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OFFSHORE STANDARD DNV-OS-C501 COMPOSITE COMPONENTS OCTOBER 2010 D ET N ORSKE V ERITAS

OFFSHORE STANDARD

DNV-OS-C501

COMPOSITE COMPONENTS

OCTOBER 2010

DET NORSKE VERITAS

FOREWORD

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions.

DNV service documents consist of amongst other the following types of documents:

Service Specifications. Procedual requirements.

Standards. Technical requirements.

Recommended Practices. Guidance.

The Standards and Recommended Practices are offered within the following areas:

A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology

B) Materials Technology

C) Structures

D) Systems

E) Special Facilities

F) Pipelines and Risers

G)

Asset Operation

H)

Marine Operations

J)

Cleaner Energy

O) Subsea Systems

The electronic pdf version of this document found through http://www.dnv.com is the officially binding version © Det Norske Veritas

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com For subscription orders or information about subscription terms, please use distribution@dnv.com Computer Typesetting (Adobe Frame Maker) by Det Norske Veritas

If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Det Norske Veritas, then Det Norske Veritas shall pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compen- sation shall never exceed USD 2 million. In this provision "Det Norske Veritas" shall mean the Foundation Det Norske Veritas as well as all its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of Det Norske Veritas.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010

Page 3

Changes –

MOTIVES

No design code for Fibre Reinforced Plastic, often called com- posite structures, exists today except for some special applica- tions like FRP pipes, pressure vessels and ships. The realization of even simple designs of FRP structures tends to become a major undertaking due to the lack of applicable design standards. It is DNV's impression that the lack of a good FRP guideline is one of the major obstacles to utilize FRP structurally in a reliable and economical way. For this reason DNV started a JIP to develop a general standard for the design of load carrying structures and components fab- ricated from fibre-reinforced plastics and sandwich structures. Upon termination of the JIP, the members participating i.e. Advanced Research Partnership, ABB Offshore Technology, Ahlstrøm Glassfibre, AMOCO, Akzo Nobel Faser AG, Baltek, Devold AMT, FiReCo, MMS, Norsk Hydro, Reichold, Saga Petroleum, Tenax Fibers, Umoe Shat Harding agreed that DNV shall transform the resulting project report into a DNV Offshore Standard. The new DNV Offshore Standard is indexed: DNV-OS-C501 Composite Components, and has a contents layout as shown overleaf.

CHANGES

• General

As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically.

In order to ensure a practical transition from the “print” scheme to the “electronic” scheme, all documents having incorporated amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date October 2010.

An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical “amendments and corrections” may be found through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.

• Main changes

Since the previous edition (January 2003), this document has been amended, most recently in April 2009. All changes have been incorporated and a new date (October 2010) has been given as explained under “General”.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010 –

Page 4

Changes

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010

Page 5

Contents –

Sec. 1

General

A.

Objectives

A 100

Objectives

B. Application - Scope

CONTENTS

11

11

11

11

H. Exposure from the surroundings

H

H

H

100

200

300

General Loads and environment Obtaining loads from the exposure from the surroundings

20

20

21

21

B 100

General

11

I. Loads

21

 

I General

100

21

C.

How to use the standard

11

I Probabilistic representation of load effects

200

22

C

100

Users of the standard

11

I Simplified representation of load effects

300

22

C

200

Flow chart of the standard

12

I Characteristic load effect

400

22

C

300

How to use the standard

12

I The sustained load effect

500

23

D.

Normative References

13

I The fatigue load effects

600

24

D

100

Offshore Service

Specifications

13

J.

Environment

25

D

200

Offshore Standards

13

J

100

General

25

D

300

Recommended Practices 13

J

200

Effects of the environment on the material properties

26

D

400

Rules

13

D

500

Standards

for Certification and Classification notes

13

K.

Combination of load effects and environment

26

D

600

Other references 13

K

100

General

26

Sec. 2

Design Philosophy and Design Principles

14

K

200

Load effect and environmental conditions for ultimate limit state

26

A.

General

 

14

K

300

Load effect and environmental conditions for time- dependent material properties

27

A

100

Objective

14

K

400

Load effect and environmental conditions for fatigue analysis

27

B.

