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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . 16. . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . 10. . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . 159 160 161 161 161 .2 Lexical Syntax . .
. . 17. . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . 21. . . . . 17. . . . . . . 21. . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . .3 File locking . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . .2. . . 17.5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 .9. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . 21. . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.9 Text Input and Output . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . 21. . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . .3. . . . .2 Reading Input . . . . . . 17. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . .11Library IO . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . .
to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. 2. and most of these. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. even more than it is ordinarily. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. 5. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. 3. It should be freely available. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. have published something erroneous. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. including ourselves. including building large systems.” Haskell B. research. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. named after the logician Haskell B. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. . purely functional programming languages. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. Oregon. a stable foundation for real applications development. and applications. providing faster communication of new ideas. 4. May 31. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. It should be suitable for teaching. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell.
If these program were to be portable. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted.4. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors.4). This task turned out to be much. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. incorporating experimental features. Resolve ambiguities. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. It is not a . it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). making some simpliﬁcations. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. this stable language is the subject of this Report. for the foreseeable future. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. With reluctance. Clarify obscure passages. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. much larger than I had anticipated. together with a standard library called the Prelude. and is called “Haskell 98”. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. By the middle of 1997. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. As Haskell becomes more widely used.
For example. including: pattern guards. There is more besides. lexically scoped type variables.org gives access to many useful resources. existential types. including: . Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. Control extensions. metaprogramming facilities. recursive donotation. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. concurrency. including: monadic state. functional dependencies. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). going well beyond Haskell 98. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. Instead. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. exceptions. it provides a stable point of reference. or use Haskell for teaching. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. including: multiparameter type classes. Type system innovations. so that those who wish to write text books.
Implementations of Haskell. Building the language Haskell was created. Microsoft Research Ltd) .x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. You are welcome to comment on. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Here they are. Applications of Haskell. suggest improvements to. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Tutorial material on Haskell. University of Nottingham. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. via the Haskell mailing list. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. and continues to be sustained. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. in particular. Details of the Haskell mailing list.
Ian Lynagh. Chris Dornan. Ross Paterson. John Meacham. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Duke Briscoe. Stefan Kahrs. Jeff Lewis. Ian Poole. Clean. Pradeep Varma. Simon Marlow. Richard Bird. Jose Labra. Nic Holt. Felix Schroeter. Patrick Sansom. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Michael Fryers. Rinus Plasmeijer. Patrik Jansson. Fergus Henderson. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Thomas Hallgren. and Bonnie Yantis. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Mike Joy. Chris Okasaki. . the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Mark Hall. Dave Parrott. Sven Panne. Arthur Norman. Andy Gill. Pat Fasel. Nimish Shah. Malcolm Wallace. Carl Witty. Julian Seward. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Mark Carroll. Chris Fasel. Marcin Kowalczyk. Mark Lillibridge. some small but many substantial. Østvold. Magnus Carlsson. Sandra Loosemore. Satish Thatte. Klemens Hemm. Stephen Price. Stuart Wray. Dean Herington. Gary Memovich. Stephen Blott. Backus’s FP [1]. Mike Thyer. Michael Marte. Wolfram Kahl. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Andy Moran. Michael Schneider. Orjan Johansen. Tom Thomson. Id. Christian Sievers. Ken Takusagawa. George Russell. Randy Hudson. Andreas Rossberg. Sten Anderson. Finally. Simon Thompson. Olaf Lubeck. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Landin’s ISWIM. Larne Pekowsky. APL. Dylan Thurston. Cordy Hall. Richard Kelsey. Chris Clack. Libor Skarvada. Sisal. Mark Tullsen. Kent Karlsson. Franklin Chen. Tommy Thorn. Hans Aberg. Ketil Malde. Ian Holyer. Alexander Jacobson. In addition. Bjarte M. Matt Harden. Feliks Kluzniak. Jim Mattson. Graeme Moss. Guy Cousineau. Pablo Lopez. Craig Dickson. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Jones. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. John Robson. Christian Maeder. Olaf Chitil. Rosser. Paul Callaghan. Gofer. Hope and Hope . Tom Blenko. Nick North. Raman Sundaresh. Jan Kort.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Tony Warnock. Sergey Mechveliani. Bjorn Lisper. David Tweed. Laura Dutton. Tony Davie. Rick Mohr. Manuel Chakravarty. Sigbjorn Finne. Curry. Stef Joosten. Bob Hiromoto. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Henrik Nilsson. Jan Skibinski. Keith Wansbrough. Amir Kishon. and others on the lambda calculus. Mike Gunter. SiauCheng Khoo. Josef Svenningsson. Paul Otto. Ralf Hinze. ML and Standard ML. Robert Jeschofnik. Michael Webber. Simon B. Randy Michelsen. Lauren Smith.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. type classes.1 Program Structure In this section. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. static polymorphic typing. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. described in Chapter 5. arrays. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. a monadic I/O system.e. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. all described in Chapter 4. At the next lower level are expressions.” 4. described in Chapter 3. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. patternmatching. list comprehensions.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. and ﬁxity information. 1. 3 . nonstrict semantics. Haskell provides higherorder functions. a module system. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. etc. 2. 1. deﬁned in Chapter 2. compiled. interpreted. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. programs that formally evaluate to ). This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. 3. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. of which there are several kinds. datatypes. including lists.
which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. such as for expresin if sions. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. If these translations are applied exhaustively. 1. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. Also. for declarations. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). the concrete syntax. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. See Section 3. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. or overloading (using type classes). for types. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. However. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. However. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. literate programming. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. they are not distinguishable from nontermination.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming.4 CHAPTER 1. etc. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. . it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. the speciﬁcation of derived instances.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. and Chapter 7. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language.e.1. In this Report. Technically. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. as then else . Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to .
Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. These are the only constraints. for example.4. NAMESPACES 5 1.1. .4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. type constructors. There are two constraints on naming: 1. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. 2. those for type variables. and module names refer to modules. and constructor within a single scope. class.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. 2. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . However.. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols.]. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. although usually the context makes the distinction clear.. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.
/ < = > ? \ ˆ  .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2.
Similarly. So. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. for example. although = is reserved. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. although case is a reserved word. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point.2. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. and. 2. then any occurrence of {. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. For example. terminated by “}”. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. == and ˜= are not. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. Within a nested comment. hence. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas.3. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. cases is not. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”.g. In an ordinary comment. as explained in Chapter 11. because both of these are legal lexemes. 2. however “foo” does start a comment. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. ) and extends to the following newline. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. in a nested comment. Instead.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ .
b]”. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . the last is a constructor identiﬁer). Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. However. underscores. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. is treated as a lowercase letter. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). and single quotes. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. such as “[]” and “[a. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. all operators are inﬁx. “:”. used as wild card in patterns.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters.5).. : : : . although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. naMe. Notice that a colon by itself. Underscore. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. : :: = \  <. “_”. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer.10 CHAPTER 2. digits. as deﬁned above. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound.
(qualiﬁed ‘. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.5. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. the other four do not. F. Lexes as this f . ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.’) F . This f. but not type variables or module names. . .. F. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ ..5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.2.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. .4.g f. . constructor. type constructor and type class names.. for example. g (three tokens) F. (two tokens) F. This applies to variable. . Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. also.. 2. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . Prelude. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms.2).g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .4.g F.
The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). similarly. For example. octal (e. Floating literals are always decimal. Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. and strings between double quotes. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored.2. \o137) and hexadecimal (e.4. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). “backspace” (\b). Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. and “vertical tab” (\v). numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. a double quote " may be used in a character. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. “new line” (\n). Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. as in "Hello". A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point.1. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . including control characters such as \ˆX. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. \x37) representations are also allowed.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. \ must always be escaped. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. are also provided.g. “carriage return” (\r). but must be escaped in a string. 2. “horizontal tab” (\t). "\SOH".g. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating.1. as in ’a’. but must be escaped in a character. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). “form feed” (\f). Similarly.12 CHAPTER 2.4. is parsed as a string of length 1. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3.
where the . The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. by using layout to convey the same information. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. For each subsequent line. Within these explicit open braces. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). if it is indented the same amount. let. Informally stated. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. When this happens. and if it is indented less. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. or of.7). b and g all part of the same layout list. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. that is. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. Section 9. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal.2. As an example. insert a semicolon or close brace). a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. Figure 2.e. Because layout is not required. then instead of starting a layout." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. a control character.pop.7. do. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). Also. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. let.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. Given these rules. a close brace is inserted. 2. \ \a numeric escape character. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. and \ˆX. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. which can be freely mixed within one program. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. an empty list “{}” is inserted.
push. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .size :: Stack a > Int .pop (MkStack x s) = (x. top.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. and (c) the close brace at the very end.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. Stack a) . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected.push x s = MkStack x s .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. pop. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.(pop Empty) is an error . top. pop.top (MkStack x s) = x } .top :: Stack a > a . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .14 CHAPTER 2.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. push.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .pop :: Stack a > (a.
or for left. where appropriate. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. right. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. the nonterminals . these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. .11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . and may have a double (written as a superscript). index: a letter .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. Except in the case of let expressions.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. an associativity variable varies over . In the syntax that follows. Similarly. For example. For example actually stands for 30 productions.
This f x . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) .4. } in x + y let { . let expressions. Sample parses are shown below.2. .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.. .. } in (x + y) z + (let { .1). .4. ] .. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. and conditionals. . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”.. For example.. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . ¦ 2 ' .(f x)) + y let { .2).. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible...f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. . parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } ¦ . Figure 4. ] ¢ £ .
Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. 3. the error message is created by the compiler. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. when demanded. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. Constructors. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. For the sake of clarity. Operators. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. all Haskell types include . so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. denoted by . When evaluated. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur.2 Variables.1. results in an error. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . 3. That is. When undefined is used. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination.3.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation.
Ratio Integer).% constructs a rational from two integers. For example. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . such as ` `.2). where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6.4.18 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS () [] (.% ). ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. These are described in Section 6. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y.5).1). production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. as found in the and . a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. For example.4). .4. The integers and are chosen so that . Dually. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). An operator is either an operator symbol. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. Similarly. such as + or $$. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.1.
where the are patterns.operator and unary negation. and is syntax for negate . Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . . The binary . Application associates to the left. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers.17.in the Prelude. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator .3.denotes preﬁx negation. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . unary .3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set.3. There is no link between the local meaning of the . then the result is . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. Similarly. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. page 55). CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. partial applications of data construc ) of ( .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. . if the pattern fails to match.1.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . as with any inﬁx operator.3. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. Because tors are allowed. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. However. 3. . it may be rebound by the module system. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect.
( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). (a+b+) is syntactically correct. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. and similarly for ( ). by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). Because (+) is left associative.is treated specially in the grammar. () is not a section. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . As another example. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. EXPRESSIONS 3. but an application of preﬁx negation. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). However. For example. but (+a+b) is not. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. as described in the preceding section.
and must have the same type. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3.7 Lists [] ( ) : . and the empty list is Lists are written [ . as deﬁned in the must be Bool.3. The list constructor is :.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . is an expression.6.3. denoted []. . ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . is a binary operator. ¥ £ ¡ 3. ]. which is also the Prelude.1. and otherwise.1). Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. where . The type of type of the entire conditional expression. if is False.
respectively.). .1. .5).1.1. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . ). It is a rightassociative operator. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). ) (see Section 4. and may be of arbitrary length . EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.c) and (. and requires no translation. where there are denote the same value.2). and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4.. . . The constructor for an commas. 3. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.2). .4.b. It is the only member of that type apart from . with precedence level 5 (Section 4.3). then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . § 3.) a b c tuple is denoted by (. Translation: ( . and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.2). The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction.. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . and is equivalent to .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. .4 and Chapter 8). ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . Thus (a. If through are the types of through .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3.8 Tuples ¢ S (. .2).1. like []. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6.1. ) Tuples are written ( . . Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . it is considered part of the language syntax.1.
1. .. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .. § 3..3. See Section 6. ] .17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . where each of the has type . enumFromTo. . enumFromThen.10.3. ] . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.. .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . ] denotes a list of values of type . and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6.11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ .. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . and is an instance of class Enum. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <.. . page 83). The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . where is a pattern (see Section 3.. ] .10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. .
As usual.[ [(1.24 CHAPTER 3. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  .xs ] yields the list [4. = = = = [ ] [  . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. over patterns. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. are deﬁned in the Prelude..x. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations. [(5. and over sequences of qualiﬁers.4)]. and introduce a nested. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. (3. Thus: [ x  xs <. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . expressions.x. x <. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . and boolean value True.2)] ]. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. ok is a fresh variable.(3. Declarations are described in Chapter 4.(3.x ] [ z  y <.x) <. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. over boolean over declaration lists. over listvalued expressions.5. lexicallyscoped. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .4). and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. 3.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.17). z <. The function concatMap. .2).are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. For example. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. let (x.2]. ]  <. } in .4). over qualiﬁers.
> ¦§ of { } . in = } in = = let (˜ ..4. the “” is a terminal symbol.. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative.3. .4. where and are patterns and expressions respectively. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . ... . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . . . 3. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). using the translation in Section 4.. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables.13.3. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { .3. .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.˜ ) = ( . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. . . Once done. .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for .. these identities hold. CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .
The alternatives are tried sequentially. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. ¦ 3. It has a single unambiguous parse. ¦ ¨ . Pattern matching is described in Section 3. namely case x of { (a. The expression case x of { (a.17. .14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom.26 CHAPTER 3. the result is . EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. Each body must have the same type. and hence reject the program. from top to bottom.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . If matches the pattern in the alternative. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. If all the guards evaluate to False. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. A note about parsing._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. If no match succeeds.3. and then by the guards evaluates to True. Programmers are advised. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. and the type of the whole expression is that type. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. If one of the pattern. therefore. . <let . matching continues with the next alternative.17. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <.
select from. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.. the functions >>. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope.15. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. As indicated by the translation of do.OK . ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables.. however. as deﬁned in the Prelude. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. after eliminating empty : } . consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .15. This shadowing only affects selector functions. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype.. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct." stands for a compilergenerated error message.15. Within a datatype.2) and update (Section 3. © The ellipsis ". 3. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let .3).3. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. and fail are operations in the class Monad. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name..15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. in record construction (Section 3. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure.2.15.BAD Here S is legal but T is not. 3. >>=. When used as a variable. To illustrate the last point. passed to fail.1).
these are not subject to layout. The expression F {}.1.15. then value .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . the ﬁeld labels . 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . } labeled construction . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . where F is a data constructor. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. the { and } characters must be explicit.2.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. it denotes F . Otherwise. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4.) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. where is the arity of F. . . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . and if appears is . ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label .
