Você está na página 1de 42

SATURN

HANDBOOK

GEOR6E C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA .

ASTRlONlCS SYSTEM HANDBOOK

SATURN LAUNCH VEHICLES

1 August 1965

Astrionics System

PREFACE
This second revised edition of the Astrionics System Handbook has been developed under the direction and overall supervision of Dr. Rudolf Decher of the Astrionics Systems Engineering Office. This description of the Saturn Astrionics System has been generated by personnel of the Astrionics Laboratory, the staff of the Astrionics Systems Engineering Office, and by personnel of the International Business Machines Corporation working under Contract

NAS8-14000.
The handbook will be updated and expanded a s i t becomes necessary due to changes o r refinements in the system concept and hardware. Sections not contained in the first release of this document will be made available within three months.

L U ~ I E FUCHA G. Chief, Systems Engineering Office Astrionics Laboratory

Astrionics System
I

DELETED, THE AFFECTED PAGES A N D CHANGE DATE WILL BE INCLUDED IN THIS LISTING.
Title..

.................Original i thru vii.. ........Original viii Blank.. ....... .Original 1. ..................original 1-1.. ...............Original 1-ii Blank.. ....... .Original 1 1 1 . ............. .-. original ll . - Blank.. .......Original
b. .
1 2-1 thru .

.............Original a . ................ .Original .

Issue 4.2-4 Blank.. .Original 4.2-5 thru 4 2 7 . .-. original 4.2-8 Blank.. Original 4.2-9 thru 4.2-11.. ..Original 4.2-12 Blank.. Original 4.3-1 thru 4.3-3.. Original 4.3-4 Blank.. Original 4.3-5 thru 4.3-17.. .Original 4.3-18 Blank.. .Original 5-i.. ..original

....... ... ........

2-3.. .Original
....a

2-4

.original

1.3-1 . . . . . . . . r g n l .......oiia 1.3-2 ~ l ~ * .....a.s. original 1.3-3.. .a.e....... ..Original 1.3-4 Blank.. ..Original

..... 1.4-1 thru 1.4-4.. ..Original 1 5 1 . ............. .-. Original 1.5-2 Blank.. .......original
21. -. original 2-11 lank.. original 211. .-. original 212. .-. Original 2.2-1 thru 2 2 4 . ..Original .-. 2.3-1 thru 2 3 5 . ..Original .-. 2.3-6 Blank.. .Original 237.......Oiia .-........rgnl 2.3-8 Blank.. .Original 2.3-9 thru 2.3-13...Original 2.3-14 Blank.. .Original

. ...... .............. 5-11 Blank.. .........Original 5.1-1.. ............. .Original 5 1 2 . .............. .-. Original 5 . thru 5 2-13.. . . 5.2-14 Blank.. .......Original 5.3-1.. ..............Original 5.3-2 ................original 5.4-1 thru 5 4 5 . ..Original .-.. 5.4-6 B ~ ........~ ~ .original . 5 4 7 . ..............Original .-. 5.4-8 Blank.. ....... .Original
2-1

....... ... ........

Page Issue 8-1.. ..Original 8-ii Blank.. .original 8.1-1.. Original 8.1-2 Blank.. Original 8.1-3.. .Original 8.1-4 Blank.. .Original 8.1-5.. .Original 8.1-6 Blank.. Original 8.2-1 thru 8.2-3.. Original 8.2-4 Blank.. .Original

........ .............. ........ ............. ....... ............. ........ ... ....... 8. 2-5 thru 8. 2-9. ....Original
821 ''0 'Original 821........rgn1 .-1.......0iia 8.2-12 Blank.. Original 8.3-1.. Original 8.3- 2. . .Original 8'4-1""**"""".'Origina1 8.4-2 B1ank..........Original 8.5-1.. .Original 8.5-2.. Original

..............

Page 14.5-1 thru 14.5-4.. 14.6-1.. 14.6-2.. 14.7-1 thru 14.7-7.. 14.7-8 Blank.. 14.8-1 thru 14.8-5.. 14.8-6 Blank.. 14.9-1 thru 14.9-5.. 14.9-6 Blank.. 14.10-1..

............. original .............Original .Original


...... .original

.Original

.......

.......original .Original .Original .......original ........... .original 14.10-2.. ............original


1-.........rgn1 5i........0iia l5-li B1ank-.-.......Original
15.1-1.-.--------..-.0rigina1 15'1-2"'...'.."""0rigina1 15'2-1 thru 15.2-3."0rigina1

..............

....... .............
.............

............... ........ ............. .............

...... ......
.....

5.4-9 t h m 5.4-18-. .Original 5.5-1 thru 5-54. ..original 5-6-1 thru 5-6-3.. .original 5.G4 Blank. .Original 565. .-. .original 566. .-. .original 567. .-. ..original 5.6-8 Blank.. Original 5.7-1 thru 5.7-4.. Original 5.8-1 thru 5 8 3 . .-. Original 5.8-4 Blank.. Original

... .. ........ ............. .............

............ ........

.............. 9-1.. ................ original 9-11 Blank.. .........original 9.1-1 thru 9.1-4.. ...Original 9.2-1 thru 9.2-3.. ...Original 9.2-4 Blank. .........original 9.3-1 thru 9.3-5.. ...original
9.3-6 Blank..

15.2-4 B1ank.-......-Original
15.3'1.....---....-..0rigina1 1.-........rgnl 53Z.......Oiia 15.4-1 thru 15.4-7...Original 15.4-8 Blank.. ....Original

...
...

15.4-9 thru 15.4-28.


15.5-1 thru 15.5-3. 15. 54 Blank.. , ....Original
1.-........rgnl 555.......Oiia 15.5-6 Blank.........Original 15.5-7 thru 15.5-l3..0riginal

........original

... ... ........

15.5-14 Blank........Original 10-i.. 10-ii Blank

...............Original
..............original ........Original

.........Original

15.5-15..............Original

15.5-16..

............original
........ Original

3-1.. original 3-11 Blank.. ....original o n 3 1 - 1 t r u 37 3 -1-8 ~ l ~ n ..ma... k. .original 3.1-9 thru 3 .l-ll.. .original 3.1-12 Blank.. 3.2-1 thru 3.2-8.. ..original 5 -3-1 thru 3 -3-5.. .original 3.3-6 Blank.. .Original 3.3-7.. .original 3.3-8 Blank.. .original 3.4-1 thru 3.4-5. Original 3.4-6 Blank.. original 3.4-7 thru 3.4-9.. ..Original 3.4-10 Blank........Original 34l.. .-l. Original 3.4-12 Blank........Original 3.5-1 thru 3.5-4....Original

...............

....

...... ............ ...... ... .......

6-1.. ..Original 6-if Blank.. Original .Original 6.1-1.. 6.1-2 Blank..........OriginaL 6.2-1 thru 6.2-13.. ..Original 6-2-14 Blank.. .Original 6-2-15.. .Original 6.2-16 Blank.. .Original 6.2-17.. .Original 6-2-18'. .Original 6.3-1 thru 6.3-7.. original 6.3-8 Blank.. .Original 6.3-9.. .original 6-3-10 Blank.. .original 641. .-. original

..............

......... .............
............

A-1 thru A-4.

1-.. 1I. 11-11 Blank..

B-1 thru B-5.. .Original B-6 Blank............Original

......

...........

.......Or iginal 7I...... -...... ......Original 7-11 Blank...........Original


6.5-4 7.1-1 thru 7.1-4. Original 721. .-. Original 72z.... .-.... Original 7.3-1 thru 7.3-5.. Original 7.3-6 Blank.. .Original 7 4 1 thru 7 4 3 . ..-. Original 7 4 4 Blank..........original .75l........rgnl .-........Oiia 7.5-2 Blank.. original

...... ...... ............ ............ ... ....... ............. ...... .............. 6.4-2 Blank.. ........Original 6.5-1 thru 6 5 3 . ..original .-..
....

1. 1.

.................original

12-i...-.-.-----...-. Original 12-ii ma*. original 12m1-1 thru 12.1-8.. .Original

.........

1-.........rgnl 3i........Oiia 13-ii B a k . . . . . r g n l ln.....Oiia 13.1-1 thru 13.1-3.. .Original 13 .l-4 Blank.. .Original 13.1-5.. .Original 13 .l-6 Blank.. .original 13.2-1.. Original 13.2-2 Blank.........Original

...... ............ ......

.............

4-1.. 4-ii Blank..

...............Original
...............

........Original

.............. ........ ... ....... ...

41l.......Oiia .-........rgnl

4.1-2 Original 4.2-1 thru 4.2-3.. ..Original

........

14-1 Original 14-ii ~lank..........Original 14.1-1 thru 14.1-3.. .Original 14.1-4 Blank.. .Original 14.2-1 thru 14.2- 6. .Original . 14.3-1 thru 14.3-8. ..original 14.4-1 thru 14.4-5...Original 14.4-6 Blank.. original

.................

......

.......

THE ASTERISK (*) INDICATES THE PAGES CHANGED,ADDED,

OR DELETED BY THE CURRENT CHANGE.

Astrionics System Contents


i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter Page Chapter 6 RADIO COMMAND SYSTEMS 6.1 6.2 6. 3 6.4
1. 5-1

Page

INTRODUCTION

1.1 1.2 13 .
1.4 1. 5

. . ............ Purpose of Document . . . . .

1-i

. . . .. . . .. . .. . . NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE . . . . .


.... . .. .. .. . ... . .. . . . . . . .. . . ATTITUDE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 2. 3 3.1 3.2 2.1 The Navigation, Guidance, and Control System Navigation . Guidance

Saturn Launch Vehicles Saturn V/Apollo Mission Profile. Astrionics System Reliability Considerations (To be supplied a t a l a t e r date)

...

1.1-1 1.2-1
1.3-1 1.4-1

. .. . .... .. . . .......

. .... . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Unit Command System. . . . . . . . . . . . . Secure Range Safety Command System. . . . . .
Saturn Command and Communication System (SCCS) (To be supplied at a l a t e r date) Range Safety Command System (AN/DRW-13)

6-i

6.1-1 6.2-1 6.3-1

2 -i

6. 5

2.1-1 2.2-1 2.3-1 3-i

.. . . . . . .. . TRACKING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 7. 2 Saturn Tracking Instrumentation C -band Radar Azusa/Glotrac . ODOP Tracking System. S-band Tracking (To be supplied a t a l a t e r date).

6.4-1 6. 5-1
7-1

7.3
Attitude Control During Powered Flight Attitude Control During Coast Flight Control Sensors. Flight Control Computer Engine Servo Actuators

. . . ... . ... ... . . . . .. . . . . . .

.......

3.1-1 3.2-1 3.3-1 3.4-1 3.5-1 4-i 4.1-1 4.2-1 4.3-1 5-i 5.1-1 5.2-1 5.3-1 5.4-1 5. 5-1 5.6-1 5.7-1 5.8-1 10 9

7.4 7. 5

. ..
.

