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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13.3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . 10. . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . .4 Library Array . . .2 Reading functions .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . 14. . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . .1 Array Construction . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . 21. . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . .2 Reading Input . . . . 21. . . . . . . .5 Text Output . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. 21. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . 21. 21. . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . .7. . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . 21 Input/Output 21. 17. . . .9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20.3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. References . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . .1 Library Locale . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. 21. . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . .
Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Oregon. 3. .PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. named after the logician Haskell B. even more than it is ordinarily. providing faster communication of new ideas. research. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. have published something erroneous. 5. 4. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory.” Haskell B. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. It should be suitable for teaching. and applications. and most of these. including ourselves. purely functional programming languages. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. including building large systems. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. May 31. a stable foundation for real applications development. 2. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. It should be freely available. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland.
Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. With reluctance. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. making some simpliﬁcations.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. for the foreseeable future. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. It is not a . By the middle of 1997. This task turned out to be much. As Haskell becomes more widely used.4. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. If these program were to be portable. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. and is called “Haskell 98”. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed.4). Resolve ambiguities. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. together with a standard library called the Prelude. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. much larger than I had anticipated. Clarify obscure passages. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. this stable language is the subject of this Report. incorporating experimental features. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report.
including: pattern guards. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). Instead. exceptions. including: multiparameter type classes. For example. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. recursive donotation.org gives access to many useful resources.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. concurrency. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. metaprogramming facilities. Control extensions. including: monadic state. existential types. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. functional dependencies. it provides a stable point of reference. There is more besides. Type system innovations. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. lexically scoped type variables. or use Haskell for teaching. including: . going well beyond Haskell 98. so that those who wish to write text books.
Applications of Haskell. via the Haskell mailing list. University of Nottingham. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Those who served on the Language and Library committees.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Building the language Haskell was created. You are welcome to comment on. suggest improvements to. Microsoft Research Ltd) . devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. and continues to be sustained. Implementations of Haskell. Tutorial material on Haskell. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Here they are. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. in particular.
Ross Paterson. Pradeep Varma. Felix Schroeter. Nic Holt. Mark Hall. Jeff Lewis. Sandra Loosemore. Graeme Moss. Tommy Thorn. Julian Seward. Chris Okasaki. Ketil Malde. Craig Dickson. Finally. Amir Kishon. and others on the lambda calculus. Klemens Hemm. Sten Anderson. Stef Joosten. John Robson. Gary Memovich. Olaf Chitil. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Thomas Hallgren. Michael Schneider. Carl Witty. Rick Mohr. Arthur Norman. Matt Harden. Rosser. Christian Maeder. Sergey Mechveliani. Jan Skibinski. Robert Jeschofnik. Curry. Cordy Hall. Stuart Wray. Stephen Price. Simon Marlow. Magnus Carlsson. Guy Cousineau. Dave Parrott. Paul Callaghan. Hans Aberg. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Randy Michelsen. Stephen Blott. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Ian Holyer. Rinus Plasmeijer. Sigbjorn Finne. Larne Pekowsky. Sisal. Ken Takusagawa. Chris Fasel. Østvold. Lauren Smith. Simon B. Josef Svenningsson. Pat Fasel. Chris Dornan. Richard Bird. Gofer. Mike Gunter. Michael Fryers. Michael Webber. Andy Gill. SiauCheng Khoo. Malcolm Wallace. some small but many substantial. Tony Warnock.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Orjan Johansen. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Fergus Henderson. Mark Lillibridge. Chris Clack. Tom Blenko. Landin’s ISWIM. . Hope and Hope . Duke Briscoe. Mark Tullsen. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Simon Thompson. Patrik Jansson. Dylan Thurston. Andy Moran. Raman Sundaresh. Franklin Chen. Feliks Kluzniak. Clean. Manuel Chakravarty. Wolfram Kahl. Bjorn Lisper. Keith Wansbrough. Ralf Hinze. Tom Thomson. Dean Herington. Paul Otto. John Meacham. Henrik Nilsson. Stefan Kahrs. Kent Karlsson. APL. Marcin Kowalczyk. Michael Marte. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Jan Kort. Jose Labra. and Bonnie Yantis. Sven Panne. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Mike Joy. In addition. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Nimish Shah. Backus’s FP [1]. Patrick Sansom. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Ian Lynagh. Alexander Jacobson. Libor Skarvada. Satish Thatte. Randy Hudson. Laura Dutton. George Russell. Ian Poole. Christian Sievers. Mike Thyer. Bob Hiromoto. ML and Standard ML. Jones. Tony Davie. Nick North. David Tweed. Bjarte M. Id. Pablo Lopez. Jim Mattson. Olaf Lubeck. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Andreas Rossberg. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Richard Kelsey. Mark Carroll.
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
.
Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. described in Chapter 5. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. a module system. patternmatching. compiled. 1. 3. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. all described in Chapter 4. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. 2. At the next lower level are expressions. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. Haskell provides higherorder functions. nonstrict semantics. 1. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs.1 Program Structure In this section. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. described in Chapter 3. including lists. of which there are several kinds. deﬁned in Chapter 2. interpreted. programs that formally evaluate to ). The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. static polymorphic typing. a monadic I/O system. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. list comprehensions. 3 .Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. and ﬁxity information. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. etc. arrays. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell.e. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs.” 4. datatypes. type classes. An expression denotes a value and has a static type.
literate programming. the concrete syntax. Also. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. 1. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. etc. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. for types. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. However. See Section 3. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. for declarations. and Chapter 7.e. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. In this Report. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. such as for expresin if sions.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. . it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. If these translations are applied exhaustively. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts.1. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6.4 CHAPTER 1. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. or overloading (using type classes). However. as then else . how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). Technically.
and module names refer to modules. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. for example. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. These are the only constraints. class. those for type variables. and constructor within a single scope.4. . 2. There are two constraints on naming: 1. type constructors. NAMESPACES 5 1. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module.1.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. 2. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [..Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.].1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax.. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. However. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .
3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. for example. and. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. 2. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. however “foo” does start a comment. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. ) and extends to the following newline.2. because both of these are legal lexemes. hence. then any occurrence of {.3. So. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. in a nested comment. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. For example.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. 2. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. In an ordinary comment. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. Similarly. == and ˜= are not. Instead. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. although = is reserved. although case is a reserved word. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. terminated by “}”. as explained in Chapter 11. cases is not. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ .g. Within a nested comment.
LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters.b]”. as deﬁned above.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). : :: = \  <. all operators are inﬁx. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. : : : .5). this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. underscores. naMe. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). such as “[]” and “[a.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. is treated as a lowercase letter. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. used as wild card in patterns..> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. and single quotes.10 CHAPTER 2. digits. Underscore. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. However. Notice that a colon by itself. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. “:”. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. “_”. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.
5.. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ .g f. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. This f. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. . . g (three tokens) F. constructor.. also. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. This applies to variable. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.4. type constructor and type class names. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.2). F.g F. the other four do not.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. Lexes as this f .’) F ..4. (two tokens) F. but not type variables or module names. .5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . (qualiﬁed ‘. . 2. for example.2. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. Prelude. . F.
4.2. “new line” (\n). Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. but must be escaped in a character. \ must always be escaped. and “vertical tab” (\v). \o137) and hexadecimal (e.1. as in "Hello". a double quote " may be used in a character.g. similarly. Floating literals are always decimal. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. “form feed” (\f). Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. “carriage return” (\r). © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . "\SOH". Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. 2.12 CHAPTER 2. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). For example. including control characters such as \ˆX. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X).g. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. \x37) representations are also allowed. Similarly. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. “horizontal tab” (\t).1. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. “backspace” (\b).6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. octal (e.4. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. as in ’a’. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. are also provided. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). but must be escaped in a string. is parsed as a string of length 1. and strings between double quotes. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6.
a close brace is inserted. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). When this happens.7). As an example. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. insert a semicolon or close brace). that is. then instead of starting a layout.7. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. For each subsequent line.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. an empty list “{}” is inserted. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. or of. let. by using layout to convey the same information. a control character. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). and layout processing occurs for the current level (i.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. Informally stated. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. Section 9. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. Within these explicit open braces. do. and if it is indented less.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. if it is indented the same amount.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. Figure 2. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. Also.pop.2. b and g all part of the same layout list. Given these rules.e. where the . Because layout is not required. let. and \ˆX. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. 2. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. \ \a numeric escape character. which can be freely mixed within one program.
(pop Empty) is an error .push x s = MkStack x s . .pop :: Stack a > (a. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. push. inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .14 CHAPTER 2. top.pop (MkStack x s) = (x.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. top. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. pop.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. and (c) the close brace at the very end.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.top :: Stack a > a . pop.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) . push.size :: Stack a > Int . Stack a) .top (MkStack x s) = x } .
an associativity variable varies over . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. Similarly. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . In the syntax that follows. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. For example actually stands for 30 productions. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. and may have a double (written as a superscript).11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. or for left. index: a letter . where appropriate. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . For example. . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. the nonterminals . right. Except in the case of let expressions. including their translations into the Haskell kernel.
.. Figure 4. } ¦ .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. ¦ 2 ' . . For example. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. Sample parses are shown below. } in x + y let { ...  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ .2. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. } in (x + y) z + (let { .4.(f x)) + y let { . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) .2). let expressions. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell... EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. . This f x .. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . ] ¢ £ .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . ] .operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. and conditionals...4. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . it has the same precedence as the inﬁx .1).. Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { .
so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. 3. Operators. 3. That is. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. denoted by . For the sake of clarity. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. results in an error. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator.1. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . When undefined is used. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. all Haskell types include . The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. When evaluated. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. the error message is created by the compiler. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. when demanded. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. Constructors. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user.2 Variables. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse.3. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination.
