to the following methods: Name getMessage getStatusCode Arguments Return Type String StatusCode Description Returns the error message text. Returns a code that characterizes the error. The full list of status codes is available in the WSDL file for your organization (see Downloading Salesforce WSDLs and Client Authentication Certificates in the Salesforce online help.

Limits Methods Because Apex runs in a multitenant environment, the Apex runtime engine strictly enforces a number of limits to ensure that runaway Apex does not monopolize shared resources. The Limits methods return the specific limit for the particular governor, such as the number of calls of a method or the amount of heap size remaining. None of the Limits methods require an argument. The format of the limits methods is as follows:
myDMLLimit = Limits.getDMLStatements();

There are two versions of every method: the first returns the amount of the resource that has been used in the current context, while the second version contains the word limit and returns the total amount of the resource that is available for that context. See Understanding Execution Governors and Limits on page 188.

304

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
getAggregateQueries

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the number of aggregate queries that have been processed with any SOQL query statement in the current context. Returns the total number of aggregate queries that can be processed with SOQL query statements in the current context. Returns the number of Web service statements that have been processed in the current context. Returns the total number of Web service statements that can be processed in the current context. Returns the number of child relationship objects that have been returned in the current context. Returns the total number of child relationship objects that can be returned in the current context. Returns the CPU time (in milliseconds) accumulated on the Salesforce servers in the current transaction. Returns the total CPU time (in milliseconds) accumulated on the Salesforce servers in the current transaction.

getLimitAggregateQueries getCallouts getLimitCallouts getChildRelationshipsDescribes

Integer Integer Integer Integer

getLimitChildRelationshipsDescribes Integer getCpuTime getLimitCpuTime getDMLRows

Integer

Integer

Returns the number of records that have been processed with any DML statement (insertions, deletions) or the database.EmptyRecycleBin method in the current context. Returns the total number of records that can be processed with any DML statement or the database.EmptyRecycleBin method in the current context. Returns the number of DML statements (such as insert, update or the database.EmptyRecycleBin method) that have been called in the current context. Returns the total number of DML statements or the database.EmptyRecycleBin methods that can be called in the current context. Returns the number of email invocations (such as sendEmail) that have been called in the current context. Returns the total number of email invocation (such as sendEmail) that can be called in the current context. Returns the number of field describe calls that have been made in the current context. Returns the total number of field describe calls that can be made in the current context. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getSoslQueries. The number of findSimilar methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of SOSL queries issued.

getLimitDMLRows

Integer

getDMLStatements

Integer

getLimitDMLStatements

Integer

getEmailInvocations getLimitEmailInvocations getFieldsDescribes getLimitFieldsDescribes getFindSimilarCalls

Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer

305

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
getLimitFindSimilarCalls

Return Type Integer

Description This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getLimitSoslQueries. The number of findSimilar methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of SOSL queries issued. Returns the number of methods with the future annotation that have been executed (not necessarily completed) in the current context. Returns the total number of methods with the future annotation that can be executed (not necessarily completed) in the current context. Returns the approximate amount of memory (in bytes) that has been used for the heap in the current context. Returns the total amount of memory (in bytes) that can be used for the heap in the current context. Returns the number of SOQL queries that have been issued in the current context. Returns the total number of SOQL queries that can be issued in the current context. Returns the number of PicklistEntry objects that have been returned in the current context. Returns the total number of PicklistEntry objects that can be returned in the current context. Returns the number of records that have been returned by the Database.getQueryLocator method in the current context. Returns the total number of records that have been returned by the Database.getQueryLocator method in the current context. Returns the number of records that have been returned by issuing SOQL queries in the current context. Returns the total number of records that can be returned by issuing SOQL queries in the current context. Returns the number of RecordTypeInfo objects that have been returned in the current context. Returns the total number of RecordTypeInfo objects that can be returned in the current context. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getDMLStatements. The number of RunAs methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getLimitDMLStatements.The number of RunAs methods

getFutureCalls

Integer

getLimitFutureCalls

Integer

getHeapSize getLimitHeapSize getQueries getLimitQueries getPicklistDescribes getLimitPicklistDescribes getQueryLocatorRows

Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer

getLimitQueryLocatorRows

Integer

getQueryRows getLimitQueryRows getRecordTypesDescribes getLimitRecordTypesDescribes getRunAs

Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer

getLimitRunAs

Integer

306

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Return Type

Description is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued.

getSavepointRollbacks

Integer

This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getDMLStatements. The number of Rollback methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getLimitDMLStatements. The number of Rollback methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getDMLStatements. The number of setSavepoint methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued. This method is deprecated. Returns the same value as getLimitDMLStatements.The number of setSavepoint methods is no longer a separate limit, but is tracked as the number of DML statements issued. Returns the number of Apex statements that have executed in the current context. Returns the total number of Apex statements that can execute in the current context. Returns the number of SOSL queries that have been issued in the current context. Returns the total number of SOSL queries that can be issued in the current context.

getLimitSavepointRollbacks

Integer

getSavepoints

Integer

getLimitSavepoints

Integer

getScriptStatements getLimitScriptStatements getSoslQueries getLimitSoslQueries

Integer Integer Integer Integer

Math Methods The following are the system static methods for Math. Name
abs abs abs

Arguments Decimal d Double d Integer i

Return Type Decimal Double Integer

Description Returns the absolute value of the specified Decimal Returns the absolute value of the specified Double Returns the absolute value of the specified Integer. For example:
Integer I = -42; Integer I2 = math.abs(I); system.assertEquals(I2, 42);

abs

Long l

Long

Returns the absolute value of the specified Long

307

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
acos acos asin asin atan atan atan2

Arguments Decimal d Double d Decimal d Double d Decimal d Double d Decimal x Decimal y

Return Type Decimal Double Decimal Double Decimal Double Decimal

Description Returns the arc cosine of an angle, in the range of 0.0 through pi Returns the arc cosine of an angle, in the range of 0.0 through pi Returns the arc sine of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2 Returns the arc sine of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2 Returns the arc tangent of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2 Returns the arc tangent of an angle, in the range of -pi/2 through pi/2 Converts rectangular coordinates (x and y) to polar (r and theta). This method computes the phase theta by computing an arc tangent of x/y in the range of -pi to pi Converts rectangular coordinates (x and y) to polar (r and theta). This method computes the phase theta by computing an arc tangent of x/y in the range of -pi to pi Returns the cube root of the specified Decimal. The cube root of a negative value is the negative of the cube root of that value's magnitude. Returns the cube root of the specified Double. The cube root of a negative value is the negative of the cube root of that value's magnitude. Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) Decimal that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) Double that is not less than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer Returns the trigonometric cosine of the angle specified by d Returns the trigonometric cosine of the angle specified by d Returns the hyperbolic cosine of d.The hyperbolic cosine of d is defined to be (ex + e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number. Returns the hyperbolic cosine of d.The hyperbolic cosine of d is defined to be (ex + e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number.

atan2

Double x Double y

Double

cbrt

Decimal d

Decimal

cbrt

Double d

Double

ceil

Decimal d

Decimal

ceil

Double d

Double

cos cos cosh

Decimal d Double d Decimal d

Decimal Double Decimal

cosh

Double d

Double

308

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
exp exp floor

Arguments Decimal d Double d Decimal d

Return Type Decimal Double Decimal

Description Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of the specified Decimal Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of the specified Double Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) Decimal that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) Double that is not greater than the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of the specified Decimal Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of the specified Double Returns the logarithm (base 10) of the specified Decimal Returns the logarithm (base 10) of the specified Double Returns the larger of the two specified Decimals. For example:
Decimal larger = math.max(12.3, 156.6); system.assertEquals(larger, 156.6);

floor

Double d

Double

log log log10 log10 max

Decimal d Double d Decimal d Double d Decimal d1 Decimal d2

Decimal Double Decimal Double Decimal

max

Double d1 Double d2

Double

Returns the larger of the two specified Doubles

max

Integer i1 Integer i2

Integer

Returns the larger of the two specified Integers

max

Long l1 Long l2

Long

Returns the larger of the two specified Longs

min

Decimal d1 Decimal d2

Decimal

Returns the smaller of the two specified Decimals. For example:


Decimal smaller = math.min(12.3, 156.6); system.assertEquals(smaller, 12.3);

min

Double d1 Double d2

Double

Returns the smaller of the two specified Doubles

min

Integer i1 Integer i2

Integer

Returns the smaller of the two specified Integers

min

Long l1 Long l2

Long

Returns the smaller of the two specified Longs

309

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
mod

Arguments Integer i1 Integer i2

Return Type Integer

Description Returns the remainder of i1 divided by i2. For example:


Integer remainder = math.mod(12, 2); system.assertEquals(remainder, 0); Integer remainder2 = math.mod(8, 3); system.assertEquals(remainder2, 2);

mod

Long L1 Long L2

Long

Returns the remainder of L1 divided by L2

pow

Double d Double exp

Double

Returns the value of the first Double raised to the power of exp Returns a positive Double that is greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0 Returns the value that is closest in value to d and is equal to a mathematical integer Returns the value that is closest in value to d and is equal to a mathematical integer Do not use. This method is deprecated as of the Winter '08 Release. Instead, use roundToLong or round. Returns the closest Integer to the specified Double by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type Integer. If the result is less than -2,147,483,648 or greater than 2,147,483,647, Apex generates an error. Returns the closest Integer to the specified Decimal by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type Integer Returns the closest Long to the specified Decimal by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type Long Returns the closest Long to the specified Double by adding 1/2, taking the floor of the result, and casting the result to type Long Returns the signum function of the specified Decimal, which is 0 if d is 0, 1.0 if d is greater than 0, -1.0 if d is less than 0 Returns the signum function of the specified Double, which is 0 if d is 0, 1.0 if d is greater than 0, -1.0 if d is less than 0 Returns the trigonometric sine of the angle specified by
d

random rint rint round

Double Decimal d Double d Double d Decimal Double Integer

round

Decimal d

Integer

roundToLong

Decimal d

Long

roundToLong

Double d

Long

signum

Decimal d

Decimal

signum

Double d

Double

sin sin

Decimal d Double d

Decimal Double

Returns the trigonometric sine of the angle specified by


d

310

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
sinh sinh sqrt sqrt tan tan tanh

Arguments Decimal d Double d Decimal d Double d Decimal d Double d Decimal d

Return Type Decimal Double Decimal Double Decimal Double Decimal

Description Returns the hyperbolic sine of d. The hyperbolic sine of d is defined to be (ex - e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number. Returns the hyperbolic sine of d. The hyperbolic sine of d is defined to be (ex - e-x)/2 where e is Euler's number. Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of d Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of d Returns the trigonometric tangent of the angle specified by d Returns the trigonometric tangent of the angle specified by d Returns the hyperbolic tangent of d. The hyperbolic tangent of d is defined to be (ex - e-x)/(ex + e-x) where e is Euler's number. In other words, it is equivalent to sinh(x)/cosinh(x). The absolute value of the exact tanh is always less than 1. Returns the hyperbolic tangent of d. The hyperbolic tangent of d is defined to be (ex - e-x)/(ex + e-x) where e is Euler's number. In other words, it is equivalent to sinh(x)/cosinh(x). The absolute value of the exact tanh is always less than 1.

tanh

Double d

Double

Package Methods A package version is a number that identifies the set of components uploaded in a package. The version number has the format majorNumber.minorNumber.patchNumber (for example, 2.1.3). The major and minor numbers increase to a chosen value during every major release. The patchNumber is generated and updated only for a patch release. If there is no patchNumber, it is assumed to be zero (0). The package methods are used by package developers to customize behavior for different package versions. They allow the package developer to continue to support existing behavior in classes and triggers in previous package versions while continuing to evolve the code. The package methods rely on special objects to allow a class to exhibit different behavior when it references different package versions. These objects can only be used in classes that are in a managed package. Package.Version.Request Apex classes and triggers are saved with the version settings for each installed managed package that the Apex class or trigger references. This context object represents the package version referenced by the class or trigger. Note: You cannot use the Package.Version.Request object in unmanaged packages.

Package.Version.majorNumber.minorNumber.patchNumber This object represents a package version referenced by the class or trigger.

311

Reference

Apex System Methods

For example, Package.Version.2.1 represents version 2.1 of the package. You can use this object together with Package.Version.Request to specify different behavior for different package versions. You can only use this object to refer to a Managed - Released package version. You cannot use it to reference Managed - Beta package versions. Note: The patchNumber cannot be referenced by the Apex package methods.

Name
isGreaterThan

Arguments Package Version


Package.Version.major.minor

Return Description Type Boolean Returns true if the package version is greater than the package version specified in the argument. For example:
if (Package.Version.Request == Package.Version.1.0) { // do something } else if (Package.Version.Request.isGreaterThan(Package.Version.2.0)) { // do something different } else if (Package.Version.Request.isGreaterThan(Package.Version.2.3)) { // do something completely different }

isGreaterThanOrEqual Package Version Boolean Returns true if the package version is greater than or equal to Package.Version.major.minor the package version specified in the argument. isLessThan

Package Version
Package.Version.major.minor

Boolean Returns true if the package version is less than the package version specified in the argument.

isLessThanOrEqual Package Version Boolean Returns true if the package version is less than or equal to the Package.Version.major.minor package version specified in the argument.

For more information, see Versioning Apex Code Behavior on page 195. Search Methods The following are the system static methods for Search. Name
query

Arguments String query

Return Type sObject[sObject[]]

Description Creates a dynamic SOSL query at runtime. This method can be used wherever a static SOSL query can be used, such as in regular assignment statements and for loops. For more information, see Dynamic SOQL on page 151.

312

Reference

Apex System Methods

System Methods The following are the static methods for System. Note: AnyDataType represents any primitive, object record, array, map, set, or the special value null.