Safety philosophy

 

14

K

500

Direct combination of loads

27

B

100 General 14

 

B

200

Risk assessment

14

Sec. 4

Materials - Laminates

28

B

300

Quality Assurance 14

A.

General

28

C.

Design format

100

General principles

14

A Introduction

100

28

C

14

A Laminate specification

200

28

C

200

Limit states

14

A 300

Lay-up specification

28

C

300

Safety classes and Service classes

15

A 400

Orthotropic plies

28

C

400

Failure types

15

A 500

Mechanical properties

29

C

500

Selection of partial safety factors

Design by LRFD method

15

A Characteristic values of mechanical properties

600

29

C

600

15

A Properties of laminates with damage

700

29

C

700

Structural Reliability Analysis

17

B.

Static properties

29

D. Design approach

D

100

Approaches

17

B

100

General

29

17

B

200

Static properties

30

D

200

Analytical approach

17

B

300

Relationship between strength and strain to failure

31

D

300

Component testing

17

B

400

Characteristic values

31

D

400

Analyses combined with updating

17

B

500

Experimental measurement of matrix and fibre dominated strain to failure

32

E. Requirements to documentation

18

B

600

Experimental measurement of ply shear properties

32

E

100

Design Drawings and Tolerances

18

E

200

Guidelines for the design report

18

C. Properties under long term static and cyclic and high rate loads

32

Sec. 3

Design Input

19

C

100

Introduction

32

 

C

200

Creep

33

A.

Introduction

19

C

300

Stress rupture

33

A

100

19

C

400

Static strength reduction due to permanent static loads

34

 

C

500

Stress relaxation

34

B.

Product specifications

19

C

600

Change of Modulus of elasticity under cyclic fatigue

34

B

100

General Function or main purpose of the product

19

C

700

Cycles to failure under cyclic fatigue loads

35

C.

Division of the product or structure into components,

C

800

Cycles to failure under fatigue loads for matrix dominated strengths

36

parts and details

19

C

900

Static strength reduction due to cyclic loads

36

C

100

19

C

1000

Effect of high loading rates - shock loads - impact

37

 

C

1100

Characteristic values

37

D. Phases

 

19

D 100

Phases

19

D. Other properties

37

 

D

100

Thermal expansion coefficient

37

E.

Safety and service classes

19

D

200

Swelling coefficient for water or other liquids

38

E

100

Safety classes

19

D

300

Diffusion coefficient

38

E

200

Service classes

20

D

400

Thermal conductivity

38

 

D

500

Friction coefficient

38

F.

Functional requirements

20

D

600

Wear resistance

38

F

100

20

E. Influence of the environment on properties

39

G.

Failure modes

20

E

100

Introduction

39

G

100 General

20

E

200

Effect of temperature

39

G

200

Failure modes

20

E

300

Effect of water

40

G

300

Identification of the type of limit states

20

E

400

Effect of chemicals

41

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010 –

Page 6

Contents

E

500

Effect of UV radiation

41

E.

Influence of the environment on properties

58

E

600

Electrolytic Corrosion

41

E

100

Introduction

58

E

700

Combination of environmental effects

41

E

200

Effect

of temperature

59

 

E

300

Effect of water

59

F.

Influence of process parameters

41

E

400

Effect of chemicals

60

F

100

Introduction

41

E

500

Effect of UV radiation

60

F

200

Change of production method

41

E

600

Electrolytic corrosion

60

F

300

Change of processing temperature and pressure

41

E

700

Combination of environmental effects

60

F

400

Change of post cure procedure

42

F

500

Change of void content

42

F.

