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Technical Paper

Wet H2S Corrosion and Inhibition

Author: James G. Edmondson

The interaction between atomic hydrogen and steels used in process piping and vessels is manifested in several ways: hydrogen blistering, sulfide stress cracking (SSC), hydrogen induced cracking (MC), and stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC). These forms of damage are common in alkaline sour refinery environments, such as fluidized catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and vapor recovery systems (VRS) and alkanolamine units. Research into these phenomena by refinery corrosion engineers has emphasized material selection, control measures such as post weld heat treatment, and repair techniques. Corrosion inhibitors are frequently used in alkaline sour environments; however, little published research is available on chemical inhibition of hydrogen damage under such conditions. In this paper, we present laboratory data illustrating the development of tests to screen inhibitors and the results of those tests.

cate about 25% of all inspected vessels contained cracks. Data presented by the NACE T-8-16 subcommittee (Cracking in Wet H2S Environments) at Fall Committee Week in September 1990 are shown in Table 1. It is interesting to note that vessels that received post weld heat treatment (PWHT) had a cracking incidence only slightly lower than the overall average. Buchheim3 offered three possible explanations for this: PWHT, in fact, does not significantly help; cracks were already present before PWHT; or that the PWHT temperatures were not sufficiently high to be effective. Wet H2S corrosion in the FCCU and VRS results in various environmental and energy penalties. This area of the refinery generate a large amount of very sour water and is the major source of cyanides.2 Excessive use of fresh condensates as wash water results in higher volumes of water sent to sour water strippers and an energy penalty in terms of stripping steam. Due to the water insolubility of corrosion products in alkaline sour environments, excessive corrosion can result in the production of dispersed solids. These solids can add bulk to deposits fouling reboiler tubes and stabilize emulsions resulting in oily water draws or wet product streams.
Table 1: NACE T-8-16 Survey Data 9190 Vessels Inspected Cracked Non-PWHT Vessels Inspected Cracked PWHT Vessels Inspected Cracked 4666 1150 (25%) 2218 658 (30%) 1047 232 (22%)

A catastrophic failure of an amine absorber at a midwestern refinery in 1984 resulted in 17 fatalities and US$500 million in damages.1 This has prompted the industry to conduct numerous inspections of pressure vessels operating in wet H2S service. This service is defined by the presence of a free, liquid water phase and at least 50 ppm (mg/L) H2S. Vessels in amine service were the first to be inspected, followed by FCCU and VRS units based on the potential for hydrogen damage. At this time, several thousand refinery vessels have been inspected. Data presented by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) from their industry surveys indiFind a contact near you by visiting gewater.com or e-mailing custhelp@ge.com.

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Wet H2S Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

Hydrogen atoms are produced at the corroding steel surface by the cathodic reaction: Hs- = Ho + Se-2 + eThe hydrogen atoms have a large thermodynamic driving force to combine to form H2 gas. However, in the presence of H2S and other poisons, the rate of hydrogen atom combination is slowed and the absorbed hydrogen atoms can diffuse into the steel lattice. Some of these atoms can pass completely through the steel and be detected by patch probes attached to vessels or piping for that purpose. More importantly, the hydrogen atoms can collect in the steel and embrittle it or recombine at inclusions in the steel resulting in cracks or blisters. SSC results from the embrittling effect of hydrogen penetration and is observed in high strength materials and, in lower strength materials, at welds or the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of base metal. The occurrence of SSC is dependent on the composition, microstructure, strength level, applied stress, and residual stresses of the steel component. SSC cracks are perpendicular to the direction of stress. The occurrence of HIC is a function of inclusion content in the steel, which is, in turn, dependent on the type and amount of impurities in the steel. The most frequently mentioned (problematic) inclusions are those of MS. These tend to be randomly distributed throughout the steel and elongated in the rolling direction. Thus, HIC occurs throughout base metal and is generally parallel to the surface. When close to the surface, cracks show up as blisters. Due to the orientation of the inclusions, individual cracks can link up (step-wise cracking, SWC) and form through-wall cracks. SOHIC, as described by Herrick and Bullen4, results from the stacking of microfissures caused by high stress levels and absorbed hydrogen. Like SSC, the stacking is normal to the applied stress. Like HIC, even low strength, soft base metal is susceptible. Existing cracks can serve as stress concentration points and result in a change in crack propogation mechanism from SSC to SOHIC.