Name
abortJob

Arguments String Job_ID

Return Type Void

Description Stops the specified job. The stopped job is still visible in the job queue in the Salesforce user interface. The Job_ID is the ID associated with either the AsyncApexJob or the CronTrigger. One of these IDs is returned by the following methods: System.schedule methodreturns the ID of the CronTrigger object associated with the scheduled job as a string. getTriggerId methodreturns the ID of the CronTrigger object associated with the scheduled job as a string. getJobIdmethodreturns the ID of the AsyncApexJob object associated with the batch job as a string. Database.executeBatch methodreturns the ID of the AsyncApexJob object associated with the batch job as a string. Asserts that condition is true. If it is not, a runtime exception is thrown with the optional second argument, opt_msg as part of its message. Asserts that the first two arguments, x and y are the same. If they are not, a runtime exception is thrown with the optional third argument, opt_msg as part of its message. Asserts that the first two arguments, x and y are different. If they are the same, a runtime exception is thrown with the optional third argument, opt_msg as part of its message. Returns a reference to the current page. This is used with Visualforce pages. For more information, see PageReference Class on page 356.

assert

Boolean
condition,

Void

Any data type


opt_msg

assertEquals

Any data type x, Any data type y, Any data type


opt_msg

Void

assertNotEquals Any data type x,

Void

Any data type y, Any data type


opt_msg

currentPageReference

System.PageReference

313

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
currentTimeMillis

Arguments

Return Type Long

Description Returns the current time in milliseconds (difference between the current time and midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC). Writes the argument msg, in string format, to the execution debug log. If you do not specify a log level, the DEBUG log level is used. This means that any debug method with no log level specified or a log level of ERROR, WARN, INFO or DEBUG is written to the debug log. Note that when a map or set is printed, the output is sorted in key order and is surrounded with square brackets ([]). When an array or list is printed, the output is enclosed in parentheses (()). Note: Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests. For more information on log levels, see Setting Debug Log Filters in the Salesforce online help.

debug

Any data type msg Void

debug

Enum logLevel Any data type msg

Void

Specifies the log level for all debug methods. Note: Calls to System.debug are not counted as part of Apex code coverage in unit tests. Valid log levels are (listed from lowest to highest):
ERROR WARN INFO DEBUG FINE FINER FINEST

Log levels are cumulative. For example, if the lowest level, ERROR is specified, only debug methods with the log level of ERROR are logged. If the next level, WARN, is specified, the debug log contains debug methods specified as either ERROR or WARN. In the following example, the string MsgTxt is not written to the debug log, because the

314

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description log level is ERROR, and the debug method has a level of INFO.
System.debug (Logginglevel.ERROR); System.debug(Logginglevel.INFO, 'MsgTxt');

For more information on log levels, see Setting Debug Log Filters in the Salesforce online help.
getApplication ReadWriteMode

system.ApplicationReadWriteMode Returns the read write mode set for an organization during Salesforce.com upgrades and downtimes. This method returns the enum system.ApplicationReadWriteMode. Valid values are: DEFAULT READ_ONLY
getApplicationReadWriteMode is

available as part of 5 Minute Upgrade. Note: 5 Minute Upgrade is currently available through a pilot program. For information on enabling 5 Minute Upgrade for your organization, contact salesforce.com.
now process

Datetime List<WorkItemIDs> List<Id>


WorkItemIDs

Returns the current date and time in the GMT time zone. Processes the list of work item IDs. For more information, see Apex Approval Processing Classes on page 403.

String Action String Comments String


NextApprover

resetPassword

ID userID Boolean
send_user_email

System.ResetPasswordResult

Resets the password for the specified user. When the user logs in with the new password, they are prompted to enter a new password and to select a security question and answer if they haven't already. If you specify true for send_user_email, the user is sent an email notifying them that their password was reset. A link to sign onto Salesforce using the new password is included in the email. Use setPassword if you don't

315

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description want the user to be prompted to enter a new password when they log in. Caution: Be careful with this method, and do not expose this functionality to end-users.

runAs

Package.version
version

Void

Changes the current package version to the package version specified in the argument. A package version is a number that identifies the set of components uploaded in a package. The version number has the format
majorNumber.minorNumber.patchNumber

(for example, 2.1.3). The major and minor numbers increase to a chosen value during every major release. The patchNumber is generated and updated only for a patch release. If there is no patchNumber, it is assumed to be zero (0). As well as a set of components, a package version encompasses specific behavior. A package developer can use package version methods to continue to support existing behavior in classes and triggers in previous package versions while continuing to evolve the code. Apex classes and triggers are saved with the version settings for each installed managed package that the Apex class or trigger references. This method is used for testing your component behavior in different package versions that you upload to the AppExchange. This method effectively sets the Package.Version.Request object in a test method so that you can test the behavior for different package versions. You can only use runAs in a test method. There is no limitation to the number of calls to this method in a transaction. For sample usage of this method, see Testing Behavior in Package Versions on page 196.
runAs

User user_var

Void

Changes the current user to the specified user. All of the specified user's permissions and record sharing are enforced during the execution of runAs. You can only use runAs in a test method. Note: The runAs method ignores user license limits. You can create new users with runAs even if your

316

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description organization has no additional user licenses. For more information, see Using the runAs Method on page 131. Note: Every call to runAs counts against the total number of DML statements issued in the process.

schedule

String JobName String


CronExpression

String

Object
schedulable_class

Use schedule with an Apex class that implements the Schedulable interface to schedule the class to run at the time specified by CronExpression. Use extreme care if you are planning to schedule a class from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more scheduled classes than the ten that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time. Note: Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. For more information see, Using the System.Schedule Method on page 319. Use the abortJob method to stop the job after it has been scheduled.

setPassword

ID userID String password

Void

Sets the password for the specified user. When the user logs in with this password, they are not prompted to create a new password. Use resetPassword if you want the user to go through the reset process and create their own password. Caution: Be careful with this method, and do not expose this functionality to end-users.

submit

List<WorkItemIDs> List<ID>
WorkItemIDs

String Comments String


NextApprover

Submits the processed approvals. For more information, see Apex Approval Processing Classes on page 403.

317

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name
today

Arguments

Return Type Date

Description Returns the current date in the current user's time zone.

System Logging Levels


Use the loggingLevel enum to specify the logging level for all debug methods. Valid log levels are (listed from lowest to highest):
ERROR WARN INFO DEBUG FINE FINER FINEST

Log levels are cumulative. For example, if the lowest level, ERROR is specified, only debug methods with the log level of ERROR are logged. If the next level, WARN, is specified, the debug log contains debug methods specified as either ERROR or WARN. In the following example, the string MsgTxt is not written to the debug log because the log level is ERROR and the debug method has a level of INFO:
System.LoggingLevel level = LoggingLevel.ERROR; System.debug(logginglevel.INFO, 'MsgTxt');

For more information on log levels, see Setting Debug Log Filters in the Salesforce online help.

Using the System.ApplicationReadWriteMode Enum


Use the System.ApplicationReadWriteMode enum returned by the getApplicationReadWriteMode to programmatically determine if the application is in read-only mode during Salesforce upgrades and downtimes. Note: 5 Minute Upgrade is currently available through a pilot program. For information on enabling 5 Minute Upgrade for your organization, contact salesforce.com. Valid values for the enum are:
DEFAULT READ_ONLY

Example:
public class myClass { public static void execute() { ApplicationReadWriteMode mode = System.getApplicationReadWriteMode(); // Update the account only if the application in running is in readonly mode. if (mode == ApplicationReadWriteMode.READ_ONLY) { // Do nothing. If DML operaton is attempted in readonly mode, InvalidReadOnlyUserDmlException // will be thrown. } else if (mode == ApplicationReadWriteMode.DEFAULT) {

318

Reference

Apex System Methods

Account account = new Account(name = 'my account'); insert account; } } }

Using the System.Schedule Method


After you implement a class with the Schedulable interface, use the System.Schedule method to execute it. The scheduler runs as system: all classes are executed, whether the user has permission to execute the class or not. Note: Use extreme care if you are planning to schedule a class from a trigger. You must be able to guarantee that the trigger will not add more scheduled classes than the ten that are allowed. In particular, consider API bulk updates, import wizards, mass record changes through the user interface, and all cases where more than one record can be updated at a time. The System.Schedule method takes three arguments: a name for the job, an expression used to represent the time and date the job is scheduled to run, and the name of the class. This expression has the following syntax:
Seconds Minutes Hours Day_of_month Month Day_of_week optional_year

Note: Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. The System.Schedule method uses the user's timezone for the basis of all schedules. The following are the values for the expression: Name
Seconds Minutes Hours Day_of_month Month

Values 059 059 023 131 112 or the following: JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 17 or the following: SUN MON

Special Characters None None


, - * / , - * ? / L W , - * /

Day_of_week

, - * ? / L #

319

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Values
TUE WED THU FRI SAT

Special Characters

optional_year

null or 19702099

, - * /

The special characters are defined as follows: Special Character


,

Description Delimits values. For example, use JAN, MAR, APR to specify more than one month. Specifies a range. For example, use JAN-MAR to specify more than one month. Specifies all values. For example, if Month is specified as *, the job is scheduled for every month. Specifies no specific value. This is only available for Day_of_month and Day_of_week, and is generally used when specifying a value for one and not the other. Specifies increments. The number before the slash specifies when the intervals should begin, and the number after the slash is the interval amount. For example, if you specify 1/5 for Day_of_month, the Apex class runs every fifth day of the month, starting on the first of the month. Specifies the end of a range (last). This is only available for Day_of_month and Day_of_week. When used with Day of month, L always means the last day of the month, such as January 31, February 28 for leap years, and so on. When used with Day_of_week by itself, it always means 7 or SAT. When used with a Day_of_week value, it means the last of that type of day in the month. For example, if you specify 2L, you are specifying the last Monday of the month. Do not use a range of values with L as the results may be unexpected. Specifies the nearest weekday (Monday-Friday) of the given day. This is only available for Day_of_month. For example, if you specify 20W, and the 20th is a Saturday, the class runs on the 19th. If you specify 1W, and the first is a Saturday, the class does not run in the previous month, but on the third, which is the following Monday. Tip: Use the L and W together to specify the last weekday of the month.

Specifies the nth day of the month, in the format weekday#day_of_month. This is only available for Day_of_week. The number before the # specifies weekday (SUN-SAT). The number after the # specifies the day of the month. For example, specifying 2#2 means the class runs on the second Monday of every month.

320

Reference

Apex System Methods

The following are some examples of how to use the expression. Expression
0 0 13 * * ? 0 0 22 ? * 6L 0 0 10 ? * MON-FRI 0 0 20 * * ? 2010

Description Class runs every day at 1 P.M. Class runs the last Friday of every month at 10 P.M. Class runs Monday through Friday at 10 A.M. Class runs every day at 8 P.M. during the year 2010.

In the following example, the class proschedule implements the Schedulable interface. The class is scheduled to run at 8 A.M., on the 13th of February.
proschedule p = new proschedule(); String sch = '0 0 8 13 2 ?'; system.schedule('One Time Pro', sch, p);

System.ResetPasswordResult Object
A System.ResetPasswordResult object is returned by the System.ResetPassword method. This can be used to access the generated password. The following is the instance method for the System.ResetPasswordResult object: Method
getPassword

Arguments

Returns String

Description Returns the password generated as a result of the


System.ResetPassword

method that instantiated this System.ResetPasswordResult object.

Test Methods The following are the system static methods for Test. Name
isRunningTest

Arguments

Return Type Description Boolean Returns true if the currently executing code was called by code contained in a method defined as testMethod, false otherwise. Use this method if you need to run different code depending on whether it was being called from a test. A Visualforce test method that sets the current PageReference for the controller. A Visualforce test method that sets the current PageReference for the controller. Defines a list of fixed search results to be returned by all subsequent SOSL statements

setCurrentPage

PageReference page

Void Void

setCurrentPageReference PageReference page

setFixedSearchResults ID[] Void opt_set_search_results

321

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type Description in a test method. If


opt_set_search_results is not specified,

all subsequent SOSL queries return no results. The list of record IDs specified by opt_set_search_results replaces the results that would normally be returned by the SOSL queries if they were not subject to any WHERE or LIMIT clauses. If these clauses exist in the SOSL queries, they are applied to the list of fixed search results. For more information, see Adding SOSL Queries to Unit Tests on page 133.
startTest

Void

Marks the point in your test code when your test actually begins. Use this method when you are testing governor limits. You can also use this method with stopTest to ensure that all asynchronous calls that come after the startTest method are run before doing any assertions or testing. Each testMethod is allowed to call this method only once. All of the code before this method should be used to initialize variables, populate data structures, and so on, allowing you to set up everything you need in order to run your test. After you call this method, the limits that get applied are based on either the first DML statement (like INSERT, DELETE, and so on) or the first Web service invocation. The following example tests trigger limits:
test.starttest(); // The first significant statement is below // Trigger context limits applied Account s = new Account(name='test'); insert s;

The following example tests webService limits:


test.starttest(); String holder = wsclass.executeWebService(foo);

stopTest

Void

Marks the point in your test code when your test ends. Use this method in conjunction with the startTest method. Each testMethod is allowed to call this method only once. After calling this method, any post assertions are

322

Reference

Apex System Methods

Name

Arguments

Return Type Description done in the original context. All asynchronous calls made after the startTest method are collected by the system. When stopTest is executed, all asynchronous processes are run synchronously. Note: Asynchronous calls, such as @future or executeBatch, called in a startTest, stopTest block, do not count against your limits for the number of queued jobs.

UserInfo Methods The following are the system static methods for UserInfo. Name
getDefaultCurrency getFirstName getLanguage getLastName getLocale

Arguments

Return Type String String String String String

Description Returns the context user's default currency code if their organization uses multiple currencies Returns the context user's first name Returns the context user's language Returns the context user's last name Returns the context user's locale. For example:
String result = UserInfo.getLocale(); System.assertEquals('en_US', result);

getName

String

Returns the context user's full name. The format of the name depends on the language preferences specified for the organization. The format is one of the following: FirstName LastName LastName, FirstName Returns the context organization's ID Returns the context organization's company name Returns the context user's profile ID Returns the session ID for the current session

getOrganizationId getOrganizationName getProfileId getSessionId

String String String String

323

Reference

Using Exception Methods

Name
getUiTheme

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the default organization theme. Use getUiThemeDisplayed to determine the theme actually displayed to the current user. Valid values are:
Theme1 Theme2 PortalDefault Webstore

getUiThemeDisplayed

String

Returns the theme being displayed for the current user. Valid values are:
Theme1 Theme2 PortalDefault Webstore

getUserId getUserName getUserRoleId getUserType

String String String String

Returns the context user's ID Returns the context user's login name Returns the context user's role ID Returns the context user's type Returns true if the context user has a license to the managed package denoted by namespace. Otherwise, returns false. A TypeException is thrown if namespace is an invalid parameter.

isCurrentUserLicensed String namespace Boolean

isMultiCurrencyOrganization

Boolean

Specifies whether the organization uses multiple currencies

Using Exception Methods


All exceptions support built-in methods for returning the error message and exception type. In addition to the standard exception class, there are several different types of exceptions: Exception
AsyncException CalloutException DmlException

Description Any issue with an asynchronous operation, such as failing to enqueue an asynchronous call. Any issue with a Web service operation, such as failing to make a callout to an external system. Any issue with a DML statement, such as an insert statement missing a required field on a record.

324

Reference

Using Exception Methods

Exception
EmailException

Description Any issue with email, such as failure to deliver. For more information, see Apex Email Classes on page 327. information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide.

InvalidParameterValueException Any issue with a URL. This is generally used with Visualforce pages. For more ListException MathException NoAccessException

Any issue with a list, such as attempting to access an index that is out of bounds. Any issue with a mathematical operation, such as dividing by zero. Any issue with unauthorized access, such as trying to access an sObject that the current user does not have access to. This is generally used with Visualforce pages. For more information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide. Any issue with data that does not exist, such as trying to access an sObject that has been deleted. This is generally used with Visualforce pages. For more information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide. Used specifically by the Iterator next method. This exception is thrown if you try to access items beyond the end of the list. For example, if iterator.hasNext() == false and you call iterator.next(), this exception is thrown. Any issue with dereferencing null, such as in the following code:
String s; s.toLowerCase(); // Since s is null, this call causes // a NullPointerException

NoDataFoundException

NoSuchElementException

NullPointerException

QueryException RequiredFeatureMissing SearchException

Any issue with SOQL queries, such as assigning a query that returns no records or more than one record to a singleton sObject variable. A Chatter feature is required for code that has been deployed to an organization that does not have Chatter enabled. Any issue with SOSL queries executed with the Force.com Web services API search() call, for example, when the searchString parameter contains less than two characters. For more information, see the Force.com Web services API Developer's Guide. Any issue with static methods in the Crypto utility class. For more information, see Crypto Class on page 383. Any issue with the serialization of data. This is generally used with Visualforce pages. For more information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide. Any issue with sObject records, such as attempting to change a field in an update statement that can only be changed during insert. Any issue with Strings, such as a String that is exceeding your heap size. Any issue with type conversions, such as attempting to convert the String 'a' to an Integer using the valueOf method. Any issue with a Visualforce page. For more information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide. Any issue with the XmlStream classes, such as failing to read or write XML. For more information, see XmlStream Classes on page 390.

