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Electromagnetism

Christopher R Prior

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics Trinity College, Oxford

ASTeC Intense Beams Group Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Contents
Maxwells equations and Lorentz Force Law Motion of a charged particle under constant Electromagnetic fields Relativistic transformations of fields Electromagnetic waves Waves in a uniform conducting guide
Simple example TE01 mode Propagation constant, cut-off frequency Group velocity, phase velocity Illustrations

Reading
J.D. Jackson: Classical Electrodynamics H.D. Young and R.A. Freedman: University Physics (with Modern Physics) P.C. Clemmow: Electromagnetic Theory Feynmann Lectures on Physics W.K.H. Panofsky and M.N. Phillips: Classical Electricity and Magnetism G.L. Pollack and D.R. Stump: Electromagnetism

What is electromagnetism?
The study of Maxwells equations, devised in 1863 to represent the relationships between electric and magnetic fields in the presence of electric charges and currents, whether steady or rapidly fluctuating, in a vacuum or in matter. The equations represent one of the most elegant and concise way to describe the fundamentals of electricity and magnetism. They pull together in a consistent way earlier results known from the work of Gauss, Faraday, Ampre, Biot, Savart and others. Remarkably, Maxwells equations are perfectly consistent with the transformations of special relativity.

Maxwells Equations
Relate Electric and Magnetic fields generated by charge and current distributions.
E = electric field D = electric displacement H = magnetic field B = magnetic flux density = charge density j = current density 0 (permeability of free space) = 4 10-7 0 (permittivity of free space) = 8.854 10-12 c (speed of light) = 2.99792458 108 m/s

r D = r B = 0 r r B E = t r r r D H = j + t

r r r r In vacuum D = 0 E , B = 0 H , 0 0 c 2 = 1

Maxwells

st 1

Equation
S

r E =
Q

Equivalent to Gauss Flux Theorem: r r r 1 E = E dS =

dV =
V

The flux of electric field out of a closed region is proportional to the total electric charge Q enclosed within the surface. A point charge q generates an electric field
r E= r r E dS = q 4 0 r 3 q r r

sphere

dS q r 2 = 0 4 0 sphere

Area integral gives a measure of the net charge enclosed; divergence of the electric field gives the density of the sources.

Maxwells 2nd Equation


r B = 0

r B = 0
r r B dS = 0

Gauss law for magnetism: The net magnetic flux out of any closed surface is zero. Surround a magnetic dipole with a closed surface. The magnetic flux directed inward towards the south pole will equal the flux outward from the north pole. If there were a magnetic monopole source, this would give a non-zero integral. Gauss law for magnetism is then a statement that There are no magnetic monopoles

Maxwells 3rd Equation


Equivalent to Faradays Law of Induction: r r r B r E dS = t dS S S r r r d d (for a fixed circuit C) E dl = B dS = dt dt S C

r r B E = t

The electromotive force round a r r circuit = E dl is proportional to the rate of change of flux of magnetic r r field, = B dl through the circuit.

Faradays Law is the basis for electric generators. It also forms the basis for inductors and transformers.

Maxwells 4th Equation

r r r 1 E B = 0 j + 2 c t
r r B = 0 j

Originates from Ampres (Circuital) Law :

r r r r r r B dl = B dS = 0 j dS = 0 I
S S

Ampre

Satisfied by the field for a steady line current (Biot-Savart Law, 1820):

r 0 I B= 4
Biot

r r dl r r3

For a straight line current

0 I B = 2r

Need for displacement current


Faraday: vary B-field, generate E-field Maxwell: varying E-field should then produce a B-field, but not covered by Ampres Law. Apply Ampre to surface 1 (flat disk): line integral of B = 0I Surface 2 Surface 1 Applied to surface 2, line integral is zero since no current penetrates the deformed surface. Q dQ dE In capacitor, E = , so I = = 0 A 0 A dt dt r r E Displacement current density is jd = 0 t

Current I

Closed loop

r r r r r E B = 0 ( j + jd ) = 0 j + 0 0 t

Consistency with charge conservation


Charge conservation: Total
current flowing out of a region equals the rate of decrease of charge within the volume.