Each of the above cracking mechanisms exhibits some unique attributes which lead to different possible inhibition strategies. Examples include post weld heat treatment for SSC or inclusion shape control for HIC. However, all mechanisms require the generation and diffusion of hydrogen atoms. Thus, the ability to reduce or eliminate hydrogen generation or to increase the rate of hydrogen atom combination on the surface are promising avenues to control all of the above cracking mechanisms.

Current HIC and SSC Testing

Much of the work done to address HIC and SSC of refinery steels has utilized NACE TH 0284 and/or TM 0177, respectively. These tests were developed to qualify line pipe steels for sour oil production service. The fluids used are good approximations of the water phases encountered in many oil production systems: mildly acidic, H2S-saturated, salt solutions. Recently, Terrick and Bullen4 pointed out some of the differences between the NACE fluids and refinery condensates associated with hydrogen damage. Water analysis data from eight refineries provided by Kmett and Truax5 yielded the following concentration ranges for FCCU waters: 400 to 40,000 ppm (mg/L) NH3 100 to 16,000 ppm (mg/L) H2S 0 to 25,000 ppm (mg/L) CO2 pH 7.3 to 10.1 (Cyanide and Thiocyanate present but not reported) Solution compositions for the NACE tests are: TM 0177 50,000 ppm (mg/L) NaCl 5,000 ppm (mg/L) Acetic Acid Ambient H2S Saturation pH 3 to 4.5 TM 0284 Synthetic Seawater (ASTH D1141) Ambient H2S Saturation Initial pH 8.3 Final pH 4.8 to 5.4 Major differences are apparent between the NACE fluids and those found in FCCU systems. For all or most of the test period, the NACE fluids are acidic
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while refinery condensates are alkaline. The predominant salt in the NACE fluids is NaCl at 3.3% to 5% by weight. The primary dissolved salts in refinery condensates are NH4HS and NH4HC03 with minor amounts of NH4Cl. Refinery condensates contain significant concentrations of cyanides. This species is intimately involved in the hydrogen generation mechanism of alkaline NH4HS solutions because of its ability to form ferrocyanide complexes. Two other differences, not related to aqueous phase conditions, are lack of an oil phase in the NACE tests and the use of ambienttemperature. The above differences are perhaps not critical if one is evaluating the effect of metallurgical (internal) condition (e.g., HIC resistant steels or post weld heat treatment) on hydrogen damage susceptibility. For example, Merrick and Bullen2 conducted TM 0177 tests using the standard fluid and a (NH4)2S + KCN + H2S solution of pH 7.8 to 8.2. Differences in SOHIC susceptibility were seen in several steels in those fluids. Their proposed specification for HIC resistant steels uses the TM 0177 fluid (in a TM 0284 test procedure), presumably because that fluid gives more conservative results. The test condition differences are quite critical if one is evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatments or cyanide scavengers, such as filmforming inhibitors, passivators, or ammonium polysulfide (APS), for control of hydrogen damage. Fluid composition affects not only the additives, but also the corroding surfaces. These effects in turn, influence the absorption of film-forming surfactants. Suzuki, eta16 tested a variety of inhibitors and found imidazolines to be very efficient corrosion inhibitors and good hydrogen permeation inhibitors in NACE solution. This finding is not supported by our work in alkaline sour solutions. Whitehead and pointed out the discrepancy between TM 0177 testing and field service with 12-13% Cr martensitic steels. Such steels have provided good service in C02/H2S oil production despite failing TM 0177. The authors showed that this was attributed to passivation in servicedue to the presence of dissolved C02. In the low pH, high Cl-, no CO2 NACE solution, passivation could not occur and severe corrosion, pitting, and cracking resulted. Baloun7

Finally, because cyanide is not present in the NACE solution, there is little point in evaluating cyanide scavengers such as APS in TM 0177. Buchheim3 indicated a need to explore the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors to minimize hydrogen entry into the steel. The remainder of our paper will deal with this need under conditions that are more representative of refinery environments than currently used HIC and SCC procedures.