Influence of process parameters and core density

60

F

600

Correction for change in fibre volume fraction

42

F

100

Core production

60

F

700

Control of fibre orientation:

42

F

200

Sandwich production

60

F

800

Control of fibre tension:

42

F

300

Influence of core density

60

G. Properties under fire

42

G. Properties under fire

60

G

100

Introduction

42

G

100

Introduction

60

G

200

Fire reaction

43

G

200

Fire

reaction

60

G

300

Fire

resistance

43

G

300

Fire

resistance

60

G

400 Insulation 43

G

400 Insulation

60

G

500 Properties after the fire 43

G

500

Properties after the fire

61

H. Qualification of material properties

 

43

H. Qualification of material properties

61

H

100

Introduction

43

H

100

Introduction

61

H

200

General test requirements

43

H

200

General test requirements

61

H

300

Selection of material qualification method

43

H

300

Selection of material qualification method

61

H

400

Direct measurement

43

H

400

Direct measurement

61

H

500

Representative data

43

H

500

Representative data

61

H

600

Qualification against representative data

44

H

600

Qualification against

representative data

62

H

700

Confirmation testing for static data

46

H

700

Confirmation testing for static data

63

H

800

Confirmation testing for long term data -

 

H

800

Confirmation testing for long term data

63

 

high safety class

 

46

H

900

Use of manufacturers data or data from the literature

H

900

Confirmation testing for long term data -

 

as representative data

63

 

normal safety class

 

47

H

1000

Confirming material data by component testing

63

H

1000

Use of manufacturers data or data

 
 

from the literature as representative data

 

47

Sec. 6

Failure Mechanisms & Design Criteria

64

H

1100

Confirming material data by component

testing

47

H

1200

Comparing results from different processes

 

A.

Mechanisms of failure

 

64

 

and

lay-ups

47

A 100 General 64

 

A FRP laminates - failure mechanisms and failure type 66

200

I.

Properties with damaged or nonlinearly deformed matrix

48

A Sandwich structures - failure mechanisms and failure

300

I 100

Introduction

48

type 67

I 200

I Experimental

Default values

300

approach

48

48

A Displacements and long term failure mechanisms and

400

failure type

67

 

A Link between failure modes and failure mechanisms 68

500

Sec. 5

Materials – Sandwich Structures

50

 

B. Design criteria - general approach

69

A.

General

50

B

100

General

69

A Introduction

100

 

50

B

200

Design criteria for single loads

69

A Sandwich specification

A Lay-up specification

A Isotropic/orthotropic core layers

200

300

400

50

50

50

B

B

300

400

Design criteria for combined loads

Time dependency and influence of the environment

69

70

A Mechanical and physical properties

500

51

C. Fibre failure

 

70

A Characteristic values of mechanical properties

600

51

C

100

General

70

 

C

200

Fibre failure at the ply level

70

B. Static properties

 

51

C

300

Fibre failure check using a modified Tsai-Wu criterion .71

B

100

General

51

C

400

Special considerations for fibre failure under inplane

 

B

200

Static properties

51

compressive

loads

72

B

300

Relationship between strength and strain to failure

54

C

500

Fibre failure checked by component testing

72

B

400

Characteristic values

54

C

600

Fracture mechanics approach

72

B

500

Shear properties

54

B

600

Core skin interface properties

55

D. Matrix cracking

 

73

 

D

100

General

73

C.

Properties under long term static and cyclic loads

56

D

200

Matrix failure based on simple stress criterion

73

C

100

General

56

D

300

Matrix failure based on Puck's criterion

74

C

200

Creep

56

D

400

Obtaining orientation of the failure surface

75

C

300

Stress rupture under permanent static loads

56

D

500

Matrix cracking caused only by shear

75

C

400

Static strength reduction due to permanent static loads

56

D

600

Matrix failure checked by component testing

75

C

500

Stress relaxation

56

C

600

Change of modulus

of elasticity under cyclic fatigue

57

E.

Delamination

 

76

C

700

Cycles to failure under fatigue loads

57

E

100

General

76

C

800

Static strength reduction due to cyclic loading

57

E

200

Onset of delamination

76

C

900

Effect of high loading rates - shock loads - impact

58

E

300

Delamination growth

76

C

1000 Characteristic

values

58

 

F. Yielding

 

76

D. Other properties

 

58

F 100

General

76

D

100

Thermal expansion

coefficient

58

D

200

Swelling coefficient for water or other liquids

58

G.

Ultimate failure of orthotropic homogenous materials

76

D

300

Diffusion coefficient

58

G

100

General

76

D

400

Thermal conductivity

58

D

500

Friction coefficient

58

H.