3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. such as x {f2 = 1. . No label may be mentioned more than once.. } labeled update . A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update.. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.15. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ .15. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. f3. f4 = ’A’. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3.3. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . f3 = ’x’}. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype.
The value of the expression is just that of . EXPRESSIONS 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than.1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: .2).16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . Translation: 3.4).30 CHAPTER 3. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the .1. list comprehensions.1). and case expressions.17. or not principal type derivable from comparable to.3. However. 3. the principal type. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. pattern bindings. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. . As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.4. do expressions. function deﬁnitions.
returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. . ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .y. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once.x) = x ._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.17. For example. it may succeed. or it may diverge (i. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . and outside to inside. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. For example. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. return ).2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. For example. case e of { [x. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor.3. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x.ILLEGAL. and allow one to use . .e. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it._.17. ¢ § .
At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. then is matched against . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used.32 CHAPTER 3. depends on the value: against a value. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list.are overloaded. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. Again. The match diverges if this test diverges. EXPRESSIONS 2. where newtype. and no binding is done. then is matched against . The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. the match diverges. Matching the pattern by data. . so does the overall computation. ¦ 32 4. resulting in the binding of to . Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. 8. character. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. 6. the overall match succeeds. 3. depending on the type of the pattern. and to if matching against fails or diverges. respectively. If the value is of the form . Matching the pattern against a value. and fails otherwise. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. .. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge.2. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. 7. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . and if the match fails or diverges. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . § § § That is. Matching a numeric. is the same as in numeric literal patterns.) Operationally. if all matches succeed. (Binding does not imply evaluation. the functions >= and . that is. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _).
Many people feel that + patterns should not be used.’b’] is matched against [ .˜(a. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. ] (0. If the pattern [’a’. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.3.2. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). All other patterns are refutable. But if [’a’.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . ]. then .1). If the match of against fails or diverges.y) > 0) (\ (x. Here are some examples: 1. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. is irrefutable). a wildcard. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell.’x’].1).3). irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. (a.b)] > x) [(0. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. then ’a’ to match against ’x’.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9.17. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. to . These examples demonstrate refutable vs. and the result is a failed match. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . ] (\ ˜[x. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.’b’] is matched against [’x’. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.b)] > x) [(0. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against .
3. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. Rules (d). in f :: (Int.Int.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. and are booleanvalued expressions.2. In Figures 3. it is not expected that it will use them directly. and are patterns. (q). (j).3. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). (e). function deﬁnition. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. and is a newtype constructor. Rule (h) in Figure 3. and are variables.y. .1. These identities all preserve the static semantics. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. For example.1–3.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. . in Figures 3.1–3. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.34 CHAPTER 3. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ .2.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression.17. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. and are expressions. In particular. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. or pattern binding to which it is attached.2: . then True is substituted for the guards in the forms.4). this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.
} } . Figure 3. _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . .17. _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . .3. }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { .
_ > _ > }} where . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } case of { > . } > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ otherwise case of { {} > . are ﬁelds of constructor . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . or string literal. ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > } case of { _ _ > . = .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . } > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > } of { > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. character. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. are new variables else } } }.2: Semantics of Case Expressions. ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > } . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > .
} } © 2§ . . . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. ¦ { . = => => => => . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . type data newtype class instance default ( . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 .
of the given types. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). using normal type and data declarations. and default declarations (Section 4. newtype. 5]. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. consisting of value bindings. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. An instance declaration (Section 4. For exposition.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: .1. and data declarations (Section 4. we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. type signatures.3. consisting of class. . and nested declarations.2).3). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5).4). and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. consisting of type. instance.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .e. . suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . For example.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type.38 %§ CHAPTER 4.simplified class declaration for Num .3. © 4. deﬁned on it. A class declaration (Section 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. . those within a let or where construct). but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. type classes and overloading.
then a type of kind . Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions.1.1. unlike types. class methods) for (+) and negate. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors.0 type system. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. addFloat. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.e.1. ] ) . is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. 4.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( .6. negateInt. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones.4.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. However. 4.
written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. Since the IO type constructor has kind .). and so on. 4. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. Type constructors. Their kinds are . type values are built from . (. For example. The declarations data T . 2.. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. . then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant.. Just as data values are built using data constructors.). and so on. Integer. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . must have kind . For example: Char. and treated as types with kind . ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . and classes. . also written () (see Sections 3. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3.. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters.. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . Type variables. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.1. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. Type application. Unlike data constructors. and has exactly one value. A parenthesized type. IO. In general. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). The kind of T is determined by kind inference. The tuple types are written as (. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. having form ( ). to the variable a. Int.9 and 6. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. or newtype T . As with data constructors. Float. The list type is written as [] and has kind .. is identical to the type .40 CHAPTER 4. IO a. and is a type of kind .5). type synonyms. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type.
For clarity. the second component of type . 3.3. regardless of what is in scope. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed.4). (Hence the special production. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . and lists. []. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . tuples. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . which is equivalent to the type (. In a similar way. For example. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. and ( ) have the types ( > ). for example. A list type has the form [ ]. and so on.1. (.8 and 6.1. 1. and ). . always denote the builtin type constructors. “gtycon”.7 and 6.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts .) where there are commas between the parenthesis. . A tuple type has the form ( .1. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float).4. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. which is equivalent to the type (>) . . they cannot be qualiﬁed. If is the type of expression or pattern . Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax.3). means . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. (). respectively. the preﬁx type constructors (>). however. above. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. [ ]. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . A context consists of zero or more class assertions. which is equivalent to the type [] . there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3].) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax.). 2. and so on (see Sections 3. the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. For example. the type expression a > a . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5).1.. .1)). A class assertion has form . then the expressions (\ > ). ) where . [ ]. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types.
Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). Furthermore. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . we write => even if the context is empty. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. also holds.1. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . For convenience. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. In any such type. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). the most general type.16 and 4.42 CHAPTER 4. Show a. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . as described in Section 4. respectively. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. Therefore. we provide informal details of the type system. may be instantiated at types holds. In general. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. a type is of the form . where is a set of type variables . For example. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. any of that are free in must also be free in . or the application of type variable to one or more types. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. For example.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers.4). in more detail.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. In general. " t ¡§ is identical to .1.1). § § § 4. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in .3. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a.3. and each of the is either a type variable. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context .4.
USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. The user may choose to declare such an instance. . we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations).4. 4. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). However. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. In this Report. ! . and type synonyms (type declarations). since Num Int holds. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int).2. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: .2. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. because Int is an instance of the class Num. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. 4.
A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. using the record syntax (C { . the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4.8.f2 :: Int. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. For example. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . and is described in Section 4. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq .3. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. }).. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns.e. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them.3. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. to the components of a data object. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. the declaration data C = F { f1. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq.6. For example.
2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. Translation: A declaration of the form 4.2. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over .4.15. . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. For example. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . and function $! (see Section 6.6. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . denoted by an exclamation point. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.2. The type is equivalent to the type . the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. “!”. Lexically. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion.2) if is of the form ! . USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3.
4. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. New instances (see Section 4. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ .2).46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. Also. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.3. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. the newtype constructor is unlifted. so that is the same as . unlike type synonyms.2. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed.17).2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. The type ( ) renames the datatype . mechanism to make type signatures more readable. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. Unlike algebraic datatypes.invalid . this is not so for type synonyms. but strictly syntactic. For example. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Type synonyms are a convenient. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. Similarly.3. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead.
) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . . ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42.3.3. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes).3. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . see Section 4. though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.4. . In particular.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. and newtype (renaming types. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . type (type synonyms). whereas ( n ). Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ).3. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . ( n ( N ) ).
For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). in particular. it must form a directed acyclic graph. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . However. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. The may constrain only . Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of .3.48 CHAPTER 4. For example: class Foo a where op1. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. a ﬁeld name.2). op2 :: a > a (op1. the may not constrain . i.. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. . For example: class (Read a. That is. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. or another class method. since class methods declare toplevel values. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention .e. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . op2) = . no other declarations are permitted in . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. Lastly. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. it may mention type variables other than .. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . outside the class declaration. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. is not permitted. the may contain a default class method for any of the . as described below.
.. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. Let be a class declaration. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix.range. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.3.... module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. The type type variables distinct. this is legal.) For example. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass.a) where .2. 4. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple .3.Ix T where range = .. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where .4. furthermore.a) where . and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . ] > . } .2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. it may be a qualiﬁed name. must not be a type synonym. if a type is an instance of all superclasses. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. in particular. instance C (Int.. instance C [[a]] where . .
6. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.. Show a) => Bar [a] where . The class and type must have the same kind.. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2.50 CHAPTER 4. must be an instance of each of .. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a.. Under this assumption. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . then the program would be invalid. instance (Eq a. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ .. Show a) => Foo [a] where ..1). the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.3. If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . instance Num a => Bar [a] where . In fact. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1.. This example is valid Haskell. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. instance (Eq a... this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. In other words.
and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8.. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible.4 Ambiguous Types. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. that is. all mentioned in Figure 6. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. Show.4. When deriving a class for a type . instances for all superclasses of must exist for . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable.3.invalid is ambiguous. Bounded. because the types for show and read. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving ().. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. For example. For example. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .1. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes.2. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived.3. Enum. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. But this does not hold. 4. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. then the expression let x = read ". . A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. For example. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.1. 4. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . If the form is included.3. page 83. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. and Read." in show x . Show a). Ord.
a static error. For example. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. but and are forced to have the same type..4. § ¢ ¢ For example.52 CHAPTER 4. where is a class. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. and its effect is limited to that module. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . page 83. ) where . Such expressions are considered illtyped. or Bool. Such types are invalid. turns off all defaults in a module. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of .6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. and Figure 6. Occasionally. and each must be a type for which Num holds. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.3.. Double) The empty default declaration. . (that is. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer.2–6. Only one default declaration is permitted per module. It is a static error if no such type is found. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. one could write: let x = read ". is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. Num or a subclass of Num). . the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. default (). there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. appears only in constraints of the form . § ¢ . pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. an ambiguous type variable.16.1. For example.
If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. . these declarations contain a static error.5. i. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.4.4. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.1 Type Signatures . which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0.4. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. this is explained in Section 4. as described in Section 4. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type.4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4.1.2). A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. to ensure that type inference is still possible. Moreover. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f.5. 4. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ .2. For example.1. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. Indeed. including the top level of a module. even if the signatures are identical.e. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. However.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. the deﬁning occurrence. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . or principal type . For example. As mentioned in Section 4. possibly with respect to a context.
Table 4. infixl. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name.invalid are invalid. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). T a > a. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. non. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0.invalid . The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. 4. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration.1 are invalid. respectively).and rightassociativity (infix. The following deﬁnition is pathological. declares a property of a particular operator. level 9 is assumed. like a type signature. just like its type. Also like a type signature. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. and ten precedence levels.4.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. left. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . (Class methods are a minor exception. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). If the is omitted.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. and infixr. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 .1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. . Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. and level 9 binds most tightly). their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level.
op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. ‘rem‘. ‘Foo. /=.4. ‘quot‘ +.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .4.4. >>= $.. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. ‘mod‘. ‘div‘.op‘ is infixr 7. ‘seq‘ Table 4. /. <=.op‘ is infix 3. <. $!. ˆ. ‘Bar. >. Here.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.. ++ ==. ** :. >=. ˆˆ.. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>.op‘ q) * 2 in . module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar.) 4.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ‘elem‘.
The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. the latter.3. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. For example.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. the binding is called a function binding. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. otherwise. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . namely: . The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. .56 CHAPTER 4.4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . ¤ 4.
a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers.3. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. See the translation in Section 3.4. . but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . A simple pattern binding has form . A note about syntax. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it.4. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.e. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i.4.12. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . in other words. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. where a function bindings above.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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5. For example. However. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. and not by any modules that import it.g) = ((+).) This issue does not arise for nested bindings.4. len1 gets type Int. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. in (f. module M1(len1) where default( Int. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. There is no danger of recomputation here. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. Hence. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g.4. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings.3. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1).
e. Instead. for instance).invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. respectively. For example. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. constructors. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. For example. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . a default of is assumed. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . using the default binding . the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . in such cases. . all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. For example. synonym. For example. for any kind .64 CHAPTER 4. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. 4. respectively.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. in the deﬁnitions above. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . i.5. a synonym S and a class C.
It exports some of these resources.f >> B.5. and are not ﬁrst class values. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4..f module A where f = . must be called Main and must export the value main. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. (see Chapter 4). datatypes. module B where f = . or perhaps exported from a module. making them available to other modules. by convention. Modules are used for namespace control.. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. etc. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. Modules may be mutually recursive.. type.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. the computation main is performed. 1 65 . or class deﬁned in. imported into. and its result (of type ) is discarded. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. one of which. classes.3. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. When the program is executed. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .4). each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. Second. We use the term entity to refer to a value. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules).5) is affected by module boundaries. For example. First.. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. type synonyms.
3) that specify modules to be imported. i. . ). A module begins with a header: the keyword module. CHAPTER 5. .1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. classes. optionally restricting the imported bindings. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. the module name. Prelude. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. © 5. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’.. If this is used. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II).e. ( An abbreviated form of module. ¦ ¦ § 5.. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. Chapter 4). data types.. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . (see Chapter 4).. . with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . etc.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . is permitted. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. Section 5.6). bf = . MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . . The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . type synonyms. There is one distinguished module. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . . consisting only of the module body.
) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). A type synonym is in scope. ﬁeld name. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. The abbreviated form (. may .) ( (. 3.2. or that it imports from some other module. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. If the export list is omitted. whether declared in the module body or imported. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. or class method. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. all values. EXPORT LISTS 67 .8). ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration.. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. A value. the following is legal module A( Mb. . A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . The constructor In all cases.5. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. but not those that are imported. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported.Maybe( Nothing. For example.. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. . must be in scope. . which must be in scope. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. ( . because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. ).) ( module . names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one ..
C. ). item(2)).. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. ¡ £ .) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). dequeue ) where import Stack . or as an implicitlynamed member (T(.. item (2))... For example module A ( C. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). For example.g. or by exporting an entire module (module M. 5. names the class and some or all of its methods. must be in scope.g) g = f True .1). The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. item (5)). In the second form. This set may be empty. . one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of .5. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list.e”. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.68 CHAPTER 5. g. item (1) above). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. For example: module Queue( module Stack. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. enqueue. In all cases. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. MODULES The abbreviated form (.). The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace).f.
¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. rather than Lexically.) form of import is used for a type or class. the (. 5. .. they may also be used as variables.. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ .g and g are different entities – remember. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module.3. methods. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . § 5.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1.) ( (. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.f are different entities). The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported.) refers to all of the constructors.f and C. and between module B and C.. the terminal symbols “as”.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.f (assuming B. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. . except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.5. hiding ( . ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ .) ( . The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.g and g (assuming C.. modules can import each other recursively). The list may be empty. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .3. When the (. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ .
5. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.3. exported by the imported module.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. In contrast. class. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. ). MODULES 2. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. Finally. If the qualified keyword is omitted.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. if ported.3.3.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. .3) on the import statement.’. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. in fact.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. Thus.+ 1) .1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. Section 5. Hence. the toplevel environment is extended. © 5. using C in an import list names only a class or type.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.All Prelude names must be qualified . For example.1. or type named C is excluded.3. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.
A.3.y (nothing) A. y. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .x. B. B.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.x x. suppose the module A exports x and y. A.x B. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.y (nothing) x.5. B. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.y A.x A. A.x.y A. 5. A. 5. A. B.x.4). An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. A.y x. y. y.y In all cases. A.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.x.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.4.y x.y y.x.x.f. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.
whether qualified or not. MODULES module. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list..y = x+1 in . therefore. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. g x = M. it is illegal to write module M where M.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.72 CHAPTER 5. An import declaration.f x = . such as f or A. . The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.. Thus.ILLEGAL g x = let M.5.f x x is legal.4).. but does bring in any instances visible in M. there must be only one binding for f or A. 5. For example. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5. Thus: module M where f x = ..f respectively. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.5. .ILLEGAL By an import declaration.. that is. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.3).f. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .
B.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal..5. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. or x declared in C. module D( d ) where d = .. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.. module C( d. y = ..d. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. and c declared in C respectively. provided that the program does not mention those names. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. and C. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B. There is no reference to y.x.2)..sin (F. b. ... x) module B( d. c = . c. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b..x or C. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. For example. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B.5... d. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). c.. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. b = . y = .4. x. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved... x. y ) where import D x = .d. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. and can be referred to in A by the names d. y ) where import D x = ..
classes. 5. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. However. and functions.” In Haskell. However. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. MODULES The references to Prelude.sin and F. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. the Prelude is contained in the . the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope.5. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. That is. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. For example. That is. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope.74 CHAPTER 5. 5. That is. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. called the “Standard Prelude. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. Whether or not T is explicitly exported.
1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. 5. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList.6. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. given in Chapter 8. and they cannot be imported separately. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null.6. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. PreludeIO. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. not part of the language deﬁnition. which provide less frequently used functions and types. however. just like those from any other module. they should be considered part of its implementation. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. complex numberss. for example. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull.6. This means. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. arrays. 5. For example: module A( null.5. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. For example. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. and so on. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. but the implementation only gives a scheme.
in terms of a different implementation of lists. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. pop. 5. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.76 CHAPTER 5.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. 5.x) g x = (. For example. MODULES import Prelude statement. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. On the other hand. For example.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. It is not possible. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. the use of ++ is not special syntax. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. however.x) and (. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. For example. push. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. for example. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude.
5. pop. For example. they must use push. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. and empty to construct such values. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. Instead.8. push. pop. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] .
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. and 79 . types.6. complex numbers. Enum. Ord. Eq. Ord. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Enum.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Numeric types are described in Section 6.  (or).1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. and not. The basic boolean functions are && (and). Show.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. Eq. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. When appropriate. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.1.4. Show.1.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. 6. 6. 6. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. In this chapter.
All tuples are instances of Eq.. snd. respectively. ASCII mnemonic escapes. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. and Show (provided. curry. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. \b and \BS.’t’. Ord. and Show.Int) and (. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes.) x y produce the same value. (Int. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. ’i’.6. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list.80 CHAPTER 6.Bool. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. standard functions from class Enum. Read. \v and \VT.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions.10 and 3. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists.’r’. Ord. Bounded. Show. map characters to and from the Int type. \r and \CR. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. 6. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. and \n and \LF.’n’. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). and uncurry.’ ’. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.7. Functor. are described in Sections 3. Each tuple type has a single constructor. Monad.’s’. The same holds for tuple type constructors. thus. Lists are an instance of classes Read. and MonadPlus. Read. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions.1. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. In addition. \f and \FF. as deﬁned in Section 3. although with special syntax. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. For example.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Ord.11. together with the instances for Eq. Bounded. However. as described in Section 3.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.y) and (. that all their component types are). .8. of course.’g’] 6. written ‘[]’ (“nil”).) Int Bool Int denote the same type.1. Eq. thus (x. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. \t and \HT. and the \ˆ notation.
1. Show) member. Enum. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Ord. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Read. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. 6. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. Bounded. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. flip. Ord. Ord. Read.6. (.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Bounded. ($). See also Section 3. Enum.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. Read. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. the nullary constructor (). The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord.2. 6.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. and until. Read. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes.1.9.1. Monad. 6. It is an instance of Show and Eq.). Ord. const.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. a function argument is evaluated only when required. that is.3). The unit datatype () has one non 6.1. and MonadPlus. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. and Part II contains many more.
1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). $! ($). The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. If there is no such comment. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. together with the default declarations.82 CHAPTER 6. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . such as map ($ 0) xs. or zipWith ($) fs xs. As a consequence. 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. Default class method declarations (Section 4. 6. However. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. For the same reason. rightassociative binding precedence. because it is available at every type. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x).2.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. However.3. since seq can be used to distinguish them. infixr 0 $. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. $ has low. . so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations.
Integer. Double Floating Float. Double Fractional Float. () Ordering. Float. Char.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Ordering. Double Real Int. Maybe Functor IO. Integer. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. []. (>) Show All except IO. IOError Num Int.6. Float. Int. Float. Integer RealFrac Float. Double RealFloat Float.3. Double Bounded Int. Double Monad IO. Bool. Maybe Figure 6. (>) Read All except IO. []. Double Integral Int. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. tuples Enum (). Bool. Integer. Char.
the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. All basic datatypes except for functions. and IOError. (>=). The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. IO.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. (<=).2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. If both are deﬁned.3. neither default method is used. (>) :: a > a > Bool max.84 CHAPTER 6. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. = = = = max x y) = (x. If one is deﬁned. are instances of this class.y) or (y. 6. . then both will loop. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.
The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. ("". default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.6. which uses precedence context zero.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. show.t) <. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec..4).. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. except function types and IO types.read: ambiguous parse" . showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. rather than between square brackets.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . and returns an ordinary String.reads s.) For convenience. All Prelude types. This is particularly useful for the Char type. is also provided.. by providing an instance declaration.3.. A specialised variant. (If desired. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition.3. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. are instances of Show and Read.."") <..
which must be completely consumed by the input process. discarding initial white space. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. If the input string contains only white space. is also part of the Prelude. The function lex :: ReadS String. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string.n’. The read function reads input from a string. of a value.] [n. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.n’. 6. For example. The enumFrom. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . used by read. returns []). toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds).) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.10)... (Thus lex "" = [("".3. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. lex fails (i. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error.. see Chapter 10.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.."")]. It reads a single lexeme from the input.m] [n. respectively. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int.e..] [n.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ.. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.m] . and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.86 CHAPTER 6.
In the case of Float and Double. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. or when they become less than for negative . the list is empty if . Numeric types: Int. IO. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . 6. Float. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. . . and Maybe are in this class. For example. The semantics of these instances is given next. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8.GT]. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. If the increment is positive or zero. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . The list is ¥ § ¦ § . The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. and pred subtracts 1. .EQ. is .6. [LT. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. where the increment. For the types Int and Integer. and Ordering. . The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. .. the list terminates when . Integer. the list is empty if negative.] is the list [LT. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. For all four numeric types. ]. . Lists. If the increment is zero. .3. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . . ¤ .5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. For example. where the increment. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. all the list elements are the same. empty if is the list [ . ]. succ adds 1. ]. The increment may be zero or negative.3. Bool. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). . Double. is .
lists.3. 6. for Maybe returns Nothing. and IO are all instances of Monad. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . Maybe.3). g) id fmap f .6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7.14). “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3.88 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. In the Prelude.
as deﬁned in the Ratio library. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . In particular.2–6. Char.3. a truncated value. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. indeﬁnite. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. Similarly.6. Float is implementationdeﬁned. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . an implementation may choose error ( . and double precision ﬂoating (Double).4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. Some. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. Bool.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes.1. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision.3. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type.4. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. but not all. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. NUMBERS 89 6. semantically). etc. The types Int. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. Ordering. since all numbers may be compared for equality.1. both real and complex. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. or a special value such as inﬁnity. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). Figure 6. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. 6. page 83. (). single precision ﬂoating (Float).
even . rem. Similarly. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. div. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. Ratio Integer). remainder) pair.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. div. respectively.4) apply to all numbers. The quot. rem. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y.3. and mod apply only to integral numbers. The class methods quot. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.4. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. 6. (). a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.5.90 CHAPTER 6.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. (*). while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity.4. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. See Section 4. see section 3. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero.
logBase returns the logarithm of in base . atan :: a > a sinh. 0** is undeﬁned. cos. gcd 0 4 = 4. acosh. including zero. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. sqrt :: a > a (**). tanh :: a > a asinh.4. cosh.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. acos. rem. log. mod quotRem. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. (*) negate abs. Show (+). for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. (). div. Part 1 Finally. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any .a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.4. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . 6. tan :: a > a asin.6. gcd (3) (6) = 3. logBase :: a > a > a sin. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . NUMBERS class (Eq a. Enum a) quot. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base .
The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6.92 CHAPTER 6. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign.a) b b class (Real a. isNegativeZero.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.4. Part 2 6. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . isDenormalized.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isInfinite. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.
encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. discontinuities. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . with in a type that is RealFloat.4. note that is the simplest rational of all.4. **. and sqrt are provided. The ceiling. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . and implementation. pi]. respectively. should return the same value as atan . but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. atan2 1. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . floor. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. Default implementations of tan. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. and tangent functions and their inverses. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number.6. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. The functions floatRadix. tanh.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. truncate yields the integer nearest between and .5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. floatDigits. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. then x is equal in value to . in particular. and with absolute value less than 1. the greatest integer not greater than . approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . NUMBERS 93 6. cosine. round returns the nearest integer to . inclusive. truncate. logBase.4. truncate. ¢ ¢ 6. where is the value radix. For real ﬂoating and . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. and furthermore. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). ). ceiling returns the least integer not less than . and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. If decodeFloat x yields ( . Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . floor. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . and floor . The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9].
For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. Fractional b) => a > b . these may all return false.94 CHAPTER 6. scaled to lie in the open interval . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. isDenormalized. isNegativeZero. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. but rather than an Integer. The functions isNaN. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. exponent 0 is zero. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. isInfinite.
Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. In the following. the abstract values are the mentioned above. however. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. corresponding to conventional I/O operations.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. return and linefeed. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general.2). however. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. see Section 6.6) sequentially compose actions. To achieve this. and which are described in this section. For example. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. as deﬁned in the IO library. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. In the case of the I/O monad. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. Some operations are primitive actions. may read as a single newline character. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.3. Actions. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . two characters of input. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude.1. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages.
[0.19]]) Input Functions terminal).3) on endofﬁle. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. For example. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. 2ˆn)  n <. deﬁned the IO library. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () .) main = interact (filter isAscii) . The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. Typically.. which is read lazily as it is needed. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device.96 CHAPTER 7.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device.
methods in the Monad class. to the ﬁle. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names.. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. To write a value of any printable type. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact.0.x*x)  x <. their second argument. The ﬁle is read lazily.7. as with print. for example when it is (). The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation.2]]) 7. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. The two monadic binding functions. on demand. their ﬁrst argument.[0. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: .1. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. as with getContents. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example.2.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting.
getLine return (c:s) 7.98 CHAPTER 7. For example.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. User error values include a string describing the error. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. otherwise. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. For example. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. . An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.getLine s <.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.
The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6..7.3. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. thus: instance Monad IO where . .. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.3.6) raises a userError.bindings for return. (>>=).
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
of the Library modules. These imports are not. an implementation is free to import more. Prelude. PreludeList. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. To take one particular example. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here.. or less. IO. PreludeText. and to improve efﬁciency. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. of course..” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. indicated by names starting with “prim”. Declarations for special types such as Integer. and PreludeIO. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. 101 . Some of these modules import Library modules. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. nor are these three modules available for import separately. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. and Numeric. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. An ellipsis “. That is. The default method deﬁnitions. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. Monad. as it pleases. These modules are described fully in Part II. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. drop. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). such as Char. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. length. given with class declarations. These functions are: take. This structure is purely presentational. such as Integral a or Num a. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. and three submodules. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. !!.
with the preﬁx “generic”.102 CHAPTER 8. The more general versions are given in the List library. and replicate. . for example genericLength. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.
floor). tanh.)((. (/=)). isInfinite. Double. exp.Unicode primitives . (. div. negate. fail). fromEnum. Maybe(Nothing. (>=). Right). (&&). undefined. Monad((>>=). error. Bounded(minBound. ceiling. (). module PreludeText. mod. module PreludeIO. cos.)). (=<<). round. min). isNaN. Ordering(LT. (>>). asin. isNegativeZero. even. recip. truncate. enumFromThenTo). Bool(False. Just).. asTypeOf. Int. (>). enumFromTo. ($). Either(Left. String. fromIntegral. rem. snd. []) Tuple types: (. flip. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . toInteger). enumFrom. asinh.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. uncurry. atanh). significand. floatRange. enumFromThen. RealFrac(properFraction. curry. not. pred. maxBound). ().). lcm. decodeFloat. sequence_. Integer. encodeFloat. IO. Rational. (**). sequence.)). abs. scaleFloat. otherwise. signum. etc. but are denoted by builtin syntax. fromInteger). Char.. acos. Float. (ˆ). fst. gcd. odd. toEnum.)((. sqrt. cosh. (. (<=). isDenormalized. EQ. Functor(fmap). seq. List type: []((:). (*). RealFloat(floatRadix. realToFrac. max. Ord(compare. Enum(succ. atan2). either. quotRem. log. Real(toRational). id. divMod. subtract. Integral(quot. mapM_.Contains all ‘prim’ values . return. atan. tan. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). GT). maybe. logBase. Floating(pi. until. sin. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. Fractional((/). fromRational). (<). exponent. const. sinh. (ˆˆ). and cannot legally appear in an export list. mapM. floatDigits. isIEEE. Num((+). acosh. True).