7.1-1 7.2-1 7.3-1 7.4-1 7.5-1

......... ... . . .. . 3. 3 . .. 3.4 3. 5 . .. MODE AND SEQUENCE CONTROL. . 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Switch Selector . . . . . . . . . 4.2 4. 3 Saturn V Operation Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . MEASURING AND TELEMETRY. . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring System . . . . . . . Remote Automatic Calibration System. . . . . Telemetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplexers . . . . . . . . . . . Telemetry Calibration Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . Digital Data Acquisition System. . . . . . . . . . . . . Television System (Saturn V) . . . . . . . . . . .

POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. . 8-1 8.1 8.2 8. 3 8.4 8. 5

....... ... .. . ... General Discussion . . . . . . IU Power and Distribution System. . . . . . . . . . . . . Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Volt Power Supply . . . . . 5 Volt Measuring Voltage Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.1-1 8.2-1 8. 3-1 8.4-1 8.5-1

EMERGENCY DETECTION SYSTEM. 9.1 9.2 9.3

. . . .... ... .. . . . . . Crew Safety System . . . . . . Emergency Detection System. . . . . . . . . . . . . EDS Operation f o r Saturn V Vehicles . . . . .
..

9-1

9.1-1 9.2-1 9.3-1


10-1

LAUNCH SITE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (To be supplied a t a l a t e r date). OPERATIONAL PHASES O F THE ASTRIONICS SYSTEM (To be supplied a t a l a t e r date)

11

. . ... ..

11-1

Astrionics System Contents

Chapter

Page

Chapter

Page

12

INSTRUMENTUNIT

............

12-i 12.1-1

14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10

12.1 13

Instrument Unit.

........

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM..

................

13-i

14

............ ............ STABILIZED PLATFORM ........


13.2 14.1 14.2 14.3 14. 4 14. 5
Introduction. ST-124-M Inertial Platform Assembly Gyro and Accelerometer Servosystem. Gimbal Angle Multispeed Resolvers. Other Platform System Units..

13.1

Thermal Conditioning System. Gas Bearing Supply System.

13.1-1 13.2-1 14-i 14.1-1 14.2-1 14.3-1 14.4-1 14. 5-1 15. 5 15

Platform Erection Systems Azimuth Alignment System. Gas Bearing Gyro Pendulous Gyro Accelerometer. Power and Gas Requirements

............ ............ ....... ....... .............

14.6-1 14.7-1 14.8-1 14. 9-1 14.10-1

LAUNCH,VEHICLE DATA ADAPTER AND LAUNCH VEHICLE DIGITAL COMPUTER

...............

15-i 15.1-1 15.2-1 15. 3-1

........... ........... ........


..........

15.1 15.2 15. 3 15.4

............

Introduction Physical Design. Reliability Description of the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer Description of the Launch Vehicle Data Adapter

........ ............
........... ...

...........

15.4-1 15. 5-1

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Number Title Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Characteristic Data Saturn V Launch Vehicle Characteristic Data Saturn ~ / A p o l l oMission Profile. Saturn IB Astrionics System (Operational Vehicle) Saturn V Astrionics System (Operational Vehicle) Page Number Title Iterative Guidance Mode Equations, Flight out of Orbit Launch Window Parameters. Linkage Between Vehicle and Ground. Guidance System Input Sequence Altitude, Acceleration (F/M) , Velocity (V,), and Aerodynamic Pressure (Q) for a Typical Saturn Trajectory. Variations of CP and CG During Flight Typical Saturn V Frequency Spectrum Shape of the F i r s t and Second Bending Modes (Saturn V) Control Loop Block Diagram S-IB Engine and Actuator Configuration Page

........ ........ ................ .......


.......

1.2-2 1.2-3 1. 3-3 1.4-2 1.4-3

.................. .... ................ ...............


..

Block Diagram of Saturn V Navigation, Guidance, and Control System Navigation Coordinate Systems. Navigation Flow Diagram Coordinate System Used for Iterative Guidance Mode (IGM). Iterative Guidance Mode Equations, Flight to Orbit

...........

.. ......

2.1-2 2.2-2 2.2-3

................. 2.3-3 .... 2. 3-5

............ ............... ....

.... ............

Astrionics System Contents I

Number

Title Saturn V Engines, Actuators, and Nozzle Arrangement Saturn Control System Block Diagram (Powered Flight) Attitude Signal Flow Diagram. Limit Cycle Phase Diagram. Attitude E r r o r Signal Sources Pitch Channel of the Auxiliary Propulsion System Pitch and Yaw Deadband for S-IVB Auxiliary Propulsion System. Roll Deadband for S-IVB Auxiliary Propulsion System S-IVB Attitude Control System. Deadbands of Attitude Control System. Relay Control Unit and Quad Redundant Valves Cutaway View of a Self-test Rate Gyro Control - EDS Rate Gyro Package with Covers Removed. Control - EDS Rate Gyro Block Diagram Control Signal Processor Block Diagram Control Rate Gyro Block Diagram Accelerometer Block Diagram Simplified Diagram of the Flight Control Computer for Powered Flight. Simplified Diagram of Flight Control Computer APS Control Saturn IB Flight Control Computer Block Diagram Typical Gain Program for ao, al, g2 Coefficients. Block Diagram of the Servo Amplifier in the Flight Control Computer (For Powered Flight) Saturn V Flight Control Computer Block Diagram Connections of Control Signals to Spatial Amplifiers

Page

Number

Title Block Diagram of a Spatial Amplifier in the Flight Control Computer Redundant Cabling in the Flight Control Computer Hydraulic Actuator System Flow-through Valve and Actuator with Mechanical Feedback

Page

..... .... ... ....


...

.............. ......... .....

3.4-8 3.4-11 3. 5-2

.........

...............

3. 5-3

................ .. ................

................ ......

..............

Switch Selector Configuration. Switch Selector Register Word Format LVDC Switch Selector Interconnection Diagram Switch Selector (Mod 11) Simplified Diagram Switch Selector Timing Diagram. Automatic Reset Circuitry. Typical Saturn V Astrionics System Prelaunch Sequence

... ................ ........ ........ .

4.2-3 4.2-1 4.2-5 4.2-7 4.2-9 4.2-10 4.3-3

.....
...

........... ........... ...............

...

........

................ ........... ........

................. ........... .......

Measuring and Telemetry System. Typical Saturn Measuring System. Typical Transducers Force-balance Accelerometer Block Diagram Bourdon- tube Potentiometer Type P r e s s u r e Transducer Strain-gage Type P r e s s u r e Transducer. Liquid Level, Discrete, Functional Diagram Liquid Level Sensor Electrical Schematic Basic Principles of a Flowmeter Typical Bridge Circuit Piezoelectric Accelerometer and Emitter Follower Strain-gage Accelerometer Block Diagram.. Typical Measuring Rack Illustration of an AC Amplifier. Typical Signal Conditioning Card for Temperature Measurements

................ ................
......... ...........

5.1-1 5.2-1 5.2 5

5.2 - 5

.... 5.2-6 ............. 5.2-6 ........ 5.2-7 .............. 5.2-7


5.2-7 5.2-9 5.2-10 5.2-10 5.2-11 5.2-12

.............. ........ ....... .............. ....... ..

.................

5.2-13

iii

Astrionics System Contents LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT 'D) Number 5.3-1 5.4-1 5.4-2 5.4-3 Title Page Number Title Saturn IB IU Command System . . . Phase Shift Keyed Signals Digital Format Showing Address Distribution Digital Format Showing Information Bit Groups Mode Command Word Format and Coding Data Command Word Group Format and Coding for an Update Command MCR-503 Command Receiver. IU Command Decoder Functional Block Diagram PSK Sub-bit Detector Synchrogram PSK Sub-bit Detector Block Diagram IU Command Decoder Simplified Logic Diagram IU Command Decoder Flow Diagram. Example of Wiring Between Shift Register and Sub-bit Comparators. MAP Circuitry Block Diagram Secure Range Safety Command System. Range Safety Ground System Downrange Station Code Plug Wiring. Secure Range Safety Decoder Simplified Logic Diagram Range Safety Command System. AN/F w R-2A Modulation Bandwidth Usage AN/DRW-1 3 Receiver/Decoder Page

.................. Typical S-IvB/IU Telemetry System (R&D) Version ......


IU..
Typical S-IVB/IU Telemetry System (Operational Version). Block Diagram of Typical Saturn V FM/FM Telemetry System. Block Diagram of Airborne SS Telemetry Assembly. General Block Diagram PCM/DDAS Assembly Analog-to-Digital Converter Block Diagram Digital Multiplexing and Formating Logic Clock Programming and Timing Logic Block Diagram PCM/RF Assembly Block Diagram. Mod 270 Multiplexer Block Diagram Mod 270 Multiplexer Assembly Waveforms Block Diagram of RDSM Inputs andoutputs. Remote Digital Submultiplexer Simplified Block Diagram Inputs and Outputs of Mod 410 Multiplexer. Block Diagram of Mod 410 Multiplexer. Block Diagram of Mod 245 Multiplexer Typical Telemetry Calibration Subsystem.. Telemetry Calibrator Assembly Computer Interface Unit System Interconnection Diagram Computer Interface Unit Block Diagram. S-IC Television Function Block Diagram Television Ground Receiving Station. S-IC Tentative Television Optics Layout Saturn V IU Command System.

Block Diagram of RACS for the

5.3-1 5.4-5 5.4-7

................ ....... ...... ........... ..........


.......

...... ............. ........... ..............

5.4-9 5.4-11 5.4-13 5.4-14 5.4-1 5 5.4-16 5.4-18 5.5-2 5. 5-3 5.5-4 5. 5-5 5. 5-6 5. 5-7 5. 5-8 5.6-3 5. 6-7 5.7-2 5.7-3 5.8-1 5.8-2 5.8-3

............... ........... .............. .............


....

.......... ... ........... ............. ........... ........... ...............

............. .............
............. ............. .. -

............ ... ................ .... ........... ...........

.... ................ .................


..

.... ........... ........... ................ ............

................

6.2-1

Launch Phase Tracking Stations Station Visibility for Saturn V Powered Flight Accuracy of Position and Velocity Measurements. SST-135C Transponder System Block Diagram. AZUSA (MK 11) Ground Station Layout

................ ........... ..... ...........

.................

Astrionics System Contents

Number

Title AFC Loops. Ground Station and Transponder AZUSA Transponder Block Diagram ODOP System Configuration ODOP Transponder Block Diagram

Page

Number

Title Saturn V Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. R&D Saturn IB Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. Operational Saturn V Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. Operational Saturn IB Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. Antenna Orientation Saturn V Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. Antenna Orientation

Page

.......... ................ ..... ................

.....

..............

..............
..............

Block Diagram of the Saturn V Power Supply and Distribution Systems Partial Schematic of the Power and Distribution Systems Battery Load Profiles for SA.IU.201 Battery Load Profiles for SA-IU-205 and Subsequent Vehicles Partial Schematic of the IU Power Transfer Switch Ground Checkout Configuration of IU Power Derivation Inertial System Power Flow Instrumentation System Power Distribution IU Distribution Equipment Layout IU Grounding System for Saturn IB and V Vehicles 56 Volt Power Supply Block Diagram 5 Volt Measuring Voltage Supply Block Diagram

................ ..... ...............


