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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

UU Triaxial Test
Concept of Shear Strength
Please refer the same materials you got in Unconfined Compression test.

a. Triaxial Shear Test

Figure 1 triaxial compression testing device

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

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Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
Triaxial test is more reliable because we can measure both drained and undrained shear strength. Generally 1.4 diameter (3 tall) or 2.8 diameter (6 tall) specimen is used. Specimen is encased by a thin rubber membrane and set into a plastic cylindrical chamber. Cell pressure is applied in the chamber (which represents 3) by pressurizing the cell fluid (generally water). Vertical stress is increased by loading the specimen (by raising the platen in strain controlled test and by adding loads directly in stress controlled test, but strain controlled test is more common) until shear failure occurs. Total vertical stress, which is 1 is equal to the sum of 3 and deviator stress (d). Measurement of d, axial deformation, pore pressure, and sample volume change are recorded. Depending on the nature of loading and drainage condition, triaxial tests are conducted in three different ways.

UU Triaxial test CU Triaxial test CD Triaxial test In this lab, we will conduct UU triaxial test.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

3
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
As drainage is not permitted and consolidation is not necessary, this test is very quick, and also referred as Q-test. As drainage is not permitted, u increases right after the application of 3 as well as after the application of d. As Total Uc = B. 3 and Ud = A . d u = B. 3 + A . d u = B. 3 + A . (1 - 3) This test is common in clayey soils.

Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (UU Triaxial Test)

Application

UU triaxial test gives shear strength of soil at different confining stresses. Shear strength is important in all types of geotechnical designs and analyses. Equipment Strain controlled triaxial load frame Triaxial cell assembly Cell pressure supply panel Scale Balance sensitive to 0.1 g Moisture cans Oven Procedure (Follow the specific guideline provided in a separate sheet) Measure diameter, length, and initial mass of the specimen. Measure the thickness of the rubber membrane. Set a soil specimen in a triaxial chamber. Increase the cell pressure to a desired value (70 kPa for the first case and 140 kPa in the second case). Shear the specimen at the rate of 1%/min or 0.7 mm/min (for 70 mm sample height). In automated device, the software calculates it automatically based on the soil type. Record L, and d in every 10 seconds (computer does it automatically). Continue the test until the deviator stress shows ultimate value or 20% axial strain. After completion of the test, release the cell pressure to 0, vent the pressure and bring the cell down by bring the lower platen down, drain the cell, and clean the porous stone and the assembly. Sketch the mode of failure. Measure the weight of the soil specimen again, and put the specimen into the oven. Measure the weight again after 24 hours. Repeat the test for the second specimen too (140 kPa of cell pressure and third specimen 210 kPa of cell pressure).

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

4
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department Calculations
Calculate axial strain. =

L = Vertical deformation of the specimen. Calculate vertical load on the specimen. You will get it directly from the force transducers. Calculate corrected area of the specimen (Ac) Ac =

L L

A0 = Initial cross-sectional area i.e. x D2/4 Calculate the stress on the specimen.

A0 1

Load Ac

Plot d versus axial strain separately for three tests. Plot d vs a for three tests in the same plot. Plot Mohr circle based on 1 and 3 at failure. They should give the same d value. Add one Mohr circle for unconfined compression test too (That you did last week). Make a straight line, which is tangent to all Mohrs circles. This gives cu with a horizontal line, i.e. u = 0. Therefore this test is called = 0 test.

cu =

d
2

Figure 2 Total stress Mohr circle and failure envelope obtained from UU triaxial test

Calculate the moisture content of the specimen after the test. Calculate the initial void ratio of the specimen (Use the equations provided in the earlier classes).

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

5
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

UU Triaxial Test Laboratory Data Sheet


I. GENERAL INFORMATION Tested by: Lab partners/organization: Client: CSUF Boring no.: N/A Recovery date: Soil description: Date tested: Project: Soils Lab Recovery depth: N/A Recovery method: N/A

II. TEST DETAILS Initial specimen area, Ao: Initial specimen diameter, Do: Initial specimen length, Lo: Initial specimen volume, Vo: Moist mass of specimen after test, M: Dry mass of specimen, Ms: Moisture content, w: Total unit weight, : Degree of saturation, S: Dry unit weight, d: Membrane type: Standard Rubber Membrane Axial strain rate, 1/t: Deformation indicator: LVDT Force indicator: LVDT Specimen preparation method: Hand Compaction Cell pressure, 3: Notes, observations, and deviations from ASTM D2850 test standard:

III. MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS Axial Axial Axial Strain Deformation Load (1) (P) (L)

EQUATIONS: Corrected Area (A) Deviator Stress ()

a = L/Lo
A = Ao/(1-a)

= P/A 1f = 3 + f

3: f: 1f:

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

6
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
I. GENERAL INFORMATION Tested by: Lab partners/organization: Client: CSUF Boring no.: N/A Recovery date: Soil description:

Date tested: Project: Soils Lab Recovery depth: N/A Recovery method: N/A

II. TEST DETAILS Initial specimen area, Ao: Initial specimen diameter, Do: Initial specimen length, Lo: Initial specimen volume, Vo: Moist mass of specimen after test, M: Dry mass of specimen, Ms: Moisture content, w: Total unit weight, : Degree of saturation, S: Dry unit weight, d: Membrane type: Standard Rubber Membrane Axial strain rate, 1/t: Deformation indicator: LVDT Force indicator: LVDT Specimen preparation method: Hand Compaction Cell pressure, 3: Notes, observations, and deviations from ASTM D2850 test standard:

III. MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS Axial Axial Axial Strain Deformation Load (1) (P) (L)

EQUATIONS: Corrected Area (A) Deviator Stress ()

a = L/Lo
A = Ao/(1-a)

= P/A 1f = 3 + f

3: f: 1f:

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

7
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

USERS GUIDELINE FOR THE ELE TRIAXIAL DEVICE (UU TRIAXIAL TEST)
A. POWER AND MAIN SUPPLY SETTINGS 1. 2. 3. (This step is already done)

4.

Press the Power Display power button to the ON position. After Stabilization (approx. 15 min.), push the Tare button to zero the display. Turn on the laboratory vacuum supply. The associated amount of vacuum available to your system will be displayed on the Vacuum Supply Gauge. Turn on the laboratory compressed air supply. Viewing the Pressure Supply gauge, adjust the Master Regulator until the desired maximum supply pressure is reached. The displayed pressure should be about 10 psi more than the required cell pressure. Do Not exceed 150 psi (1034 KPa) pressure. Turn on the laboratory water supply.

B. FILLING OF THE DE-AIRED WATER TANK SYSTEM (This step is already done) 1. 2. Turn the De-Airing Water Control valve to the Fill position. When the tank water level is about 1 from the top, turn the De-Airing Water Control valve to the vent position (Very Slowly to allow water to drain). (This step is already done)

C. DE-AIRING THE WATER TANK 1. 2. 3.

Turn the De-Airing Water Control valve to the Vacuum position. Apply vacuum for 10-15 minutes and, at the same time, gently shake the tank occasionally to enhance the removal of air from water. Turn the De-Airing Water Control valve to the vent position. (This step is already done)

D. FILLING THE BURETTE CHANNELS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Set all five valves on the test cell to the closed position. Set the De-Airing Water Control valve to the Pressure position. Set the Burette/Annulus Input Control valve to the vent position. Set the Annulus Control Switch to the open position (Normal). Slowly turn the Burette/Annulus Flow Control valve to the Fill position. When the water reaches the desired level, turn the Burette/Annulus Flow Control valve to the Cell Operate position. Do not overfill. Water should not be allowed to flow into the pressure tube at the top. Repeat the above steps until two burette channels being used are filled to the desired level.

Note: If the water level in the De-Aired Water Tank System drops to about 1 from the bottom, repeat the filling and de-airing procedures described above.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

8
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
E. DE-AIRING THE BURETTE CHANNELS 1. (This step is already done)

2. F 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Set the Burette/Annulus Input Control valve for each channel to the vacuum position. Under normal operating conditions, the de-airing process should be completed in about 5-10 minutes. After completion, set all Input Control valves back to the vent position. PREPARATION OF THE SAMPLE Trim the sample to be tested using a Miter Box. Measure the height and diameter of the sample at various locations to get an average value. Measure the weight of the trimmed sample before test. Wrap the sample in a plastic sheeting to prevent any moisture loss. Use the trimmings to get the Moisture Content of the sample before test.

G 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PREPARATION FOR THE TRIAXIAL LOADING Double click on the software icon DS7 on the desktop. Click on the button New Test. Select UU1 --Triaxial Quick Undrained Tests-AS. Click on the button Select a Machine for the Test. Fill in the spaces in this window and click on the button OK to the right side of the screen. The fields marked * by their side can not be left blank and the characters \ / * . , : ; @ # ~ ? can not be used while filling up the spaces. In the window Tests in Progress make sure that you select the test that you want to run and then click on the button OK at the bottom of the screen. Switch on the Load cell machine using the button at the back. MONITORING THE TEST In the Test Monitoring window, make sure that all the test data shown in the upper left box is correct. Click on the button Start Test Stage located to the upper right side of the screen. In the next window select Test Initialization and click on button OK in the bottom. In the Test Initialization window, enter the previously measured sample Diameter, weight, and height. The bulk density of the sample will be calculated automatically by the software. The information regarding the Membrane Thickness and Youngs Modulus are default values and may not be changed, unless using a different kind of membrane around the sample. After entering all data click on the green button Confirm Setup Data. This will bring you back to the Test Monitoring window.