‘rem‘.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. ‘seq‘ . classes. STANDARD PRELUDE .Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .y) or (y. ‘mod‘ +. /. ‘div‘.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . (/=) :: a > a > Bool . (>=). > &&  >>.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).The (:) operator is builtin syntax. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. min :: a > a > a . <=. ˆˆ. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . /=. >=. max x y) = (x. (>) :: a > a > Bool max.Standard types.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). (<=). <.  .a fixity declaration. and cannot legally be given .note that (min x y. instances and related functions . $!. ** *. ˆ. ‘quot‘. >>= =<< $.
m] [n.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .Minimal complete definition: toEnum.Numeric classes class (Eq a. Show a) => Num a where (+)..105 .. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . succ = toEnum . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a ..n’. except x . (+1) .] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a... ().] [n.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. (subtract 1) .Minimal complete All. fromEnum pred = toEnum . fromEnum y . fromEnum y . fromEnum ...n’. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n..m] .] [n.
cosh. mod quotRem.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. atan :: a > a sinh.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q.Minimal complete definition: quotRem.a) a > Integer .r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. cosh asin.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x .106 class (Real a. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. cos. rem div. log. atanh :: a > a . Enum quot. tanh :: a > a asinh. sin. sinh. acosh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. exp. cos. logBase :: a > a > a sin. log. acos. sqrt :: a > a (**). divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. acos.Minimal complete definition: pi. atan asinh. tan :: a > a asin.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. acosh.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1.
r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n ._) = properFraction x round x = let (n. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .a) b b .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.107 class (Real a. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.1 else n where (n.0.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .
scaleFloat. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . isInfinite.floatDigits x) where (m.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.Numeric functions subtract subtract even.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. isDenormalized._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi .108 CHAPTER 8. isNegativeZero.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. return a NaN (via +) .x or y is a NaN. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a . significand.
Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.The xxxM functions take list arguments.109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). but lift the function or . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . toInteger :: (Real a. toRational .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .
..(useful in continuationpassing style) ($). Bounded) .. ’a’  ’b’ . Bounded) . Ord. Enum.. for illustration only .. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . Show.Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq. g = \ x > f (g x) .Primitive . .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .Boolean functions (&&). . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. Ord.rightassociating infix application operators . Read.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ .Function type .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. Enum.Character type data Char = .110 .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x ..function composition (.identity function id :: a > a id x = x .Not legal Haskell.
fromEnum c’ .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Ord..IO type data IO a = ..abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c. fail s = ioError (userError s) .. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Read. . fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .... Read.. return = .. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Ord.
... instance Eq Integer where . .. ... Bounded) ..Standard numeric types. Read. instance Num Integer where . Show. ... Enum. instance Integral Integer where ... .. ... .. ... .. instance Ord Integer where ..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be ..... ......112 .. . instance Real Integer where .. ..... STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq... . Ord.. 1  0  1 .............. ... . . data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where . The data declarations for these types cannot ... data Integer = .. where where where where where where where where ... ... ..Ordering type data CHAPTER 8. instance Enum Integer where .. maxBound . ..far too large. .... 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 .. .
This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] .0.1 is represented. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo . truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ .Not legal Haskell. Ord) .95].1 . The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) ..Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. However.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. depending on how 0. 0.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger .
b) deriving (Eq.b.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. Bounded) .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .c) deriving (Eq.as an infix operator. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.y) = x snd snd (x. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs. quadruples.c) = (a.undefined" . and its typing forces its first argument .component projections for pairs: .Not legal Haskell.(NB: not provided for triples.b. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.y) :: (a.Misc functions . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . . curry :: ((a.) fst :: (a.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .b) > a fst (x. It is usually used . for illustration only .appears.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . etc.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. Ord.114 . b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.b) > b = y .b) = (a. Bounded) (a.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. Ord.
last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. repeat. ‘notElem‘ . tail. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. scanr1. foldr1.1.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. zipWith. concat. head. cycle.1 Prelude PreludeList . respectively. splitAt. lookup. or. break. drop. scanr. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. span. of a list. notElem. null. product. which must be nonempty. length. words. unlines. takeWhile. foldl1. reverse.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . sum. and. foldr. unwords. unzip. iterate. all. (++). zip3. rather than the beginning. last. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. scanl1. dropWhile. maximum. init. concatMap. lines. replicate.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. filter. any. zip.8. elem.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . take. minimum. zipWith3. (!!). foldl. scanl.
a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. scanl1 is similar. reduces the list using the binary operator.. x1 ‘f‘ x2.. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . applied to a binary operator..!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude.. from left to right: foldl f z [x1.. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. . scanl is similar to foldl.. .] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] ..List index (subscript) operator.. .116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. and a list. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1.. x2. .. x2.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude.] == [z.. z ‘f‘ x1. x2. xn] == (. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2... .((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘...length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.] == [x1.
8.foldr.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .above functions. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) .the infinite repetition of the original list.on infinite lists. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. f (f x). cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. or equivalently. It is the identity . drop n xs).cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . scanr.. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . or [] if n > length xs. returns the prefix of xs of length n. . foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. with x the value of every element.iterate f x == [x.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. foldr1.1. . or xs itself if n > length xs.. applied to a list xs. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . f x.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .repeat x is an infinite list.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .
STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].[a]) = (take n xs. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.zs)  otherwise = ([]. applied to a predicate p and a list xs.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. s’’) = break Char.[a]) span p [] = ([]. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. words breaks a string up into a list of words. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.xs) where (ys. drop n xs) takeWhile. dropWhile p xs). while break p uses the negation of p. which were delimited by white space. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . Similary. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s .
e. map p .g.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 . and. Similarly. or is the .True.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.which must be nonempty. for all. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. map p all p = and . elem.disjunctive dual of and.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. finite. the list must be finite.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.1. sum. and of an ordered type.Applied to a predicate and a list. . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . x ‘elem‘ xs.. maximum. however. usually written in infix form. For the result to be . any.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . notElem is the negation. False.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. .sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. results from a False . any determines if any element .of the list satisfies the predicate.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .elem is the list membership predicate. .8.
excess elements of the longer list are discarded.[]) :: [(a.c:cs)) ([]. instead of a tupling function.b:bs.[]. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums. For example.bs.b. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.c) ˜(as.120  CHAPTER 8. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .c)] > ([a].[b].unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.[b]) = foldr (\(a.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.b) ˜(as.[]) .cs) > (a:as.b.c)] = zipWith3 (. If one input list is short.b)] > ([a].b)] = zipWith (.bs) > (a:as.. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.[c]) = foldr (\(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.b. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b:bs)) ([].
2. Maybe. shows x . ShowS. isAlphaNum. showString. Show(showsPrec.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. isDigit. readList).u)  (x. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.s) pr where readl s = [([]. reads. show. Read(readsPrec. Either.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . showParen ) where . readl’ u] . showLitChar. lex.u) (xs.".’ .u) readl’ s = [([]. isAlpha. readLitChar.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[".are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. showl xs . PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. showList). readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.t) (x.t) [(x:xs.8.v)  (".t)  ("]".t) (xs. readDec. Ordering . showFloat. showInt.t) [(x:xs.hs import Char(isSpace. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. readParen. readSigned.t)  ("]". readFloat. shows. showChar. read.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. shows x . reads t.
(str. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.t) <.s) (x.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.t) <."") <.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.t) (")".u) <.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". . u)  (ch. <.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.u)  ("(".reads s.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". t)  (str.’\’’:t) <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&"."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".lex t ] .lexStrItem s. p . t)  (ch. ("".optional s.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".lex r. <.t) <.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .lexLitChar s.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .
s)] [(c:sym./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.2.u) <.t) [(c:ds++fe.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.t) <.s)] <. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].Converting to Integer avoids .t) lexExp s = [("". c ‘elem‘ "+".u) <.[s].lexFracExp s ] .u)  (ds.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" . (ds.lexDigits (c:cs).t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".s) <.lexDigits t] ++  (ds. (fe.’:ds++e.readsPrec p r] . (e.t) <.t) <.[span isSym s]]  (nam.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+. toInteger .[span isDigit s]..t) <.t) <.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.Reading at the Integer type avoids .lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.bad character lexFracExp (’.t) <.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.t) [(c:nam.8.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds. t)  (i.
Read b) => Read (a.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ . reads u.lex r. Show b) => Show (a.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().v) (")".lex r.’ . showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c ."\’") <.y) = showChar ’(’ . w)  ("(".u) <.t)  ("(".124 CHAPTER 8. lex v ] ) . reads s. lex t. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .". shows x . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a. (")".b) where showsPrec p (x. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.s) <.t)  (’"’:s.t)<. (l.u)  (c . showChar ’.lex r.t) ("._) <. (c. showLitChar c . t) <. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .t)  (’\’’:s.readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".w) .y).Tuples instance (Show a.s) (x.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .readLitChar s.u) (y.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. (cs. shows y .t) <.
putChar.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . Eq IOError where . userError. interact. IOError. readFile.3.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. getChar. catch. writeFile. getLine. ioError. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.. print. putStrLn. appendFile. putStr.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . getContents.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where .8.... readIO.
reads s. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <."") <. ("".raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.t) <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO l return r .getLine r <.126 CHAPTER 8.
with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . an associativity variable varies over . resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting).Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. . with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). Thus. .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. this means that conditionals. the nonterminals . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. and may have a double index: a letter . for example actually stands for 30 productions. letexpressions. right. or for left. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this is the “maximal munch” rule. In the contextfree syntax. Similarly. In the lexical syntax.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ .
SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .
2. LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . : :: = \  <. .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . ..4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .
or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. the token is inserted after the keyword. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. do.6. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. because it is not preceded only by white space.) A stack of “layout contexts”. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. If the innermost context is 0.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed.3 Layout Section 2. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. provided that . the programmer supplied the opening brace. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. in which each element is either: – Zero. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. nor before the . where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . – A positive integer. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme.e. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. where.130 CHAPTER 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill".. (NB: a string literal it is not. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i.
the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 .9. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . To determine the column number. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. . assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. ﬁxed. to avoid visual confusion. For the purposes of the layout rule. not 0. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . and “ ” for the empty stream. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters .3. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. The deﬁnition of is as follows. all start a new line. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. . width as an ASCII character. However. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same.
so empty braces are inserted. Note 4. although they could be: for example let }. If none of the rules given above matches. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. y = x in e’ is valid. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1.e. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. because doing so involves ﬁxities. At the end of the input. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached.132 CHAPTER 9. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. because it translates to let { x = e. Note 3. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. If not. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. any pending closebraces are inserted. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. The token is replaced by . and the compiler should indicate a layout error. then parseerror is true. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. Note 5. then the block must be empty. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. ¤ ¥ Note 6.15). For example. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). For example let x = e. then the algorithm fails. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. Note 2. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. and a nonlayout context is active. since the close brace is missing. ).4.
. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations.3.9. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.
though it may be stylistically desirable. with “. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. By convention. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9.134 CHAPTER 9. 8 8 ¥¥8 .readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. For example. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. of course). where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. all other lines are comment. In this convention. all other lines are comment. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. Using this style. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code.
[1. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.9..4. product [1. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n. .n])  n <.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension..
. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. . = => => => => . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .) ( (. . . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9..) ( module . SYNTAX REFERENCE . as . .) ( (. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . hiding ( . . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. .) ( .. ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 .. . } } © 2§ .. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. . } . . .
. . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . . . .5. } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . . ] ) . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 .
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> . ¨ © ¦ ¨5© 7 7 ¥ ¦ A§ > where where . . ¦ ¨ ¡ ¢ S 7 ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ A § 8 8 !§ 4 ¤© ¥¥8 ¡ § ¡ 4 § © . = ¢ ¡ + successor pattern ¤ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ ¤ ¢ 6 ¦ ¦§ ' 0 6 6 6 § § © @§ © © 4§ 4§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¦ 6 § © @§ ¦§ 6 6 7 3¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ § ¢ £¡ 7 3¢ $ 6 ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ 0 . .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section ¤ ¥ £ ¢ . ¢ ¡ ¨ § . . } ¦ { . <let . ] .5. . ] ¦ ) ) )  ( ) right section labeled construction labeled update { ¦ § .. . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX do { } do expression function application variable general constructor ¤ ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ S ¢ 4§ © ¨ ¡ ¢ S¢0 139 ¡ ¢ S¢0 ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . ¡ § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ¦ § ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ § 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 8 7 3¢ © A ¦§ ¦ ' ¡ 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ ¦ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 ¦¡ 2 ¢ 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 v S ¢ p v ¢ 5e ¡ A ¡ ¡ 7 2 ¢ ¡ v ¡ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ A ¥8¥8 $ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ 8 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢S ¡ ¡ 8 ¥8¥8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 9. . ) ] ¢ £ . } ¦ <let generator local declaration guard ¢ ¡ 7 .
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. (m.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .lex r. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.Precedence of :ˆ: .readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .w)  (u.t) <.1: Example of Derived Instances .t) <. .t)  ("Leaf". showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) . (v. (":ˆ:".146 CHAPTER 10. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.s) <.s) <.lex s.Application has precedence one more than .w) <.
For example. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE .Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. Lexically. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. . 11. 11. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. pragmas appear as comments. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites.
COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. .148 CHAPTER 11.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
In each case.. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. Num. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Ord. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . (%). there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size.. Enum. numerator.... Ord (Ratio a) where ... Enum (Ratio a) where . The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers... Rational.. Real (Ratio a) where .. Ratio is an abstract type. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . the results may be unpredictable. denominator. Show (Ratio a) where .. Fractional (Ratio a) where . Read. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . Num (Ratio a) where ... Real. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. RealFrac. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator.... 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . For example. For each Integral type . Fractional.. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. If is a bounded type. and Show.. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. a) => Read (Ratio a) where ..
1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function.152 CHAPTER 12. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational.
E..1. denominator.g. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. (%). 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y . numerator.12.1 Library Ratio . Rational.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.
r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .u) <.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q. showString " % " . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q. r:%y) where (q.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .u)  (x.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.lex s. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y. ("%". (y.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .r) = quotRem n d (q’. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .s) <.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.154 CHAPTER 12.t) <.
phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). imagPart... polar.. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. mkPolar.. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .. the entire number is . . . phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . cis.. then so is the phase. Put another way. magnitude. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . . realPart. and the phase.. if the magnitude is zero... (RealFloat a) realPart..Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)). imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. .. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative.. in the range . . conjugate.a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.
conjugate. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. imagPart. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. magnitude.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . but unit magnitude. 13. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. polar.156 CHAPTER 13. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. whereas signum has the phase of .Read.a) = (magnitude z.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)).Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. abs is a number with the magnitude of . but oriented in the positive real direction. realPart. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . cis. mkPolar.