................ ...... ...... ..... .............
............ ...........

..............

Thermal Conditioning Panel Details Environmental Control System Mechanical Diagram Sublimator Details

..................

....... ...........

.................

.......
... ...

Saturn IB IU Astrionics System Failure Modes Crew Safety System (Saturn IB) Crew Safety System (Saturn V) Saturn IB Critical Angle of Attack Versus Flight Time Saturn IB Critical Angle of Attack Versus Gimbal Angle (76 Seconds)

............ ....

.............

Saturn IB and V Instrument Unit Physical Location Saturn IB Instrument Unit Equipment Layout. R&D

......... .....

ST-124-M Inertial Platform System (Saturn IB and V) Inertial Platform Subsystem Block Diagram Platform System Signal Interface ST-124-M Gimbal Configuration Orientation of Gyro Axes Orientation of Accelerometer Axes Platform Gimbal Pivot Scheme Slip-ring Capsule Platform Gimbal Arrangement ST-124-M Inertial Platform Assembly Gimbal Design Gyro Servoloops Block Diagram Accelerometer Servoloops Gimbal Servoloop Hardware Gimbal Electronics Block Diagram Accelerometer Electronics Block Diagram ST-124-M Gyro Orientation Three-axis Inertial Platform Assembly Block Diagram Three-gimbal Configuration Two-speed Resolver Schematic

..... ........... ............... .. ....... .................. .. ............ ... ............... .............. ................ ...... .....

................ ........... ..... .... ..... ..

Astrionics System Contents LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONT'D) Number Title Gimbal Angle Vector Diagrams Resolver Chain Schematic Resolver Chain Signal Detection Scheme Platform AC Power Supply Assembly. Generation of 3- Phase, 400-Hertz Voltage. Gas Bearing Pendulum Platform Erection System Block Diagram. Automatic Azimuth Alignment Theodolite Optical Schematic Diagram of SV-M2 Theodolite Optical Spectrum Optical Gimbal Laying System Azimuth Alignment Scheme Cutaway View of a Single-axis Integrating Gyro Exploded View of a Signal Generator and Torque Generator Electrical Schematic of an AB5-K8 Stabilizing Gyroscope Cutaway View of a Pendulous Integrating Gyro Accelerometer. Pendulous Integrating Gyro Accelerometer Schematic Electrical Schematic of an AB3-K8 Accelerometer. System Power Requirements and Heat Dissipation page Number Title Page

. .... . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . ... .

..

14.4-2 14.4-4 14.4-5 14. 5-2 14.5-3 14.6-1 14.6-2 14. 7-2 14.7-3 14.7-4 14.7-5 14.7-6 14.7-7 14.8-3 14.8-4

. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . ........ ..... . .. . .. .. . . . .. ........... ..... . . . .... . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .... . . . . . . . .. . . . ....

. .. . . . . . . .. . ... ..

14.8-5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

14.9-3 14.9-4 14.9-5 14.10-1

.... . .... . ... ... .. .

Connections Between Digital Computer, Data Adapter, and 15.1-2 the Astrionics System. 15.2-1 Unit Logic Device Buildup Unit Logic Device Page 15.2-2 Assembly Exploded View of the Launch . 15.2-3 Vehicle Data Adapter Exploded View of the Launch Vehicle 15.2-3 Digital Computer Computer Redundancy Con15. 3-1 figuration Triple Modular Redundancy 15.3-2 (TMR) . Computer Functional Block Diagram. . . 15.4-7 15.4-10 Word Organization 15.4-11 Computer Timing Organization. Clock Generator Block Diagram 15.4-12 Memory Module Arrangement 15.4-1 3 Ferrite Core Characteristics. 15.4-1 3 Core Plane . . . 15.4-14 15.4-1 5 Memory Module Block Diagram Arithmetic Element Block Diagram. 15.4-2 5 LVDA - LVDC Interconnection 15. 5-3 Block Diagram LVDA - IU Equipment Inter15. 5- 5 connection Block Diagram Launch Vehicle Data Adapter 15. 5-13 Block Diagram . . Redundant Power Supply Block 15.5-16 Diagram

...... . .. ... . ............ .. . . . . .. .......... . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . .. . .. . .... . ....... .... . ...... .. .. .. . ... . . . . . . . .. ... .
.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . .. .. .... . ... .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .

Astrionics System Contents I

TABLES
Number
1.4-1

Title Differences Between Saturn IB and Saturn V Astrionics Systems (To be supplied atalaterdate)

Page

Number
6.5-1

Title Range Safety Command Receiver Decoder (AN/DRW-13) Characteristics Saturn Tracking Instrumentation Orbital Tracking Stations C-band Radar Transponder. Model SST.135C Radar Ground Station Characteristics AZUSA Characteristics ODOP System Characteristics

Page

............ Navigation Equations .........


Control Accelerometer Characteristics Input Signals to the Flight Control Computer Servo Actuator Characteristics (Design Goals)

...........
.. ...... ........... ........... ........ ...

1.4.4 2 . 2 -4 7.1-1 7.1-2 7 . 2 -1 7.2 -2 7.3.1 7.4.1 8.3-1 8.4-1 8.5-1

........... 3.3.7 ............... 3.4.2 ............ 3.5-4

Phase. Sequence. and Time Breakdown Saturn V Flight Sequence. Phase 1Prelaunch Saturn V Flight Sequence. Phase 2 through 5 .Powered Flights and Orbital Coast Saturn V Flight Sequence. Phase 6 and 7 .S-IVB Restart and Docking

.............. 4.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 3-2

IU Battery Characteristics 56 Volt Power Supply Electrical Characteristics 5 Volt Measuring Voltage Supply Characteristics

...... ...........
...........

............

9.1-1 4.3.5
9 3-1

................

4.3.13 9.3-2

Number of Measurements. Trans . ducers. and Measuring Racks Typical Saturn V Measurements Typical Saturn V Operational Measurements Data Categories Telemetry Systems in the Various Saturn Vehicle Stages IRIG Subcarrier Channels (* 7 5% Channels) Mod 270 Multiplexer Assembly Performance Characteristics Saturn V Launch Vehicle Television Characteristics

............. ....... .........


...........

.. .. .............

Important Guidelines for the Crew Safety System for Saturn Apollo Vehicles Abort Criteria and Ground Rules Saturn IB EDS Design Ground Rules

........... .................. .................

5.2-2 5.2-3 5.2.4 5.4.1 5.4.4 5.4.9

. . 5. 5-3
5.8.2 15.3-1 6.2.5 1 5.4-1 6.2.8 15.4-2 15.4-3 1 5 5-1 1 5 5-2 1 5 5-3

Slip-ring Cartridge Characteristics Angular Readout Characteristics Resolver Chain System Characteristics Characteristics of the Accelerometer TM Velocity Signals Gas Bearing Pendulum Characteristics Gyro Characteristics Accelerometer Characteristics Power Supply Specifications TMR Computer Module Breakdown Launch Vehicle TMR Computer Characteristics List of Instructions PI0 Addresses Data Adapter Characteristics Signal Characteristics Use of Word Locations in the Delay Line

...........

..

........... ..... ...........

......... ....

....

Number of Words Transmitted for Different Commands Characteristics of the MCR-503 Receiver Characteristics of the IU Command System Coding Scheme for Function Characters Characteristics of the Command Decoder

........

...............

. . . . . . . . . . 6.2.12 .............. 6.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7

. .

.............. ........... .......... ............. .... .........

..............

Astrionics System
t

PART I FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

Astrionics System
1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ...... ..... SATURN LAUNCH VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SATURN V/APOLLO MISSION PROFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTFUONICS SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS (To be supplied at a later date) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PURPOSE OF DOCUMENT

1.1-1 1.2-1 1.3-1 1.4-1 1.5-1

Astrionics System Section 1.1

SECTION 1.1 PURPOSE OF DOCUMENT


The intent of this document i s to provide a system description of the Astrionics System for the Saturn IB and V Launch Vehicles. It i s not intended to go too deeply into any given subject but rather to give an overall picture of the Astrionics System from functional and operational viewpoints. General mission requirements and system capabilities a r e briefly dis cussed in Chapter 1, Introduction, to provide a total view of the Astrionics System. The subsequent chapt e r s of Part I present a functional description of the various subsystems and the involved hardware. The operational phases of the Astrionics System, including pre-launch checkout, a r e discussed in Chapter 11 and indicate how the system will be used during a typical Saturn V Apollo mission. Astrionics hardware which performs several different functions (e. g., Launch Vehicle Digital Computer and Data Adapter) is described in P a r t 11. The Astrionics System description includes all of the electrical and electronic equipment on board the
/

vehicle. It also includes the launch site electronic support equipment. However, this particular description does not cover the individual stage relay circuitry which controls certain stage functions. It does describe the signal flow through the system to the point of energizing this special circuitry s o that an overall understanding of system operation is presented. Likewise, stage propellant utilization systems and internal engine sequencing systems a r e not covered; since, for the purpose of this description, they a r e considered a part of the propulsion system.

Since Astrionics Systems of Saturn IB and Saturn V a r e very similar, this document is devoted primarily to Saturn V. The a r e a s in which the Saturn IB Astrionics System deviates from the Saturn V Astrionics System a r e listed in Section 1.4. Where applicable, these deviations a r e specified i n the text of that particular chapter.

Astrionics System Section 1.2

SECTION 1.2 SATURN LAUNCH VEHICLES


Figures 1.2-1 and 1.2-2 illustrate the SaturnIB Vehicle and Saturn V Vehicle, respectively, and include some characteristic vehicle data. Both vehicles have the same upper stage (the S-IVB Stage) which is propelled by a restartable engine to provide injection into escape trajectory from a parking orbit. The Instrument Unit is mounted on top of the S-IVB Stage and i s very similar for Saturn IB and Saturn V. The primary mission of Saturn IB is to serve a s a launch vehicle for the Apollo Spacecraft earth orbital flight tests. These earth orbital flights will simulate certain phases of the lunar landing mission and will provide flight tests for the spacecraft and the S-IVB/IU Stage. Saturn V is the launch vehicle for the actual Apollo lunar landing missions. The typical profile of a lunar landing mission is described in Section 1. 3. The primary mission of the Saturn Vehicles i s the successful accomplishment of the Apollo mission. In addition, the Saturn Vehicles a r e capable of performing other types of missions which can be generally classified a s the insertion of heavy payloads into earth orbits and escape trajectories. This may include: Transfer between earth orbits Rendezvous in earth orbit Direct ascent and injection into escape trajectory Injection into escape trajectory following extended earth-orbit phases Extended missions beyond injection Saturn Vehicles a r e numbered consecutively, beginning with 201 for the first Saturn IB Flight Vehicle and 501 for the first Saturn V Flight Vehicle. The first few vehicles of each series a r e considered a s research and development vehicles.