Buckling

77

D

600

Wear resistance

58

H

100

Concepts and definitions

77

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010

Page 7

Contents –

H

200

General requirements

78

B.

Partial load effect and resistance factors

88

H

300

Requirements when buckling resistance is determined

B

100

General

88

 

by testing

78

B

200

How to select the partial safety factors

88

H

400

Requirements when buckling is assessed by analysis

78

B

300

Simplified set of partial safety factors (general)

88

I.

Displacements

79

B

400

Simplified set of partial safety factors (for known maximum load effect)

89

I

100

General

79

B

500

Full set of partial safety factors

89

J.

Long term static loads

79

B

600

Partial safety factors for functional and environmental loads as typically defined for risers

89

J

100 General 79

B

700

Partial safety factors for functional and environmental

J

200 Creep

79

loads as typically defined for TLPs

89

J

300

Stress relaxation 80

 

J

400

Stress rupture - stress corrosion 80

C. Model factors

90

 

C

100

General

90

K. Long term cyclic loads

81

C

200

Load model factors

90

K

100 General 81

C

300

Resistance model factors

90

K

K

200

300

Change of elastic properties

Initiation of fatigue damage

81

81

D. System effect factor

D 100

General

90

90

K

400

Growth of fatigue damage

82

 

L. Impact

82

L

100 General 82

E. Factors for static and dynamic fatigue analysis

E 100

90

90

L

200

Impact testing 82

   

L

300

Evaluation after impact testing

82

Sec. 9

Structural Analysis

91

M.

Wear

82

 

M

M

M

100 General 82

83

200

300

83

Calculation of the wear depth

Component testing

A. General

A 100

A 200

A 300

Objective

Input data

Analysis types

91

91

91

91

 

A 400

Transfer function

91

N. High / low temperature / fire

83

83

A Global and local analysis

500

91

N 100

General

A 600

Material levels

92

O. Resistance to explosive decompression

83

A 700

Non-linear analysis

92

O

100

Materials

83

B. Linear and non-linear analysis of monolithic structures

B

100

General

92

O

200

Interfaces

83

92

 

B

200

In-plane 2-D progressive failure analysis

93

P. Special aspects related to sandwich structures

83

B

300

3-D progressive failure analysis

93

P

100

General

83

B

400

Linear failure analysis with non-degraded properties

93

P

200

Failure of sandwich faces

83

B

500

Linear failure analysis with degraded properties

94

P

300

Failure of the sandwich core

83

B

600

Two-step non-linear failure analysis method

94

P

400

Failure of the sandwich skin-core interface

83

B

700

Through thickness 2-D analysis

95

P

500

Buckling of sandwich structures

84

Q.

Chemical decomposition / galvanic corrosion

Q 100

General

R.

Requirements for other design criteria

R 100

Sec. 7

General

Joints and Interfaces

84

84

84

84

85

A. General

85

A 100

Introduction

85

A 200

Joints

85

A 300 Interfaces 85

A 400

Thermal properties 85

A 500 Examples 85

B.

Joints

85

B

100

Analysis and testing

85

B

200

Qualification of analysis method for other load conditions or joints

86

B

300

Multiple failure modes

86

B

400

Evaluation of in-service experience

86

C. Specific joints

86

C

100

Laminated joints

86

C

200

Adhesive Joints

86

C

300

Mechanical joints

86

C

400

Joints in sandwich structures

86

D.

Interfaces

D 100

Sec. 8

General

Safety-, Model- and System Factors

A. Overview of the various factors used in the standard

A 100

General

86

86

88

88

88

C. Connection between analysis methods and failure criteria

C

C

C

C

100

200

300

400

General Modification of failure criteria Creep, stress relaxation and stress rupture-stress relaxation Fatigue

D. Analytical methods

95

95

95

96

96

96

D

100

General

96

D

200

Assumptions and limitations

96

D

300

Link to numerical methods

96

E. Finite element analysis

96

E

100

General

96

E

200

Modelling of structures – general

96

E

300

Software requirements

97

E

400

Execution of analysis

97

E

500

Evaluation of results

98

E

600

Validation and verification

98

F. Dynamic response analysis

F

F

G.