(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .13. LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .
z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .158 CHAPTER 13. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .v) = if x < 0 then (v’.u’) else (u’.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.
showEFloat. readHex. readDec. showIntAtBase. showFloat.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . readOct. readInt. showHex. showSigned. showFFloat. floatToDigits. showInt. showGFloat. readSigned. showOct. readFloat. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].
£ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . 245000. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument.g. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. In what follows.999. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. showInt.999.0015). Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.1 and 9.160 CHAPTER 14.5e3). showEFloat. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. 2. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. In the call showSigned . floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showOct. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. plus an exponent.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. if is Nothing. and is a function that can show unsigned values. is the precedence of the enclosing context. 0. and 16 respectively. More speciﬁcally.g. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. . the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. is the value to show. 8. 1.45e2.String)] 14. showFFloat. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. if is Just . if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a.
and converts a valid digit character to an Int. floatToDigits. and hexadecimal notation respectively. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. showFFloat. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. intToDigit ) (%). readDec. readFloat.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. numerator. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. showEFloat. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number.) 14. in decimal. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. octal. readHex. showHex. readInt. showIntAtBase. In the call readInt . isOctDigit.2. readDec. given a reader for an unsigned value. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat.14. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . showInt. readOct. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showOct. 14. isHexDigit digitToInt. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. ( ( isDigit. showGFloat. denominator ) (!). In the hexadecimal case. Array. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. is the base. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. readOct. showSigned. showFloat. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readSigned.
. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . This should be used in the .that we got from the scaling. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .This converts a rational to a floating. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .Fractional instances of Float and Double.162 CHAPTER 14. or p (the exponent) <= minExp.first.the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .a first guess of the exponent.Handle exceptional cases . p) .Conversion process: .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .p . p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. NUMERIC .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.
read’’ s] lex r.maxExpt) [(n.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ . LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x. . integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .t) read’’ r = [(n.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric.t)  ("".4.. showOct.[minExpt . . readPos str] .Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b. showOct.base > (Int > Char) .showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.s) (x.2ˆn)  n <.s) (n. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .s)  (str. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.showInt. maxExpt]] 163 .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.14.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .digit to char > a . let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l ."") <<<< lex r.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.
readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . .These are the format types.164 CHAPTER 14. . digToInt) ds). NUMERIC . r)  (ds.nonnull isDig s ] .r) <. readOct. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral .
0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.0e0" [d] > d : ".’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) . LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.4.14. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.
[Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0.and an exponent. if floatToDigits r = ([a.Print 0.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0... Dybvig.’ : s . .Print 34. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . is) > (1. not . is) (1. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. K.. . It should be improved.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. in PLDI 96.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. b. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R.G.then r = 0. z].base1]) . []) f d (i:is) = let (c. Int) .when the format specifies no .. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. not 34. Burger and R.34. is) > (0. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. 0:ds) else (0. e) . .ab. NUMERIC ++ ’. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’.166 CHAPTER 14. In general.
bˆ(e+1)*2. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.the real minimum exponent . Adjust for this. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .4. mUp.p 167 . be. e0+n) else (f0. b.will have an impossibly low exponent. e) = let n = minExp .Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. (p .14.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). 2*b. 1.the following will err on the low side. .the fraction will make it err even more. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. e0) (r. be*b.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . b) else (f*be*2. Ignoring . 1) else (f*2. f :: Integer e :: Int (f.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. s. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. bˆ(e)*2. 2.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so .
This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .readFix r.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. t)  ("Infinity".point than the Haskell lexer. t)  ("NaN". rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.t)  (k.168 CHAPTER 14. length ds’. The ‘.t) <.d. False) > dn : ds (False. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.t)  (cs@(_:_). (k. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).lex r] ++ [ (1/0. (ds’.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("". rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.t) <. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.t) <.t) <.d) <.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.t) <. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. k) in .lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).s) <.lexDigits r. t)  (ds.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <.t)  (n.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).[span p s]] .’ is optional.
The Ix class contains the methods range. .u)] 169 . The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.b) where where where where . rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.u) i == i .a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l.a) > (a.u) map index (range (l. and inRange. inRange..... index. and a subscript..Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l. ...when i is in range inRange (l. Ix b) .u)) == [0. to an integer.rangeSize (l.. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). index. ..... the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.. The range operation enumerates all subscripts. where . The index operation maps a bounding pair. instance instance instance instance (Ix a.a) > (a.u) !! index (l.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.a) > (a.
datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.e. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. For example.170 CHAPTER 15. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive.Green.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.Blue) index (Yellow. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.3). For an enumeration.1. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes.Blue] 1 False .3. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.
. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.u1) i1 && inRange (l2.range (l.u2.u2)...range (l2.(u1.(u.1: Derivation of Ix instances ..ak) where range ((l1.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .... Ix a2.....i’) = inRange (l..u).u2...uk) * ( index (lk1...range (lk.a2....u) i && inRange (l’..u’) + index (l’. .uk)) (i1.l2..u’)) (i.. i’ <. .ik) = inRange (l1.(u. Ix b) => Ix (a. && inRange (lk..15.uk)) (i1..u’)] index ((l.u1).u1))) inRange ((l1.i2.range (l1..b) where range ((l..i’)  i <. index (l1..(u1.lk). i2 <.u2) i2 && .. ik <.u’) i’ inRange ((l.l2.....uk1) * ( .l’).ik)  i1 <.l2.instance (Ix a1.u) i * rangeSize (l’.i2..i2..u’)) = [(i.1..u’)) (i..lk)..u’) i’ .range (l’.. .uk)] index ((l1.(u1.uk)) = [(i1.u2.i’) = index (l.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk. Ix ak) => Ix (a1.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.....uk) ik Figure 15...l’).l’).lk)..(u...ik) = index (lk.
c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.a) > [a] index :: (a.n) index b@(m. index.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m." inRange (c.as derived. for all tuples Ix Bool . b) .2) <= (2.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l..2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.index: Index out of range. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.1) .." inRange (m.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.n] index b@(c.172 CHAPTER 15.n) = [m.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .n) = [m.Ix b) => Ix (a.as derived Ix () .m error "Ix.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a. inRange.fails if the bounds are tuples.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .as derived Ix Ordering . (1.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .index: Index out of range. For example.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .m)  otherwise = error "Ix.as derived .a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.index: Index out of range.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.n] index b@(m.(2.n] = = = i .2).n) i = [m.
Ix b) => (a. accumArray.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. // => Array a b = . listArray. a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.. bounds.. . 173 .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a.Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.a) > [(a.export all of Ix for convenience Array...a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. assocs. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.. (!). accum. (//). . a.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a.a) > [(a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => ....Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. . Show b) Read a. indices. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a. array... .. a.b)] > Array a b (a. . elems.
x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. An association (i. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. then the array is legal. arrays are treated as data.e. not as general functions. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. An array may be created by the function array. and assocs. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. The array is undeﬁned (i.[2. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. elems. Figure 16. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound.e. in index order.174 CHAPTER 16.. The functions indices.10)).(10. elements. in any dimension.10). For example. 16. each of the index type of the array. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. Typically. If. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. Because the indices must be checked for these errors.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. i * a!(i1))  i <. but nonstrict in the values.1) : [(i.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. in that order. If any two associations in the list have the same index. or associations. Thus.100) ((1.1).e. in particular. return lists of the indices. ). ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. respectively. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. ). 16. . but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. when applied to an array.1. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. ). The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. but empty. accumArray.
except with the diagonal zeroed. i)  i <.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. then m//[((i.range b]) 0 0 . n by n matrix. 0)  i <. if m is a 1origin.16.range b] where b = bounds a . in the association list.2. given a list of values of some index type. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i.range b] = bounds a 175 .2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. Thus. a!i * x)  i <. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a. z)  i <.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. then accumArray is strict in the values.n]] is the same matrix. 16.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i.1: Array examples function.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. as for the array function. unlike ordinary arrays. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.i). Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. as well as the indices. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . the second is an initial value. For example. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. (As with the array function. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function .[1.) For example.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict.. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. Num b) => (a. 1)  i<is.
accumArray.u’) (\j>(i.(u. 16.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.j)) x where ((_. assocs.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a. indices. (//). // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.i)) x where ((l.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.l’). (!).a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l. with the mapping that the original array embodies. bounds.2: Derived array examples 16. .A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a. ARRAYS . Ix b) => a > Array (a.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.2 shows some examples.u) (\i>(i.y)>x) Figure 16.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix. respectively. Figure 16. array.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b._). The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.176 CHAPTER 16. elems. listArray.a) (a > b) deriving () .export all of Ix Array._)) = bounds x . accum.u’)) = bounds x .(_. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.
f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a._) <.v) <.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array. a!i)  i <.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.indices a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . a ! f i)  i <.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.a) > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.16.b)] = [(i. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. f) instance (Ix a.a) > [(a.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .4.ivs.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.v) > a // [(i.z)  i <.a!i)  i <. Ix b) => (a.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.range b]) :: (Ix a.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i._) <.
showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.s) <.t) <. (b. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.lex r. Show a. showChar ’ ’ . (as.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . ARRAYS instance (Ix a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .u) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .178 instance (Ix a. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. u)  ("array". Read a. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .
179 .
all. scanr1. drop. reverse. union. iterate. .. dropWhile.. nub. genericIndex. isSuffixOf. takeWhile. deleteFirstsBy. maximum. mapAccumR. zipWith6. foldl. last. sort. foldl1. unwords. foldr1. tail. unzip7. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . zipWith3. (\\). mapAccumL. init.. nubBy. insertBy.This is builtin syntax map. findIndices. unzip. head. unionBy. or. minimum. product. isPrefixOf. intersect. (++). unfoldr. transpose. scanl. genericLength. zipWith. unzip4. sum. genericSplitAt. unlines. foldr. cycle. break. groupBy. genericReplicate. genericTake.180 CHAPTER 17. (!!). zipWith5. and. concatMap. find. zip6. zip4. splitAt. intersectBy. any. group. inits. words. unzip6. scanr. null. length. elemIndices. lookup. concat. genericDrop.and what the Prelude exports . tails. unzip5. replicate. maximumBy. span. notElem. . LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. partition.[]((:). []). deleteBy. sortBy. elem. take. insert. zip3. delete. findIndex. zip7. scanl1. minimumBy. zip. lines. intersperse. zipWith7. repeat. filter. zip5. zipWith4.
f)] > ([a].d.c.b.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].[d].d)] > ([a].b.b.d.[e].b.b.[c].d.[e]) :: [(a.e.e.[c].f. [c]) (a > b > (a.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[c].[c].b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[d]. c)) > a > [b] > (a.[b].[f]) :: [(a.[d].c.[b].e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.d.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.d.b.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[d]) :: [(a.[e].e. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.c.[b].[f].d. .e)] > ([a].e.c.g)] > ([a].c.c.b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.f.c.b.c.[b].
[1.4] .4.g.. or Nothing.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. e.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. findIndex returns the corresponding index. (\\). if there is no such element.g. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.3] = [1. LIST UTILITIES 17.182 CHAPTER 17.3.1.6. of val in list as Just index. For example: nub [1. e.4. delete..2. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate.8] == [2. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). Thus.g. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.3.. 17. e. union is list union. giving the occurrences of val in list.3. In the result of xs \\ ys.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices.3. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. if any.
For example: ..d.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument.5."ss". "c".""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M"."i".[3.[2. "bc".3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument.4]. e.3. 17."ss". intersperse ’.17. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm. i.6]] == [[1. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17.’ "abcde" == "a. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order)."a". filter (not .b.c. adjacent elements.[4."ab".2."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list. transpose [[1.3].6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate."i". longest ﬁrst. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. shortest ﬁrst. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. inits "abc" == ["".g. e. tails "abc" == ["abc".g.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.5]. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.. partition p xs == (filter p xs. respectively."i". here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.e."pp".
184 CHAPTER 17. For example. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. f x)) In some cases. insertBy. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. isPrefixOf. intersectBy. minimumBy. 17. sufﬁx) of the second argument.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. unionBy. deleteBy. groupBy. elemIndices.6 The “By” operations By convention. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. maximumBy.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. sortBy. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. The library does not provide elemBy. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. .
8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericReplicate.7. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). zipWith. unzip. . :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. For example. genericDrop. genericLength is a generalised version of length. and 7 arguments. 6. genericTake. zip3. 5. genericSplitAt. unzip3. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17.17. and zipWith3.
p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . scanl1. genericIndex. tails. delete. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. .[]((:).. reverse. replicate. sortBy. minimum. zip. genericReplicate. zipWith. foldr1. cycle. find. notElem. insertBy. groupBy.and what the Prelude exports . zipWith5. unwords. insert.zip xs [0. zipWith4. isPrefixOf. (\\). scanr1.]. foldl1. last. group. splitAt. head. genericDrop. zip6. mapAccumR. inits.186 CHAPTER 17. filter. and. findIndex. (++). or. foldr. unzip4. lookup. elem. minimumBy. genericSplitAt. unionBy. genericTake. []). any. maximum. LIST UTILITIES 17.. drop. foldl. dropWhile. zipWith7. product. scanl. iterate. concatMap. deleteFirstsBy. scanr. mapAccumL. null. zip3. sort.This is builtin syntax map. elemIndices.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. intersperse.i) <. nub. init. union. zip4. lines.. unzip. break. span. length.. zipWith6. zip5. zipWith3. intersectBy. maximumBy. take. intersect. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . nubBy. (!!). unzip7. . tail. partition. repeat. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . isSuffixOf. unfoldr. genericLength. concat. deleteBy. takeWhile. findIndices. transpose. words. unzip5. all. zip7. unlines. unzip6. sum.
For example.9.[3.xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.[a]) = (filter p xs.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."i".17..Note that [h  (h:t) <.elements.4."pp".xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]."i". LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.3]. transpose [[1.5]. filter (not . .g.xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.2].[]] = [[1.[5]] .group "Mississippi" == ["M". any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. p) xs) ."i".xs. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ . adjacent .4]. e.[2."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) ."ss"."ss".