Astrionics System Section 1 . 2

Astrionics System Section 1 . 2

Astrionics System Section 1. 3


/

SECTION 1.3 SATURN V/APOLLO MISSION PROFILE


The mission of the Apollo Project is to land 2 Astronauts on the moon and return the total crew of 3 Astronauts safely to earth. The overall Apollo Space Vehicle, composed of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle and the Apollo Spacecraft, i s shown i n Figure 1.2-2. The Saturn V cons i s t s of three propulsion stages and the Instrument Unit. The IU contains the navigation, guidance and control, communication, and power supply equipment common to the main propulsion stages. The following i s a brief description of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle mission only. The profile of the mission is illustrated in Figure 1. 3-1. The S-IC Stage boosts the vehicle through the atmospheric flight phase. Cutoff of the engines is initiated close to fuel depletion and occurs at an altitude of approximately 62 kilometers (34 nautical miles). After separation from the first stage, second stage (S-11) boost follows immediately; engine cutoff is executed a s in the f i r s t stage. Both stages drop to earth in a ballistic flight path. After separation of the S-I1 Stage, the S-IVB Stage engine i s ignited. The engine i s cutoff when the vehicle has achieved the necessary orbital velocity. The vehicle, consisting now of the S-IvB/IU Stage and the Apollo Spacecraft, orbits the earth a t an altitude of approximately 200 kilometers (108 nautical miles) for a maximum of 3 orbits. An orbital launch window exists once in each orbit. When the selected orbital launch window occurs, the S-IVB engine is ignited a second time to provide the thrust for injection into the translunar trajectory. The engine is cutoff when the required escape velocity i s achieved. In the coast period following injection, the transposition maneuver i s performed. In this maneuver, the Service and Command Modules of the spacecraft move away from the Saturn S-IVB/IU Stage, turn around, and dock with the Lunar Excursion Module still attached to the S-IVB/IU Stage to achieve the. proper spacecraft configuration for the lunar landing operation. The S--IVB/IU Stage is then separated from the Apollo Spacecraft. The launch vehicle mission ends with the separation from the spacecraft a t approximately one hour after injection (maximum time of 2 hours after injection). The spacecraft continues its coast flight toward the moon.

Astrionics System Section 1. 3

JETTISON S-11 AFT INTERSTAGE

S- ll STAGE CUTOFF 8 JETTISON - S-IV B STAGE IGNITION

INSERTION INTO PARKING ORBIT 8 S-IVB ENGINE CUTOFF COAST S-IV B RE-IGNITION

S-IVB ENGINE S-ll IGNITION 8 LAUNCH ESCAPE SYSTEM JETTISON 185 KILOMETERS (100 NAUT. MILES)

'f

BEGINNING OF

8 JETTISON

S-IC STAGE CUTOFF

S-IV B SEPARATION S-IC STAGE IGNITION 8 VEHICLE LAUNCH

SATURN V/APOLLO

Figure 1.3-1 Saturn V/Apollo Mission Profile 1.3-3/1.3-4

Astrionics System Section 1 . 4

SECTION 1.4 ASTRlONlCS SYSTEM


The overall Astrionics Systems of the SaturnIB and V Launch Vehicles a r e shown in the simplified block diagrams, Figures 1.4-1 and 1.4-2, respectively. The major portion of the Astrionics equipment is located in the IU, which is mounted on top of the S-IVB Stage. During flight, the Astrionics System performs, o r i s involved in, the following main functions: Navigation, guidance, and control of the vehicle Measurement of vehicle parameters Data transmission between vehicle and ground stations (up and down) Tracking of the launch vehicle Checkout and monitoring of vehicle functions in orbit Detection of emergency situations Generation of electrical power for system operation The operational lifetime of the S-IVB/IU Astrionics System is 4-1/2 hours for Saturn IB and 7 hours for Saturn V. The operational lifetime is limited only by the capacity of the power supply (batteries) and the water supply of the environmental control system which is sufficient to complete the presently defined launch vehicle missions. With increased power and water supply capacity, the operational lifetime of the Astrionics System can be extended for longer duration missions if required. NAVIGATION, GUIDANCE, AND CONTROL The Saturn Astrionics System provides navigation, guidance, and control of the vehicle from launch until separation of the S-1VB/IU from the spacecraft. The equipment involved in these functions a r e the ST-124-M Inertial Platform Assembly, the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer and Launch Vehicle Data Adapter, the Flight Control Computer, the Rate Gyros, and finally the propulsion engine actuators and the auxiliary propulsion system. The Saturn inertial navigation and guidance system can be updated by data transmission from ground stations through the IU command system. The Inertial Platform Assembly' c a r r i e s three integrating accelerometers which measu r e the thrust acceleration in a space-fixed reference frame. In addition, the platform gimbal angles indicate the attitude of the vehicle in the platform reference frame. The LVDA s e r v e s a s the input/output device for the LVDC and also performs the necessary data processing. The LVDC performs computations f o r navigation, guidance, and control functions. The position and velocity of the vehicle is obtained by combining accelerometer measurements with computed gravitational acceleration. This information is the input to the guidance computations which determine the required thrust vector orientation and engine cutoff time according to the guidance scheme stored in the memory of the LVDC. Attitude control during powered flight is accomplished through swivelling of propulsion engines by means of hydraulic actuators to obtain the proper thrust vector orientation. The actuator commands a r e generated in the Flight Control Computer. The Flight Control Computer combines attitude e r r o r signals from the LVDA and angular rate signals from Rate Gyros to provide stable attitude control of the vehicle. The attitude e r r o r signal is generated in the LVDC by comparing the required thrust vector orientation (from guidance computations) with the actual vehicle attitude (obtained from platform gimbal angles). During coast flight periods, attitude control is achieved by the auxiliary propulsion system. This system consists of 6 nozzles which a r e arranged in 2 modules and mounted on the aft end of the S-IVB Stage. The auxiliary propulsion system is a l s o controlled by the Flight Control Computer located in the IU.

Abort Decision
-----=

Alternate Steering Commands

Mode Command

Status

1-1-----1---1-11-

1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1

---------------.-SPACECRAFT
-

EDS Distributor Control Accelerometers

Control -EDS Rate Gyros

Launch Vehicle Digital Computer


-

Stabilized platform

4
Control Computer

I
,

I U Command
Decoder DDAS

C-band Radar

p
I U Command
Receiver VHF Telemetry Transmitter

'
I

d
u

Power (Supply) & Distribution


EDS

-4
I I I
I

- I
Switch Selector
8
-1---1

RACS

I 4

Measuring and Telemetry


I--

-.---

.--------I----.------------

Ft"-{Tj
I

--I-----------------

Accelerometers

t C )

Aux Propulsion System

Switch Selector

RACS

*I

DDAS
)

Measuring and Telemetry

+ ESE

VHF Telemetry Transmitter

S-IV B STAGE

EDS

'

Actuators

I -

---------------------------Switch Selector

Power (Supply) & Distribution

LEI
Propulsion

-----------------11-----0--------

RACS

DDAS

Measuring and Telemetry

*
+ ESE

VHF Telemetry Transmi tter

& Distribution

Fy l S-IB STAGE
ISM Bl35

Figure 1.4-1 Saturn IB Astrionics System ( Operational Vehicle )

,----.t-------------)

Abort Decision

Alternate Steering Command:

Mode Command

Status SPACECRAFT

I--------------. 1 t-------------------------------------.
Launch Vehicle Digital Computer
+

EDS Distributor

Control -EDS Rate Gyros

Stabilized Platform

C-band Radar

1
.
FnS
control Computer

Launch Vehicle

RACS

I U Command
Decoder

I
r----'
I

? I
I I
I

Power (Supply) + & Distribution

.-

Switch Selector

Measuring and Telemetry

IDDAS

SCCS

S-Band

d ESE
I

UHF and VHF Telemetry Transmitters

Aux Propulsion

Switch Selector

4 -

~ s~b1
EDS

Power (Supply)

Measuring and Telemetry Propulsion

ESE

Telemetry Transmitter

& Distribution

I
-1-1------11-1-1------------------1--1------

S-IVB STAGE

L H
Switch Selector
4 -

RACS

I DDAS

Measuring and Telemetry


I I

+ ESE

VHF Telemetry Transmitter

---

& Distribution
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

S-l l STAGE
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

P
Switch Selector
C-

RACS

I DDAS

Measuring and Telemetry

, ESE

VHF Telemetry Transmitter

EDS

& Distribution

pT-]-Y
S- IC STAGE

IBM B 1 3 1

Figure 1.4-2

Saturn V Astrionics System ( Operational Vehicle )

Astrionics System Section 1.4 Flight sequence control (e. g., vehicle staging, engine ignition and cutoff) is performed by the LVDC. The flight program, stored in the LVDC memory, generates the necessary flight sequence commands which a r e transmitted through the LVDA and Switch Selector to the proper circuit in the particular vehicle stage. MEASUREMENTS AND DATA TRANSMISSION Each vehicle stage is equipped with a complete measuring and telemetry system, including RF transmitter and antennas. For efficient utilization of available bandwidth and to obtain the required accuracy, three different modulation techniques a r e used in each stage telemetry system. These three are: frequency modulation/frequency modulation, pulse code modulation/frequency modulation, and single sideband/frequency modulation (employed in research and development only). In Saturn IB vehicles, telemetry data i s radiated from the vehicle to ground stations in the VHF band (225-260 MHz). The PCM/FM system of the S-IVB Stage and the IU a r e interconnected to provide a redundant transmission path and to make S-IVB measurements available to the LVDA. All flight control data is transmitted through the PCM/FM system. In Saturn V Vehicles, the PCM/FM telemetry data of the S-IVB and IU i s transmitted in VHF band (225-260 MHz) and in the UHF band (2200-2300 MHz). The UHF-band transmission is provided primarily for transmission over the longer ranges after the vehicle has left the parking orbit. In addition, the PCM/FM data can be transmitted through the communication and command system transponder. This arrangement provides high reliability through redundancy in transmission path. The telemetry system of each stage has a separate output via coaxial cable to the electronic support equipment, which i s used with the digital data acquisition system for vehicle checkout before launch. The Instrument Unit command system permits data transmission from ground stations to the IU for insertion into the LVDC. TRACKING The Saturn Vehicles c a r r y several tracking transponders. The ODOP Transponder i s located in the f i r s t stage of Saturn IB and V Launch Vehicles. The Instrument Unit is equipped with two C-band Radar Transponders, an AZUSA Transponder, and the CCS Transponder (S-band tracking). EMERGENCY DETECTION SYSTEM The emergency detection system collects special measurements from each stage of the launch vehicle. Based on these measurements, critical states of the vehicle which may require mission abort a r e detected, and the information i s sent to the spacecraft for display and/or initiation of automatic abort. SPACECRAFT INTERFACE Several lines cross the IU/spacecraft interface for exchange of signals. Alternate steering commands from the spacecraft navigation and guidance system may be used to control the launch vehicle during S-I1 and S-IVB powered flight phases. This type of operation is considered a s backup in case of a failure of the IU navigation and guidance system. During coast flight, the Astronaut may control the attitude of the vehicle through manually generated commands. In any case, a mode command must be sent f i r s t from the spacecraft to the LVDA to perform the necessary switching before the IU Flight Control Computer can accept the steering signals from the spacecraft. To indicate the state of the launch vehicle, certain meas urements a r e sent to the spacecraft and displayed to the Astronaut. Before launch, automatic checkout of the vehicle system is controlled by the launch computer complex and the electronic support equipment. This system also includes the digital data acquisition system. Table 1.4-1 indicates the differences in the Saturn IB and Saturn V Astrionics Systems. Table 1.4-1 Differences Between Saturn IB and Saturn V Astrionics Systems

Astrionics System Section 1. 5 I

SECTION 1.5 RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS

( To be supplied at a later date )

Astrionics S y s t e m
I

CHAPTER 2 NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page THE NAVIGATION, GUIDANCE, AND CONTROL SYSTEM NAVIGATION

2.1 2.2 2.3

............................