G

H.

H

I.

I 100

100

200

General Dynamics and finite element analysis

Impact response

100

Testing

Thermal stresses

100

General

Swelling effects

General

J.

J

J

J

Analysis of sandwich structures

100

200

300

General Elastic constants 2-D non-linear failure analysis

98

98

98

98

98

98

98

99

99

99

99

99

99

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010 –

Page 8

Contents

J

400

3-D progressive failure analysis

100

E

300

Pressure testing of vessels and pipes 111

J

500

Long term damage considerations

100

E

400

Other testing 111

 

E

500 Dimensions 111

K. Buckling

100

K

100

General

100

F.

Installation

111

K

200

Buckling analysis of isolated components

100

F

100

111

K

300

Buckling analysis of more complex elements or entire structures

101

G.

Safety, health and environment

112

K

400

Buckling analysis of stiffened plates and shells

101

G

100

112

K

500

Buckling analysis for sandwich structures

101

Sec. 12

Operation, Maintenance, Reassessment,

L.

Partial load-model factor

101

Repair

113

L

100

General

101

L

200

Connection between partial load-model factor and

A.

General

113

 

analytical analysis

101

A

100

Objective

113

L

300

Connection between partial load-model factor and finite element analysis

101

B.

Inspection

113

L

400

Connection between partial load-model factor

B

100

General

113

 

and dynamic response analysis

102

B

200

Inspection methods

113

L

500

Connection between partial load-model factor and transfer function

102

C.

Reassessment

113

 

C

100

General

113

Sec. 10

Component Testing

103

D.

Repair

113

A.

General

103

D

100

Repair procedure

113

A 100

Introduction

103

D

200

Requirements for a repair

113

A 200

Failure mode analysis

103

D

300

Qualification of a repair

113

A Representative samples

300

103

E.

Maintenance

114

B. Qualification based on tests on full scale components

103

E 100

General

114

B

100

General

103

B

200

Short term properties

103

F.

Retirement

114

B

300

Long term properties

104

F

100

General

114

C. Verification of analysis by testing and updating

104

Sec. 13

Definitions, Abbreviations & Figures

115

C

100

Verification of design assumptions

104

C

200

Short term tests

105

A.

Definitions

115

C

300

Long term testing

105

A 100

General

115

C

400

Procedure for updating the predicted resistance

A 200

Terms

115

 

of a component

106

C

500

Specimen geometry - scaled specimen

106

B. Symbols and abbreviations

117

D.

Testing components with multiple failure mechanisms

107

C. Figures

 

118

D

100

General

107

C

100

Ply and laminate co-ordinate systems

118

D

200

Static tests

107

C

200

Sandwich co-ordinate system and symbols

118

D

300

Long term tests

107

D

400

Example of multiple failure mechanisms

107

Sec. 14

Calculation Example:

 

Two Pressure Vessels

119

E. Updating material parameters in the analysis based on component testing

108

A. Objective

119

E

100

108

A 100

General

119

Sec. 11

Fabrication

109

B. Design input

119

 

B

100 Overview 119

A.

Introduction

109

B

200

General function (ref. section 3 B100)

119

A 100

Objective

109

B

300

Product specifications (ref. section 3 B200)

119

A 200

Quality system

109

B

400

Division of the product into components

 

(ref. section 3 C) 119

B.

Link of process parameters to production machine parameters 109

B

500

Phases and safety class definitions (ref. section 3 D and E)

119

B

100

Introduction

109

B

600

Functional requirements (ref. section 3 F) 120

B

200

Process parameters

109

B

700

Failure modes (ref. section 3 G) 120

B

300

Production machine parameters

109

B

800

Loads (ref. section 3 I)

121

 

B

900

Environment (ref. section 3 J) 121

C.

Processing steps

 

109

C

100

General

109

C.