Hydrogen Blistering and HIC Testing

Experimental Before the above goal could be accomplished, we had to determine aqueous phase conditions which would produce blistering and HIC reproducibly in a lab test. Hydrogen permeation measurement was chosen as a sensitive method to measure the generation of atomic hydrogen. The experimental apparatus is shown in Figure 1. The Generating (corroding) and Measuring Cells are separated by the corrosion specimen, in this case, a 0.018 x 2 x 2 1010 mild steel sheet. The specimen was polished to 400 grit, degreased with isopropanol, and stored in a dessicator. Before use, the side of the specimen exposed to the Measuring Cell was sputter-coated with about 30 nm of Pd. This coating reduces corrosion of the specimen on the measuring side and aids in the reoxidation of atomic hydrogen which diffuses through the specimen. The Pd-coated side of the specimen is held at an oxidizing potential (400 mV anodic to SCE) by the potentiostat and immersed in deaerated, 1N NaOH to drive the measurement reaction: OHHOads H20 + eThe current generated by this reaction flows between the steel and Pt electrodes and is measured by the potentiostat. Figure 2 is a schematic graph of permeation current (P, A) versus time. The difference between that current and the background current is designated PH and is directly proportional to the flux of hydrogen atoms.

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Table 2. The equilibrium pH value increased with NH40H and the desired pH of about 9 was obtained with 80,000 ppm (mg/L) NH40H. Extensive blistering was visible on the steel membrane. Using the 80,000 ppm (mg/L) NH40H solution, a series of CN- concentrations were tested. These data are shown in Figure 3 and Table 3. A plateau in hydrogen activity was attained between 200 and 500 ppm (mg/L) CN-. This approximately 40 A current persisted to at least 1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN-.
Table 2: Hydrogen Permeation as a Function of NH40H Concentration Figure 1: Hydroqen Permeation Apparatus NH40H Conc., ppm (mg/L) 20) 000 40,000 80,000 pH (pH) Max., A Blistering?

7.7 8.0 8.8

0 22.5 48.0


1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN-, 300 ppm (mg/L) Cl- H2S saturated at ambient temperature and pressure, all aqueous. Figure 2: Schematic Hydrogen Permeation Curve

To initiate corrosion and the generation of hydrogen, a solution of NH40H, NH4C1, and/or KCN (as desired) is prepared in deaeratcd, deionized water and added to the Generation Cell. This solution is then purged with H2S at a high rate at ambient temperature and pressure to produce the desired pH. The cell remained sealed throughout the permeation current measurement.

As shown in Table 3, visible blisters were consistently observed on the steel membranes with 500 or 1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN- in solution. Figure 4 is a photograph of the extent of surface blistering observed. Figure 5 is a metallograph of steel membrane showing blistering and step-wise cracking (SWC) associated with hy rogen penetration into the steel. Using the mfthod of Van Gelder and Kroese iI , the concentration of hydrogen (CoH, mole/cm ) in the steel at the equilibrium permeation current ((PH)-, CIA) was calculated. The values, shown in Table 3, exe ed the concentration
Table 3 :Hydrogen Permeation as a Function of Cyanide Concentration CNCont., ppm 0 100 200 Runs 2 2 3 4 6 Runs w/ Blistering 0 0 2 4 6 (pH) Ma x & 0.11 +/- 0.1 2.8 +/-1.6 15 +/-2.6 43 +/-18 41 +/-23 COH, mole/ cm3x106 0.1 +/- 0.1 0.2 +/-0.1 1.4 +/-0.3 4.1 +/-1.6 3.9 +/- 2.2

Figure 3: Hydrogen Permeation vs. CN- Concentration

500 1,000

Results The results of an initial series of experiments at different NH40H concentrations are shown in
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80,000 ppm NH40H, 300 ppm Cl- saturated with H2S at ambient temperature andpressure, pH 8.9 +/- 0.2, all aqueous.

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of 80% of the untreated coupons. Thus, for any individual inhibitor test there was a 20% chance of a false positive result (i.e., no blistering). In order to reduce the likelihood of false positives to an acceptable level, the following test protocol was established. Each inhibitor at each dosage was tested in duplicate in two separate test runs for a total of four replications. If all of these coupons showed >85X reduction in blistering, then that inhibitor at that dosage was considered effective. This reduced the likelihood of a false positive to about 0.16% (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 x 100). If 3 of 4 showed >85% reduction in blistering (a 2.56% probability, 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.8 x 4 x 100), then a third duplicate test was made and the product considered effective if both of these coupons had >85% reduction in blistering (a 4% probability, 0.2 x 0.2 x 100). This reduced the likelihood of a false positive to about 0.1% (0.0256 x 0.04 x 100). These percent probabilities (0.16% or 0.1%) were considered acceptable assurance against improperly judging an inhibitor as effec tive. The testing of a series of dosages also significantly reduced the likelihood of improperly judging product effectiveness. A large degree of scatter was evident in the permeation and blistering tests. This has been reported previously in TM 0284 tests.9 The method of counting blisters also attributed to data scatter, since each blister could differ in size. Thus, each blister represents a different amount of hydrogen, but is still considered as one blister. Blister counting also ignores subsurface hydrogen damage.