2.1-1 2.2- 1 2.3-1 2. 3-1 2.3-2

.................................. GUIDANCE .................................... 2.3.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Iterative Guidance Mode ....................

Astrionics System Section 2. 1

SECTION 2.1 THE NAVIGATION, GUIDANCE, AND CONTROL SYSTEM


The problem of directing a ballistic missile o r space vehicle, to accomplish a given mission, is customarily discussed in t e r m s of three separate functions: navigation, guidance, and control. The boundaries between these 3 a r e a s a r e to some extent arbitrary and conventional. The 3 terms, navigation, guidance, and control, will be used in this text according to the following definitions: The LVDA is the input/output device for the LVDC. It performs the necessary processing of signals, from different sources, to make these signals acceptable to the computer. According to the guidance scheme (programmed) into the computer), the maneuver required to achieve the desired end conditions i s determined by the LVDC. The instantaneous position and velocity of the vehicle a r e used a s inputs. The result i s the required thrust direction (guidance command) and the time of engine cutoff. Guidance information stored in the LVDC (e. g., position, velocity) can be updated through the IU command system by data transmission from ground stations. The IU command system provides the general capability of changing o r inserting information in the LVDC. Control of the launch vehicle can be divided into attitude control and discrete control functions. For attitude control, the instantaneous attitude of the vehicle i s compared with the desired vehicle attitude (computed according to the guidance scheme). This comparison i s performed in the LVDC. Attitude correction signals a r e derived from the difference between the existing attitude angles (gimbal angles) and the desired attitude angles. In the Control Computer these attitude correction signals a r e combined with signals f r o m control sensors to generate the control command f o r the engine actuators. The required thrust direction i s obtained by swivelling the engines in the propelling stage and thus changing the thrust direction of the vehicle. Since the S-IVB Stage has only 1 engine, an auxiliary propulsion system is used for roll control during powered flight. The auxiliary propulsion system provides complete attitude control during coast flight of the S-IV B/Iu Stage.

Navigation is the determination of position and velocity of the vehicle from measurements made onboard the vehicle. Guidance i s the computation of maneuvers necessary to achieve the desired end conditions of a trajectory (e. g. , an insertion into orbit). Control i s the execution of the maneuver (determined from the guidance scheme) by controlling the proper hardware.

A block diagram of the overall Saturn V navigation, guidance, and control system is shown in Figure 2. 1-1. (This figure is also true for the Saturn IB Vehicle if the S - I1 Stage Switch Selector and engine actuator blocks a r e omitted.) The 3-gimbal stabilized platform (ST124-M) provides a space-fixed coordinate reference frame for attitude control and for navigation (acceleration) measurements. Three integrating accelerometers, mounted on the gyro-stabilized inner gimbal of the platform, measure the 3 components of velocity resulting from vehicle propulsion. The accelerometer measurements a r e sent through the LVDA to the LVDC. In the computer, the accelerometer measurements a r e combined with the computed gravitational acceleration to obtain velocity and position of the vehicle.

Astrionics System Section 2.1 Commands for flight sequence control a r e generated in the LVDC according to a stored program. These commands a r e transferred through the LVDA to the Switch Selector of the corresponding vehicle stage. Examples of flight sequence control a r e engine ignition, cutoff, and stage separation. The Switch Selector in the addressed stage activates the necess a r y circuit to perform the commanded function. Attitude and sequence control of the launch vehicle is described in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. The stabilized platform, LVDA and LVDC, which a r e involved in navigation, guidance, and control operations, a r e described in Chapters 14 and 15.

r------I I
I
STABILIZED PLATFORM

_ I
I

II

lntegrating4 Accelerometers

L------J

-~1 1
I

LVDC

Attitude Control Signal from Spacecraft

S-IC Stage Engine Actuators

! I
I

Attitude Angles

S - l l Stage
Engine Actuators

To Engines

Control Sensors

S -IVB Stage Engine Actuators

Y
I U Command Receiver Decoder S-IC Stage Switch Selector

S-IVB Auxiliary Propulsion System

I-

To ~~~~l~~

Flight Sequence
P L

Commands

t-

El
S -11 Stage Switch Selector
S-IVB Stage Switch Selector
IBM

~ 6 3

Figure 2.1-1 Block Diagram of Saturn V Navigation, Guidance, and Control System

Astrionics System I Section 2. 2

SECTION 2.2 NAVIGATION


The function of navigation includes the determination of position, velocity, and thrust acceleration of the vehicle f r o m accelerometer measurements. These quantities a r e required input data f o r guidance computations. where F/M is the thrust acceleration, g ( r ) i s the gravitational acceleration, and Co is the initial velocity of the vehicle at launch (caused by earth rotation). During flight, the integrating accelerometers do not respond t o gravitational acceleration s o their outputs a r e the velocity components (kIGIid resulting only from thrust acceleration. To obtain the total velocity of the vehicle, the velocity components lxqj'gkg) caused by gravity must be added to the ac.rometer readings. The gravitational accelera' r ) , which i s acting on the vehicle, is a function tl, qosition and i s computed in the gravitation of vt.. . -ust acceleration (F/M) is computed loop. I +iated accelerometer output accordfrom the d~ ing to the e q u a ~

:.led by inteT h e velocity of the vehiclt ?lerogration of acceleration. Three integracC m e t e r s a r e mounted on the stabilized inner g,the platform. The mutually orthogonal sensitive L. of the 3 accelerometers define the measuring o r acc e l e r o m e t e r coordinate system (xIyIzI). The platform is aligned before launch s o that the y~ axis is parallel t o the vertical a t the launch s i t e and pointing upward, the XI axis points in the direction of the flight azimuth (Az), and the ZI axis completes the right-handed coordinate system. The origin of the XIYIZI coordinate s y s t e m is at the stabilized platform. F o r navigation computations, the xsyszs coordinate system is used. It has i t s origin at the center of the earth. The XIYIZI s y s t e m and the xsyszs system a r e parallel. Bef o r e launch, both systems a r e earth-fixed (rotate with the earth), but a t the moment of platform r e l e a s e (5 seconds before launch), both systems become spacedirection fixed (see Figure 2.2-1). The total acceleration i ( x y z ) of the vehicle in the xsyszs system : is given by:

and the velocity is

A flow diagram of the navigation computations is shown in Figure 2.2-2. Accelerometer readings, initial velocity, and velocity (vg)(caused by gravitation) a r e added to obtain the vehicle velocity ( i )in the space-fixed coordinate system (xsyszs). The velocity ( E ) is integrated and the initial position is added to yield the vehicle position ( r ). This position data is used t o compute gravitational acceleration and velocity which is then added to the accelerometer readings.

The gravitational acceleration acting on the vehicle is derived f r o m the gravitational potential function of the earth. The expression f o r the gravitational potential ( a )of the earth (used f o r Saturn navigation) is based on the Fisher ellipsoid and is given by:

Astrionics System Section 2.2


RE
=

equatorial radius of the earth distance from earth's center to the vehicle

r =
A

1 1=

= angle between

and the equatorial

plane 5r3
+ DRE~

(3 - 30 sin2 A + 35 sin4 h. )

35r4 where
G
ME
=

1
(2.2-4)

-t

J, D, H = constants

universal gravitational constant

= mass of the earth

In order to combine the components of gravitational acceleration with the measured components of thrust acceleration, the gravitational potential is first expressed in a rectangular coordinate system (uvw) which is then "rotated" to be parallel with the accelerometer coordinate system (xIylzj and the xsyszs coordinate system.
North Ground

Coordinate Systems:

UVW:

Earth-fixed rectangular system used for gravity computations. Origin at the center of the earth; W axis collinear with the earth's spin axis and pointing south; V axis i n the equatorial plane intersecting the equator at the longitude of the launch site; U 'axis completes right-handed orthogonal system.

Coordinate Systems: xz y: III Accelerometer coordinate system, parallel to . the xsys5 system, origin at the vehicle platform

4 L:
A , :

Geodetic latitude of the launch site. Launch azimuth, measured i n clockwise direction from north.

XsYsZs:

I
2.2-2

Space-fixed rectangular coordinate system for navigation computations. Origin at the earth's center; the Y axis i s ~ a r a l l e to the l vertical at the launch site at the instant of take-off; the X-Y plane contains the flight lane; the Z axis completes the right-handed system.

r:

Radius vector from the earth's center to the vehicle.

Figure 2.2-1 Navigation Coordinate Systems

Astrionics System Section 2. 2

The potential function (2.2-2) i s expressed in polar coordinates and may be written in a rectangular earth-fixed coordinate system (uvw) with the origin at the center of the earth and oriented a s shown in Figure 2.2-1 by using the relationship:

The relationship between the u v w system and the xsyszs system may be expressed in matrix form:

and w = -r sink The components of gravitational acceleration (ugvgwg) along the u v w coordinate axis a r e given by the partial derivatives of (uv w)

the rotational transformation matrix sinAZ -sin ~ L C O S A , cos 4 L

b] is
4L
COS

-COS

- sin
sin AZ

cos A,

sin 4

sin Az

4L

The expressions for Q and P a r e given in Table 2. 2-1.

.. The components of gravitational acceleration (ugvgwg) must be transformed now into the accelerometer coordinate system (xIyIz$(or xsyszs system).

.. ..

where 4 L is the geodetic latitude of the launch site and Az is the launch azimuth measured clockwise from north. The matrix [A] corresponds to two successive rotations of the u v w system: f i r s t about the u axis by an angle + L and second, about the new v axis (now parallel to the ys axis) by an angle of (90" - AZ). (See Figure 2.2-1. )

Initial Velocity
. a .

Xo Yo zo Integrating Accelerometer

'

;I; I i

'(xs Y zs) s

.. . .

r t r(xs Ys zs)

Guidance ;-) Computations

tc

Engine Cutoff

F+ M /

ti

Engine Ignition

Xx X

Xz

Required Attitude Angles

.. .. ..
I

Gravity Computation 9(r)

7
Attitude Correction Computation
A

P'

'Y

R+ '

x ~ F/M - . *7-l Y ~ Z* Computation dt

ex ey ez
Platform Gimbal Angles

Command

Attitude

To Control Computer

IBM B65

Figure 2. 2-2 Navigation Flow Diagram


2.2-3

Astrionics System Section 2. 2 The gravitational acceleration components in the xsyszs coordinate system are: The quantities and equations required for navigational computations a r e listed in Table 2.2-1.

zg

ig= ysQ - P sin -.