Failure mechanisms

121

C

200

Raw materials 109

C

100

Identification of failure mechanisms

C

300

Storage of materials

109

(ref. section 6 A)

121

C

400

Mould construction

109

C

200

Classification of failure mechanisms by failure types

C

500 Resin 110

 

(ref. section 6 A)

122

C

600

Producing laminates and sandwich panels

110

C

300

Failure mechanisms and target reliabilities

C

700

Producing

joints

110

(ref. section 2 C500)

123

C

800

Injection of resin and cure 110

 

C

900

Evaluation of the final product

111

D.

Material properties

123

 

D

100

General (ref. section 4)

123

D.

Quality assurance and quality control

111

D

200

Ply modulus in fibre direction E 1

124

D

100

111

D

300

Matrix dominated elastic properties

124

 

D

400

Fibre dominated ply strength and strain to failure

125

E.

Component testing

 

111

D

500

Matrix dominated ply strength and strain to failure

125

E

100

General

111

D

600

Time to failure for fibre dominated properties

125

E

200

Factory acceptance test and system integrity test

111

D

700

Time to failure for matrix dominated properties

125

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, October 2010

Page 9

Contents –

D

800

Test requirements

E. Analysis of gas vessel with liner

126

126

E

100 General 126

E

200

Analysis procedure (ref. section 9) 126

E

300

Fibre failure - short-term (ref. section 6 C)

127

E

400

Fibre dominated ply failure due to static * long-term loads (ref. section 6 J)

127

E

500

Fibre dominated ply failure due to cyclic fatigue loads (ref. section 6 K)

128

E

600

Matrix cracking (ref. section 6 D)

128

E

700

Unacceptably large displacement (ref. section 6 I) 128

E

800

Impact resistance (ref. section 6 L) 129

E

900

Explosive decompression (ref. section 6 O)

129

E

1000

Chemical decomposition (ref. section 6 Q)

129

E

1100

Summary evaluation

129

F. Non-linear analysis of vessel for water without liner

129

F

100

General

129

F

200

Analysis procedure (ref. section 9 B)

129

F

300

Matrix cracking (short term) at 1.48 MPa pressure (ref. section 6 D)

130

F

400

Matrix cracking under long-term static loads (ref. section 4 C400)

131

F

500

Matrix cracking under long-term cyclic fatigue loads (ref. section 4 C900)

131

F

600

Fibre failure - short term (ref. section 6 C)

131

F

700

Fibre dominated ply failure due to static long term loads (ref. section 6 J)

131

F

800

Fibre dominated ply failure due to cyclic fatigue loads (ref. section 6 K)

131

F

900

Unacceptably large displacement (ref. section 6 I)

131

F

1000

Impact resistance (ref. section 6 L)

131

F

1100

Explosive decompression (ref. section 6 O)

132

F

1200

Chemical decomposition (ref. section 6 Q)

132

F

1300

Component testing (ref. section 10)

132

F

1400

Summary evaluation

132

G. Linear analysis of vessel for water without liner

132

G

100

General

132

G

200

Analysis procedure (ref. section 9 B)

132

G

300

Matrix cracking (short term) (ref. section 6 D)

132

G

400

Matrix cracking under long-term static loads (ref. section 4 C400)

132

G

500

Matrix cracking under long-term cyclic fatigue loads (ref. section 4 C900)

132

G

600

Fibre failure – short-term

(ref. section 6 C)

132

G

700

Fibre dominated ply failure due to static long-term loads

 

(ref. section 6 J)

134

G

800

Fibre dominated ply failure due to cyclic fatigue loads (ref. section 6 K)

134

G

900

Unacceptably large displacement

134

G

1000

Impact resistance

134

G

1100

Explosive decompression

134

G

1200

Chemical decomposition

134

G

1300

Summary evaluation

134

App. A

Check-lists for Design Input

135

A. Phases

135

B. Functional requirements and failure modes

135

B

100

Functional requirements that shall be checked as a minimum 135

B

200

Failure modes that shall be checked as a minimum 135

B

300

Link between functional requirements and failure modes 136

C. LOADS

 

136

C

100

Functional loads

136

C

200

Environmental loads

136

C

300

Accidental loads

137

D. Environments 137

137

138

E. Distribution types of basic variables

App. B

Lay-up and laminate specification

A. Unique definition of a laminate