Figure 4: Hydrogen blisters on 1010 carbon steel membrane (3x)

Figure 5: Cross-section through coupon from Figure 4 (precise magnificationunknown, estimated to be 100x)

typically reported to case cracking in steels (2 x 10-6 mole/cm3 for a line pipe steel API 5L X 609) when 500 or 1,000 ppm CN- are present. Having established aqueous phase conditions where extensive hydrogen cracking could be produced, tests were next conducted to determine the effect of introducing hydrocarbon into the test. Intimate contact among oil, water, and metal was maintained by mounting the bottles on a shaker table. Coupons were cut (1 x ) from the same steel sheet and prepared in the same manner as for the permeation tests. Using 80 mls of a synthetic naphtha (a mixture of linear, branched, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons) and 20 mls of an H2S purged (ph 9.2 +/- 0.2, 300 ppm [mg/l] Cl-) NH40H solution with 1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN- did not produce consistent blistering over a 3-day test. Increasing the CN- to 2,000 ppm (mg/L) resulted in heavy blistering on an average
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Figure 6: Hydrogen-induced and step-wise cracking in 1010 carbon steel (410x)exposed to NH4HS solution and hydrocarbon with no inhibitor.
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Product H Effective Dosage: 7.5 - 10 ppm (mg/L) Product K Effective Dosage: 25 - 50 ppm (mg/L) Product I Effective Dosage: 7.5 - 10 ppm (mg/L) Product I contains 50% Product H and 20% Product K Predicted Effective Dosage for Product I = 1 = 1.4 0.50 0.20 + 7.5 25
Figure 7: Absence of HIC and SWC in 1010 carbon steel (41~~) exposed to NH4HS solution and hydrocarbon with 10 ppm (mg/L) Product H. Figure 9: Hydrogen Blistering Test synergism calculation.

dark spot on Figure 7 (10 ppm [mg/L] H) may be an expanded lamination. These results show that under these test conditions it is possible to reduce hydrogen charging to levels where blistering, HIC, and SWC are prevented in non-hardened steel in the absence of applied stress. A particularly interesting comparison is the performance relationship among products H, I, and K. Product I is a mixture of the components contained in products H and K. Based on the active ingredient contents of H, I and K and effective dosages of H and K, a theoretical effective dosage can be calculated for product I, assuming additive behavior. The data and calculations are shown in Figure 9. A theoretical, additive effective dosage of 13.4 ppm (mg/L) is obtained in comparison to the measured effective dosage of 7.5 - 10 ppm (mg/L). This apparent synergism among the components of products H and K is the subject of further research. Another significant result of this testing is that two products previously recommended for alkaline, sour corrosion based on weight loss tests (H and U) are not effective in the blistering test. The weight loss testing used a lower pH (7.7) to stimulate higher general corrosion rates.

Figure 8: Absence of HIC and SWC in 1010 carbon steel (410x) exposed to NH4HS solution and hydrocarbon with 25 ppm (mg/L) Product H.

Fourteen commercially available, formulated corrosion inhibitors were evaluated at dosages up to 100 ppm (mg/L). The effective dosage ranges for these products are listed in Table 4. There is at least a ten-fold range for effective dosages under these test conditions, with fully one-half of the products (0 through U) being ineffective at 100 ppm (mg/L). Two products (H and I) were found to be particularly efficient. A blank coupon, a 10 ppm (mg/L) H coupon, and a 25 ppm (mg/L) H coupon were cross-sectioned and examined at 410X to inspect for HIC. The photomicrographs are reproduced as Figures 6, 7 and 8, respectively. Severe HIC is evident in the blank coupon, while HIC and SWC are not evident in either coupon exposed to product H. However, the roundish,

Sulfide Stress Corrosion (SSC) Cracking Tests

Experimental Host of the cracking reported in alkaline sour service is associated with welds and HAZ. If welds are not stress-relieved, the combination of high residual stresses and hardened steel result in a greater

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Figure 10: Hydrogen blisters on A516-70 welded U-bend (1.4x).