=

$L

zsQ + P cos 9~ sin A,

(2.2-9)

The quantities sin 6L, cos $L, ioiOio, xoyozo a r e constants for a given launch site and a r e stored in the LVDC. The initial conditions xoyozo represent the position of the launch site in the xsyszs coordinate system while &oioio velocity of the is the launch site (equals initial vehicle velocity) caused by the rotation of the earth. For certain missions, the launch azimuth A, varies with time. In this case, the quantity cos AZ stored in the LVDC is continuously updated.

Navigation is performed continuously throughout the mission. During coast flight periods (in orbit and after translunar injection), no accelerometer readings a r e obtained. Position and velocity a r e obtained from gravity computations alone; i. e. , by solving the equations of motion. Actually, a small thrust is applied during coast flight which is the result of the venting of the S-IVB hydrogen tank. Whether the acceleration caused by venting can be measured, considered in computations, o r neglected, is under investigation.

Table 2.2-1 Navigation Equations Velocity: xs = i I + J x g d t + i o h=h+Jadt+yo zs


=

Position (Displacement) xs
=! i s

dt + xo dt + zo

YS =

Jjs dt + YO

iI + J E ~ dt + io

zs

=Jig

Thrust Acceleration:

F M

J'm
-

+ -

x0yozo and ko.j'oio a r e initial conditions at lift-off

iIjTIiIAccelerometer output :
Gravitational Acceleration: xg
fg

..

= =

xsQ ysQ

- P cos - Psin

$ L cos Az $L

4 L : Latitude of launch site


AZ : Launch Azimuth

E g = z s ~ + p d ~ ~ sA, n cos i

Q = - %r~ + J ( " ) ~ 3

(1-52)+~(~)3(3(3-7)+~(%7(37
4

r2

?)I

r4

P = - r2 (

(- )

+ (

1-3)

+(

2 - 2

f)]

Astrionics System , Section 2. 3

SECTION 2.3 GUIDANCE


2.3.1

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Guidance of the vehicle in powered flight i s accomplished by computing the necessary flight maneuv e r s t o meet the end conditions (e. g., at orbit insertion) determined by mission requirements under given constraints for the trajectory. Computations of flight maneuvers a r e performed according to the guidance scheme which is represented by a s e t of guidance equations programmed into the LVDC. Input data to the guidance computations a r e the state variables of the vehicle position, velocity, acceleration (i. e. , the navigation measurements). The result of the guidance computations is the required thrust direction (guidance command) and the time of engine cutoff and re-ignition for the S-IVB Stage. The thrust direction is expressed a s three Euler angles X z X x X defining the thrust vector orientation in the space-fixed coordinate system xsyszs. The guidance commands a r e functions of the state variables and time. They may be expressed in the general form:

turbations, such a s atmospheric perturbations from wind, unsymmetrical a i r flow because of vehicle dissymmetry, flight path deviations caused by nonstandard vehicle and engine characteristics and performance (this might even include engine-out cases), control inaccuracies, and emergency situations. In addition, the required end conditions of the powered flight phase, a t insertion into earth orbit and a t injection into translunar trajectory, must be met with a high degree of accuracy to avoid additional propellant consuming maneuvers. To meet this requirement, path adaptive guidance has been developed for Saturn Vehicles. The path adaptive guidance scheme does not constrain the vehicle to a standard trajectory, a s with many ballistic missiles. Based on the instantaneous state of the vehicle, the path adaptive guidance scheme computes a new minimum propellant flight path to achieve the mission-determined end conditions. These computations a r e repeated a t intervals of approximately 1 second. Thus, perturbations occurring during flight will be corrected in an optimum way. Several path adaptive guidance schemes have been developed for Saturn Vehicles. The polynomial guidance scheme and the iterative guidance mode have been successfully used in Saturn I flights. The iterative guidance mode will be used with Saturn IB and V and i s described in Paragraph 2. 3.2. During first stage flight (S-IB o r S-IC Stage propulsion), the vehicle transverses the dense portion of the atmosphere where high aerodynamic pressure occurs. To avoid excessive structural loads caused by guidance maneuvers, no guidance constraints a r e applied during this flight phase. An open loop guidance in the form of a time tilt program i s used. Path adaptive guidance begins with the ignition of the second stage (S-I1 Stage for Saturn V and S-IVB Stage for Saturn IB).

and

t,

= f2

(i r

2 .

t) where tc is the time of engine cutoff o r re-ignition. The required thrust direction, computed from the guidance scheme, is sent to the attitude control system which controls the vehicle attitude until the command thrust direction i s achieved. PATH ADAPTIVE GUIDANCE Overall system performance requires that the guidance scheme permits minimum propellant consumption for flight maneuvers and avoids excessive structural loads caused by such maneuvers. The guidance system must correct numerous flight per-

"

Astrionics System Section 2. 3 TRAJECTORY CONSTRAINTS AND LAUNCH WINDOW A large number of constraints apply to the trajectory of a launch vehicle. These constraints result from mission rules; environmental conditions such as the atmosphere and location of launch point; operational requirements such as safety restrictions of launch azimuth and tracking requirements; and hardware limitations such a s structural load limits and available propulsion means. The dominating and most severe requirement applying to the choice of trajectories is optimal propellant utilization. Since launch vehicle payload capability is degraded by powered plane changes, it i s assumed that in the nominal case there will be no such maneuvers. If it is desired to go into an orbit with an inclination to the earth's equator (greater than the latitude of the launch site), then it i s possible to launch directly into the properly selected launch azimuth. There a r e other constraints which might be present which affect the launch window problem; e. g., launch during daylight, proper lighting of the launch site, and lighting of the return landing sites. These, however, do not affect the basic geometrical considerations.

2.3.2
A combination of the various constraints generates a limited time period for launch; i. e . , a launch window to meet mission requirements. There a r e 2 types of launch windows for the launch vehicle in the Saturn ~ / A p o l l omission: the ground launch window for ascent into parking orbit and the orbital launch window for translunar injection.

ITERATIVE GUIDANCE MODE

The launch azimuth a t the ground and the orientation (inclination and descending node) of the parking orbit a r e varying with time. A brief explanation of the reasons for time varient launch azimuth, inclination, and descending node seems advisable a t this point. At any instant of time a plane can be defined which contains the launch site, the center of the earth, and the moon at the desired time of arrival. In order to maintain this plane i t is necessary to vary the launch azimuth on the ground continuously, since the launch site is moving with the rotating earth and the moon i s moving. When range safety constraints a r e introduced, the launch azimuth will be limited to a certain band of values. F o r launches from Cape Kennedy, the band i s approximately 45 to 110 degrees measured east of north and will be encountered twice each day. Within this band, a range of azimuths of 26 degrees will guarantee a t least a 2-1/2 hour launch window and normally this variation will be applied to the portion of the band where launch azimuth varies linearly with the time of launch. Of the two daily launch periods, one will generally lead to a shorter coasting a r c in orbit than the other. Since the geographic position of the launch s i t e is fixed, it follows that one of the launch periods leads to time of coast in parking orbit such that ignition in orbit occurs within a range close to the launch site-sometimes referred to a s the "Atlantic opportunity". The second launch period calls for coasting a r c s of greater length-commonly referred to a s "Pacific opportunities".

The iterative guidance mode was developed to meet the mission flexibility requirement of large space vehicles with minimum propellant consumption. The scheme i s based on optimizing techniques using calculus of variations to determine a minimum propellant flight path which satisfies the mission requirements. Experience with hundreds of minimum propellant trajectories for various orbital injection missions has demonstrated that the optimum thrust direction, relative to the local vertical, is very nearly a linear function of time during vacuum flight. Moreover, the size of the angle between the optimum thrust direction and the local horizon i s never very large. These observations show a remarkable agreement with the mathematical results obtained from the calculus of variations when a flat earth model having a constant gravitational field i s used, and position and velocity constraints a r e imposed a t cutoff. A closed solution can be obtained with this mathematical model and yields an explicit equation for the optimum thrust direction. This equation has the form:

X p = a r c tan (A + Bt)
whereXp i s the optimum thrust direction for minimum propellant consumption and t i s the time. Constants A and B a r e determined by the specified cutoff velocity and position, the initial values of the state variables, the vehicle thrust acceleration, and the engine specific impulse. The comparison of this equation with the results of trajectory studies suggests the use of the approximation:

(r, q , 5 ) (Figure 2. 3-1) is established with the origin

A rectangular guidance coordinate system

Astrionics System , Section 2. 3 a t the center of the earth and with the 7 axis lying along the vertical which intersects the calculated cutoff position of the vehicle. Simplified equations of motions a r e derived to approximate the motion over an oblate earth with a realistic gravitational field. These equations of motion a r e solved during flight to determine the instantaneous range angle to cutoff, the time-to-go to cutoff, and the gravitational effects occurring over the remaining flight time. This information i s used to compute values for A and B continuously during flight. In practice, only the value of A need be calculated when computation rates on the order of one o r more p e r second a r e used (except during the last few seconds before cutoff when both A and B a r e computed and held constant over the remaining flight time). This i s necessary because the equation gives an indeterminate command angle a t the cutoff point. The iterative guidance scheme, which is a quasi-explicit scheme, will be activated after jettison of the launch escape system in the S-I1 Stage
ys

burn period and will continue in operation to insertion into parking orbit by the S-IVB Stage and subsequently to lunar transit injection with the second burn to the S-IVB Stage. The iterative guidance mode equations for ascent into parking orbit and for powered flight out of orbit a r e shown in Figures 2.3-2 and 2.3-3, respectively. The guidance scheme generates commands f o r the pitch and yaw angle of the thrust direction and the cutoff velocity. The inputs required a r e divided into 2 categories: ( 1) vehicle dependent inputs and ( 2 ) mission dependent inputs. Figure 2.3-2 shows these inputs required for the ascent-to-orbit phase and the guidance equations-the solution of which generates the steering commands in pitch and yaw. Figure 2.3-3 shows the additional input for flight-out-oforbit and the additional computation. Although it is seen that the required inputs for the 2 phases differ somewhat, emphasis should be placed on the fact that the guidance equations a r e identical for both phases; i. e. , through built-in logic on the LVDC, the multistage equations necessary f o r ascent to parking orbit a r e reduced to single stage equations for flight-outof-orbit by means of nulling the proper parameters. This task can be accomplished entirely onboard during the time in parking orbit. Figure 2.3-3 shows that there a r e 10 inputs dependent on the physical characteristics of the vehicle and 33 inputs dependent on the mission. It should be noted that the inclination of the parking orbit cutoff plane, the decending node, and the launch azimuth a r e functions of time of launch. During the last few minutes prior to lift-off, these quantities will be computed in the launch ground computer and the results will be put into the LVDA. At the same time, the Stabilized Platform will be turned in the direction of the desired launch azimuth. Figure 2.3-4 shows how the quantities, dependent on time of launch, vary for a typical launch day. Very simple representations of. these curves, as a function of time of launch, can be obtained. When the inputs a r e considered for the out-oforbit case, it is convenient that the vehicle characteristics of the S-IVB Stage a r e already in the LVDC from i t s f i r s t burn into parking orbit. It has been stated previously that the multistage equations a r e reduced to the single stage by properly storing z e r o s into the pertinent parameters while the vehicle is in parking orbit. Since this feature is an outgrowth of programmed logic, it i s questionable whether these parameters

t
Launch Point

-B

Situation Shown in the Flight Plane

Xs Y z~ s

Space -fixed Coordinate System for Navigation Space -fixed Coordinate System for Guidance (IGM) Range Angle
IBM B66