SecurityException SerializationException SObjectException StringException TypeException VisualforceException XmlException

325

Reference

Using Exception Methods

The following is an example using the DmlException exception:


Account[] accts = new Account[]{new Account(billingcity = 'San Jose')}; try { insert accts; } catch (System.DmlException e) { for (Integer i = 0; i < e.getNumDml(); i++) { // Process exception here System.debug(e.getDmlMessage(i)); } }

Common Exception Methods


Exception methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of an exception. The table below describes all instance exception methods. All types of exceptions have the following methods in common: Name
getCause getLineNumber getMessage getStackTraceString getTypeName initCause setMessage

Arguments

Return Type Exception Integer String String String

Description Returns the cause of the exception as an exception object. Returns the line number from where the exception was thrown. Returns the error message that displays for the user. Returns the stack trace as a string. Returns the type of exception, such as DMLException, ListException, MathException, and so on. Sets the cause for the exception, if one has not already been set. Sets the error message that displays for the user

sObject Exception Void String s Void

DMLException and EmailException Methods


In addition to the common exception methods, DMLExceptions and EmailExceptions have the following additional methods: Name Arguments Return Type String [] Description Returns the names of the field or fields that caused the error described by the ith failed row.

getDmlFieldNames Integer i getDmlFields

Integer i

Schema.sObjectField Returns the field token or tokens for the field or fields [] that caused the error described by the ith failed row. For more information on field tokens, see Dynamic Apex on page 142. String Integer String String Returns the ID of the failed record that caused the error described by the ith failed row. Returns the original row position of the ith failed row. Returns the user message for the ith failed row. Deprecated. Use getDmlType instead. Returns the Apex failure code for the ith failed row.

getDmlId

Integer i Integer i Integer i

getDmlIndex getDmlMessage

getDmlStatusCode Integer i

326

Reference

Apex Classes

Name
getDmlType

Arguments Integer i

Return Type System.StatusCode

Description Returns the value of the System.StatusCode enum. For example:


try { insert new Account(); } catch (SystemDmlException ex) { System.assertEquals( StatusCode.REQUIRED_FIELD_MISSING, ex.getDmlType(0); }

For more information about System.StatusCode, see Enums on page 39.


getNumDml

Integer

Returns the number of failed rows for DML exceptions.

Apex Classes
Though you can create your classes using Apex, you can also use the system delivered classes for building your application. Apex Email Classes Exception Class Visualforce Classes Pattern and Matcher Classes HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes XML Classes Apex Approval Processing Classes BusinessHours Class Apex Community Classes Site Class Cookie Class

Apex Email Classes


Apex includes several classes and objects you can use to access Salesforce outbound and inbound email functionality. For more information, see the following: Inbound Email on page 337 Outbound Email on page 327

Outbound Email You can use Apex to send individual and mass email. The email can include all standard email attributes (such as subject line and blind carbon copy address), use Salesforce email templates, and be in plain text or HTML format, or those generated by Visualforce. Note: Visualforce email templates cannot be used for mass email.

327

Reference

Apex Email Classes

You can use Salesforce to track the status of email in HTML format, including the date the email was sent, first opened and last opened, and the total number of times it was opened. (For more information, see Tracking HTML Email in the Salesforce online help.) To send individual and mass email with Apex, use the following classes:
SingleEmailMessage

Instantiates an email object used for sending a single email message. The syntax is:
Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage();

MassEmailMessage

Instantiates an email object used for sending a mass email message. The syntax is:
Messaging.MassEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.MassEmailMessage();

Messaging

Includes the static sendEmail method, which sends the email objects you instantiate with either the SingleEmailMessage or MassEmailMessage classes, and returns a SendEmailResult object. The syntax for sending an email is:
Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.Email[] { mail } , opt_allOrNone);

where Email is either Messaging.SingleEmailMessage or Messaging.MassEmailMessage. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether sendEmail prevents delivery of all other messages when any of the messages fail due to an error (true), or whether it allows delivery of the messages that don't have errors (false). The default is true. Includes the static reserveMassEmailCapacity and reserveSingleEmailCapacity methods, which can be called before sending any emails to ensure that the sending organization won't exceed its daily email limit when the transaction is committed and emails are sent. The syntax is:
Messaging.reserveMassEmailCapacity(count);

and
Messaging.reserveSingleEmailCapacity(count);

where count indicates the total number of addresses that emails will be sent to. Note the following: The email is not sent until the Apex transaction is committed. The email address of the user calling the sendEmail method is inserted in the From Address field of the email header. All email that is returned, bounced, or received out-of-office replies goes to the user calling the method. Maximum of 10 sendEmail methods per transaction. Use the Limits methods to verify the number of sendEmail methods in a transaction. Single email messages sent with the sendEmail method count against the sending organization's daily single email limit. When this limit is reached, calls to the sendEmail method using SingleEmailMessage are rejected, and the user receives a SINGLE_EMAIL_LIMIT_EXCEEDED error code. However, single emails sent through the application are allowed.

328

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Mass email messages sent with the sendEmail method count against the sending organization's daily mass email limit. When this limit is reached, calls to the sendEmail method using MassEmailMessage are rejected, and the user receives a MASS_MAIL_LIMIT_EXCEEDED error code. Any error returned in the SendEmailResult object indicates that no email was sent.

Messaging.SingleEmailMessage has a method called setOrgWideEmailAddressId. It accepts an object ID to an OrgWideEmailAddress object. If setOrgWideEmailAddressId is passed a valid ID, the OrgWideEmailAddress.DisplayName field is used in the email header, instead of the logged-in user's Display Name. The sending email address in the header is also set to the field defined in OrgWideEmailAddress.Address.

Note: If both OrgWideEmailAddress.DisplayName and setSenderDisplayName are defined, the user receives a DUPLICATE_SENDER_DISPLAY_NAME error. For more information, see Organization-Wide Addresses in the Salesforce online help.

Example
// First, reserve email capacity for the current Apex transaction to ensure // that we won't exceed our daily email limits when sending email after // the current transaction is committed. Messaging.reserveSingleEmailCapacity(2); // Processes and actions involved in the Apex transaction occur next, // which conclude with sending a single email. // Now create a new single email message object // that will send out a single email to the addresses in the To, CC & BCC list. Messaging.SingleEmailMessage mail = new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage(); // Strings to hold the email addresses to which you are sending the email. String[] toAddresses = new String[] {'user@acme.com'}; String[] ccAddresses = new String[] {'smith@gmail.com'}; // Assign the addresses for the To and CC lists to the mail object. mail.setToAddresses(toAddresses); mail.setCcAddresses(ccAddresses); // Specify the address used when the recipients reply to the email. mail.setReplyTo('support@acme.com'); // Specify the name used as the display name. mail.setSenderDisplayName('Salesforce Support'); // Specify the subject line for your email address. mail.setSubject('New Case Created : ' + case.Id); // Set to True if you want to BCC yourself on the email. mail.setBccSender(false); // Optionally append the salesforce.com email signature to the email. // The email address of the user executing the Apex Code will be used. mail.setUseSignature(false); // Specify the text content of the email. mail.setPlainTextBody('Your Case: ' + case.Id +' has been created'); mail.setHtmlBody('Your case:<b> ' + case.Id +' </b>has been created<p>'+ ' View case <a href=https://na1.salesforce.com/'+case.Id+'>click here</a>'); // Send the email you have created. Messaging.sendEmail(new Messaging.SingleEmailMessage[] { mail });

329

Reference

Apex Email Classes

For more information, see the following: Base Email Methods on page 330 Single Email Message Methods on page 331 Mass Email Message Methods on page 333 EmailFileAttachment Methods on page 335 Messaging Methods on page 336 Messaging.SendEmailResult Object Methods on page 336 SendEmailError Object Methods on page 337

Base Email Methods The following table contains the email object methods used when sending both single and mass email. Note: If templates are not being used, all email content must be in plain text, HTML, or both.Visualforce email templates cannot be used for mass email.

Name
setBccSender

Argument Type Boolean

Returns Void

Description Indicates whether the email sender receives a copy of the email that is sent. For a mass mail, the sender is only copied on the first email sent. Note: If the BCC compliance option is set at the organization level, the user cannot add BCC addresses on standard messages.The following error code is returned: BCC_NOT_ALLOWED_IF_BCC_ COMPLIANCE_ENABLED. Contact your salesforce.com representative for information on BCC compliance.

setReplyTo setTemplateID

String ID

Void Void

Optional. The email address that receives the message when a recipient replies. The ID of the template to be merged to create this email. You must specify a value for setTemplateId, setHtmlBody, or setPlainTextBody. Or, you can define both setHtmlBody and setPlainTextBody. Optional. The default value is true, meaning the email is saved as an activity. This argument only applies if the recipient list is based on targetObjectId or targetObjectIds. If HTML email tracking is enabled for the organization, you will be able to track open rates. Optional. The name that appears on the From line of the email. This cannot be set if the object associated with a setOrgWideEmailAddressId for a

setSaveAsActivity

Boolean

Void

setSenderDisplayName

String

Void

330

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name

Argument Type

Returns

Description SingleEmailMessage has defined its DisplayName field.

setUseSignature

Boolean

Void

Indicates whether the email includes an email signature if the user has one configured. The default is true, meaning if the user has a signature it is included in the email unless you specify false.

Single Email Message Methods The following table contains the email object methods used when sending a single email. These are in addition to the base email methods. Name
setBccAddresses

Argument Type String[]

Returns Void

Description Optional. A list of blind carbon copy (BCC) addresses. The maximum allowed is 25. This argument is allowed only when a template is not used. At least one value must be specified in one of the following fields: toAddresses, ccAddresses, bccAddresses, targetObjectId, or targetObjectIds. If the BCC compliance option is set at the organization level, the user cannot add BCC addresses on standard messages.The following error code is returned: BCC_NOT_ALLOWED_IF_BCC_ COMPLIANCE_ENABLED. Contact your salesforce.com representative for information on BCC compliance.

setCcAddresses

String[]

Void

Optional. A list of carbon copy (CC) addresses. The maximum allowed is 25. This argument is allowed only when a template is not used. All email must have a recipient value of at least one of the following:
toAddresses ccAddresses bccAddresses targetObjectId targetObjectIds

setCharset setDocumentAttachments

String ID[]

Void Void

Optional. The character set for the email. If this value is null, the user's default value is used. Optional. A list containing the ID of each document object you want to attach to the email. You can attach multiple documents as long as

331

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name

Argument Type

Returns

Description the total size of all attachments does not exceed 10 MB.

setFileAttachments

EmailFileAttachment[] Void

Optional. A list containing the file names of the binary and text files you want to attach to the email. You can attach multiple files as long as the total size of all attachments does not exceed 10 MB. Optional. The HTML version of the email, specified by the sender. The value is encoded according to the specification associated with the organization. You must specify a value for setTemplateId, setHtmlBody, or setPlainTextBody. Or, you can define both setHtmlBody and setPlainTextBody. Optional. The In-Reply-To field of the outgoing email. Identifies the email or emails to which this one is a reply (parent emails). Contains the parent email or emails' message-IDs. Optional. The text version of the email, specified by the sender. You must specify a value for setTemplateId, setHtmlBody, or setPlainTextBody. Or, you can define both setHtmlBody and setPlainTextBody. Optional. The ID of the organization-wide email address associated with the outgoing email. The object's DisplayName field cannot be set if the setSenderDisplayName field is already set. Optional. The References field of the outgoing email. Identifies an email thread. Contains the parent emails' References and message IDs, and possibly the In-Reply-To fields. Optional. The email subject line. If you are using an email template, the subject line of the template overrides this value. Optional. The ID of the contact, lead, or user to which the email will be sent. The ID you specify sets the context and ensures that merge fields in the template contain the correct data. Do not specify the IDs of records that have the Email Opt Out option selected. All email must have a recipient value of at least one of the following:
toAddresses ccAddresses

setHtmlBody

String

Void

setInReplyTo

String

Void

setPlainTextBody

String

Void

setOrgWideEmailAddressId ID

Void

setReferences

String

Void

setSubject

String

Void

setTargetObjectId

ID

Void

332

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name

Argument Type

Returns

Description
bccAddresses targetObjectId targetObjectIds

setToAddresses

String[]

Void

Optional. A list of email address to which you are sending the email. The maximum number of email addresses allowed is 100. This argument is allowed only when a template is not used. All email must have a recipient value of at least one of the following:
toAddresses ccAddresses bccAddresses targetObjectId targetObjectIds

setWhatId

ID

Void

Optional. If you specify a contact for the targetObjectId field, you can specify a whatId as well. This helps to further ensure that merge fields in the template contain the correct data. The value must be one of the following types: Account Asset Campaign Case Contract Opportunity Order Product Solution Custom

Mass Email Message Methods The following table contains the unique email object methods used when sending mass email. These are in addition to the base email methods. Name
setDescription setTargetObjectIds

Argument Type String ID[]

Returns Void Void

Description The description of the email. A list of IDs of the contacts, leads, or users to which the email will be sent. The IDs you specify set the context and ensure that merge fields in the template contain the correct data. The objects must be of the same type (all contacts, all leads, or all users). You can list

333

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name

Argument Type

Returns

Description up to 250 IDs per email. If you specify a value for the targetObjectIds field, optionally specify a whatId as well to set the email context to a user, contact, or lead. This ensures that merge fields in the template contain the correct data. Do not specify the IDs of records that have the Email Opt Out option selected. All email must have a recipient value of at least one of the following:
toAddresses ccAddresses bccAddresses targetObjectId targetObjectIds

setWhatIds

ID[]

Void

Optional. If you specify a list of contacts for the targetObjectIds field, you can specify a list of whatIds as well. This helps to further ensure that merge fields in the template contain the correct data. The values must be one of the following types: Contract Case Opportunity Product Note: If you specify whatIds, specify one for each targetObjectId; otherwise, you will receive an INVALID_ID_FIELD error.

In addition, the Messaging.MassEmailMessage class has access to the base email message methods. Name
setBccSender

Argument Type Boolean

Returns Void

Description Indicates whether the email sender receives a copy of the email that is sent. For a mass mail, the sender is only copied on the first email sent. Note: If the BCC compliance option is set at the organization level, the user cannot add BCC addresses on standard messages.The following error code is returned: BCC_NOT_ALLOWED_IF_BCC_ COMPLIANCE_ENABLED. Contact

334

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name

Argument Type

Returns

Description your salesforce.com representative for information on BCC compliance.

setReplyTo setTemplateID

String ID

Void Void

Optional. The email address that receives the message when a recipient replies. The ID of the template to be merged to create this email. You must specify a value for setTemplateId, setHtmlBody, or setPlainTextBody. Or, you can define both setHtmlBody and setPlainTextBody. Optional. The default value is true, meaning the email is saved as an activity. This argument only applies if the recipient list is based on targetObjectId or targetObjectIds. If HTML email tracking is enabled for the organization, you will be able to track open rates. Optional. The name that appears on the From line of the email. This cannot be set if the object associated with a setOrgWideEmailAddressId for a SingleEmailMessage has defined its DisplayName field. Indicates whether the email includes an email signature if the user has one configured. The default is true, meaning if the user has a signature it is included in the email unless you specify false.

setSaveAsActivity

Boolean

Void

setSenderDisplayName

String

Void

setUseSignature

Boolean

Void

EmailFileAttachment Methods The EmailFileAttachment object is used in the SingleEmailMessage object to specify attachments passed in as part of the request, as opposed to existing documents in Salesforce. Name
setBody setContentType setFileName setInline

Argument Type Blob attachment String


content_type

Returns Void Void Void Void

Description The attachment itself. The attachment's Content-Type. The name of the file to attach. Specifies a Content-Disposition of inline (true) or attachment (false). In most cases, inline content is displayed to the user when the message is opened. Attachment content requires user action to be displayed.