"c".b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. shortest first."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs."ab". ["abc". "bc".g. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . longest first.g.y ) = f s’ x (s’.e. y ) = f s x (s’’.inits xs returns the . c)) > a > [b] > (a. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . [c]) = (s.y:ys) where (s’.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a.. []) = (s’’. [c]) = (s."a". ["". []) = (s’’.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.tails xs returns the .. y:ys) where (s’’.
xs) = ([].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.9.17. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.[b]) = ([].xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.[]) = = = (x:xs’.
c..b:bs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.f.c:cs.d) ˜(as.c.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.d...d)] = zipWith4 (..c.b.c.....d:ds)) ([].190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.ds) > (a:as.d.g)] = zipWith7 (.[b].e)] = zipWith5 (..b.d.[c].e..b... LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.c.[].b.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 ..b..e.d)] > ([a].b.f)] = zipWith6 (.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.[].genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.c.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.[d]) = foldr (\(a.cs.bs.
bs.g)] > ([a].[].fs) > (a:as.g:gs)) ([].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .c.e.[e]) = foldr (\(a.9.e.d.[].d:ds.d:ds.ds.f:fs)) ([].d.[b].es) > (a:as.e:es.g) ˜(as.bs.[]) :: [(a.[c].b:bs.[d].f:fs.f.e.d:ds.[e].[].e:es.17.c:cs.fs.f) ˜(as.b. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.[c].e.[].c.b.c.cs.[].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.d.ds.gs) > (a:as.[f]) = foldr (\(a.es.cs.[].cs.[b].c.e)] > ([a].[c].e:es)) ([].d.b.[g]) = foldr (\(a.c.f)] > ([a].c:cs.[b].ds.f.b.e) ˜(as.[].[].b:bs.d.bs.b:bs.[f].c.[].es.[d].[].b.d.c:cs.[].[d].[e].[].b.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
193 . A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. maybeToList. as would happen if error were used. listToMaybe. maybe ) where isJust. Just). fromMaybe. isNothing.. which would cause the expression to become monadic. fromJust..and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. and without using IOError from the IO monad. mapMaybe.. catMaybes. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. .
isNothing. map f . listToMaybe..194 CHAPTER 18. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . fromJust. maybeToList. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe..and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. mapMaybe. Just). catMaybes.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . . fromMaybe.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust.
the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. isPrint. . isUpper. other alphabetic.. isLower. isHexDigit. String ) where isAscii. and other printable characters.and what the Prelude exports Char. isLatin1.. numeric digits. isAlpha. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. toUpper. isDigit. digitToInt. intToDigit. ord. lower case alphabetic. isSpace. isAlpha. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. any 195 . isAlphaNum. isControl. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. isLatin1.. isOctDigit. isPrint. isSpace. isOctDigit. showLitChar. For the purposes of Haskell. chr. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isLower. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isControl. isDigit. toLower. readLitChar. lexLitChar. isHexDigit. isUpper.
For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. Similarly. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed.. lower. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. The function readLitChar does the same. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. ’a’.’F’).e. leaving any other character unchanged. and title). digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. ’A’. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. .. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int.196 CHAPTER 19. ’0’. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. leaving any other character unchanged. "Hello")] [(’\n’.’9’. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. For each sort of Unicode character. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters.. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters..’f’. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes.15. isOctDigit. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper.
isOctDigit.. isAlphaNum.Charactertesting operations isAscii. isControl. digitToInt. intToDigit. import Numeric (readDec.Used for character name table. chr.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower .fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . readHex) import UnicodePrims . String ) where import Array .’Z’ .. isControl. isSpace. isSpace.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . readLitChar. lexDigits. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c .. isUpper. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isUpper. ord. isDigit. toLower. ..’A’.and what the Prelude exports Char. . readOct. isLower. isAlpha.digitToInt: not a digit" . showLitChar. isLatin1.1.Source of primitive Unicode functions.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . lexLitChar. toUpper. isHexDigit.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isOctDigit.. isLower. isLatin1. isPrint. isHexDigit.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.’a’. isAlpha. isDigit.19. isPrint.
198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.table.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .10) error "Char. ([].ord ’@’).readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s’) <.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.t) <. t)  (n.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.t) <.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . mne) <.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum . t)  (n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower . s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.s’)  (c.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .t) <. t)  (n.
"NAK". "DC2". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "GS". "SYN". "ENQ". "US". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "RS". "SOH". "VT". "STX".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "DC3". "BS". "CR".c]. "CAN". "LF". "HT".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "ETX". "BEL". "ESC". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "SI".s)] [] . "DLE". "DC1".s) = (c:t. "ACK". "FS". "SUB". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "EM". ’ ’) ["NUL".1. "FF". "DC4". "ETB".19.s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "SO".s)] .
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
mplus).202 CHAPTER 20. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b.. guard. return.. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM2. liftM4. liftM3. foldM. zipWithM_. liftM. ap. fail). mapAndUnzipM. mapM_. sequence. Functor(fmap). (=<<). join.c)) > [a] > m ([b].and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). (>>). unless. liftM5. sequence_. zipWithM. when. filterM. msum. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . mapM. ..
for example.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. 20.20. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. and provides some useful operations on monads.1.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. Thus. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. So. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).
. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <..readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. and otherwise do nothing. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. The function arguments are scanned left to right. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. xm ] == do a2 <.204 CHAPTER 20.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure..2. For example.. liftM2 (+) [0. . For example. foldM f a1 [x1.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl.1. which promotes function application.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations..f a2 x2 . except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. preﬁxing each line with its line number. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. putStrLn line) [1. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. returning the result as a pair of lists.1] [0. x2.. putStr ": ".. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. the input list should be reversed. MONAD UTILITIES 20.f a1 x1 a3 <.2] = [0. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True.
... FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ . xn 205 . ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 ..20.3.
liftM4. Functor(fmap). mapM.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=).206 CHAPTER 20. (>>). join. filterM. zipWithM.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b.. . unless. foldM. liftM3. when. mplus). liftM2.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . MONAD UTILITIES 20. zipWithM_. sequence. ap.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. mapAndUnzipM.. (=<<). unzip . guard.. msum. fail). mapM_. liftM. return. sequence_. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . liftM5.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. ) where .
a.a.4.p x. b’ <.c.c.20. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .e. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.d. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.a. d’ <.b. b’ <.d. c’ <. e’ <.b. d’ <.c.b. b’ <. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <. ys <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <.b.a.a.filterM p xs. c’ <. c’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
RelativeSeek. ioeGetHandle. Enum. hGetContents.. hIsWritable. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle.implementationdependent .. hIsClosed. Read.SeekFromEnd). IOError. hIsOpen. hGetPosn. putStr.AppendMode. hLookAhead.implementationdependent . catch. HandlePosn. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . Bounded. isFullError. ioError.210 CHAPTER 21. isIllegalOperation.LineBuffering.. IOMode(ReadMode. putStrLn. hIsSeekable. isPermissionError. getContents. bracket_... print. interact.. . instance Eq Handle where . userError. instance Eq HandlePosn where . hPutStr. hReady. hGetBuffering. hPutChar. Ord. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () .BlockBuffering). SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. readIO. Read. hIsReadable. stderr. stdout. bracket. hFileSize.implementationdependent . hClose. stdin. data HandlePosn = . isUserError. isEOFError. writeFile. appendFile. FilePath. hPutStrLn. openFile. hWaitForInput.. hSetPosn.WriteMode. BufferMode(NoBuffering. instance Show Handle where .. hFlush. Bounded. readFile. try. getLine.. hSetBuffering. hPrint. stdout. isAlreadyInUseError. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq.. ioeGetErrorString. Ord.. isAlreadyExistsError. Ix.ReadWriteMode). instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . Show) stdin.. isEOF. putChar. hGetChar. Enum.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. hIsEOF. hGetLine. Ix. Read. getChar. ioeGetFileName. isDoesNotExistError.and what the Prelude exports IO. hSeek. Ord.
Some related operations on ﬁle systems . Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features.211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report.
which is already being used (for example.212 are contained in the Directory library. and Nothing otherwise. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). CHAPTER 21. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. All these functions return a Bool. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. for all other errors. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. In some cases. the string is implementationdependent. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. compute. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. The bracket function captures a common allocate. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. This is an abstract type. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . and False otherwise. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation.
A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. ordered ﬁles. In some implementations.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. and normally reside on disk. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. . For simplicity. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. closed or semiclosed. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent.21. although it could in fact be a communication channel. or enabled on a line or block basis. These handles are initially open. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. 21. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. whether it is open. File and directory names are values of type String. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. a buffer (whose length may be zero). represented by values of type Handle. Files can be opened. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. Physical ﬁles are persistent. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. whether buffering is disabled. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging.2. whether the object is seekable.2. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. or any other object recognised by the operating system. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. likewise. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
¥
For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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which is attached to a physical ﬁle, hFileSize 0).
returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
¥
blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
¥
if
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if
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is NoBuffering, then buffering is disabled if possible.
is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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is LineBuffering, linebuffering is enabled if possible.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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sets the mode of buffering for handle
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
¥ ¥
Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
¥
Computation hFlush to the operating system.
¥
causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
¥
§
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
§
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is set to offset from the current position.
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is set to .
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Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
depending on
. If
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CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
¥
Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
¥ ¥
Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
¥
Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
¥
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21. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § .5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. blocking until a character is available.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.10.10. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.9. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. which is made semiclosed. 21.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. 21.9.21.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . 21.9. EXAMPLES 219 21.
getArgs h1 <.f2] <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.10.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <. This version uses characterlevel I/O. using string I/O is: .Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.x2 readNum = readLn 21. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.
Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .21.actions that IO exports. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.before rs <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.f return (Right r)) (return .11 Library IO module IO {.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.f2] <.export list omitted } where .before rs <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .getArgs s <.11.
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. searchable ). executable.224 CHAPTER 22. setCurrentDirectory. writable.. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable.. getPermissions. renameDirectory. getCurrentDirectory. getDirectoryContents.. writable. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where .. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . doesDirectoryExist. executable. doesFileExist. removeDirectory. . readable.. renameFile. setPermissions. . createDirectory. .. removeFile...
or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . but the constraints must be documented. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. it is atomically replaced by the directory. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. in particular. directory etc. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. Note that. or may not be in use by other processes). inaccessible. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. the directory has to be empty. however. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path.1. Entries in subdirectories are not. Error reporting. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . A directory contains a series of entries. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. considered to form part of the directory contents. Error reporting. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. it is atomically replaced by the object.. removes an existing directory .). The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . “. renaming to an existing directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. removal of the root directory). If the directory already exists. or have some administrative function (for instance. all other permissible errors are described below.” under POSIX). The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. Some entries may be hidden.” or “. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. If the object already exists. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. or across different physical devices). as described in Section 21. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. In some operating systems. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory.
doesFile(Directory)Exist. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. renaming across different physical devices). If the operating system has a notion of current directories. makeReadable f = do p <. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . respectively. Error reporting.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. and False otherwise. Each entry in the changes . or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. but the constraints must be documented. the executable ﬁeld will be False. get(set)Permissions. but not all permissions. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. not as an absolute path. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. Note that to change some. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. Error reporting. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. Error reporting. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed.226 CHAPTER 22. a construct on the following lines must be used. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. ¦ ¦ . or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. and False otherwise. but not to examine the directory contents. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. Error reporting. For directories.
.227 does not exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . in particular. getEnv.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Ord. If variable is undeﬁned.1. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable .ExitFailure). exitWith. getProgName. system. getArgs. Read. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . Note that. all other permissible errors are described below. as described in Section 21. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). some values of may be prohibited (for instance. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. In particular. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent.
Otherwise. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. Before the program terminates. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion.230 CHAPTER 23. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. returning to the program’s caller. could not recover.
231 .
tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. ctPicosec. Ord. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. tdMonth.. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctWDay. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . tdMin.December). calendarTimeToString. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. Int. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime.. Ord. String. Ix. ctSec. tdHour.Tuesday.August. Show) . ctIsDST).Thursday. Read. Ord. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Read.Saturday). Read. Day. instance Eq ClockTime where . Day(Sunday. Month. getClockTime. toUTCTime. tdDay. diffClockTimes.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdMonth. Read. . toClockTime.September. Enum. Enum.232 CHAPTER 24. July.November. tdSec :: Int. addToClockTime.March. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. ctDay. Bounded. Integer.Friday.April.. Ord. ctMin.May.. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq.Monday. Month(January. tdHour. Bounded.June. tdSec.. tdMin. tdPicosec). Ix. instance Ord ClockTime where . Int. ctTZ. tdDay.October. ctHour.Wednesday. ctMin. ctMonth. Int. ctHour. tdYear. ctYear. ctYDay. ctTZName. toCalendarTime.February..
The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. Because of this dependence on the local environment.233 . Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. including timezone information. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. ClockTime is an abstract type. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. and False otherwise. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). used for the system’s internal clock time. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion.
Read.April. t © S§ 24. toCalendarTime. Day(Sunday.February. getClockTime. calendarTimeToString. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string.). ctTZName.Wednesday. Ord. .234 § CHAPTER 24. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.March. ctMonth. Ix.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . instance Ord ClockTime where .Saturday). tdMin. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. Bounded.. July...Tuesday. instance Eq ClockTime where . ctHour. tdYear. .August..Friday.December).September.November. Month(January.June. ctWDay. diffClockTimes.. tdDay. toUTCTime. Ix. tdMonth. ctDay.October. and ﬁelds.May. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .. Bounded. ctPicosec. Enum. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. ctTZ. . Ord. tdPicosec). ctYear. tdHour. Read. ctMin. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. ctIsDST). ctSec. toClockTime. tdSec.Thursday. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .. addToClockTime. Enum.Monday.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. ctYDay.
Read. Integer.. tdDay. ctHour.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . Int.. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int... Month. tdSec :: Int.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. . :: ClockTime = . tdHour. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq...... ctMin.1.24. :: ClockTime = . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Ord. .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . tdMonth.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . Ord.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . Int. > ClockTime > ClockTime . String. Day. tdMin. Read...Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . :: ClockTime = . LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Int..
236 CHAPTER 24. days) = (yday + 7 . .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week...1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .
if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . show2’. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).24.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.1.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.). time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. Ord. String)]. 239 .Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. dateFmt. dateTimeFmt. String)]. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.. months :: [(String. String). Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. timeFmt. amPm :: (String. At present.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).Int) next :: g > (Int. – genRange – If genRange . or by supplying a seed from some other source. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. and a new generator. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. For example.1. g) . The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.27. g) split :: g > (g. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. This is very useful in functional programs (for example.Default method genRange g = (minBound. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. 27.1 The RandomGen class. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. ¦ ¡ ¡ .maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. then . by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. . without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next.4] are the only examples we know of).
RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. of course.. instance Show StdGen where . Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . . It is required that read (show g) == g. Until more is known about implementations of split. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.. Again. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. variantOf g) Here. supply their own instances of RandomGen. by mapping an Int into a generator..246 CHAPTER 27. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators.... The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. Implementation warning.. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. then g1 and g2 should be independent. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed).3]. instance Read StdGen where . . Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. In general. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . split g = (g. In addition. Programmers may. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string..
randomRs and randoms. – For Integer. . – For bounded types (instances of Bounded.. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27... g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. . such as Char). and do not return a new generator..similar. The plural versions.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .2. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.g’) = random g randomRs = ..Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.... the range is normally the whole type. random does the same as randomR..27.. .. . . a) > g > (a.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .. depending on the implementation and the interval. produce an inﬁnite list of random values.. but does not take a range.. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . .. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . but they may be. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. – For fractional types. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. together with a new generator.
sbg. use the global random number generator (see Section 27.at/ is a great source of information. 27. and KW Miller.248 CHAPTER 27. by using the time of day. April 1992. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. To get deterministic behaviour. for example. [2] SK Park. global random number generator of type StdGen. implicit. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. pp11921201.3 The global random number generator There is a single. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. [4] P Hellekalek. respectively. 33(1). updates it with one of the results. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. July 1998.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. Comm ACM. Journal of Functional Programming. Jan 1990.3). “Distributed random number generation”. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). Comm ACM 31(10). [3] DG Carta. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. Oct 1988. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. 2(2):203212.ac.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page.mat. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. use setStdGen. randomRIO and randomIO. pp8788. For example. The Web site http://random. and returns the other. pp8289. “Random number generators . .
January 1982. Albuquerque. [8] Mark P. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Penﬁeld. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. pages 207–212. and J. 1987. [2] H. Damas and R. Peyton Jones. Journal of Functional Programming.Bibliography [1] J. Blott. September 1981. 21(8):613–641. Wadler and S. PrenticeHall International. Fasel. J. Milner. Jr. Haskell Workshop. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. [7] Mark P. May 1996. [6] P. San Francisco. Feys. Curry and R. Yale University. Amsterdam. Englewood Cliffs.M. Paris. New Jersey. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.. Addison Wesley. Backus. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Austin. pages 248–256. CACM. [4] KF.R. MA. N.0. Jones. Co. January 1989. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. [12] P. The Unicode Standard. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. January 1995. Version 3. [10] S. Texas. [9] P. [11] Unicode Consortium. e [5] J. Principal type schemes for functional programs. Jones. Peterson. pages 60–76. NorthHolland Pub. October 1999. Hindley.B. August 1978. December 1969. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Hudak.L.. 2002. Reading. Typing Haskell in Haskell. 1958. [3] L. Combinatory Logic. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. 5(1). 2000. 249 . Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. 146:29–60.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
129 ap. 142 >>. 55. 82. 119 ANY. 104.). 84. 12 \\. 12 \r.. 177 acos. 104. 173. 88. 55. 104. 91. see wildcard pattern . 104. 230 ˆ. 84. 9. 110 ˜. 55. 91. 173. 156 ::. 66 abs. 129 any. 104. 55. 173. 80 \\. 9. 139 algebraic datatype. 12 \f. 55. 110 $!. 174. 92. 88. 104. 92. 91. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 139 alts. 174. 45. 91. 104. 115 . 79. 55. 97. 106 +. 19 function. 110 %. 109 >>=. 155. 91. 12 \b. 44. 176. 12 \v. 235 aexp. 106 acosh. see aspattern [] (nil). 55. 55. 55. 187 \. 97. 142 =<<. 9. 206 apat. 55. 109 _. 151. 180. 126 AppendMode. 139 ambiguous type. 104. 105. 67. 90. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 140 appendFile. 12 \n. 17. 55. 90. 80 :+. 177 accumArray. 104. 79. 202. 92. 55. see trivial type and unit expression *. 104. 104. 88. 62 and. 80 (). 25. 81. 84. 104. see also negation . 109 ˆˆ. 43. 142 >. 20–23. 90. 175. 76 accum. 129 any. 217 abstract datatype. 151. 105. 104. 109 @. 93. 12 \t. 153 &&. 104. 55. 16. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 186. !. 104. 91. 110 (. 214 application. 97. 55. 106 //. 25. 55. 51. 104. 104. 173. 55. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 55.Index font. see also + pattern ++. 90. 104. 175–177 /=. 12 . 182 \a. 55. 81. 81. 80 (. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 142 >=. 119 ANYseq. 105 **. 82. 91. see lambda abstraction \&. see function application operator. 104. 109 ==. 110 /. see operator application approxRational. 91. 116 $. 104. 91. 142 <=. 104. 55. 30 <. 92. 177 !!. 31. 141 all.). 115. 142 :. 119 alt. 91. 55. 55. 84.. 233. 106 addToClockTime. 55.
155. 143 instance for Char. 42 class method. 137 cdecls. 173. 129 closing a ﬁle. 233. 92. 47. 110 boolean. 137 basic input/output. 173. 137 class assertion. 12 character set ASCII. 18. see transparent character set charesc. 118 btype. 174 Array (module). 51. 47. 198 cis. 12. 25 INDEX catch. 10. 9. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 108 atanh. 17. 174 derived. 176 array. 9. 129 ascii. 9. 235 calendarTimeToString. 91. 41 class declaration. 31. 197. 9 endofline. 93 comment. 47 class. 69. 193. 177 bracket. 129 compare. 130 character. 106 asinh. 12. 130 chr. see function binding pattern. 130 ASCII character set. 136 Bool (datatype). 38. 107 changing the directory. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 173. 111 bounds. 130 coercion. 49 clock time. 174. 93. 84. 11. 91.252 arithmetic operator. 195. 40. 104. 221 break. 230 catMaybes. 211. 9. 106 atype. 137 ceiling. 95 binding. 174. 38. 21 conid. 80 Array (datatype). 38. 89. 91. 177 asTypeOf. 156 con. 173 accumulated. 121. 221 bracket_. 98. 161. 129 ascSymbol. 67 with an empty where part. 74 cname. 41. 136 cntrl. 215 closure. see simple pattern binding body. 79. 38. 12. 195. 114 atan. 211. 33 ascDigit. 226 Char (datatype). 125. 92. 23. 142 Complex (module). 235 case expression. 93. 40. 106 atan2. 79. 129 asin. 174. 173. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). see pattern binding simple pattern. 66. 115 conditional expression. 232. 37 function. 234 char. 194 cdecl. 110 Char (module). 79 literal syntax. 18. 12. 130 conjugate. 105 derived instance. 176. 9. 48 class environment. 234 closecom. 79 Bounded (class). 161. 155. 17. 156 conop. 156 class. 48. 91. 9 nested. 47. 106 assocs. 7 ascLarge. 129 ascSmall. 115 concatMap. 9. 177 aspattern (@). 90 arithmetic sequence. 140 concat. 9 comment. 232. see ASCII character set transparent. 39. 140 . 197 array. 155.
see algebraic datatype declaration. 137 declaration. 184. 43. 41. 225 deleting ﬁles. 177 encodeFloat. 41 context. 163 doesDirectoryExist. see ﬁxity declaration import. 138 diffClockTimes. 91. 117 dashes. 224 div. 81. 138 decimal. 241 createDirectory. 137 context reduction. 111 elem. 174. 235 current directory. 80. 184. 90. 232. 24 within an instance declaration. 97 doDiv. 93 CPU time. 130 decl. 10. 43 datatype. 167 Either (datatype). 50. 130 context. 182. 106 cosine. 43 data declaration. 92. 91. 129 data constructor. 55. 239. 239. 89. 38 constructor expression. 225 creating a ﬁle. 56. 40 consym. 112 drop. 197 directories. see data declaration default. 151. 49 declaration group. 182. see import declaration instance. 38. 240 Day (datatype). 11. 9. 106 divMod. 180. 104. 182. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 9. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 239. 48. 43. 141. 91. 108 default class method. see also instance declaration deriving. 235 ctHour. 37 class. 226 curry. 51 defaultTimeLocale. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 43. 26. 138 constrs. 106 do expression.. 186 elems. 58 derived instance. see recursive datatype renaming. 187 deleting directories. 58 decls. 137 decodeFloat. 180. 173. 108 . 118 e. 214 ctDay. 38. vii cycle. 235 ctIsDST. 110 constr. see data declaration recursive. 145 default declaration. 115. 240 dateTimeFmt. 180. 224 doesFileExist. 234 dclass. 81. 225 denominator. 59 cos. 119 elemIndex. 43. 114 Curry. 180. 195. 213. 232. 129 digitToInt. 81. 93. 180. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 138 constructor class. 232. 186 elemIndices. 111 either. 43 abstract. 92. 235 ctMin. Haskell B. 47 within a let expression. 106 cosh. 241 CPUTime (module). 27. 232. 224. 240 delete. see newtype declaration dateFmt.INDEX const. see class declaration datatype. 232. 92. 187 deleteBy. 93. 224 Directory (module). 118 dropWhile. 224 Double (datatype). 51. 233. 91. 153 dependency analysis. 235 digit. 55. see abstract datatype algebraic.
224 execution time. 202. 54. see simple case expression type. 108 exception handling. see case expression conditional. 19. 138 ﬁle. 105 enumFromTo. 215 ﬁle system. 105 derived instance. 136 export list. 99. 16. 29 ﬁelddecl. 52 expt. 104 error. 48. 108 floatToDigits. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 33 floatRadix. 162 expts. 91. see let expression simple case. 81. see unit expression expression typesignature. 139 fexp. 154 superclass of Integral. 113 instance for Ratio. 16. 92. 44 construction. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 108 exponentiation. 30. 186 findIndex. 139 exp. 106 exponent. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 115 filterM. 213 ﬁle buffering. 43. 92. see type expression unit. 108 Floating (class). 109. see type environment environment variables. 89. 24–26. 186 ﬁxity. 79 fbind. 51. 86. 167 fail. 130 even. 93. 86. 125 filter. 67. 182. 114. 229 ExitSuccess. 105 superclass of Ord. 229 ExitFailure. 180. 177 instance for Char. 86. 139 exp. 92. 229 . 136 v INDEX expression. 93. 51. 81 Eq (class). 91. 92. 49. 54 flip. 28. 105 environment class. 180. 88. 4. 17. 106 instance for Complex. 112 ﬂoat. 98 executable. 12 floatDigits. 12. 18 ﬁxity. 230 escape. 16. see class environment type. 27 update. 108 floatRange. 105 enumFromThenTo. 229 EQ. 51. 86. 19. 170 enumFrom. 86. 163 f. 91 export. 91. 89. 30. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 159. 142 instance for Char. 180. 229 exitWith.254 end of ﬁle. 17 error. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 105 enumFromThen. 4. 164 ﬁeld label. 97. 94. see conditional expression let. 113 instance for Float. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 142 instance for Array. 65 Enum (class). 104 derived instance. 28 selection. 93. 106 enumeration. 110 Float (datatype). 38. 111 instance for Double. 82. 89. 67. 110 superclass of Num. 21. 92. 229 exitFailure. 215 entity. 186 findIndices. 66 exports. see label. 15 case. 207 find. 212 False. 139 FFFormat (datatype).
86. 224. 96. 233. 55. vii. 189 genericReplicate. 140 gconsym. 18. 159. 18 gd. 139 gdrhs. 181. 113 instance for Array. 219 getArgs. 236 formatRealFloat. 189 genRange. 130 gcd. 41 functional language. 18. 194 fromRat. 224. 25. 81 function binding. 157 instance for Ratio. 54. 92. 138 gendecl. 140 fpats. 96. 106 fst. 90. 93. 11. 138 gdpat. 183. 31. 224 getProgName. 25. 137 guard. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 81 gtycon. 202. 87. 225 getEnv. 23 genericDrop. 114 function. 89. 117 formal semantics. 12. 225 getDirectoryContents. 130 hexit. 153 superclass of Floating. 125 getModificationTime. 105 fromIntegral. 140 Fractional (class). 25. 18. 125 getClockTime. 210 handles. 206 Handle (datatype). 91. 125 getCPUTime. 9. 189 genericIndex. 184. 107 fromEnum. 190 genericSplitAt. 49. 207 foldr. 109. 210. 181. 193. 91. 137 generalization. 109 instance for []. 229 getStdGen. 56 function type. 91. 116 foldM. 87. 111 instance for Maybe. 108 gcon. 129 255 . 9. 91. 213 Haskell. 215 head. 59 generalization preorder. 229 getChar. 129 group. 109 fromJust. 117 foldr1. 162 fromRat’. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 3 formatCalendarTime. 181. 165 formfeed. 190 genericLength. 92. 31. 187 groupBy. 244. 90. 162 fromRational. 92. 194 fromMaybe. 3 Haskell kernel. vii Functor (class). 56. 138 gap. 94. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 105 fromInteger. 235 getContents. 202. 4 hClose. 38. 87 funlhs. 111 functor. 244. 177 instance for IO. 96. 116 foldl1. 248 graphic. 181. 34 guard. 42 generator. 40. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 129 fpat. 224 getPermissions. 181. 176 foldl. 80. 244. 23. 181.INDEX floor. 40. 9. 233. 181. 217 fmap. 189 genericTake. 18. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 56. 188 GT. 248 getStdRandom. 47. 106 instance for Complex. 181. 115 hexadecimal. 229 getLine. 193.
171. 219 hPutStr. 58 hIsClosed. 211. 210. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 181. 12 integer literal pattern. 189 inst. 211. 92. 211. 211. 217 hiding. 182. 195. 172 indices. 210 IO (datatype). 211. 181. 92.256 hFileSize. 211. 210. 218 hLookAhead. 211. 112 integer. 71 with an empty where part. 211. 218 hGetPosn. 183. 66. 197 isAlphaNum. 50. 33. 116 inits. 215 hIsOpen. 96. 211. 171. 137 identiﬁer. 183. 112 Integer (datatype). 188 inlining. 219 hPutChar. 218 hGetContents. 49 Int (datatype). 195. see conditional expression imagPart. 211. 188 insertBy. 173. 147 INDEX input/output. 212 IOError (datatype). 33 integerLogBase. 218 hIsReadable. 181. 187 intersperse. 49. 69. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 136 import declaration. 49. 210 I/O errors. 211. 69. 177 init. 184. 210 input/output examples. 211 hReady. 136 import. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 218 hSeek. 198 IO. 197 isControl. 169. 110 idecl. 211. 217 hGetBuffering. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 212 ioeGetHandle. 211. 219 hGetLine. 9 ifthenelse expression. 218 I/O. 215 hFlush. 98. 125. 195. 215 isAscii. 126 intersect. 181. 195. 81. 4. 211. 211. 211. 184. 156 impdecl. 211. 137 idecls. 217 hGetChar. 212 id. 217 hWaitForInput. 212 isFullError. 211. 197 isIllegalOperation. 38. 216 hSetPosn. 138 instance declaration. 211. 187 intersectBy. 136 index. 211. 211. 211. 91. 217 hSetBuffering. 211. 163 Integral (class). 211. 183. 211. 89. 49. 219 hPutStrLn. 136 impdecls. 212. 34. 219 inRange. 211. 211. 195. 211. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 111 IO (module). 174. 194 . 81. 211. 197 isDigit. 215 isEOF. 212 isHexDigit. 216. 218 hIsEOF. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 211. 181. 172 insert. 81. 212 ioError. 69. 212. 211. 195. 218 hIsSeekable. 38. 24. 181. 69 impspec. 125 IOMode (datatype). 211. 214. 219 hPrint. 38. 218 hIsWritable. 106 interact. 193. 214 irrefutable pattern. 169. 215 isEOFError. 187 intToDigit. 212 isJust. 57 isAlpha. 155. 195. 212 ioeGetFileName. 49. 89.