Figure 13: Secondary sulfide stress crack at fracture surface of A516-70 welded U-bend (200x, Nital etch).

susceptibility to cracking in the presence of sulfide (SSC). Fluid chemistries similar to those used in the permeation and blistering tests were used in the SSC tests. The specimens used were welded U-bends (per ASTIR G-3010 and G-5811); see example d of Figure 2 from G-30. The weld was applied before bending and stress relief was not done. Stress was applied with a Hastelloy bolt and nut, insulated from the specimen by Teflon washers. The U-bends were suspended in about 400 mls of quiescent aqueous phase with Teflon tape in individual bottles. Exposure was at ambient temperature and pressure. The U-bends were transferred to new bottles with fresh solution at about weekly intervals. Any chemical treatment was also re-dosed with each fluid change. (Hastelloy is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc. Teflon is a registered trademark of DuPont.) The test bottles were examined 2 or 3 times per day for failure. Failure was defined as any crack visible with the naked eye with illumination provided by a fiber optic light source. If failure occurred, the time of failure and presence or absence of blisters were noted. The coupon was removed from the fluid, rinsed with deionized water, then isopropanol dried, and stored in a dessicator box. If failure did not occur, the coupons went through four fluid changes before removal from the test, rinsing, drying, and storage. All coupons were sectioned, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of blistering, HIC, SWC, and SSC.
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Figure 11: Fracture through HAZ of A516-70 welded U-bend (4x).

Figure 12: Step-wise cracking in base metal of A516-70 welded U-bend (37.5x, Nital etch).

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Table 5: Welded U-Bend (ASTM G-30 and G-58) Test Results Active Dosage, ppm 2.5 6.2 12.5 25.0 62.5 125 250 Effective Dosage, ppm1 Time to Failure, Days Product H >28 >28 >29 >29 >29 >29 >29 1.9-2.5 Product K 1 1 1 l-4 l-4 >28 >28 9.3-19 3 2 >29 22 >29 >42 Product T

location of the fractures in the HAZ, the secondary cracks, brittle fracture surface, and transgranular nature of the cracks are all characteristic of SSC. Three inhibitors have been studied at this point in time. These were selected (based on performance in the blistering test) to cover the gamut of measured inhibitor efficiency. Table 5 lists the times to failure as a function of inhibitor dosage for products H, K and T. Product H again exhibits excellent efficiency and prevented failure for 29 days at 2.5 ppm (mg/L) (active), the lowest dosage that was tested. Products K and T are much less efficient than product H; however, their relative performance has been reversed. This may be due to the absence of hydrocarbon or relative ability to film onto weld metal or the HAZ. Methods and equipment to allow two phase SSC testing are currently under development to answer this question. Figure 14 shows a series of specimens including blanks and product K treated U-bends. Differences in coloration of the corrosion product are evident. In each case where the treatment was effective, the film is in the form of a thin gold patina. On the other hand, coupons which fractured were covered with no film or a thin black film. These differences developed early on in the test and were not simply due to the differences in length of exposure or number of fluid changeouts. It is apparent that the inhibitor is not simply forming a barrier coating, but actually changes the nature of the iron sulfide film. Similar colorations have been observed with product H in slow strain tests. However, those changes occurred after removal from the alkaline, sour solutions and upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Hay and Dautovich12 showed that pyrite/pyrrhotite films can reduce corrosion and hydrogen damage in steels exposed to moist hydrogen sulfide. They suggested that more effective techniques to produce such films would be successful in the prevention of corrosion and hydrogen dam e in susceptible steels (A516-70, normalized at 900C). Tapping, etal13 also found that formation of pyrite films on carbon steel reduced corrosion, hydrogen damage, and deposition of sulphide throughout a Girdler sulphide heavy water plant.

40,000 ppm NA40H, 1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN- , 300 ppm (mg/L) Cl- saturated with H2S at ambient temperature. 1From Table 3 in Hydrogen Blistering Test, but adjusted to active basis.