String file_name Boolean


Content-Disposition

335

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Messaging Methods The following table contains the Messaging methods used when sending a single or mass email. Name Argument Type Returns Void Description Reserves email capacity to send mass email to the specified number of email addresses, after the current transaction commits. This method can be called when you know in advance how many addresses emails will be sent to as a result of the transaction. If the transaction would cause the organization to exceed its daily email limit, using this method results in the following error:
System.LimitException: The daily limit for the org would be exceeded by this request. reserveSingle Integer EmailCapacity AmountReserved

reserveMass Integer EmailCapacity AmountReserved

Void

Reserves email capacity to send single email to the specified number of email addresses, after the current transaction commits. This method can be called when you know in advance how many addresses emails will be sent to as a result of the transaction.If the transaction would cause the organization to exceed its daily email limit, using this method results in the following error:
System.LimitException: The daily limit for the org would be exceeded by this request.

sendEmail

Messaging.Email[] Boolean
allOrNothing

Messaging.SendEmailResult[] Sends the list of email objects instantiated with either SingleEmailMessage or MassEmailMessage and returns a SendEmailResult object. The optional opt_allOrNone parameter specifies whether sendEmail prevents delivery of all other messages when any of the messages fail due to an error (true), or whether it allows delivery of the messages that don't have errors (false). The default is true.

Messaging.SendEmailResult Object Methods The sendEmail method returns a list of SendEmailResult objects. Each SendEmailResult object has the following methods. These methods take no arguments. Name
getErrors isSuccess

Returns

Description

SendEmailError[] If an error occurred during the sendEmail method, a SendEmailError object is returned. Boolean Indicates whether the email was successfully submitted for delivery (true) or not (false). Even if isSuccess is true, it does not mean the intended recipients received the email, as there could have been a problem with the email address or it could have bounced or been blocked by a spam blocker.

336

Reference

Apex Email Classes

SendEmailError Object Methods The SendEmailResult object may contain a SendEmailError object, which has the following methods. These methods take no arguments. Name
getFields getMessage getStatusCode

Returns String[] String

Description A list of one or more field names. Identifies which fields in the object, if any, affected the error condition. The text of the error message.

System.StatusCode A code that characterizes the error. The full list of status codes is available in the WSDL file for your organization. For more information about accessing the WSDL file for your organization, see Downloading Salesforce WSDLs and Client Authentication Certificates in the Salesforce online help. The ID of the target record for which the error occurred.

getTargetObjectId String

Inbound Email You can use Apex to receive and process email and attachments. The email is received by the Apex email service, and processed by Apex classes that utilize the InboundEmail object. Note: The Apex email service is only available in Developer, Enterprise and Unlimited Edition organizations.

This section contains information about the following: What is the Apex Email Service? Using the InboundEmail Object InboundEmail Object InboundEmail.Header Object InboundEmail.BinaryAttachment Object InboundEmail.TextAttachment Object InboundEmailResult Object InboundEnvelope Object

What is the Apex Email Service? Email services are automated processes that use Apex classes to process the contents, headers, and attachments of inbound email. For example, you can create an email service that automatically creates contact records based on contact information in messages. You can associate each email service with one or more Salesforce-generated email addresses to which users can send messages for processing. To give multiple users access to a single email service, you can: Associate multiple Salesforce-generated email addresses with the email service and allocate those addresses to users. Associate a single Salesforce-generated email address with the email service, and write an Apex class that executes according to the user accessing the email service. For example, you can write an Apex class that identifies the user based on the user's email address and creates records on behalf of that user.

To use email services, click Your Name Setup Develop Email Services. Click New Email Service to define a new email service.

337

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Select an existing email service to view its configuration, activate or deactivate it, and view or specify addresses for that email service. Click Edit to make changes to an existing email service. Click Delete to delete an email service. Note: Before deleting email services, you must delete all associated email service addresses.

When defining email services, note the following: An email service only processes messages it receives at one of its addresses. Salesforce limits the total number of messages that all email services combined, including On-Demand Email-to-Case, can process daily. Messages that exceed this limit are bounced, discarded, or queued for processing the next day, depending on how you configure the failure response settings for each email service. Salesforce calculates the limit by multiplying the number of user licenses by 1,000. For example, if you have ten licenses, your organization can process up to 10,000 email messages a day. Email service addresses that you create in your sandbox cannot be copied to your production organization. For each email service, you can tell Salesforce to send error email messages to a specified address instead of the sender's email address. Email services rejects email messages and notifies the sender if the email (combined body text, body HTML and attachments) exceeds approximately 10 MB (varies depending on language and character set).

Using the InboundEmail Object For every email the Apex email service domain receives, Salesforce creates a separate InboundEmail object that contains the contents and attachments of that email. You can use Apex classes that implement the Messaging.InboundEmailHandler interface to handle an inbound email message. Using the handleInboundEmail method in that class, you can access an InboundEmail object to retrieve the contents, headers, and attachments of inbound email messages, as well as perform many functions.

Example 1: Create Tasks for Contacts


The following is an example of how you can look up a contact based on the inbound email address and create a new task.
global class CreateTaskEmailExample implements Messaging.InboundEmailHandler { global Messaging.InboundEmailResult handleInboundEmail(Messaging.inboundEmail email, Messaging.InboundEnvelope env){ // Create an inboundEmailResult object for returning the result of the Apex Email Service Messaging.InboundEmailResult result = new Messaging.InboundEmailResult(); String myPlainText= ''; // Add the email plain text into the local variable myPlainText = email.plainTextBody; // New Task object to be created Task[] newTask = new Task[0]; // Try to lookup any contacts based on the email from address // If there is more than 1 contact with the same email address, // an exception will be thrown and the catch statement will be called. try { Contact vCon = [Select Id, Name, Email

338

Reference

Apex Email Classes

From Contact Where Email = :email.fromAddress Limit 1]; // Add a new Task to the contact record we just found above. newTask.add(new Task(Description = myPlainText, Priority = 'Normal', Status = 'Inbound Email', Subject = email.subject, IsReminderSet = true, ReminderDateTime = System.now()+1, WhoId = vCon.Id)); // Insert the new Task insert newTask; System.debug('New Task Object: ' + newTask ); } // If an exception occurs when the query accesses // the contact record, a QueryException is called. // The exception is written to the Apex debug log. catch (QueryException e) { System.debug('Query Issue: ' + e); } // Set the result to true. No need to send an email back to the user // with an error message result.success = true; // Return the result for the Apex Email Service return result; } }

InboundEmail Object An InboundEmail object has the following fields. Name


binaryAttachments

Type

Description

InboundEmail.BinaryAttachment[] A list of binary attachments received with the email, if any Examples of binary attachments include image, audio, application, and video files.

ccAddresses fromAddress fromName headers

String[] String String InboundEmail.Header[]

A list of carbon copy (CC) addresses, if any The email address that appears in the From field The name that appears in the From field, if any A list of the RFC 2822 headers in the email, including: Recieved from Custom headers Message-ID Date

339

Reference

Apex Email Classes

Name
htmlBody htmlBodyIsTruncated inReplyTo

Type String Boolean String

Description The HTML version of the email, if specified by the sender Indicates whether the HTML body text is truncated (true) or not (false). The In-Reply-To field of the incoming email. Identifies the email or emails to which this one is a reply (parent emails). Contains the parent email or emails' message-IDs. The Message-IDthe incoming email's unique identifier The plain text version of the email, if specified by the sender Indicates whether the plain body text is truncated (true) or not (false). The References field of the incoming email. Identifies an email thread. Contains a list of the parent emails' References and message IDs, and possibly the In-Reply-To fields. The email address that appears in the reply-to header If there is no reply-to header, this field is identical to the fromAddress field.

messageId plainTextBody

String String

plainTextBodyIsTruncated Boolean references

String []

replyTo

String

subject textAttachments

String InboundEmail.TextAttachment[]

The subject line of the email, if any A list of text attachments received with the email, if any The text attachments can be any of the following: Attachments with a Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) type of text Attachments with a MIME type of application/octet-stream and a file name that ends with either a .vcf or .vcs extension. These are saved as text/x-vcard and text/calendar MIME types, respectively.

toAddresses

String[]

The email address that appears in the To field

InboundEmail.Header Object An InboundEmail object stores RFC 2822 email header information in an InboundEmail.Header object with the following fields. Name
name value

Type String String

Description The name of the header parameter, such as Date or Message-ID The value of the header

340

Reference

Apex Email Classes

InboundEmail.BinaryAttachment Object An InboundEmail object stores binary attachments in an InboundEmail.BinaryAttachment object. Examples of binary attachments include image, audio, application, and video files. An InboundEmail.BinaryAttachment object has the following fields. Name
body fileName mimeTypeSubType

Type Blob String String

Description The body of the attachment The name of the attached file The primary and sub MIME-type

InboundEmail.TextAttachment Object An InboundEmail object stores text attachments in an InboundEmail.TextAttachment object. The text attachments can be any of the following: Attachments with a Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) type of text Attachments with a MIME type of application/octet-stream and a file name that ends with either a .vcf or .vcs extension. These are saved as text/x-vcard and text/calendar MIME types, respectively.

An InboundEmail.TextAttachment object has the following fields. Name


body bodyIsTruncated charset fileName mimeTypeSubType

Type String Boolean String String String

Description The body of the attachment Indicates whether the attachment body text is truncated (true) or not (false). The original character set of the body field. The body is re-encoded as UTF-8 as input to the Apex method. The name of the attached file The primary and sub MIME-type

InboundEmailResult Object The InboundEmailResult object is used to return the result of the email service. If this object is null, the result is assumed to be successful. The InboundEmailResult object has the following fields. Name
success

Type Boolean

Description A value that indicates whether the email was successfully processed. If false, Salesforce rejects the inbound email and sends a reply email to the original sender containing the message specified in the Message field.

message

String

A message that Salesforce returns in the body of a reply email. This field can be populated with text irrespective of the value returned by the Success field.

341

Reference

Exception Class

InboundEnvelope Object The InboundEnvelope object stores the envelope information associated with the inbound email, and has the following fields. Name
toAddress fromAddress

Type String String

Description The name that appears in the To field of the envelope, if any The name that appears in the From field of the envelope, if any

Exception Class
You can create your own exception classes in Apex. Exceptions can be top-level classes, that is, they can have member variables, methods and constructors, they can implement interfaces, and so on. Exceptions that you create behave as any other standard exception type, and can be thrown and caught as expected. User-defined exception class names must end with the string exception, such as MyException, PurchaseException and so on. All exception classes automatically extend the system-defined base class exception. For example, the following code defines an exception type within an anonymous block:
public class MyException extends Exception {} try { Integer i; // Your code here if (i < 5) throw new MyException(); } catch (MyException e) { // Your MyException handling code here }

Like Java classes, user-defined exception types can form an inheritance tree, and catch blocks can catch any portion. For example:
public class BaseException extends Exception {} public class OtherException extends BaseException {} try { Integer i; // Your code here if (i < 5) throw new OtherException('This is bad'); } catch (BaseException e) { // This catches the OtherException }

This section contains the following topics: Constructing an Exception Using Exception Variables

See also Using Exception Methods. Constructing an Exception You can construct exceptions:

342

Reference

Exception Class

With no arguments:
new MyException();

With a single String argument that specifies the error message:


new MyException('This is bad');

With a single Exception argument that specifies the cause and that displays in any stack trace:
new MyException(e);

With both a String error message and a chained exception cause that displays in any stack trace:
new MyException('This is bad', e);

For example the following code generates a stack trace with information about both My1Exception and My2Exception:
public class My1Exception extends Exception {} public class My2Exception extends Exception {} try { throw new My1Exception(); } catch (My1Exception e) { throw new My2Exception('This is bad', e); }

The following figure shows the stack trace that results from running the code above:

Figure 12: Stack Trace For Exceptions (From Debug Log)

343

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Using Exception Variables As in Java, variables, arguments, and return types can be declared of type Exception, which is a system-defined based class in Apex. For example:
Exception e1; try { String s = null; s.tolowercase(); // This will generate a null pointer exception... } catch (System.NullPointerException e) { e1 = e; // ...which can be assigned to a variable, or passed // into or out of another method }

Visualforce Classes
In addition to giving developers the ability to add business logic to Salesforce system events such as button clicks and related record updates, Apex can also be used to provide custom logic for Visualforce pages through custom Visualforce controllers and controller extensions: A custom controller is a class written in Apex that implements all of a page's logic, without leveraging a standard controller. If you use a custom controller, you can define new navigation elements or behaviors, but you must also reimplement any functionality that was already provided in a standard controller. Like other Apex classes, custom controllers execute entirely in system mode, in which the object and field-level permissions of the current user are ignored. You can specify whether a user can execute methods in a custom controller based on the user's profile. A controller extension is a class written in Apex that adds to or overrides behavior in a standard or custom controller. Extensions allow you to leverage the functionality of another controller while adding your own custom logic. Because standard controllers execute in user mode, in which the permissions, field-level security, and sharing rules of the current user are enforced, extending a standard controller allows you to build a Visualforce page that respects user permissions. Although the extension class executes in system mode, the standard controller executes in user mode. As with custom controllers, you can specify whether a user can execute methods in a controller extension based on the user's profile. This section includes information about the system-supplied Apex classes that can be used when building custom Visualforce controllers and controller extensions. These include:
Action Class Message Class PageReference Class SelectOption Class StandardController Class StandardSetController Class

In addition to these classes, the transient keyword can be used when declaring methods in controllers and controller extensions. For more information, see Using the transient Keyword on page 110. For more information on Visualforce, see the Visualforce Developer's Guide.
Action Class

You can use an ApexPages.Action class to create an action method that you can use in a Visualforce custom controller or controller extension. For example, you could create a saveOver method on a controller extension that performs a custom save.

344

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Instantiation
The following code snippet illustrates how to instantiate a new ApexPages.Action object that uses the save action:
ApexPages.Action saveAction = new ApexPages.Action('{!save}');

Methods
The action methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of Action. The table below describes the instance methods for Action. Name
getExpression invoke

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the expression that is evaluated when the action is invoked.

System.PageReference Invokes the action.

Example
In the following example, when the user updates or creates a new Account and clicks the Save button, in addition to the account being updated or created, the system writes a message to the system debug log. This example extends the standard controller for Account. The following is the controller extension.
public class myCon{ public PageReference RedirectToStep2(){ ... ... return Page.Step2; } }

The following is the Visualforce markup for a page that uses the above controller extension.