6. 7. H 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

9
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
9. 10. Again click on button Start Test Stage located to the upper right side of the screen. This time select Compression from the menu and then click on button OK at the bottom of the window. COMPRESSION STAGE From the previous stage you will be directed to the screen titled Compression Stage for Undrained Test. 1. Vent Cell Pressure Transducer to Atmosphere and Reset: a. Set the Burette/Annulus Input Control valve to the Pressure Position. b. Set the Annulus Control Switch valve to the on position. c. Set the Burette/Annulus Flow Control valve to the Cell Operate position. d. Make sure the cell pressure transducer is open to atmosphere and wait for 10 seconds. e. In the DS-7 software window, click on the red button Reset Cell Pressure. Fill and Pressurise Cell. Select Material Type and Press Button to Calculate Suggested Rate of Strain on Enter Directly: a. Close the valve on the test cell marked CP. b. Carefully place the sample on the Triaxial cell base pedestal. c. Place the top pressure pad and use black O-rings to secure the membrane around the base pedestal and top pressure pad. d. Place the Triaxial cell cover over the sample and use the three rods to secure it in place. e. Open the knob at the top of the glass cylinder and attach the tube marked CP to the knob marked water located at the bottom left of the panel. Open the valve on the test cell marked CP. This will gradually fill the cell. Control the flow using the valve marked CP. f. Close the knob at the top of the glass cylinder when the cell is filled with water. g. Detach the tube marked CP from the knob marked water and attach it back to the knob marked CP on the panel. h. Close the valve on the test cell marked CP. i. Use the knob in the Set Pressure Control panel to increase the pressure to the desired cell pressure level. Monitor the cell pressure box in the DS-7 software to get the accurate reading. j. Set the Burette/Annulus Input Control valve to Pressure position. k. Slowly open the valve on the test cell marked CP. This will transfer the cell pressure to the water inside the glass cylinder. l. In the DS-7 software window, select the right Material Type to the right side of the window and click on the button Calculate Rate of Strain. m. Input the calculated rate of displacement value from the computer screen to the display window at the bottom of the test cell and press Enter ().

2.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

10
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
3. Calculate Logger Sampling Rates (based on percentage of length of specimen at failure): a. On the DS-7 software window, fill up the boxes marked first increments, upto, and second increments. This is the increment at which the results will be captured by the transducers. The default values are from the ASTM Standard. Set both for 0.01%. Reset Force Transducer & Bring Piston just into contact with top cap: a. Raise the sample using the key on the keypad on the loading frame until the load piston just touches the top notch of the top plate above the soil sample. b. On the DS-7 software window, click on the red button marked Reset Force Transducer. c. This should reset the lower right window on the Test Monitoring Window in the DS-7 software to 0.0 lbf. Reset Axial Displacement & Start Compression at End of Count Down: a. Place the axial displacement transducer bottom touching the horizontal rod and click on the button Reset Axial Displacement Transducer on the DS-7 software window. b. This should reset the lower left window on the Test Monitoring window of the DS-7 software to 0.0 inches. Click on the green Continue button at the bottom of the page of the software window. A window will appear that will instruct you to press enter (Green Button) to start the Test Countdown. If everything is ready, click on the green button Start Test Countdown. Once the two whistles go, press the green button Run on the keypad at the bottom of the test cell. TO STOP THE TEST To stop the loading at any time press the red button Stop on the keypad of the load frame. In the DS-7 software, on Test Monitoring window click on button End Test Stage Click on button Start Test Stage button. Select Final Measurements and click on OK. Enter all parameters that are available at this time Final Specimen Weight (wet) Final Specimen Weight (dry) Initial Moisture Content from Trimmings Lab Temperature during test Particle Specific Gravity Click on green button Confirm Data.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

J 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008

11
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department
7. Click OK on the window stating FINAL STAGE IS NOW COMPLETE. PRESS OK TO STORE THE TEST DATA READY FOR ANALYSIS OR PRESS CANCEL TO PERFORM FURTHER STAGES. Save the Raw data obtained from the test to a directory of your choice. The software will prompt to a default directory. Click on button exit to exit from the software. DRAINING THE CELL Turn the set Pressure Control knob in counterclockwise direction to reduce the cell pressure. Turn the Burette/Annulus Input Control valve to Bridge Off position. Open the top knob of the glass cylinder in the load cell assembly. Set the Burette/Annulus Flow control to drain position. Open the valve on the test cell marked CP. This will drain the water from the glass cylinder. DISMANTLING THE CELL Use the button on the keypad of the load frame to lower the sample away from the load piston. Unscrew the three rods from the sides of the glass cylinder and take out the cylinder. Dismantle the sample from the test cell and secure the membrane, top and bottom end plates.

8. 9. K 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

EGCE 324L (Soil Mechanics Laboratory) Instructor: Binod Tiwari, PhD

Spring 2008 Date: 4/28/2008