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In this chapter, we will discuss the elementary operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and inversion, a matrix algebra analogue of division of scalar numbers. Subsequently, we will turn our attention to powers of matrices and to operations involving scalar numbers and matrices, scalar numbers and vectors, and vectors and matrices. The operations on matrices differ from similar operations of scalar algebra in several respects. The matrix algebra operations, in general, are not commutative and attention must be paid to whether the matrices are conformable with respect to the intended operation. Also, it must be noted whether the matrix operation pertains to matrix elements or to matrices.

**Addition and Subtraction of Matrix Elements
**

Addition of Matrix Elements To add elements of matrices A and B and store the result as a matrix C,

elements of matrix A are added to their corresponding elements in matrix B and stored as elements of matrix C. Obviously, all three matrices must be of the same order or size. Notice that the plus sign in the above equation is enclosed in parentheses to indicate addition of matrix elements, as contrasted with addition of matrices, to be discussed in section to follow. An example of addition of matrix elements is schematized below

and illustrated as

1

However. minuends. (1986) Matrix differencing as a concise expression of variance. matrix algebra operations of addition and subtraction (of vectors. & Ceuvorst. do not suggest analogical operations for the major and minor sums and differences of summands. These operations are easy to imagine and are not discussed because most of their potential applications can be as well accomplished by unit vectors multiplications. R. routinely describing major and minor vector products. 179-183.J. and hierarchical scaling of variance space. not elements of vectors. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 515-527. W. the above matrix elements can be added and subtracted if and only if the matrices are of the same order (identical in the number of rows and columns).. 3. Applied Psychological Measurement. The novel matrix algebra operations were first formulated in the following two articles: Krus. of matrices. 2 . (1979) Dominance.Subtraction of Matrix Elements The operation of subtracting matrix elements can be schematized as and illustrated as In sum. not elements of matrices) can be used for concise expression of several key algorithms of statistical theory and theory of probability.M. Addition and Subtraction of Matrices Textbooks on matrix algebra. S. on close scrutiny. D. Krus. & Wilkinson. D. Matrices upon which an operation is permissible are said to conform to the operation. and subtrahends..J. 46. information.

the matrices must be conformable to matrix addition. the matrices must be conformable. For example. the resulting matrix will be a 3x3 matrix. the number of columns in matrix A must equal the number of rows in matrix B. in another words. The number of columns in matrix A must equal the number of rows in matrix B. The schematic representation of matrix subtraction is shown below 3 . The resulting matrix C will have the number of rows of the first matrix and the number of columns of the second matrix. if matrix A is a 3x2 matrix and matrix B is a 2x3 matrix.Addition of Matrices To add two matrices A and B and store the results in matrix C. The schematic representation of matrix addition is illustrated as Subtraction of Matrices To subtract two matrices A and B and store the results in matrix C again. The resulting matrix C will have the number of rows of the first matrix and the number of columns of the second matrix.

both matrices have to be either of the same size. or one matrix has to be a scalar matrix. To perform this operation. Multiplication of Matrix Elements To multiply elements of two matrices A and B and store the results in matrix C each element of matrix A is multiplied with its corresponding element in matrix B and the result is stored in matrix C. the resulting matrix is a 2x2 matrix. The schematic representation of multiplication of matrix elements is illustrated by a special case of multiplication of a matrix by a scalar number as in the special case of multiplication of a matrix by a constant it is customary to omit the (.illustrated as Note that the first matrix is a 2x3 matrix and the second matrix is a 3x2 matrix. 4 .) sign.

The product matrix C will have the number of rows of the first matrix and the number of columns of the second matrix. unless both matrices are symmetric. Also. and. The schematic representation of matrix multiplication is illustrated as The postmultiplicatin of matrix B by matrix A using the same numerical example. as the matrix addition. is illustrated as Premultiplication of a matrix A by a diagonal matrix T 5 . to premultiply matrix B by matrix A the matrices must be conformable to matrix multiplication. The number of columns in matrix A must equal the number of rows in matrix B.Multiplication of Matrices The matrix multiplication is analogous to matrix addition. this operation is not commutative.

The division sign is enclosed in parentheses to indicate division of matrix elements. An example of division of matrix elements is schematized below and illustrated. stored in C. or the divisor must be a scalar number. All three matrices must be of the same size. In schematic representation The following example illustrates rearrangement of the columns of a matrix Division of Matrix Elements To divide elements of two matrices A and B and store the results in matrix C corresponding elements of A and B matrices form a fraction. using as an example a division of a matrix by a scalar number Inverse 6 .is equivalent to scalar multiplication of each row element in the matrix by the same row element of the diagonal matrix.

The inverse of a matrix is denoted by a -1 superscript. and by dividing all elements by the determinant.The analog of matrix division is multiplication by a reciprocal. we must determine that the matrix is invertible by computing its determinant. For the special case of the two-by-two matrices. first. the matrix is invertible. Consider a special case of a two by two matrix A with determinant equal to ad-bc. do not have inverses. Consider a matrix A 7 . changing signs of the off-diagonal elements. To invert a matrix. the inverse of the above matrix can be calculated by switching elements in the principal diagonal. If the determinant is not a zero. This is analogous to the restriction on the division of scalar numbers that cannot be divided by a zero. The reciprocal of a matrix is called its inverse. called singular matrices. some square matrices. Only square matrices can be inverted. however.

To invert a matrix. It means that the matrix is invertible. we must determine whether this matrix is invertible. The determinant is computed as (1) (4)-(2)(3) and equals -2. the singular matrices. matrices with a zero determinant. Thus. In arithmetic. switch elements in the principal diagonal. This determinant does not equal zero. do not have an inverse. In matrix algebra.. the only number without a reciprocal is 0. change signs of the off-diagonal elements. i.First. the matrix inverse equals Analogous to scalar multiplication of a number by its reciprocal an identity matrix I equals this analogy also suggests the nature of matrix singularity.e. A numerical illustration of the above equation is 8 .

The discussed procedures for matrix inversion apply only to two-by-two matrices. best done with the help of a computer. The inverse of a matrix larger than a two-by-two matrix is difficult. Powers of Matrix Elements The squares of the matrix elements are written as In schematic representation A numerical example is A matrix to a fractional power to a fractional negative power provides for obtaining roots of matrix elements and a matrix for obtaining reciprocals of roots of matrix elements. Powers of Matrices The square of a matrix is a multiplication of a matrix by itself In schematic representation 9 .

10 .this operation is illustrated as the results of the illustrative example can be compared with the previous results to stress that a power of a matrix is not equal to power of matrix elements .

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