<apex:component> <apex:attribute name="actionToInvoke" type="ApexPages.Action" .... /> ... <apex:commandButton value="Perform Controller Action" action="{!actionToInvoke}"/> ... </apex:component> <apex:page controller="pageCon"> <c:myComp actionToInvoke="{!RedirectToStep2}"/> ... </apex:page>

For information on the debug log, see Viewing Debug Logs in the Salesforce online help. IdeaStandardController Class IdeaStandardController objects offer Ideas-specific functionality in addition to what is provided by the StandardController Class.

345

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Note: The IdeaStandardSetController and IdeaStandardController classes are currently available through a limited release program. For information on enabling these classes for your organization, contact your salesforce.com representative.

Instantiation
An IdeaStandardController object cannot be instantiated. An instance can be obtained through a constructor of a custom extension controller when using the standard ideas controller.

Methods
A method in the IdeaStandardController object is called by and operated on a particular instance of an IdeaStandardController. The table below describes the instance method for IdeaStandardController. Name
getCommentList

Arguments

Return Type IdeaComment[]

Description Returns the list of read-only comments from the current page. This method returns the following comment properties: id commentBody createdDate createdBy.Id createdBy.communityNickname

In addition to the method listed above, the IdeaStandardController class inherits all the methods associated with the StandardController Class. The following table lists these methods. Name
addFields

Arguments List<String>
fieldNames

Return Type Void

Description When a Visualforce page is loaded, the fields accessible to the page are based on the fields referenced in the Visualforce markup. This method adds a reference to each field specified in fieldNames so that the controller can explicitly access those fields as well.. This method should be called before a record has been loadedtypically, it's called by the controller's constructor. If this method is called outside of the constructor, you must use the reset() method before calling addFields(). The strings in fieldNames can either be the API name of a field, such as AccountId, or they can be explicit relationships to fields, such as foo__r.myField__c. This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

cancel delete

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the cancel page. System.PageReference Deletes record and returns the PageReference of the delete page.

346

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name
edit getId

Arguments

Return Type

Description

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the standard edit page. String Returns the ID of the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Returns the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Note that only the fields that are referenced in the associated Visualforce markup are available for querying on this SObject. All other fields, including fields from any related objects, must be queried using a SOQL expression. Tip: You can work around this restriction by including a hidden component that references any additional fields that you want to query. Hide the component from display by setting the component's rendered attribute to false. For example:
<apex:outputText value="{!account.billingcity} {!account.contacts}" rendered="false"/>

getRecord

SObject

reset

Void

Forces the controller to reacquire access to newly referenced fields. Any changes made to the record prior to this method call are discarded. This method is only used if addFields is called outside the constructor, and it must be called directly before addFields. This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

save view

System.PageReference Saves changes and returns the updated PageReference. System.PageReference Returns the PageReference object of the standard detail page.

Example
The following example shows how an IdeaStandardController object can be used in the constructor for a custom list controller. This example provides the framework for manipulating the comment list data before displaying it on a Visualforce page.
public class MyIdeaExtension { private final ApexPages.IdeaStandardController ideaController; public MyIdeaExtension(ApexPages.IdeaStandardController controller) { ideaController = (ApexPages.IdeaStandardController)controller;

347

Reference

Visualforce Classes

} public List<IdeaComment> getModifiedComments() { IdeaComment[] comments = ideaController.getCommentList(); // modify comments here return comments; } }

The following Visualforce markup shows how the IdeaStandardController example shown above can be used in a page. This page must be named detailPage for this example to work. Note: For the Visualforce page to display the idea and its comments, in the following example you need to specify the ID of a specific idea (for example, /apex/detailPage?id=<ideaID>) whose comments you want to view.

<!-- page named detailPage --> <apex:page standardController="Idea" extensions="MyIdeaExtension"> <apex:pageBlock title="Idea Section"> <ideas:detailOutputLink page="detailPage" ideaId="{!idea.id}">{!idea.title} </ideas:detailOutputLink> <br/><br/> <apex:outputText >{!idea.body}</apex:outputText> </apex:pageBlock> <apex:pageBlock title="Comments Section"> <apex:dataList var="a" value="{!modifiedComments}" id="list"> {!a.commentBody} </apex:dataList> <ideas:detailOutputLink page="detailPage" ideaId="{!idea.id}" pageOffset="-1">Prev</ideas:detailOutputLink> | <ideas:detailOutputLink page="detailPage" ideaId="{!idea.id}" pageOffset="1">Next</ideas:detailOutputLink> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

See Also:
Ideas Class
IdeaStandardSetController Class

IdeaStandardSetController objects offer Ideas-specific functionality in additional to what is provided by the StandardSetController Class. Note: The IdeaStandardSetController and IdeaStandardController classes are currently available through a limited release program. For information on enabling these classes for your organization, contact your salesforce.com representative.

Instantiation
An IdeaStandardSetController object cannot be instantiated. An instance can be obtained through a constructor of a custom extension controller when using the standard list controller for ideas.

Methods
A method in the IdeaStandardSetController object is called by and operated on a particular instance of an IdeaStandardSetController.

348

Reference

Visualforce Classes

The table below describes the instance method for IdeaStandardSetController. Name
getIdeaList

Arguments

Return Type Idea[]

Description Returns the list of read-only ideas in the current page set. You can use the <ideas:listOutputLink>, <ideas:profileListOutputLink>, and <ideas:detailOutputLink> components to display profile pages as well as idea list and detail pages (see the examples below). The following is a list of properties returned by this method: Body Categories Category CreatedBy.CommunityNickname CreatedBy.Id CreatedDate Id LastCommentDate LastComment.Id LastComment.CommentBody LastComment.CreatedBy.Id LastComment.CreatedBy.CommunityNickname NumComments Status Title VoteTotal

In addition to the method listed above, the IdeaStandardSetController class inherits the methods associated with the StandardSetController Class. Note: The methods inherited from the StandardSetController Class cannot be used to affect the list of ideas returned by the getIdeaList method. The following table lists the inherited methods. Name
cancel first getCompleteResult

Arguments

Return Type

Description

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the original page, if known, or the home page. Void Boolean Returns the first page of records. Indicates whether there are more records in the set than the maximum record limit. If this is false, there are more records than you can process using the list controller. The maximum record limit is 10,000 records. Returns the ID of the filter that is currently in context. Indicates whether there are more records after the current page set.

getFilterId getHasNext

String Boolean

349

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name
getHasPrevious getListViewOptions getPageNumber getPageSize getRecord

Arguments

Return Type Boolean

Description Indicates whether there are more records before the current page set.

System.SelectOption[] Returns a list of the listviews available to the current user. Integer Integer sObject Returns the page number of the current page set. Note that the first page returns 1. Returns the number of records included in each page set. Returns the sObject that represents the changes to the selected records.This retrieves the prototype object contained within the class, and is used for performing mass updates. Returns the list of sObjects in the current page set. This list is immutable, i.e. you can't call clear() on it. Returns the number of records in the set. Returns the list of sObjects that have been selected. Returns the last page of records. Returns the next page of records. Returns the previous page of records.

getRecords

sObject[] Integer sObject[] Void Void Void

getResultSize getSelected last next previous save

System.PageReference Inserts new records or updates existing records that have been changed. After this operation is finished, it returns a PageReference to the original page, if known, or the home page. String filterId Void Sets the filter ID of the controller. Sets the page number. Sets the number of records in each page set. Set the selected records.

setFilterID setpageNumber setPageSize setSelected

Integer pageNumber Void Integer pageSize sObjects[]


selectedRecords

Void Void

Example: Displaying a Profile Page


The following example shows how an IdeaStandardSetController object can be used in the constructor for a custom list controller:
public class MyIdeaProfileExtension { private final ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController ideaSetController; public MyIdeaProfileExtension(ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController controller) { ideaSetController = (ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController)controller; } public List<Idea> getModifiedIdeas() { Idea[] ideas = ideaSetController.getIdeaList(); // modify ideas here return ideas;

350

Reference

Visualforce Classes

} }

The following Visualforce markup shows how the IdeaStandardSetController example shown above and the <ideas:profileListOutputLink> component can display a profile page that lists the recent replies, submitted ideas, and votes associated with a user. Because this example does not identify a specific user ID, the page automatically shows the profile page for the current logged in user. This page must be named profilePage in order for this example to work:
<!-- page named profilePage --> <apex:page standardController="Idea" extensions="MyIdeaProfileExtension" recordSetVar="ideaSetVar"> <apex:pageBlock > <ideas:profileListOutputLink sort="recentReplies" page="profilePage"> Recent Replies</ideas:profileListOutputLink> | <ideas:profileListOutputLink sort="ideas" page="profilePage">Ideas Submitted </ideas:profileListOutputLink> | <ideas:profileListOutputLink sort="votes" page="profilePage">Ideas Voted </ideas:profileListOutputLink> </apex:pageBlock> <apex:pageBlock > <apex:dataList value="{!modifiedIdeas}" var="ideadata"> <ideas:detailoutputlink ideaId="{!ideadata.id}" page="viewPage"> {!ideadata.title}</ideas:detailoutputlink> </apex:dataList> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

In the previous example, the <ideas:detailoutputlink> component links to the following Visualforce markup that displays the detail page for a specific idea. This page must be named viewPage in order for this example to work:
<!-- page named viewPage --> <apex:page standardController="Idea"> <apex:pageBlock title="Idea Section"> <ideas:detailOutputLink page="viewPage" ideaId="{!idea.id}">{!idea.title} </ideas:detailOutputLink> <br/><br/> <apex:outputText>{!idea.body}</apex:outputText> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

Example: Displaying a List of Top, Recent, and Most Popular Ideas and Comments
The following example shows how an IdeaStandardSetController object can be used in the constructor for a custom list controller: Note: You must have created at least one idea for this example to return any ideas.

public class MyIdeaListExtension { private final ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController ideaSetController; public MyIdeaListExtension (ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController controller) { ideaSetController = (ApexPages.IdeaStandardSetController)controller; } public List<Idea> getModifiedIdeas() { Idea[] ideas = ideaSetController.getIdeaList();

351

Reference

Visualforce Classes

// modify ideas here return ideas; } }

The following Visualforce markup shows how the IdeaStandardSetController example shown above can be used with the <ideas:listOutputLink> component to display a list of recent, top, and most popular ideas and comments. This page must be named listPage in order for this example to work:
<!-- page named listPage --> <apex:page standardController="Idea" extensions="MyIdeaListExtension" recordSetVar="ideaSetVar"> <apex:pageBlock > <ideas:listOutputLink sort="recent" page="listPage">Recent Ideas </ideas:listOutputLink> | <ideas:listOutputLink sort="top" page="listPage">Top Ideas </ideas:listOutputLink> | <ideas:listOutputLink sort="popular" page="listPage">Popular Ideas </ideas:listOutputLink> | <ideas:listOutputLink sort="comments" page="listPage">Recent Comments </ideas:listOutputLink> </apex:pageBlock> <apex:pageBlock > <apex:dataList value="{!modifiedIdeas}" var="ideadata"> <ideas:detailoutputlink ideaId="{!ideadata.id}" page="viewPage"> {!ideadata.title}</ideas:detailoutputlink> </apex:dataList> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

In the previous example, the <ideas:detailoutputlink> component links to the following Visualforce markup that displays the detail page for a specific idea. This page must be named viewPage.
<!-- page named viewPage --> <apex:page standardController="Idea"> <apex:pageBlock title="Idea Section"> <ideas:detailOutputLink page="viewPage" ideaId="{!idea.id}">{!idea.title} </ideas:detailOutputLink> <br/><br/> <apex:outputText>{!idea.body}</apex:outputText> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

See Also:
Ideas Class KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController Class KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController objects offer article-specific functionality in addition to what is provided by the StandardController Class.

Methods
The KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController object has the following specialized instance methods:

352

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name
getSourceId

Arguments

Return Type String Void

Description Returns the ID for the source object record when creating a new article from another object. Specify a default data category for the specified data category group when creating a new article.

setDataCategory String categoryGroup

String category

In addition to the method listed above, the KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController class inherits all the methods associated with the StandardController Class. The following table lists the inherited methods. Note: Though inherited, the edit, delete, and save methods don't serve a function when used with the KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController class.

Name
addFields

Arguments List<String>
fieldNames

Return Type Void

Description When a Visualforce page is loaded, the fields accessible to the page are based on the fields referenced in the Visualforce markup. This method adds a reference to each field specified in fieldNames so that the controller can explicitly access those fields as well.. This method should be called before a record has been loadedtypically, it's called by the controller's constructor. If this method is called outside of the constructor, you must use the reset() method before calling addFields(). The strings in fieldNames can either be the API name of a field, such as AccountId, or they can be explicit relationships to fields, such as foo__r.myField__c. This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

cancel delete edit getId

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the cancel page. System.PageReference Deletes record and returns the PageReference of the delete page. System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the standard edit page. String Returns the ID of the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Returns the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Note that only the fields that are referenced in the associated Visualforce markup are available for querying on this SObject. All other fields, including fields from any related objects, must be queried using a SOQL expression.

getRecord

SObject

353

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description Tip: You can work around this restriction by including a hidden component that references any additional fields that you want to query. Hide the component from display by setting the component's rendered attribute to false. For example:
<apex:outputText value="{!account.billingcity} {!account.contacts}" rendered="false"/>

reset

Void

Forces the controller to reacquire access to newly referenced fields. Any changes made to the record prior to this method call are discarded. This method is only used if addFields is called outside the constructor, and it must be called directly before addFields. This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

save view

System.PageReference Saves changes and returns the updated PageReference. System.PageReference Returns the PageReference object of the standard detail page.

Example
The following example shows how a KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController object can be used to create a custom extension controller. In this example, you create a class named AgentContributionArticleController that allows customer-support agents to see pre-populated fields on the draft articles they create while closing cases. Prerequisites: 1. Create an article type called FAQ. For instructions, see Defining Article Types in the Salesforce online help. 2. Create a text custom field called Details. For instructions, see Adding Custom Fields to Article Types in the Salesforce online help. 3. Create a category group called Geography and assign it to a category called USA. For instructions, see Creating and Modifying Category Groups in the Salesforce online help and Adding Data Categories to Category Groups in the Salesforce online help. 4. Create a category group called Topics and assign it a category called Maintenance.
/** Custom extension controller for the simplified article edit page that appears when an article is created on the close-case page. */ public class AgentContributionArticleController { // The constructor must take a ApexPages.KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController as an argument public AgentContributionArticleController( ApexPages.KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController ctl) { // This is the SObject for the new article. //It can optionally be cast to the proper article type. // For example, FAQ__kav article = (FAQ__kav) ctl.getRecord();

354

Reference

Visualforce Classes

SObject article = ctl.getRecord(); // This returns the ID of the case that was closed. String sourceId = ctl.getSourceId(); Case c = [select subject, description from Case where id=:sourceId]; // This overrides the default behavior of pre-filling the // title of the article with the subject of the closed case. article.put('title', 'From Case: '+c.subject); article.put('details__c',c.description); // Only one category per category group can be specified. ctl.selectDataCategory('Geography','USA'); ctl.selectDataCategory('Topics','Maintenance'); } /** Test for this custom extension controller */ public static testMethod void testAgentContributionArticleController() { String caseSubject = 'my test'; String caseDesc = 'my test description'; Case c = new Case(); c.subject= caseSubject; c.description = caseDesc; insert c; String caseId = c.id; System.debug('Created Case: ' + caseId); ApexPages.currentPage().getParameters().put('sourceId', caseId); ApexPages.currentPage().getParameters().put('sfdc.override', '1'); ApexPages.KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController ctl = new ApexPages.KnowledgeArticleVersionStandardController(new FAQ__kav()); new AgentContributionArticleController(ctl); System.assertEquals(caseId, ctl.getSourceId()); System.assertEquals('From Case: '+caseSubject, ctl.getRecord().get('title')); System.assertEquals(caseDesc, ctl.getRecord().get('details__c')); } }

If you created the custom extension controller for the purpose described in the previous example (that is, to modify submitted-via-case articles), complete the following steps after creating the class: 1. Log into your Salesforce organization and click Your Name Setup Customize Knowledge Settings. 2. Click Edit. 3. Assign the class to the Use Apex customization field. This associates the article type specified in the new class with the article type assigned to closed cases. 4. Click Save.
Message Class

When using a standard controller, all validation errors, both custom and standard, that occur when the end user saves the page are automatically added to the page error collections. If there is an inputField component bound to the field with an error, the message is added to the components error collection. All messages are added to the pages error collection. For more information, see Validation Rules and Standard Controllers in the Visualforce Developer's Guide. If your application uses a custom controller or extension, you must use the message class for collecting errors.