202. 181. 172. 88. 104. 119 maximumBy. 88. 143 maximal munch rule. 64 label. 188 isPrint. 117 Ix (class). 27 lambda abstraction. 9. 197 isPermissionError. 64 kind inference. 122 lexDigits. 195. 39. 168 lexeme. 81 magnitude. 32 literate comments. 171. 194 isOctDigit. 56 linearity. 118 List (module). 240 locale. 176. 195. 181. 40. 197 isNothing. 172 instance for Integer. 19. 207 liftM4. 195. 129 literal pattern. 234. 188 isUpper. 91. 155. 207 liftM3. 9. 91 logBase. 193. 195. 130. 50. 184. 172 Ix (module). 202. 44. 109 match. 9. 197 isSuffixOf. 173. 116 layout. 84. 106 lookahead. 202. 86. 80 list type. 181. 172 derived instance. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 80 list comprehension. 176. 23. 56 lines. 23 lex. 193. 207 v 257 liftM2. 211. 31. 206 Just. 24 in do expressions.INDEX isLatin1. 65 main. 199 . 45. 91. 176. 81. 219 lookup. 183. 159. 173. 19 large. 92 magnitude. 44. 74 liftM. 186 list. 65 making directories. 119 . 202. 195. 173. 134 Locale (module). 40. 181. 202. 169. 197 isSpace. 210. 13. 41 listArray. 31. 16. 172 instance for Int. 142 maxBound. 26 in list comprehensions. 225 map. 195. 239 log. 198 max. 195. 234 ixmap. 177 listToMaybe. 169. 19. 81 length. 232. 140 LT. 105. 129 lexical structure. 193. 109 Left. 127 maximum. 109 mapMaybe. 89. 115 mapAccumL. 50. 21. 40. 202. 239. 206 mapM. see also offside rule lcm. 188 mapAccumR. 207 liftM5. 180. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 12. 106 logarithm. 194 literal. 7 lexLitChar. 170 instance for Char. 31. 116 let expression. 194 mapM_. 174. 202. 212. 215 isPrefixOf. 212 iterate. 156 Main (module). 197 isLower. 129 last. 91. 92. 183. 181. 211. 177 join. 197 isUserError. 189 Maybe (datatype). 81 kind. 45. 9. 139 libraries. 207 linear pattern.
136 Monad (class). 193. 111 instance for Maybe. 206 Monad (module). 142 minBound. 202. 111 maybeToList. 10. 18 numerator. 54. 57 name qualiﬁed. 153 Numeric (module). 106 modid. 193. 181. 214 opening a ﬁle. 79. 105 instance for Complex. 66. 248 newtype declaration. 9. 89. 89. 206 instance for []. 202. 13. 161. 91. 32–34. 91. 129 negate. 90. 180. 153 superclass of Real. 244. 32. 153 superclass of Fractional. 178 instance for Char. 10 ncomment. 88. 104 derived instance. 121. 136 module. 66. 130. 33. 81. 19. 198 Ordering (datatype). 155. 51. 89. 84. 186. 225 moving ﬁles. 61 monomorphism restriction. 206 + pattern. 19 ops. 194 method. 112 ¢ ¦ . 105. 245 nonnull. 119 Ord (class). 180. 46. 110 notElem. 5. 26. 157 instance for Ratio. 105 number. 27. 186 nubBy. 11 translation of literals. 138 newline. 91. 156 mkStdGen. 106 superclass of Real. 119 Nothing. 202. 105 ord. 104. 113 octal. 210. 9. see qualiﬁed name special. 137 or. 108 offside rule. 187 null. 54. 113 instance for IO.258 Maybe (module). 244. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 18. 88. 9. 19. 61 Month (datatype). 151. see also layout op. 244. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 34. 119 minimumBy. 246 mod. 55. 214 operating system commands. 16. 140 opencom. 60. 81. 194 maybe. 232. 197 numeric type. 11. 95 MonadPlus (class). 84. 129 newStdGen. 129 odd. 17. 168 not. 115. 55. 159. see class method min. 104. see special name namespaces. 105 negation. 11. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 65 module. 9. 206 monad. 184. 46 INDEX next. 116 Num (class). 182. 206 instance for Maybe. 111 instance for Ratio. 20 newconstr. 206 monomorphic type variable. 184. 90. 90 numericEnumFrom. 81 nub. 89 literal syntax. 129 openFile. 225 mplus. 9. 234 moving directories. 206 msum. 109 instance for []. 52. 143 minimum. 195. 91. 142 instance for Array. 38. 230 operator. 202. 189 mkPolar. 19 operator application. 130 octit. 202. 206 mzero.
181. 119 program. 18. 247 randomRIO. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 96. 34 Permissions (datatype). 115 PreludeText (module). 4 pragmas. 140 pat. 11. see wildcard pattern constructed. 30 overloaded constant. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. see + pattern refutable. 51. 130 qtycon. 140 qtycls. 31. 103. 11. see linear pattern + . 245 randomIO. 125 putStrLn. 121 principal type. 11. 90. 218 polymorphic recursion. 110 overloaded functions. 169. 51 partition. 23. 130 qvarop. 151 Read (class). 140 qconsym. 187 . 91. 147 precedence. 19. 244 random. 244. 217 RandomGen. 130 qual. 169. 96. 171. 247 Random (module). 42. 91. 57 patternmatching. 125 putStr. 229 program name. 11. 125 PreludeIO (module). 247 randoms. 244. 53 print. 140 qvarid. 171. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 125 qcon. 153 rational numbers. 225 pattern. 244. 18. 153. 91. 106 polar. 244. 156 physical ﬁle. 96. see patternmatching overloading. see also ﬁxity pred. 183. 151 Ratio (module). 106 qvar. 130 Random (class).INDEX otherwise. 140 qconid. 155. 107 putChar. 247 random access ﬁles. 30 @. 93. 79. 156 polling a handle for input. 143 instance for [a]. 70. 25. 247 randomRs. 161 Rational (type synonym). 103. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 224 phase. 151. 9. 3 properFraction. 247 range. 72 qualiﬁer. 229 program structure. 41 quot. 140 qvarsym. 55. 129 v 259 program arguments. 104. see aspattern _. 121 derived instance. 96. 11. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 247 randomR. 11. 130 qconop. 172 Ratio (datatype). see irrefutable pattern linear. 38 overloaded pattern. 106 quotRem. 75 Prelude (module). 11. 103. 213 pi. 103. 31. 125 product. 18. 140 path. 244. 23 quantiﬁcation. 139 qualiﬁed name. 244. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 54 polymorphism. 75. 124 instance for Array. 125 PreludeList (module). 47 defaults. 103. 130 qop. 151. 18. 85. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 92. 172 rangeSize. 18. 155. 43.
121. 117 scontext. 55. 137 searchable. 91. 214 readFloat. 224. 85. 163 readsPrec. 214 separate compilation. 97. 46 refutable pattern. 93. 124 instance for Double. 92. 126 ReadMode. 166 . 123 instance for Float. 85. 164 readEsc. 224. 108 RealFrac (class). 92. 218 readInt. 139 rhs. 195. 159. 225 removeFile. 105 instance for Ratio. 117 replicate. 217 rem. 224. 104. 159. 88. 119 . 225 repeat. 155. 121 derived instance. 31. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 164 readParen. 51. 81 round. 217 semantics formal. 225 renaming directories. 121. 122 readable. 224. 109 sequence_. 56. 107 instance for Ratio. 225 removing ﬁles. 92. 94. 198 readFile. 123 instance for Ratio. 109 reverse. 106 recursive datatype. 92. 107 RealFloat (class). 198 readLn. 106 removeDirectory. 121 reads. 88. 159. 85. 214 Real (class). 106 superclass of RealFrac. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 224. 130 return. 164 readIO. 96. 138 Right. 154 read. 248 setting the directory. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 109 recip. 162 scanl. 10. 224 section. 224 readDec. 107 roundTo. 126 readList. 96. 92. 225 renameFile. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 159. 143 readLitChar. 156 realToFrac. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 91. 225 removing directories. 116 scanl1. 117 scanr1. 90. 123 instance for Int. 10. 88. 164 reading a directory. 130 reservedop. 85. 108 scaleRat. 143 instance for [a]. 10. 85. 225 setPermissions. 20. 168 readHex. 86. 210. 108 realPart. 16. 225 renaming ﬁles. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 153 superclass of Integral. 76 seq. 143 ReadWriteMode. 225 renameDirectory. 214 readOct. 89. 126. 159. 159. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 244. 85. 117 reservedid. 123 instance for Integer.260 instance for Char. 224 setStdGen. 33 RelativeSeek. 93. 91. 110 sequence. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 226 Show (class). 122 readSigned. 86. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 116 scanr. 104. 81.
91. 137 simpletype. 181. 159. 80. 181. 105 show. 74. 213 StdGen (datatype). 122 showEFloat. 92. see type signature signdecl. 121. 244. 119 superclass. 62 simpleclass. 105 simple pattern binding. 159. 115 tails. 106 tdDay. 163 showInt. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 235 261 . 114 sort. 159. 129 split. 123 instance for Int. 118 special. 85. 232. 245 splitAt. 163 showParen. 210. 111 string. 45 strictness ﬂags. 26. 163 showIntAtBase. 108 succ. 86. 85. 106 tangent. 163 showsPrec. 94. 86. 106 size of ﬁle. 12. 82 String (type synonym). 183. 85.INDEX instance for Array. 130 synonym. 85. 106 sine. 106 standard handles. 184. 85. 159. 48. 210 instance for Integer. 159. 235 tdPicosec. 188 take. 139 strictness ﬂag. 121 show2. 210. 159. 183. 93 sinh. 9. 235 tdMonth. see type synonym syntax. 9. 195. 154 superclass of Num. 159. 9. 129 span. 229 tab. 235 tdMin. 26. 92. 164 showGFloat. 91. 93 tanh. 91. 143 showString. 159. 237 showChar. 159. 121. 118 tan. 118 sqrt. 122 showSigned. 80. 123 instance for Float. see also Prelude stderr. 79 literal syntax. 92 signature. 91. 53 significand. 139 stmts. 121 shows. 9. 9. 164 showFFloat. 129 tail. 244. 124 instance for Double. 129. 41. 237 show2’. 123 instance for Ratio. 210. 181. 91. 213 stmt. 246 stdin. 232. 91. 46. 232. 164 showFloat. 12 transparent. 235 tdHour. 213 standard prelude. 130 subtract. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 127 System (module). 45. 43. 232. 164 showHex. 199 showOct. 129 snd. 188 space. 143 showLitChar. 237 show3. see transparent string string. 232. 138 sin. 188 sortBy. 49 symbol. 213 stdout. 215 small. 163 showList. 178 instance for Char. 108 signum. 122 sign. 57. 117 takeWhile. 229 system. 105 sum.
191 unzip6. 181. 7. 140 varid. 9. 202. 43 type environment. 187 trigonometric function. 105 toInteger. 18. 106 toLower. 9. see list type monomorphic. 43 topdecl (default). 195. 93 trivial type. 235 toClockTime. 4. 240 to12. 45 topdecl. 38. 98. 93. 198 toUTCTime. 119 unzip. 187 uniSmall. 86. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). see function type list. 38. see trivial type tuple. 130 tycon. see ambiguous type constructed. 224. 114 unfoldr. 17. 239. 53 for an expression. 129 uniSymbol. 81 True. 105 toUpper. 235 terminating a program. 17. 45. 180. 22 uniWhite. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 103. 40. 114 unwords. 49. 181. 46 topdecl (type). 38. 235 timeFmt. 190 unzip5. 136 toRational. 91. 230 the ﬁle system. 11. 181. 191 userError. 11. see expression typesignature type synonym. 81. 182. 119 until. 41. 40. 80 tuple type. 197 uniDigit. 42 ambiguous. 129 uniLarge. 239. 67. 233. 107 try. 18.262 tdYear. 233. 185. 232. 80. 191 unzip7. 114 undefined. 130 uncurry. 42. 129 unit datatype. 22. 235 toEnum. 9. 181. 198 topdecl (class). see principal type INDEX trivial. 184. 232. 187 unionBy. 17. 232 time of day. 129 union. 49 value. see class type constructor. 11. see monomorphic type numeric. 49 topdecl (newtype). 130 varop. 120 unzip3. 49. 9. 130 type. 236 toCalendarTime. 22. 42 type expression. 181. see trivial type unit expression. see also datatype recursive. see newtype declaration type signature. 239. 221 tuple. 41. 136 topdecls. 47 topdecl (data). 41 tycls. 4 var. see numeric type principal. 40. 11. 51 topdecl (instance). 206 unlines. 40 type renaming. 9. see constructed type function. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 180. 232. 39. see tuple type type. 66. 195. 92. 232 time12Fmt. 188 Unicode character set. 125 valdefs. 93. 234 time. 140 . 235 transpose. 183. 224 Time (module). 4. 211. 129 unless. 181. 137 type class. 233. 10. 46 tyvar. 79 truncate. 120 unzip4.
INDEX vars. 181. 206 whitechar. 129 when. 207 263 . 214 zip. 120 zipWith4. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 53. 190 zip5. 120 zip4. 9. 9. 190 zip6. 181. 130 vertab. 181. 181. 9. 190 zip7. 185. 129 whitestuff. 38. 10. 129 whitespace. 181. 202. 207 zipWithM_. 190 zipWith7. 181. 120 zip3. 181. 181. 118 writable. 224 writeFile. 126. 202. 190 zipWithM. 214 WriteMode. 202. 190 zipWith. 190 zipWith6. 80. 31 words. 185. 97. 120 zipWith3. 9. 137 varsym. 190 zipWith5.