From Maxwells equations:


Take divergence of (modified) Ampres equation

r r d j dS = dV dt r j dV = t dV r j + =0 t

r r 1 B = 0 j + 2 E c t r 0 = 0 j + 0 0 t 0 r 0 = j + t

Charge conservation is implicit in Maxwells Equations

Maxwells Equations in Vacuo


r r r r 1 D = 0 E , B = 0 H , 0 0 = 2 c

In vacuum

Source-free equations:
r B = 0 v r B E+ =0 t

Equivalent integral forms (sometimes useful for simple geometries)


r v 1 E dS = r r B dS = 0

dV

Source equations
r E = r v 1 E r B 2 = 0 j c t

r r r r d d E dl = dt B dS = dt r r r r r r 1 d B dl = 0 j dS + c 2 dt E dS

Example: Calculate E from B


z

r r d r E dl = dt B dS
r < r0 2 rE = r 2 B0 cos t B0 r E = cos t 2

B0 cos t Bz = 0
Also from

r < r0

r > r0 r r B E = t

r > r0

2 rE = r02 B0 cos t E =

r02 B0
2r

cos t

r r r 1 E then gives current density necessary B = 0 j + 2 c dt to sustain the fields

Lorentz force law


Supplement to Maxwells equations, gives force on a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field: r r r r f = q E+v B r r r r For continuous distributions, have a force density f d = E + j B

Relativistic equation of motion


4-vector form: 3-vector component:

r r v f dP F= c , d

r r 1 dE dp f = , c dt dt

r r r r r d (m0 v ) = f = q E + v B dt

Motion of charged particles in constant electromagnetic fields


r r r r r d (m0 v ) = f = q E + v B dt

Constant E-field gives uniform acceleration in straight line


q d r Solution of dt ( v ) = m E 0
2 qEt m0 c x= 1+ m c 1 qE 0 1 qE 2 t for qE << m0 c 2 m0 2

Constant magnetic field gives uniform spiral about B with constant energy. r r v// = constant dv q r r = vB r dt m0 x = constant

Energy gain = qEx

Relativistic Transformations of E and B


r r According to observer O in frame F, particle has velocity v, fields are E and B

and Lorentz force is

r r r r f = q E+v B

In Frame F, particle is at rest and force is

r) r f = qE

Assume measurements give same charge and force, so r r r q = q and E = E + v B

r Point charge q at rest in F: E =


See a current in F, giving a field Suggests

r r r , B=0 3 4 0 r q

r r r 0 q v r 1 r r = 2 vE B= 3 4 r c

r r 1 r r B = B 2 v E c

Exact:

r r r r r E = E + v B , E// = E// r r r r vE r B = B 2 , B// = B// c

Electromagnetic waves
Maxwells equations predict the existence of electromagnetic waves, later discovered by Hertz. No charges, no currents:

r r B E = t r r r 2 r E = E E = B r 2 t = E r r 2D 2E = = 2 t 2 3D wave equation : t

r r D H = t r D = 0

r r B E = t r B = 0

r r r r 2 2 2 r E E E E 2 E = 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 x y z t
2

Nature of electromagnetic waves


A general plane wave with angular frequency travelling in the direction of r the wave vector k has the form

r r r r r r r r E = E 0 exp[ j ( t k x )] B = B0 exp[ j ( t k x )] r r Phase t k x = 2 number of waves and so is a Lorentz invariant.


Apply Maxwells equations r r r jk E = 0 = B r r & j E = B t

r r r r k E = 0 = k B r r r k E =B
s r E, B
and

Waves are transverse to the direction of propagation, and

r k are mutually perpendicular

Plane electromagnetic wave

Plane Electromagnetic Waves


r r 1 E B = 2 c t
r r r Combined with k E = B r E kc 2 deduce that r = = B k

r r r k B= 2E c

speed of wave in vacuum is

r =c k

2 Wavelength = r k

r r The fact that t k x is an invariant tells


us that

Frequency = 2

r = ,k c is a Lorentz 4-vector, the 4-Frequency vector. Deduce frequency transforms as

r r cv = v k = c+v

Waves in a conducting medium


r r For a medium of conductivity , j = E
r r r r r & & Modified Maxwell: H = j + E = E + E
r r r r E = E 0 exp[ j ( t k x )] r r r r B = B0 exp[ j ( t k x )]