355

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Instantiation
In a custom controller or controller extension, you can instantiate a Message in one of the following ways:
ApexPages.Message myMsg = new ApexPages.Message(ApexPages.severity, summary);

where ApexPages.severity is the enum that is determines how severe a message is, and summary is the String used to summarize the message. For example:
ApexPages.Message myMsg = new ApexPages.Message(ApexPages.Severity.FATAL, 'my error msg');

ApexPages.Message myMsg = new ApexPages.Message(ApexPages.severity, summary, detail);

where ApexPages. severity is the enum that is determines how severe a message is, summary is the String used to summarize the message, and detail is the String used to provide more detailed information about the error.

Methods
The Message methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of Message. The table below describes the instance methods for Message. Name
getComponentLabel

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Returns the label of the associated inputField component. If no label is defined, this method returns null. Returns the value of the detail parameter used to create the message. If no detail String was specified, this method returns null. Returns the severity enum used to create the message. Returns the summary String used to create the message.

getDetail

String

getSeverity getSummary

ApexPages.Severity String

ApexPages.Severity Enum
Using the ApexPages.Severity enum values, specify the severity of the message. The following are the valid values:
CONFIRM ERROR FATAL INFO WARNING

All enums have access to standard methods, such as name and value.
PageReference Class

A PageReference is a reference to an instantiation of a page. Among other attributes, PageReferences consist of a URL and a set of query parameter names and values. Use a PageReference object: To view or set query string parameters and values for a page To navigate the user to a different page as the result of an action method

356

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Instantiation
In a custom controller or controller extension, you can refer to or instantiate a PageReference in one of the following ways:
Page.existingPageName

Refers to a PageReference for a Visualforce page that has already been saved in your organization. By referring to a page in this way, the platform recognizes that this controller or controller extension is dependent on the existence of the specified page and will prevent the page from being deleted while the controller or extension exists.
PageReference pageRef = new PageReference('partialURL');

Creates a PageReference to any page that is hosted on the Force.com platform. For example, setting 'partialURL' to '/apex/HelloWorld' refers to the Visualforce page located at http://mySalesforceInstance/apex/HelloWorld. Likewise, setting 'partialURL' to '/' + 'recordID' refers to the detail page for the specified record. This syntax is less preferable for referencing other Visualforce pages than Page.existingPageName because the PageReference is constructed at runtime, rather than referenced at compile time. Runtime references are not available to the referential integrity system. Consequently, the platform doesn't recognize that this controller or controller extension is dependent on the existence of the specified page and won't issue an error message to prevent user deletion of the page.
PageReference pageRef = new PageReference('fullURL');

Creates a PageReference for an external URL. For example:


PageReference pageRef = new PageReference('http://www.google.com');

You can also instantiate a PageReference object for the current page with the currentPage ApexPages method. For example:
PageReference pageRef = ApexPages.currentPage();

Methods
PageReference methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of a PageReference. The table below describes the instance methods for PageReference. Name
getAnchor getContent

Arguments

Return Type String Blob

Description Returns the name of the anchor located on the page. Returns the output of the page, as displayed to a user in a Web browser. The content of the returned Blob is dependant on how the page is rendered. If the page is rendered as a PDF, it returns the PDF. If the page is not rendered as a PDF, it returns the HTML. To access the content of the returned HTML as a string, use the toString Blob method. Note: If you use getContent in a test method, a blank PDF is generated when used with a Visualforce page that is supposed to render as PDF. This method can't be used in: Triggers Scheduled Apex

357

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description Batch jobs Test methods Apex email services

If there's an error on the Visualforce page, an ExecutionException is thrown.


getContentAsPDF

Blob

Returns the page as a PDF, regardless of the <apex:page> component's renderAs attribute. This method can't be used in: Triggers Scheduled Apex Batch jobs Test methods Apex email services

getCookies

Map<String, System.Cookie[]>

Returns a map of cookie names and cookie objects, where the key is a String of the cookie name and the value contains the list of cookie objects with that name. Used in conjunction with the cookie class. Only returns cookies with the apex__ prefix set by the setCookies method.

getHeaders

Map<String, String> Returns a map of the request headers, where the key string contains the name of the header, and the value string contains the value of the header. This map can be modified and remains in scope for the PageReference object. For instance, you could do:
PageReference.getHeaders().put('Date', '9/9/99');

getParameters

Map<String, String> Returns a map of the query string parameters that are included in the page URL. The key string contains the name of the parameter, while the value string contains the value of the parameter. This map can be modified and remains in scope for the PageReference object. For instance, you could do:
PageReference.getParameters().put('id', myID);

getRedirect

Boolean

Returns the current value of the PageReference object's redirect attribute. Note that if the URL of the PageReference object is set to a website outside of the salesforce.com domain, the redirect always occurs, regardless of whether the redirect attribute is set to true or false.

getUrl

String

Returns the URL associated with the PageReference when it was originally defined.

358

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name
setAnchor setCookies

Arguments String Anchor Cookie[] cookies

Return Type

Description

System.PageReference Sets the name of the anchor located on the page. Void Creates a list of cookie objects. Used in conjunction with the cookie class. Important: Cookie names and values set in Apex are URL encoded, that is, characters such as @ are replaced with a percent sign and their hexadecimal representation. The setCookies method adds the prefix apex__ to the cookie names. Setting a cookie's value to null sends a cookie with an empty string value instead of setting an expired attribute. After you create a cookie, the properties of the cookie can't be changed. Be careful when storing sensitive information in cookies. Pages are cached regardless of a cookie value. If you use a cookie value to generate dynamic content, you should disable page caching. For more information, see Caching Sites Pages in the Salesforce online help. You can only create cookies and set cookie values for a page in the constructor for the page controller (see example).

setRedirect

Boolean redirect

System.PageReference Sets the value of the PageReference object's redirect attribute. If set to true, a redirect is performed through a client side redirect. This type of redirect performs an HTTP GET request, and flushes the view state, which uses POST. If set to false, the redirect is a server-side forward that preserves the view state if and only if the target page uses the same controller and contains the proper subset of extensions used by the source page. Note that if the URL of the PageReference object is set to a website outside of the salesforce.com domain, or to a page with a different controller or controller extension, the redirect always occurs, regardless of whether the redirect attribute is set to true or false.

Example: Retrieving Query String Parameters


The following example shows how to use a PageReference object to retrieve a query string parameter in the current page URL. In this example, the getAccount method references the id query string parameter:
public class MyController { public Account getAccount() {

359

Reference

Visualforce Classes

return [SELECT id, name FROM Account WHERE id = :ApexPages.currentPage().getParameters().get('id')]; } }

The following page markup calls the getAccount method from the controller above:
<apex:page controller="MyController"> <apex:pageBlock title="Retrieving Query String Parameters"> You are viewing the {!account.name} account. </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

Note: For this example to render properly, you must associate the Visualforce page with a valid account record in the URL. For example, if 001D000000IRt53 is the account ID, the resulting URL should be:
https://Salesforce_instance/apex/MyFirstPage?id=001D000000IRt53

The getAccount method uses an embedded SOQL query to return the account specified by the id parameter in the URL of the page. To access id, the getAccount method uses the ApexPages namespace: First the currentPage method returns the PageReference instance for the current page. PageReference returns a reference to a Visualforce page, including its query string parameters. Using the page reference, use the getParameters method to return a map of the specified query string parameter names and values. Then a call to the get method specifying id returns the value of the id parameter itself.

Example: Navigating to a New Page as the Result of an Action Method


Any action method in a custom controller or controller extension can return a PageReference object as the result of the method. If the redirect attribute on the PageReference is set to true, the user navigates to the URL specified by the PageReference. The following example shows how this can be implemented with a save method. In this example, the PageReference returned by the save method redirects the user to the detail page for the account record that was just saved:
public class mySecondController { Account account; public Account getAccount() { if(account == null) account = new Account(); return account; } public PageReference save() { // Add the account to the database. insert account; // Send the user to the detail page for the new account. PageReference acctPage = new ApexPages.StandardController(account).view(); acctPage.setRedirect(true); return acctPage; } }

360

Reference

Visualforce Classes

The following page markup calls the save method from the controller above. When a user clicks Save, he or she is redirected to the detail page for the account just created:
<apex:page controller="mySecondController" tabStyle="Account"> <apex:sectionHeader title="New Account Edit Page" /> <apex:form> <apex:pageBlock title="Create a New Account"> <apex:pageBlockButtons location="bottom"> <apex:commandButton action="{!save}" value="Save"/> </apex:pageBlockButtons> <apex:pageBlockSection title="Account Information"> <apex:inputField id="accountName" value="{!account.name}"/> <apex:inputField id="accountSite" value="{!account.site}"/> </apex:pageBlockSection> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:form> </apex:page>

SelectOption Class

A SelectOption object specifies one of the possible values for a Visualforce selectCheckboxes, selectList, or selectRadio component. It consists of a label that is displayed to the end user, and a value that is returned to the controller if the option is selected. A SelectOption can also be displayed in a disabled state, so that a user cannot select it as an option, but can still view it.

Instantiation
In a custom controller or controller extension, you can instantiate a SelectOption in one of the following ways:
SelectOption option = new SelectOption(value, label, isDisabled);

where value is the String that is returned to the controller if the option is selected by a user, label is the String that is displayed to the user as the option choice, and isDisabled is a Boolean that, if true, specifies that the user cannot select the option, but can still view it.
SelectOption option = new SelectOption(value, label);

where value is the String that is returned to the controller if the option is selected by a user, and label is the String that is displayed to the user as the option choice. Because a value for isDisabled is not specified, the user can both view and select the option.

Methods
The SelectOption methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of SelectOption. The table below describes the instance methods for SelectOption. Name
getDisabled

Arguments

Return Type Boolean

Description Returns the current value of the SelectOption object's isDisabled attribute. If isDisabled is set to true, the user can view the option, but cannot select it. If isDisabled is set to false, the user can both view and select the option. Returns the current value of the SelectOption object's itemEscaped attribute. If itemEscaped is set to true, sensitive HTML and XML characters are escaped

getEscapeItem

Boolean

361

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description in the HTML output generated by this component. If itemEscaped is set to false, items are rendered as written.

getLabel getValue setDisabled

String String Boolean


isDisabled

Returns the option label that is displayed to the user. Returns the option value that is returned to the controller if a user selects the option. Sets the value of the SelectOption object's isDisabled attribute. If isDisabled is set to true, the user can view the option, but cannot select it. If isDisabled is set to false, the user can both view and select the option. Sets the value of the SelectOption object's itemEscaped attribute. If itemEscaped is set to true, sensitive HTML and XML characters are escaped in the HTML output generated by this component. If itemEscaped is set to false, items are rendered as written. Sets the value of the option label that is displayed to the user. Sets the value of the option value that is returned to the controller if a user selects the option.

Void

setEscapeItem

Boolean
itemsEscaped

Void

setLabel setValue

String l String v

Void Void

Example
The following example shows how a list of SelectOptions objects can be used to provide possible values for a selectCheckboxes component on a Visualforce page. In the following custom controller, the getItems method defines and returns the list of possible SelectOption objects:
public class sampleCon { String[] countries = new String[]{}; public PageReference test() { return null; } public List<SelectOption> getItems() { List<SelectOption> options = new List<SelectOption>(); options.add(new SelectOption('US','US')); options.add(new SelectOption('CANADA','Canada')); options.add(new SelectOption('MEXICO','Mexico')); return options; } public String[] getCountries() { return countries; } public void setCountries(String[] countries) { this.countries = countries; } }

362

Reference

Visualforce Classes

In the following page markup, the <apex:selectOptions> tag uses the getItems method from the controller above to retrieve the list of possible values. Because <apex:selectOptions> is a child of the <apex:selectCheckboxes> tag, the options are displayed as checkboxes:
<apex:page controller="sampleCon"> <apex:form> <apex:selectCheckboxes value="{!countries}"> <apex:selectOptions value="{!items}"/> </apex:selectCheckboxes><br/> <apex:commandButton value="Test" action="{!test}" rerender="out" status="status"/> </apex:form> <apex:outputPanel id="out"> <apex:actionstatus id="status" startText="testing..."> <apex:facet name="stop"> <apex:outputPanel> <p>You have selected:</p> <apex:dataList value="{!countries}" var="c">{!c}</apex:dataList> </apex:outputPanel> </apex:facet> </apex:actionstatus> </apex:outputPanel> </apex:page>

StandardController Class

StandardController objects reference the pre-built Visualforce controllers provided by salesforce.com. The only time it is necessary to refer to a StandardController object is when defining an extension for a standard controller. StandardController is the data type of the single argument in the extension class constructor.

Instantiation
You can instantiate a StandardController in the following way:
ApexPages.StandardController sc = new ApexPages.StandardController(sObject);

Methods
StandardController methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of a StandardController. The table below describes the instance methods for StandardController. Name
addFields

Arguments List<String>
fieldNames

Return Type Void

Description When a Visualforce page is loaded, the fields accessible to the page are based on the fields referenced in the Visualforce markup. This method adds a reference to each field specified in fieldNames so that the controller can explicitly access those fields as well.. This method should be called before a record has been loadedtypically, it's called by the controller's constructor. If this method is called outside of the constructor, you must use the reset() method before calling addFields(). The strings in fieldNames can either be the API name of a field, such as AccountId, or they can be explicit relationships to fields, such as foo__r.myField__c.

363

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

cancel delete edit getId

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the cancel page. System.PageReference Deletes record and returns the PageReference of the delete page. System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the standard edit page. String Returns the ID of the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Returns the record that is currently in context, based on the value of the id query string parameter in the Visualforce page URL. Note that only the fields that are referenced in the associated Visualforce markup are available for querying on this SObject. All other fields, including fields from any related objects, must be queried using a SOQL expression. Tip: You can work around this restriction by including a hidden component that references any additional fields that you want to query. Hide the component from display by setting the component's rendered attribute to false. For example:
<apex:outputText value="{!account.billingcity} {!account.contacts}" rendered="false"/>

getRecord

SObject

reset

Void

Forces the controller to reacquire access to newly referenced fields. Any changes made to the record prior to this method call are discarded. This method is only used if addFields is called outside the constructor, and it must be called directly before addFields. This method is only for controllers used by dynamicVisualforce bindings.

save view

System.PageReference Saves changes and returns the updated PageReference. System.PageReference Returns the PageReference object of the standard detail page.