& = r ] { -

*T

Figure 2.3-1 Coordinate System Used for Iterative Guidance Mode (IGM)

Astrionics System Section 2. 3 should be considered bona-fide inputs. As a result, only estimated cutoff time for the second burn of the S-IVB is shown in Figure 2.3-3 a s an input. There a r e 27 inputs dependent on the mission. Four quantities a r e time dependent and can be represented by polynominals a s shown in Figure 2.3-3: the aim vector, aim vector magnitude, nominal eccentricity of the outgoing ellipse, and cutoff energy. If the 2body problem is considered such that Keplerian mechanics holds, the aim vector might be defined a s close to the earth-moon line (a line which is between the center of the earth and the center of the moon). Its direction is, of course, time variant since the earth and moon a r e moving relative to each other. The actual aim vectors a r e taken from fully optimized trajectories which attain a specified periselenum, flight time, and a specified inclination to the lunar equatorial plane. In the nominal case, the flight plane is chosen such that no powered plane changes a r e required. If parking orbit perturbations occur, experience has shown that rotating the cutoff plane about the aim vector results in significant payload gains. The cutoff plane is defined by the aim vector and perigee vector as shown in Figure 2.3-3. Energy input constrains flight time and therefore determines the semimajor axis of the outgoing ellipse. The magnitude of the aim vector determines the true anomaly of the aim vector. In short, with the elliptical parameters M, semi-major axis a, and eccentricity e, the shape of the outgoing ellipse is defined. The perigee vector S - determines the orientation of the ellipse, and the perigee vector and aim vector determine the plane. Since the iterative guidance equations predict rangeto-cutoff updated at discrete intervals, the true anomaly of the cutoff point can be computed and hence the cutoff parameters T T , VT, and OT which feed into the iterative scheme. It must be emphasized that these quantities change under perturbations such that the S-IVB cuts off possibly at a different point on the ellipse for a thrust perturbation for example, in order to maintain the desired conditions at the moon. The ignition criterion shown here is that ignition will occur when the orbiting vehicle is a fixed angle from the aim vector. The evaluation will begin upon injection into orbit and tests for the number of changes of sign will be made until the correct number is attained. If for some reason (e. g., there is not enough time to perform all checkout procedures before the time to ignite out of the first orbit) it is necessary to go out of the second orbit, the same type of representations of aim vector, energy, and eccentricity can be read into the onboard computer and it is even conceivable that the same coefficients may be used. Open questions still exist as to whether to update the energy such that the moon is reached at a fixed time of arrival-for example, alter the energy such that the resulting time of flight is reduced by the additional time in parking orbit- o r to execute a plane change and fly the same amount of time a s in the case of going out of the first orbit. Examination of the loop shown in Figure 2.3- 5 between vehicle tracking and telemetry of the LVDC and the stabilized platform, along with transmission of data in real time to the IMCC, the various possibilities of updating information to the computer, of overriding commands such as the ignition equation, and of performing an alternate mission can be seen. In the case of abort (e. g., failure somewhere in the S-11 to the nominal mission), no change in input is required. The solution of time-to-go and other parameters in the iterative scheme settle out quite rapidly (after 2 o r 3 cycles). This statement also holds for changes in desired terminal conditions which might be built into the computer. Neither the accuracy nor the near optimality of the scheme is degraded. Figure 2. 3-6 shows a typical relative time sequence of events: when the vehicle data is supplied, when the mission is defined, when the launch day is given, and when the inputs a r e loaded into the launch computer to be transmitted to the LVDC. It would be assumed that one representation of the time-varying quantities would be made available over an entire month which contained a potential launch date. If 1 month before scheduled launch, a launch date in a different month is selected, approximately 1 week would be required to obtain new representations of launch azimuth, inclination, descending node, aim vector, eccentricity, and energy.
In summary, the effort has been directed towards generality of guidance equations with a miniboth for the nominal mission mum amount of input and for abort and alternate missions. Since a minimum amount of "tampering" with the main program in the LVDC is necessary, efficiency is at a high level, and checkout is greatly simplified. A great deal of consideration was given to the question: I s it better to have one set of guidance equations with the extraneous computation of the quantities which a r e nulled f o r a special case, o r to have separate equations f o r the ascent-into-orbit and the flight-outof-orbit? Close coordination with personnel who would actually be involved with the flight program on the LVDC resolved the answer. Extraneous computation, with the minimum amount of change to the flight program, is more desirable. The time required for programming a computer from one flight to the next is reduced by this method. In fact, theoretically it is

Astrionics System ' Section 2. 3

INPUTS FOR ASCENT Vehtcle Dependent Inputs (9) TI Tz Ts = estimated first stage burning time = estimated second stage burning time

M A T R I X TO TRANSFORM FROM P L A T F O R M COORDINATES TO GUIDANCE COORDINATES

T E R M I N A L RANGE ANGLE CALCULATION IN ORBIT P L A N E


L =ln[t2/(*,-Tz)] .
J =VeXz(~2L1-T2) ,

COORDINATE

ROTATIONS

0
-cos A , I 0

coo A , sin Az

:Coast time between second and thrrd stages Vex, 'go I s p l vex2 'go Isp2 Vex3 =901sp3 rz =nom~nalm,/m, 73 =nornlnal m3/m3 TI =estimated third stoge burnlng tame to porking orbtt Mission Dependent Inputs (7) sr VT 81
K,

I I

S =J,-T, , 9, =
r,

Vex, L,

I 0 core s i n -sin8 coa+.

vexz~: r2 S + ,

[KI[ = C+d G I

= V..,/(F/M) Ll = ln[rl /kl-T

I]

( JI = Vax1 ~ I L I - T) SI = JI- T IV LI ., 9, : f v T 2 + r 1 So ,. L+= V L l + ,,, V L. -1 81 :-SI-JP+L*(TZ+TI) +T2+Tc TIC.

= radius at cutoff
=velocity at cutoff =path angle of cutoff Emission constont =incl~notion cutoff plone of =descending node of cutoff plane =launch azimuth [Dl=

-sin I

cy:
[el

0 0 I

sini cosi

L' = ln[r,/(r,-~')l

4'
TI=

Ti TIC +
L* tv,,L'

v,,~

(T,L'-T') T I M E TO CUTOFF CALCULATION At* =

i 8
AZ

[ ~ l = [ ~[ c l l

[A]

d =
8 , '

VT*-J'+A'T1-K6(r3-T')(A'+V-VTIL'

iT-c -e,~*
(Ak*)z+(~+*)2+(~i*)z

A , *

= ,jr -,T ,* * = -i-f,~X

+ , =

arctan(rfp/yfp)+

1 (8,+82)
? I

AT = ~ ( r ,-T1) / . v, T, T*

=T't AT
T*+AT

i T = VT sin BT

velocity along r) axis velocity along

i ,

= V ,

COO 9,

E axis
M * cos zy-+ K3 sin Py N = K4 sin xY Ap = MAy NBy

I
P I T C H AND YAW ANGLE CALCULATIONS a t = A~"-%AT A = ,

A*, A ,-~ T

pI =-~T+~+TIJI P2 = -+T2 Vex2+ Jzlrz+2T1) P3 = - + T ~ ~ V ~ ~ , + J3(r3+ 2Tlc) Bp= M B ~ - N ( T ~ V ~ X , L ~ +

at = at* - t g a 7 Zy = o r s t o n

[ ~ j l ( ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ I ' ~ ~ ] Xp= o r c t a n ( A j 1 ~ i ) Vex3L3 V1x3L'+G Ay * La+ Vex3L3 J = J'+ T ~ G , C' = J3- AyT3- 81 Cy = C' cos j y i E~ = C + ~ ~ * + t i g ~ * 2 - ~ ' s i n z y 83

+TI:
E ~ l-,T+. = a, Y, z , i , Y, i. F/m. P

Vex3L3+

+ q +Pz+P3)

c P = (MC'- ND')COS , I Q = T ' {: V x+ r3S3 e, Ul = ~ T ? v ~ ~ ~ + rl 01 U2 Dp

- ( MC'- ND'I sin zp


~ T

s T *+I.. 2sgT*2-

JI

J~+Tlvex~Lt

By J3 + TIcV~X~LI+ 83 8 4 ' 01+02-TZJI+TISI ~ , ~ 8+

~ 02(r2+2TI) ~ ~ v

U 3 = ~ T ~ V ~ , , + Q ' ( T ~ + ~ T ~ ~ ) s3

' "(T3+ Tc) ' J3 - T3vex3 L 3

{MDI- N[UI + u ~ + u ~ + ~ I ~ s ~ + a O3

+ T ~ ~ s ~ - ( T ~ + T ~ ) ( P ~ + D' ~ + 84-8s+Q3 P
+

i~i~~~~ s~('~+TIc)
D'COS~).

T?VCI~LL)-

KI = BpEpI(ApDp x;= Ip-Kl

- BpCpl

PITZ])CO~Y~

oY=
x ;

K 3 = ByEY/(AyDy-ByCy)

= Py- '(3

I
i

7
CUTOFF WHEN V S V T

I
IBM

B67

Figure 2. 3-2 Iterative Guidance Mode Equations, Flight to Orbit


2.3-5/2. 3-6

Astrionics System Section 2. 3

MATRIX T O TRANSFORM FROM PLATFORM COORDINATES T O GUIDANCE C O O R D I N A T E S

T E R M I N A L RANGE ANGLE CALCULATION IN O R B I T P L A N E

COORDINATE

ROTATIONS

[A]=

sin A ,

-co:A,

r :I::: ]
0

L 2 =In[r2/(r2-T2)] J2 =Vex2 ( ~ L2-T21 2 S2 'J2-TZ Vex2 L Z Q2 =


I ,

4 vex2T:

+ 4 S2

= V.,,I(F/M) L~ = ~ n [ ? / ( r , - ~ , ) ] JI : Vax1(rtLi-Tt I
SI = JI- TI VnXI LI 0,

+vex,T,'+T,

S,

L'= V # L l + Vex2 L t , 8, = -S1 -C + L( 2 +T. I .T TIC. T,+T2+Tc L' = l n [ r 3 / ( r 3 - ~ ' ) ]

J' = ,, v (T~L'-T') T*. T ' t TIC


A' = L*tV..3~' B2= V T * - J ' + A ' T ' - K ~ ( ~ ~ - T ' I ( ~ + V - V ~ ) C CALCULATION

E:j [i]
=I [ G

A+*

' +,

.,,'i.J*

41=

arctan ( X F P / Y ~ P ) +

$ (8,+%1
true anomol) path angle radius velocity

A 4 = +,+a
INPUTS FOR OUT O F O R B I T

= arc tan

[*]

p/(l+ecosAOI VT. ~ ~ ( l + e ~ + 2 e cos

parking orbit

1
L

I
COMPUTE AT SECOND S - I V B IGNITION

i T = VT sin BT

velocity along T arts velocity along

Mission Dependent Inputs ( 2 8 )


hf; =Mi0+M,, T + M i 2 T 2 + ~ , , T 3

i = VT coo 0, T

axis P I T C H A N D YAW A N G L E C A L C U L A T I O N S M = cos " + K3 sin gy N = Kasizyry A p = MAy A(= A'