Put

r r r r j k H = E + j E
conduction current

Dissipation factor

D=

displacement current

Copper : = 5.8 107 , = 0 Teflon : = 3 10-8 , = 2.1 0

D = 1012 D = 2.57 10 4

Attenuation in a Good Conductor


r r r r j k H = E + j E
r r r r r & Combine with E = B k E = H r r r r r r k k E = k H = ( j + )E

For a good conductor D >> 1,

k 2 = ( j + )
>>

k j
2

(1 j )

Wave form is where

x x exp j t exp 2

is the skin - depth

copper.mov

water.mov

Maxwells Equations in a uniform perfectly conducting guide


z Hollow metallic cylinder with perfectly conducting boundary surfaces Maxwells equations with time dependence exp(jt)are: r r r r r r 2 B E = E E E = = j H r t = j H r r D r r 2 H = = j E = E t 4444444 44444444444 14444 2 r 3 2 E = 0 2 + r H

r r Assume E ( x, y, z , t ) = E ( x, y )e ( j t z ) r r H ( x, y, z , t ) = H ( x, y )e ( j t z )
is the propagation constant

r E Then t2 + ( 2 + 2 ) r = 0 H

Can solve for the fields completely in terms of Ez and Hz

Special cases
Transverse magnetic (TM modes):
Hz=0 everywhere, Ez=0 on cylindrical boundary

Transverse electric (TE modes):


Ez=0 everywhere,

H z = 0 on cylindrical boundary n

Transverse electromagnetic (TEM modes):


Ez=Hz=0 everywhere requires 2 + 2 = 0 or = j

A simple model with Ez=0


Transport between two infinite parallel conducting plates:

r E = (0,1,0) E ( x) e ( j t z )
y x z
0 x=

where E ( x) satisfies

d 2E 2 E = 2 = K 2 E , K 2 = 2 + 2 t dx sin i.e. E = A Kx cos


To satisfy boundary conditions, E=0 on x=0 and x=a, so

E = A sin Kx, K = Kn =
a x=

n , n integer a
Kn

Propagation constant is = K n2 2
n = a 1 c
2

where c =

Cut-off frequency, c
=
n n nx j t z e 1 , E = A sin , c = a a a c
2

attenuation only. No wave propagates: cut-off modes.

<c gives real solution for , so

>c gives purely imaginary solution for , and a wave propagates without
= jk , k = (
2

attenuation.

2 c

= 1

2 c 2

only a finite number of modes can propagate. n a > c = n< a


For a given frequency

For given frequency, convenient to choose a s.t. only n=1 mode occurs.

Propagatedr electromagnetic fields


From
r B E = , t

(assuming A is real)

Ak n x sin cos( t kz ) Hx = a r r j H= Hy = 0 E A n n x cos H z = sin ( t kz ) a a

Phase and group velocities

Plane wave exp j(t-kx) has constant phase t-kx at peaks

A ( k ) e j [ ( k ) t kx ]dk

t k x = 0 x
vp = t = k

Superposition of plane waves. While shape is relatively undistorted, pulse travels with the group velocity

vg =

d dk

Wave packet structure

Phase velocities of individual plane waves making up the wave packet are different, The wave packet will then disperse with time

Phase and group velocities in the simple wave guide


Wave number is
k =
2

2 c

<

so wavelength in guide = Phase velocity is v p =

k >

2 2 > , the k

free-space wavelength

, larger than free-space velocity

Group velocity is less than infinite space value


k 2 = 2 c2

vg =

d k = < dk

Calculation of wave properties


If a=3 cm, cut-off frequency of lowest order mode is
c 1 = 5 GHz fc = 2 2a

At 7 GHz, only the n=1 mode propagates and


k =
2

2 c

103 m 1

2 = 6 cm k vp = vg =

4.3 108 ms 1 = 2.1 108 ms 1

Waveguide animations
TE1 mode above cut-off TE1 mode, smaller TE1 mode at cut-off TE1 mode below cut-off TE1 mode, variable TE2 mode above cut-off TE2 mode, smaller TE2 mode at cut-off TE2 mode below cut-off ppwg_1-1.mov ppwg_1-2.mov ppwg_1-3.mov ppwg_1-4.mov ppwg_1_vf.mov ppwg_2-1.mov ppwg_2-2.mov ppwg_2-3.mov ppwg_2-4.mov