364

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Example
The following example shows how a StandardController object can be used in the constructor for a standard controller extension:
public class myControllerExtension { private final Account acct; // The extension constructor initializes the private member // variable acct by using the getRecord method from the standard // controller. public myControllerExtension(ApexPages.StandardController stdController) { this.acct = (Account)stdController.getRecord(); } public String getGreeting() { return 'Hello ' + acct.name + ' (' + acct.id + ')'; } }

The following Visualforce markup shows how the controller extension from above can be used in a page:
<apex:page standardController="Account" extensions="myControllerExtension"> {!greeting} <p/> <apex:form> <apex:inputField value="{!account.name}"/> <p/> <apex:commandButton value="Save" action="{!save}"/> </apex:form> </apex:page>

StandardSetController Class

StandardSetController objects allow you to create list controllers similar to, or as extensions of, the pre-built Visualforce list controllers provided by Salesforce. The StandardSetController class also contains a prototype object. This is a single sObject contained within the Visualforce StandardSetController class. If the prototype object's fields are set, those values are used during the save action, meaning that the values are applied to every record in the set controller's collection. This is useful for writing pages that perform mass updates (applying identical changes to fields within a collection of objects). Note: Fields that are required in other Salesforce objects will keep the same requiredness when used by the prototype object. Keep in mind the following governor limits for batch Apex: Up to five queued or active batch jobs are allowed for Apex. A user can have up to five query cursors open at a time. For example, if five cursors are open and a client application still logged in as the same user attempts to open a new one, the oldest of the five cursors is released. Cursor limits for different Force.com features are tracked separately. For example, you can have five Apex query cursors, five batch cursors, and five Visualforce cursors open at the same time. A maximum of 50 million records can be returned in the Database.QueryLocator object. If more than 50 million records are returned, the batch job is immediately terminated and marked as Failed. If no size is specified with the optional scope parameter, Salesforce chunks the records returned by the QueryLocator into batches of 200, and then passes each batch to the execute method. Apex governor limits are reset for each execution of execute. The start, execute and finish methods can implement only one callout in each method.

365

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Instantiation
You can instantiate a StandardSetController in either of the following ways: From a list of sObjects:
List<account> accountList = [SELECT name FROM Account LIMIT 20]; ApexPages.StandardSetController ssc = new ApexPages.StandardSetController(accountList);

From a query locator:


ApexPages.StandardSetController ssc = new ApexPages.StandardSetController(Database.getQueryLocator([SELECT name,closedate FROM Opportunity]));

Methods
StandardSetController methods are all called by and operate on a particular instance of a StandardSetController. The table below describes the instance methods for StandardSetController. Name
cancel first getCompleteResult

Arguments

Return Type

Description

System.PageReference Returns the PageReference of the original page, if known, or the home page. Void Boolean Returns the first page of records. Indicates whether there are more records in the set than the maximum record limit. If this is false, there are more records than you can process using the list controller. The maximum record limit is 10,000 records. Returns the ID of the filter that is currently in context. Indicates whether there are more records after the current page set. Indicates whether there are more records before the current page set.

getFilterId getHasNext getHasPrevious getListViewOptions getPageNumber getPageSize getRecord

String Boolean Boolean

System.SelectOption[] Returns a list of the listviews available to the current user. Integer Integer sObject Returns the page number of the current page set. Note that the first page returns 1. Returns the number of records included in each page set. Returns the sObject that represents the changes to the selected records.This retrieves the prototype object contained within the class, and is used for performing mass updates. Returns the list of sObjects in the current page set. This list is immutable, i.e. you can't call clear() on it. Returns the number of records in the set.

getRecords

sObject[] Integer

getResultSize

366

Reference

Visualforce Classes

Name
getSelected last next previous save

Arguments

Return Type sObject[] Void Void Void

Description Returns the list of sObjects that have been selected. Returns the last page of records. Returns the next page of records. Returns the previous page of records.

System.PageReference Inserts new records or updates existing records that have been changed. After this operation is finished, it returns a PageReference to the original page, if known, or the home page. String filterId Void Sets the filter ID of the controller. Sets the page number. Sets the number of records in each page set. Set the selected records.

setFilterID setpageNumber setPageSize setSelected

Integer pageNumber Void Integer pageSize sObjects[]


selectedRecords

Void Void

Example
The following example shows how a StandardSetController object can be used in the constructor for a custom list controller:
public class opportunityList2Con { // ApexPages.StandardSetController must be instantiated // for standard list controllers public ApexPages.StandardSetController setCon { get { if(setCon == null) { setCon = new ApexPages.StandardSetController(Database.getQueryLocator( [select name,closedate from Opportunity])); } return setCon; } set; } // Initialize setCon and return a list of records public List<Opportunity> getOpportunities() { return (List<Opportunity>) setCon.getRecords(); } }

The following Visualforce markup shows how the controller above can be used in a page:
<apex:page controller="opportunityList2Con"> <apex:pageBlock > <apex:pageBlockTable value="{!opportunities}" var="o"> <apex:column value="{!o.name}"/> <apex:column value="{!o.closedate}"/> </apex:pageBlockTable> </apex:pageBlock> </apex:page>

367

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Pattern and Matcher Classes


A regular expression is a string that is used to match another string, using a specific syntax. Apex supports the use of regular expressions through its Pattern and Matcher classes. Note: In Apex, Patterns and Matchers, as well as regular expressions, are based on their counterparts in Java. See http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/index.html?java/util/regex/Pattern.html.

Using Patterns and Matchers A Pattern is a compiled representation of a regular expression. Patterns are used by Matchers to perform match operations on a character string. Many Matcher objects can share the same Pattern object, as shown in the following illustration:

Figure 13: Many Matcher objects can be created from the same Pattern object Regular expressions in Apex follow the standard syntax for regular expressions used in Java. Any Java-based regular expression strings can be easily imported into your Apex code. Note: Salesforce limits the number of times an input sequence for a regular expression can be accessed to 1,000,000 times. If you reach that limit, you receive a runtime error. All regular expressions are specified as strings. Most regular expressions are first compiled into a Pattern object: only the String split method takes a regular expression that isn't compiled. Generally, after you compile a regular expression into a Pattern object, you only use the Pattern object once to create a Matcher object. All further actions are then performed using the Matcher object. For example:
// First, instantiate a new Pattern object "MyPattern" Pattern MyPattern = Pattern.compile('a*b'); // Then instantiate a new Matcher object "MyMatcher" Matcher MyMatcher = MyPattern.matcher('aaaaab'); // You can use the system static method assert to verify the match System.assert(MyMatcher.matches());

368

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

If you are only going to use a regular expression once, use the Pattern class matches method to compile the expression and match a string against it in a single invocation. For example, the following is equivalent to the code above:
Boolean Test = Pattern.matches('a*b', 'aaaaab');

Using Regions A Matcher object finds matches in a subset of its input string called a region. The default region for a Matcher object is always the entirety of the input string. However, you can change the start and end points of a region by using the region method, and you can query the region's end points by using the regionStart and regionEnd methods. The region method requires both a start and an end value. The following table provides examples of how to set one value without setting the other. Start of the Region Specify explicitly Leave unchanged Reset to the default End of the Region Leave unchanged Specify explicitly Specify explicitly Code Example
MyMatcher.region(start, MyMatcher.regionEnd());

MyMatcher.region(MyMatcher.regionStart(), end);

MyMatcher.region(0, end);

Using Match Operations A Matcher object performs match operations on a character sequence by interpreting a Pattern. A Matcher object is instantiated from a Pattern by the Pattern's matcher method. Once created, a Matcher object can be used to perform the following types of match operations: Match the Matcher object's entire input string against the pattern using the matches method Match the Matcher object's input string against the pattern, starting at the beginning but without matching the entire region, using the lookingAt method Scan the Matcher object's input string for the next substring that matches the pattern using the find method

Each of these methods returns a Boolean indicating success or failure. After you use any of these methods, you can find out more information about the previous match, that is, what was found, by using the following Matcher class methods:
end: Once a match is made, this method returns the position in the match string after the last character that was matched. start: Once a match is made, this method returns the position in the string of the first character that was matched. group: Once a match is made, this method returns the subsequence that was matched.

Using Bounds By default, a region is delimited by anchoring bounds, which means that the line anchors (such as ^ or $) match at the region boundaries, even if the region boundaries have been moved from the start and end of the input string. You can specify whether a region uses anchoring bounds with the useAnchoringBounds method. By default, a region always uses anchoring bounds. If you set useAnchoringBounds to false, the line anchors match only the true ends of the input string. By default, all text located outside of a region is not searched, that is, the region has opaque bounds. However, using transparent bounds it is possible to search the text outside of a region. Transparent bounds are only used when a region no longer contains the entire input string. You can specify which type of bounds a region has by using the useTransparentBounds method.

369

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Suppose you were searching the following string, and your region was only the word STRING:
This is a concatenated STRING of cats and dogs.

If you searched for the word cat, you wouldn't receive a match unless you had transparent bounds set. Understanding Capturing Groups During a matching operation, each substring of the input string that matches the pattern is saved. These matching substrings are called capturing groups. Capturing groups are numbered by counting their opening parentheses from left to right. For example, in the regular expression string ((A)(B(C))), there are four capturing groups: 1. 2. 3. 4.
((A)(B(C))) (A) (B(C)) (C)

Group zero always stands for the entire expression. The captured input associated with a group is always the substring of the group most recently matched, that is, that was returned by one of the Matcher class match operations. If a group is evaluated a second time using one of the match operations, its previously captured value, if any, is retained if the second evaluation fails. Pattern and Matcher Example The Matcher class end method returns the position in the match string after the last character that was matched. You would use this when you are parsing a string and want to do additional work with it after you have found a match, such as find the next match. In regular expression syntax, ? means match once or not at all, and + means match 1 or more times. In the following example, the string passed in with the Matcher object matches the pattern since (a(b)?) matches the string 'ab' - 'a' followed by 'b' once. It then matches the last 'a' - 'a' followed by 'b' not at all.
pattern myPattern = pattern.compile('(a(b)?)+'); matcher myMatcher = myPattern.matcher('aba'); System.assert(myMatcher.matches() && myMatcher.hitEnd()); // We have two groups: group 0 is always the whole pattern, and group 1 contains // the substring that most recently matched--in this case, 'a'. // So the following is true: System.assert(myMatcher.groupCount() == 2 && myMatcher.group(0) == 'aba' && myMatcher.group(1) == 'a'); // Since group 0 refers to the whole pattern, the following is true: System.assert(myMatcher.end() == myMatcher.end(0)); // Since the offset after the last character matched is returned by end, // and since both groups used the last input letter, that offset is 3 // Remember the offset starts its count at 0. So the following is also true: System.assert(myMatcher.end() == 3 && myMatcher.end(0) == 3 && myMatcher.end(1) == 3);

370

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

In the following example, email addresses are normalized and duplicates are reported if there is a different top-level domain name or subdomain for similar email addresses. For example, john@fairway.smithco is normalized to john@smithco.
class normalizeEmailAddresses{ public void hasDuplicatesByDomain(Lead[] leads) { // This pattern reduces the email address to 'john@smithco' // from 'john@*.smithco.com' or 'john@smithco.*' Pattern emailPattern = Pattern.compile('(?<=@)((?![\\w]+\\.[\\w]+$) [\\w]+\\.)|(\\.[\\w]+$)'); // Define a set for emailkey to lead: Map<String,Lead> leadMap = new Map<String,Lead>(); for(Lead lead:leads) { // Ignore leads with a null email if(lead.email != null) { // Generate the key using the regular expression String emailKey = emailPattern.matcher(lead.email).replaceAll(''); // Look for duplicates in the batch if(leadMap.containsKey(emailKey)) lead.email.addError('Duplicate found in batch'); else { // Keep the key in the duplicate key custom field lead.Duplicate_Key__c = emailKey; leadMap.put(emailKey, lead); } } } // Now search the database looking for duplicates for(Lead[] leadsCheck:[select Id, duplicate_key__c from Lead where duplicate_key__c IN :leadMap.keySet()]) { for(Lead lead:leadsCheck) { // If there's a duplicate, add the error. if(leadMap.containsKey(lead.Duplicate_Key__c)) leadMap.get(lead.Duplicate_Key__c).email.addError('Duplicate found in salesforce(id: ' + lead.id + ')'); } } } }

Pattern Methods The following are the system static methods for Pattern. Name
compile

Arguments String regExp

Return Type Pattern object

Descriptions Compiles the regular expression into a Pattern object. Compiles the regular expression regExp and tries to match it against s. This method returns true if the string s matches the regular expression, false otherwise. If a pattern is to be used multiple times, compiling it once and reusing it is more

matches

String regExp String s

Boolean

371

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Descriptions efficient than invoking this method each time. Note that the following code example:
Pattern.matches(regExp, input);

produces the same result as this code example:


Pattern.compile(regex). matcher(input).matches();

quote

String s

String

Returns a string that can be used to create a pattern that matches the string s as if it were a literal pattern. Metacharacters (such as $ or ^) and escape sequences in the input string are treated as literal characters with no special meaning.

The following are the instance methods for Pattern. Name


matcher

Arguments String regExp

Return Type Matcher object

Description Creates a Matcher object that matches the input string regExp against this Pattern object. Returns the regular expression from which this Pattern object was compiled. Returns a list that contains each substring of the String that matches this pattern. The substrings are placed in the list in the order in which they occur in the String. If s does not match the pattern, the resulting list has just one element containing the original String.

pattern split

String String s String[]

split

String regExp Integer limit

String[]

Returns a list that contains each substring of the String that is terminated either by the regular expression regExp that matches this pattern, or by the end of the String. The optional limit parameter controls the number of times the pattern is applied and therefore affects the length of the list:

372

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Return Type

Description If limit is greater than zero, the pattern is applied at most limit - 1 times, the list's length is no greater than limit, and the list's last entry contains all input beyond the last matched delimiter. If limit is non-positive then the pattern is applied as many times as possible and the list can have any length. If limit is zero then the pattern is applied as many times as possible, the list can have any length, and trailing empty strings are discarded.

Matcher Methods The following are the system static methods for Matcher. Name Arguments Return Type String Description Returns a literal replacement string for the specified string s. The characters in the returned string match the sequence of characters in s. Metacharacters (such as $ or ^) and escape sequences in the input string are treated as literal characters with no special meaning.

quoteReplacement String s

The following are the instance methods for Matcher. Name


end end

Arguments

Returns Integer

Description Returns the position after the last matched character. Returns the position after the last character of the subsequence captured by the group groupIndex during the previous match operation. If the match was successful but the group itself did not match anything, this method returns -1. Captured groups are indexed from left to right, starting at one. Group zero denotes the entire pattern, so the expression m.end(0) is equivalent to m.end(). See Understanding Capturing Groups on page 370.