Figure 14: Macrophoto of surface coloration on A516-70 welded U-bends from Product K test series (0.7x).

Results Both 80,000 and 40,000 ppm (mg/L) NH4OH solutions with 2,000 and 1,000 ppm (mg/L) CN, respectively (pH to 9.2 +/- 0.2 with H2S, 300 ppm [mg/L] Cl-) caused failure of the welded U-bends in less than 24 hours. The after-exposure surface condition and a fracture are shown in Figures 10 and 11, respectively. Subsurface SWC in the base metal and a secondary transgranular SSC crack propagating from the fracture surface in the HAZ are shown in Figures 12 and 13, respectively. The
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Inhibitors have been successfully applied in the field to control gross. hydrogen generation, as measured by finger and patch probes. Our results show that there are products which are significantly better hydrogen damage inhibitors than previously applied products. Based on the positive results obtained to date regarding inhibition of hydrogen damage to steels, products such as pHilmPLUS 5K15 (Product H) have been introduced. This product was offered for sale two years ago after going through a successful product development phase. During this time several field applications were evaluated. Current applications are ongoing in several units where wet H2S corrosion cracking potential exists. These include sour water stripper, hydrodesulfurization, hydrocracker, FCCU, coker and alkanolamine units. The observation of synergism in our work holds the promise for even more cost-effective products to be developed. The observation of corrosion product modification provides an avenue for more basic study of the inhibition process. In addition, under current research projects, new test methods are being developed and synthesis of new inhibitors is ongoing.

4. Merrick, R. D., Bullen, M. L., Prevention of Cracking in Wet H2S Environments, Corrosion 89, Paper #269, NACE, Houston, TX, April 1989. 5. Kmetz, J. H., Truax, D. J., Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking ofCarbon Steel in Refinery FCC Main Fractionator Overhead Systems, Corrosion 90, Paper #206, NACE, Houston, TX, April 1990. 6. Suzuki, K., etal, The Study of Inhibitors for Sour Gas Service, Corrosion, 38.. 7, July 1982, pp. 384-389. 7. Whitehead, T. D., Baloun, C. H., Evaluating the Suitability of the NACE Standard Test, TM-0177, for Testing 13% Chromium Martensitic Stainless Steels for Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistance, Laboratory Corrosion Tests and Standards ASTM STP866, G. S. Haynes and R. Babian, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,1985, pp. 400 -414. 8. Van Gelder, K., Kroese, C. J., Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors for Sour Oil and Gas Transport of Hydrogen Uptake by Pipeline Steels, 6th European Symposium on Corrosion Inhibitors, Proceedings, Universita begli Studi Di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy, 1985, pp. 1387-14 9. Van Gelder, etal, Hydrogen-Induced Cracking: Determination of Maximum Allowed H2S Partial Pressures, Corrosion, 42, No. 1, January 1986, pp. 36-43. 10. ASTM G-30, Standard Practice for flaking and Using U-Bend Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1988. 11. ASTM G-58, Standard Practice for Preparation of Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens for Weldments, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1988. 12. Hay, M. G., Dautovich, D. P., Control of Hydrogen Induced Cracking in Low Strength Carbon Steel Exposed to Hydrogen Sulfide Environments, Current Solutions to Hydrogen Problems in- Steels, C. G. Interrante and G. H. Pressouyre, Eds., American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1982, pp. 191-195. 13. Tapping, R. L., etal, Effect of H2S Neutralization Methods on Sulfide Films in Heavy Water Plants, Corrosion on 83, Paper #103, NACE, Houston,TX, April 1983
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The laboratory data presented in this report were obtained by M. A. Hoppke, S. E. Lehrer, and T. M. McCullough. The metallographic examinations and interpretations were provided by F. D. West and E. F. Young. Without their diligent efforts, this paper would not have been possible.

1. Stray, J. D., Control of Corrosion and Fouling in Amine SweeteningSystems, Canadian Region Western Conference, Calgary, Alberta, February 20 - 22, 1990. 2. Wong, J. M., Haroney, P. M., Cyanide Control in Petroleum Refineries,44th Purdue Industrial Vaste Conference Proceedings, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, 1990, pp. 6-3. 3. Buchheim, G. M., Ways to Deal with Wet H2S Cracking Revealed by Study, Oil 6 Gas Journal, July 9, 1990, pp. 92-96.
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