M
e .

unit oim vector =RO+R,T + R ~ T ~ + R ~ T ~ aim vector magnitude =eo+e, T + e 2 T 2 + e 3 T 3

unit aim vector M aim vector magnitude eN nominal eccentricity C cutoff energy , e =f,(e,,-I)+ p =$3(e'-il core

eccentricity of cutoff ellipse semilotus rectum true anorndy of aim vector constant normal to parking orbit plane constont constont vector

- NBy

AC = A C * - ~ ~ A T

?-

A(*-GAT
A,"-igAT
OK

nominoi eccentricity C3 = C o + ~ , T + ~ 2 ~ 2 + C 3 T 3 cutoff enery rN =nominal radws o t time of ignition K 8 = m i s s i o n conslont COSA = cosine of angle before M_ to ignite TlGA =cosine of ongle before M to begin ch~lldown

=i(b I) -

pI = - ~ T ~ ~ V ~ , , + ~ ~ J ~ P2 = -4Tz2 Vex2+J2(r2+2T,I P3 = - $ T ~ ~ v ~ ,J3(r3+2Tlcl ~+ B P = M B ~ - N ( TVex2Lz + ~~ +TI: Vex3Ln + +F/+P2+p,l E p = ,-,,T++~"+ +iig~*2Cp =

gy =

IO"[A~/(A~Z+A+~I"Z

x p = orc ton I A j / A C l Vex3L3 = Vex3LS+G A = L*+ Vex ,


J~

K5 =mi N =LXY
DD:(N.MI?INXM?+I FF = N.M/INXMI~

= J'+ T ~ G

3L3

C' = J3- AyT3-8,

=[OD M-FF ~+fi(*-D~)+]cos+*perigee M-ScosY


-C-oS2+X

- (MC' - NO') sln yp (MC' - ND'I cos gp


T
~ ~

Cy = C' cos

gy

Ey : c + ~ ~ * + ~ ~ g ~ " 2 - ~ ' s t n j i , B3 = JI +J2+TIVex2L2

0' = ~
vector perpendicular to perigee vector normal l o cutoff plane U2 = i

~r
~

3~3

~ B y + J3 =
8,;

T1cVex3L3+ Bn

SL

UI = $T~'V~,~+ r 1 Q 1 ~ ~2 ~ ~ 1 + ~

Ol+Q2-TzJ~+T~Sp

C_, = S X S ,

0 B5 = ( B31T3+ T c l ~ r ~ +

g =cos A cos& i+sin+o 1- sin A* cos +0 Ir earth spin vector , cos i = g GI inclination of cutoff pione
1, =-cos A sin ,

u3 =
Dp.

$ T ~ V ~ ~ , + O ' ( ~ ~ + ~ T ~ ~ I = Jn T3Vex3 '-3 Sa { M D ' - N [ U ~ + U ~ + U ~ + ~ ~ S 0 3+* ~ T ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ + S ~ ( T ~ + T ~ ~ ) Z +T~~S~-(T~+T,I(P~+P~+ D' = Ba-B5+Q3

8, i+ 8, coo

AFTER PARKING ORBIT INJECTION COAST UNTIL

cos A

= ++TIGA

IGNITION OCCURS IN TIG SECONDS

-t
I

+sin A sin ,

8. k vector to launch site

+ ~ 1 ~ ~ e x 2 ~ 2 ) - ~ 1 ~ 2 ] } c 0 s Di p D ' C O S Y ~ j. =

DN = GIX Q
= orc tan
=arc tan

cmstont vector

' $y;:E1'r~)

dercendinq node

(W-l)

angle from

to descending node

CUTOFF WHEN

Figure 2. 3-3 Iterative Guidance Mode Equations, Flight out of Orbit

Astrionics System Section 2. 3

Inclination of Earth Parking Orbit (degrees)

35 72.0
Inclination of Earth Parking Orbit Versus Time of Launch f o r a Typical Launch Window

30
Launch Azimuth (degrees)

98.0

rt
150

30 35 Time of Launch from Midnight (lo3 seconds)

25

Decending Node (degrees)

-A
72.

125

>

Time of Launch Venus Descending Node for a Typical Launch Window

100

82.8 -98.0

Launch Azimuth (degrees)

75

U %*

25

30

35

Time of Launch from Midnight (lo3 seconds)

Launch Azimuth (degrees)

90

80
Time of Launch Versus Launch Azimuth for a Typical Launch Window

70

32 34 3 Time of Launch from Midnight (10 seconds)


IBM

24

26

28

30

~ 6 9

Figure 2.3-4 Launch Window Parameters

2.3-9

Astrionics System Section 2. 3 possible to program the computer, change the vehicle configuration, change the mission, and never perform another checkout of the LVDC. Practically, of course, a high confidence level is necessary for crew safety and f o r accomplishing the desired mission - s o checkouts a r e performed again but of a much more limited nature than if a completely new computer program were required. The guidance mode, qualitatively described here, is not necessarily a final recommendation; its implementation is merely one way to accomplish the task of successfully performing the Apollo mission and many other orbital and, indeed, interplanetary missions. The details of the cutoff surface must be analyzed carefully with respect to interface and subsequent consistency with the spacecraft guidance mode. The iterative guidance equations require more LVDC capacity than most of the other guidance schemes optimized for minimum propellant consumption, but considerable flexibility is gained. The same s e t of guidance command equations is applicable to almost all orbital missions and can be formulated for use with any number of high thrust stages. The small number of presettings that must be calculated for a flight represents physical quantities such a s vehicle exhaust velocity, nominal cutoff time, and desired cutoff position and velocity. This is an importaht characteristic of the scheme since these presettings may be determined without resorting to time-consuming statistical methods. The accuracy and propellant economy with the scheme a r e excellent. The fuel required to attain the desired cutoff conditions (at orbit insertion) is within 5 kilograms (11.1 pounds) of that required using exact minimum propellant equations obtained with the calculus of variations. This economy is obtained even under severe perturbations suck as an engine failure in the f i r s t stage of a 2 stag multi-engine vehicle.

2.3.3

GUIDANCE FUNCTIONS I N FLIGHT

The following is a brief summarizing description of guidance functions during the various phases of the Saturn Launch Vehicle Mission in the Apollo Program. Before launch, the platform is erected with the y~ axis vertical and the XI axis pointing in the direction of the launch azimuth. Since the launch azimuth is varying with time, the platform is torqued to maintain this orientation. Just prior to lift-off, the

Ground Computer for Launch Operation

Functions of Launch Time

Launch Vehicle Digital Computer

Accelerometer Measurements Attitude

I
I

Mission From PO

1
MSFN
Remote Sites

I I I

Note: To update for alternate mission from parking orbit requires up to 27 constants. (Automatic ignition sequence i s used)

Integrated Mission Control Center

IBM

~ 7 0
A

Figure 2. 3-5 Linkage Between Vehicle and Ground


2. 3-10

Astrionics System I Section 2. 3 platform is released and becomes space-fixed oriented. The XI axis now determines the flight azimuth. FIRST STAGE FLIGHT The vehicle lifts off vertically from the launch pad and maintains its lift-off orientation long enough to clear the ground equipment. It then performs a roll maneuver to align the vehicle with the flight azimuth direction. This maneuver gives the vehicle control axes the correct alignment to the flight plane thus simplifying the computations in the attitude control loop. On the launch pad, the vehicle always has a roll orientation fixed to the launching site. During first-stage propulsion, a time tilt program, stored in the LVDC, is applied simultaneously with the described roll maneuver. The pitch angle of the vehicle i s commanded according to the tilt program which is a function of time only and is independent of navigation measurements. However, navigation measurements and computations a r e performed throughout the flight, beginning at the time the platform is released (i. e. , 5 seconds before lift-off). Cutoff of the f i r s t stage engines occurs when the fuel level in the tanks reaches a predetermined level. Thereafter, the f i r s t stage is separated from the launch vehicle. SECOND AND THIRD STAGE FLIGHT After ignition of the S-I1 Stage, adaptive guidance (i. e., the iterative guidance mode) is used during all propelled flight phases of the mission. The iterative guidance mode which has been described in paragraph 2.3.2, computes the pitch and yaw angle of the required thrust direction to guide the vehicle on a minimum propellant trajectory into the predetermined parking orbit. S-I1 Stage engine cutoff is initiated when the propellant in the S-I1 tank is consumed to a predetermined level. Following separation of the S-I1 Stage, the S-IVB Stage engine is ignited. By this time the vehicle has reached approximately the orbital altitude and the S-IVB propulsion provides the necessary velocity for the circular parking orbit. When the predetermined velocity has been obtained, the guidance computations command engine cutoff. Acceleration, velocity, and aerodynamic press u r e for a typical Saturn V powered flight trajectory into earth orbit a r e shown in Figure 2.3-7. The step in the F/M curve around 420 seconds i s caused by a change of the propellant mixture ratio to increase the

Vehicle Characteristics and Mission Defined

10

_,

Vehicle Dependent Inputs Supplied

Launch Computer

1'

n
Launch Defined

3
Mission Dependent Inputs for Ascent Supplied

36
Mission Dependent Inputs Supplied

11

LVDC

V
2 Months 1 Month

v
3 Weeks
2 Weeks

3 Months

Launch T i me

Mission

IBM B71

Figure 2. 3-6 Guidance System Input Sequence 2. 3-11

Astrionics System Section 2. 3


S-IC Cutoff 5-11 Cutoff S-IVB Cutoff

Time (seconds)

O
1

The change of thrust acceleration ( F/M ) around 415 seconds is caused by a change in the propellant mixture ratio.

IBK ~ 7 2

Figure 2. 3-7 Altitude, Acceleration (F/M), Velocity (V,), and Aerodynamic P r e s s u r e (Q) for a Typical Saturn Trajectory

Astrionics System , Section 2. 3 specific impulse which, however, reduces the thrust and therefore cannot be applied earlier. ORBITAL FLIGHT During orbital coast flight, the navigation program continually computes the vehicle position and velocity from the equations of motion based on insertion conditions. Attitude of the vehicle roll axis in orbit is maintained at 90 degrees with respect to the local vertical. The local vertical is determined from navigational computations. The time of re-ignition of the S-IVB engine and the required thrust orientation for powered flight-out-of -orbit a r e computed during each orbit.

In orbit, navigation and guidance information in the LVDC can be updated by data transmission from ground stations through the IU radio command system.
TRANSLUNAR INJECTION When the computed time of re-ignition occurs, the S-IVB engine is ignited. The same guidance equations a r e used again for the translunar injection. The S-IVB propulsion is cutoff when the proper energy ( ~ 2 for translunar injection is achieved. )
In the following flight phase, up to and through the transposition maneuver, navigation computations continue.