Integer groupIndex

Integer

find

Boolean

Attempts to find the next subsequence of the input sequence that matches the pattern. This method returns true if a subsequence

373

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Returns

Description of the input sequence matches this Matcher object's pattern. This method starts at the beginning of this Matcher object's region, or, if a previous invocation of the method was successful and the Matcher object has not since been reset, at the first character not matched by the previous match. If the match succeeds, more information can be obtained using the start, end, and group methods. For more information, see Using Regions on page 369.

find

Integer group

Boolean

Resets the Matcher object and then tries to find the next subsequence of the input sequence that matches the pattern. This method returns true if a subsequence of the input sequence matches this Matcher object's pattern. If the match succeeds, more information can be obtained using the start, end, and group methods.

group

String

Returns the input subsequence returned by the previous match. Note that some groups, such as (a*), match the empty string. This method returns the empty string when such a group successfully matches the empty string in the input.

group

Integer groupIndex

String

Returns the input subsequence captured by the specified group groupIndex during the previous match operation. If the match was successful but the specified group failed to match any part of the input sequence, null is returned. Captured groups are indexed from left to right, starting at one. Group zero denotes the entire pattern, so the expression m.group(0) is equivalent to m.group(). Note that some groups, such as (a*), match the empty string. This method returns the empty string when such a group successfully matches the empty string in the input. See Understanding Capturing Groups on page 370.

374

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name
groupCount

Arguments

Returns Integer

Description Returns the number of capturing groups in this Matching object's pattern. Group zero denotes the entire pattern and is not included in this count. See Understanding Capturing Groups on page 370.

hasAnchoringBounds

Boolean

Returns true if the Matcher object has anchoring bounds, false otherwise. By default, a Matcher object uses anchoring bounds regions. If a Matcher object uses anchoring bounds, the boundaries of this Matcher object's region match start and end of line anchors such as ^ and $. For more information, see Using Bounds on page 369.

hasTransparentBounds

Boolean

Returns true if the Matcher object has transparent bounds, false if it uses opaque bounds. By default, a Matcher object uses opaque region boundaries. For more information, see Using Bounds on page 369.

hitEnd

Boolean

Returns true if the end of input was found by the search engine in the last match operation performed by this Matcher object. When this method returns true, it is possible that more input would have changed the result of the last search. Attempts to match the input sequence, starting at the beginning of the region, against the pattern. Like the matches method, this method always starts at the beginning of the region; unlike that method, it does not require the entire region be matched. If the match succeeds, more information can be obtained using the start, end, and group methods. See Using Regions on page 369.

lookingAt

Boolean

matches

Boolean

Attempts to match the entire region against the pattern. If the match succeeds, more information can be obtained using the start, end, and group methods.

375

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Returns

Description See Using Regions on page 369.

pattern region

Pattern object Integer start Integer end Matcher object

Returns the Pattern object from which this Matcher object was created. Sets the limits of this Matcher object's region. The region is the part of the input sequence that is searched to find a match. This method first resets the Matcher object, then sets the region to start at the index specified by start and end at the index specified by end. Depending on the transparency boundaries being used, certain constructs such as anchors may behave differently at or around the boundaries of the region. See Using Regions on page 369 and Using Bounds on page 369.

regionEnd

Integer

Returns the end index (exclusive) of this Matcher object's region. See Using Regions on page 369.

regionStart

Integer

Returns the start index (inclusive) of this Matcher object's region. See Using Regions on page 369.

replaceAll

String s

String

Replaces every subsequence of the input sequence that matches the pattern with the replacement string s. This method first resets the Matcher object, then scans the input sequence looking for matches of the pattern. Characters that are not part of any match are appended directly to the result string; each match is replaced in the result by the replacement string. The replacement string may contain references to captured subsequences. Note that backslashes (\) and dollar signs ($) in the replacement string may cause the results to be different than if the string was treated as a literal replacement string. Dollar signs may be treated as references to captured subsequences, and backslashes are used to escape literal characters in the replacement string. Invoking this method changes this Matcher object's state. If the Matcher object is to be

376

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Returns

Description used in further matching operations it should first be reset. Given the regular expression a*b, the input "aabfooaabfooabfoob", and the replacement string "-", an invocation of this method on a Matcher object for that expression would yield the string "-foo-foo-foo-".

replaceFirst

String s

String

Replaces the first subsequence of the input sequence that matches the pattern with the replacement string s. Note that backslashes (\) and dollar signs ($) in the replacement string may cause the results to be different than if the string was treated as a literal replacement string. Dollar signs may be treated as references to captured subsequences, and backslashes are used to escape literal characters in the replacement string. Invoking this method changes this Matcher object's state. If the Matcher object is to be used in further matching operations it should first be reset. Given the regular expression dog, the input "zzzdogzzzdogzzz", and the replacement string "cat", an invocation of this method on a Matcher object for that expression would return the string "zzzcatzzzdogzzz".

requireEnd

Boolean

Returns true if more input could change a positive match into a negative one. If this method returns true, and a match was found, then more input could cause the match to be lost. If this method returns false and a match was found, then more input might change the match but the match won't be lost. If a match was not found, then requireEnd has no meaning.

reset

Matcher object

Resets this Matcher object. Resetting a Matcher object discards all of its explicit state information. This method does not change whether the Matcher object uses anchoring bounds. You must explicitly use the

377

Reference

Pattern and Matcher Classes

Name

Arguments

Returns

Description
useAnchoringBounds method to change

the anchoring bounds. For more information, see Using Bounds on page 369.
reset

String s

Matcher

Resets this Matcher object with the new input sequence s. Resetting a Matcher object discards all of its explicit state information. Returns the start index of the first character of the previous match. Returns the start index of the subsequence captured by the group specified by groupIndex during the previous match operation. Captured groups are indexed from left to right, starting at one. Group zero denotes the entire pattern, so the expression m.start(0) is equivalent to m.start(). See Understanding Capturing Groups on page 370.

start start

Integer Integer groupIndex Integer

useAnchoringBounds Boolean b

Matcher object

Sets the anchoring bounds of the region for the Matcher object. By default, a Matcher object uses anchoring bounds regions. If you specify true for this method, the Matcher object uses anchoring bounds. If you specify false, non-anchoring bounds are used. If a Matcher object uses anchoring bounds, the boundaries of this Matcher object's region match start and end of line anchors such as ^ and $. For more information, see Using Bounds on page 369.

usePattern

Pattern pattern

Matcher object

Changes the Pattern object that the Matcher object uses to find matches. This method causes the Matcher object to lose information about the groups of the last match that occurred. The Matcher object's position in the input is maintained. Sets the transparency bounds for this Matcher object. By default, a Matcher object uses anchoring bounds regions. If you specify true for this method, the Matcher object uses transparent bounds. If you specify false, opaque bounds are used.

useTransparentBounds Boolean b

Matcher object

378

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

Name

Arguments

Returns

Description For more information, see Using Bounds on page 369.

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes


You can access HTTP services, also called RESTful services, using the following classes: HTTP Classes Crypto Class
EncodingUtil Class

HTTP Classes These classes expose the general HTTP request/response functionality:
Http Class. Use this class to initiate an HTTP request and response. HttpRequest Class: Use this class to programmatically create HTTP requests like GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE. HttpResponse Class: Use this class to handle the HTTP response returned by HTTP.

The HttpRequest and HttpResponse classes support the following elements:


HttpRequest:

HTTP request types such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE, CONNECT, HEAD, and OPTIONS. Request headers if needed. Read and connection timeouts. Redirects if needed. Content of the message body.

HttpResponse:

The HTTP status code. Response headers if needed. Content of the response body.

The following example shows an HTTP GET request made to the external server specified by the value of url that gets passed into the getContent method. This example also shows accessing the body of the returned response:
public class HttpCalloutSample { // Pass in the endpoint to be used using the string url public String getContent(String url) { // Instantiate a new http object Http h = new Http(); // Instantiate a new HTTP request, specify the method (GET) as well as the endpoint HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setEndpoint(url); req.setMethod('GET'); // Send the request, and return a response HttpResponse res = h.send(req); return res.getBody();

379

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

} }

Before you can access external servers from an endpoint or redirect endpoint using Apex or any other feature, you must add the remote site to a list of authorized remote sites in the Salesforce user interface. To do this, log in to Salesforce and select Your Name Setup Security Controls Remote Proxy Settings. Note: The AJAX proxy handles redirects and authentication challenges (401/407 responses) automatically. For more information about the AJAX proxy, see AJAX Toolkit documentation. Use the DOM Classes to parse XML content in the body of a request created by HttpRequest or a response accessed by HttpResponse.
Http Class

Use the Http class to initiate an HTTP request and response. The Http class contains the following public methods: Name
send toString

Arguments HttpRequest
request

Return Type

Description

System.HttpResponse Sends an HttpRequest and returns the response. String Returns a string that displays and identifies the object's properties.

HttpRequest Class

Use the HttpRequest class to programmatically create HTTP requests like GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE. Use the DOM Classes to parse XML content in the body of a request created by HttpRequest. The HttpRequest class contains the following public methods: Name
getBody setBody

Arguments

Return Type String

Description Retrieve the body of this request. Set the contents of the body for this request. Limit: 3 MB. The HTTP request and response sizes are calculated as part of the total heap size. So regardless of this limit, don't exceed the 3 MB total heap size.

String body

Void

getBodyDocument

Dom.Document Retrieve the body of this request as a DOM

document. Use it as a shortcut for:


String xml = httpRequest.getBody(); Dom.Document domDoc = new Dom.Document(xml);

setBodyDocument getCompressed

Dom.Document
document

Void Boolean

Set the contents of the body for this request. The contents represent a DOM document. Limit: 3 MB. If true, the request body is compressed, false otherwise.

380

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

Name
setCompressed

Arguments Boolean flag

Return Type Void

Description If true, the data in the body is delivered to the endpoint in the gzip compressed format. If false, no compression format is used. Retrieve the URL for the endpoint of the external server for this request. Set the URL for the endpoint of the external server for this request. Retrieve the contents of the request header. Set the contents of the request header. Limit 100 KB. Returns the type of method used by HttpRequest, for example, GET, POST, TRACE, PUT, HEAD, or DELETE. Set the type of method to be used for the HTTP request, for example GET, POST, TRACE, PUT, HEAD, or DELETE. You can also use this method to set any required options.

getEndpoint setEndpoint getHeader setHeader

String String endpoint String key String key String Value Void String Void

getMethod

String

setMethod

String method

setClientCertificate

String clientCert String password

Void

This method is deprecated. Use


setClientCertificateName instead.

If the server requires a client certificate for authentication, set the client certificate PKCS12 key store and password.
setClientCertificateName String certDevName Void

If the external service requires a client certificate for authentication, set the certificate name. See Using Certificates with HTTP Requests on page 214. Set the timeout in milliseconds for the request. This can be any value between 1 and 60,000 milliseconds. Return a string containing the URL for the endpoint of the external server for this request and the method used, for example :Endpoint=http://www.salesforcesampletest.org,
Method=POST

setTimeout toString

Integer timeout

Void String

The following example illustrates how you can use an authorization header with a request, and handle the response:
public class AuthCallout { public void basicAuthCallout(){ HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setEndpoint('http://www.yahoo.com'); req.setMethod('GET'); // Specify the required user name and password to access the endpoint // As well as the header and header information String username = 'myname';

381

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

String password = 'mypwd'; Blob headerValue = Blob.valueOf(username + ':' + password); String authorizationHeader = 'BASIC ' + EncodingUtil.base64Encode(headerValue); req.setHeader('Authorization', authorizationHeader); // Create a new http object to send the request object // A response object is generated as a result of the request Http http = new Http(); HTTPResponse res = http.send(req); System.debug(res.getBody()); } }

Compression
If you need to compress the data you send, use setCompressed, as the following sample illustrates:
HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setEndPoint('my_endpoint'); req.setCompressed(true); req.setBody('some post body');

If a response comes back in compressed format, getBody automatically recognizes the format, uncompresses it, and returns the uncompressed value.
HttpResponse Class

Use the HttpResponse class to handle the HTTP response returned by the Http class. Use the DOM Classes to parse XML content in the body of a response accessed by HttpResponse. The HttpResponse class contains the following public methods: Name
getBody

Arguments Return Type String

Description Retrieve the body returned in the response. Limit3 MB. The HTTP request and response sizes are calculated as part of the total heap size. So regardless of this limit, don't exceed the 3 MB total heap size.

getBodyDocument

Dom.Document

Retrieve the body returned in the response as a DOM document. Use it as a shortcut for:
String xml = httpResponse.getBody(); Dom.Document domDoc = new Dom.Document(xml);

getHeader getHeaderKeys getStatus getStatusCode

String key String String[] String Integer

Retrieve the contents of the response header. Retrieves an array of header keys returned in the response. Retrieve the status message returned for the response. Retrieve the value of the status code returned in the response.

382

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

Name
getXmlStreamReader

Arguments Return Type XmlStreamReader

Description Returns an XmlStreamReader (XmlStreamReader Class) that parses the body of the callout response. Use it as a shortcut for:
String xml = httpResponse.getBody(); XmlStreamReader xsr = new XmlStreamReader(xml);

For a full example, see getXmlStreamReader example on page 383.


toString

String

Returns the status message and status code returned in the response, for example:
Status=OK, StatusCode=200

In the following getXmlStreamReader example, content is retrieved from an external Web server, then the XML is parsed using the XmlStreamReader class.
public class ReaderFromCalloutSample { public void getAndParse() { // Get the XML document from the external server Http http = new Http(); HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest(); req.setEndpoint('http://www.cheenath.com/tutorial/sample1/build.xml'); req.setMethod('GET'); HttpResponse res = http.send(req); // Log the XML content System.debug(res.getBody()); // Generate the HTTP response as an XML stream XmlStreamReader reader = res.getXmlStreamReader(); // Read through the XML while(reader.hasNext()) { System.debug('Event Type:' + reader.getEventType()); if (reader.getEventType() == XmlTag.START_ELEMENT) { System.debug(reader.getLocalName()); } reader.next(); } } }

Crypto Class

The methods in the Crypto class provide standard algorithms for creating digests, message authentication codes, and signatures, as well as encrypting and decrypting information. These can be used for securing content in Force.com, or for integrating with external services such as Google or Amazon WebServices (AWS).

383

Reference

HTTP (RESTful) Services Classes

Name
decrypt

Arguments String
algorithmName

Return Type Description Blob Decrypts the blob cipherText using the specified algorithm, private key, and initialization vector. Use this method to decrypt blobs encrypted using a third party application or the encrypt method. Valid values for algorithmName are: AES128 AES192 AES256

Blob privateKey Blob


initializationVector

Blob cipherText

These are all industry standard Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithms with different size keys.They use cipher block chaining (CBC) and PKCS5 padding. The length of privateKey must match the specified algorithm: 128 bits, 192 bits, or 256 bits, which is 16, 24, or 32 bytes, respectively. You can use a third-party application or the generateAesKey method to generate this key for you. The initialization vector must be 128 bits (16 bytes.) For an example, see Example Encrypting and Decrypting on page 385. For more information about possible exceptions thrown during execution, see Encrypt and Decrypt Exceptions on page 385.
decryptWithManagedIV String algorithmName

Blob

Blob privateKey Blob


IVAndCipherText

Decrypts the blob IVAndCipherText using the specified algorithm and private key. Use this method to decrypt blobs encrypted using a third party application or the encryptWithManagedIV method. Valid values for algorithmName are: AES128 AES192 AES256

These are all industry standard Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithms with different size keys.They use cipher block chaining (CBC) and PKCS5 padding. The length of privateKey must match the specified algorithm: 128 bits, 192 bits, or 256 bi