. as found in the and .% constructs a rational from two integers. as deﬁned in the Ratio library.1.4. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.1). The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. These are described in Section 6. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. For example.2). such as + or $$. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . Dually. Ratio Integer). For example. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. An operator is either an operator symbol.% ). Similarly. such as ` `. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator .5). and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). or partially applied using a section (Section 3.4. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.4). The integers and are chosen so that . where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio.18 CHAPTER 3. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.
in the Prelude.denotes preﬁx negation. then the result is .3.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4.1.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. page 55). Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . There is no link between the local meaning of the . Application associates to the left. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.operator and unary negation. partial applications of data construc ) of ( . However. The binary . where the are patterns.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . if the pattern fails to match. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. . Because tors are allowed. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. and is syntax for negate . Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator .3. . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.3.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of .17. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. Similarly. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). 3. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . as with any inﬁx operator. it may be rebound by the module system. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. unary . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell.
but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ).is treated specially in the grammar. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . () is not a section. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. but (+a+b) is not. as described in the preceding section. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. EXPRESSIONS 3. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3).5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. As another example. Because (+) is left associative. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . but an application of preﬁx negation. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). However. For example. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. and similarly for ( ).
is a binary operator.6. as deﬁned in the must be Bool.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool.1). is an expression. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. and must have the same type. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . The type of type of the entire conditional expression. . and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ .1. denoted []. The list constructor is :. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. and the empty list is Lists are written [ .3. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. and otherwise. ¥ £ ¡ 3. which is also the Prelude.3. if is False.7 Lists [] ( ) : . where . False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . ].
1.. and is equivalent to .1. and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. .2). respectively.2).) a b c tuple is denoted by (.8 Tuples ¢ S (. § 3. . and requires no translation.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. It is a rightassociative operator. .3).1. .4. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. . Translation: ( . Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. .4 and Chapter 8). and may be of arbitrary length . where there are denote the same value.. ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. ) (see Section 4.1.2).). like []. . . then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . The types of through must all be the same (call it ).5). with precedence level 5 (Section 4. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. It is the only member of that type apart from . . ) Tuples are written ( .1. Thus (a. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . it is considered part of the language syntax. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. The constructor for an commas.c) and (. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . ).b.2). ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . If through are the types of through . 3.1.
and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6.3. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. . The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type ... ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ .. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. . page 83). ] denotes a list of values of type ... ] . ] .1.. enumFromThen.17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . where each of the has type . where is a pattern (see Section 3. which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. and is an instance of class Enum..10. § 3. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. ] . . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . enumFromTo. See Section 6.3. . . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. .10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .
2)] ]. As usual.(3. = = = = [ ] [  . x <. Pattern bindings are matched lazily.xs ] yields the list [4. The function concatMap. are deﬁned in the Prelude. } in . Declarations are described in Chapter 4.x. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. ]  <. and boolean value True. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. Thus: [ x  xs <. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions.2). [(5. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  ..4). and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over.(3.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 3.5.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .17). For example.x ] [ z  y <. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. z <. over listvalued expressions. (3. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . over boolean over declaration lists. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed.x.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.4). expressions. let (x.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. . ok is a fresh variable.24 CHAPTER 3. lexicallyscoped. over qualiﬁers.x) <.4)].2]. and introduce a nested. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. over patterns.[ [(1. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages).
these identities hold. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. in = } in = = let (˜ ..˜ ) = ( . .3.. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. where and are patterns and expressions respectively.4..3. . Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ .3. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. .13.4. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for .. Once done. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .. . . using the translation in Section 4. 3. > ¦§ of { } .. . . . the “” is a terminal symbol. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.
to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. If matches the pattern in the alternative. ¦ ¨ . If no match succeeds. . It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. If one of the pattern. The alternatives are tried sequentially. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the result is . Each body must have the same type. Pattern matching is described in Section 3.17._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. A note about parsing.3.17. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © .26 CHAPTER 3. <let . Programmers are advised. and hence reject the program. matching continues with the next alternative. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. and the type of the whole expression is that type. . from top to bottom. It has a single unambiguous parse. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. ¦ 3. The expression case x of { (a. If all the guards evaluate to False. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. therefore. and then by the guards evaluates to True. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. namely case x of { (a.
© @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let ." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ .3). >>=. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. Within a datatype. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. however. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions.3.BAD Here S is legal but T is not. 3." stands for a compilergenerated error message. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } ... A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. in record construction (Section 3. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . This shadowing only affects selector functions. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope.1). the functions >>.15.15. When used as a variable.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. 3.. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. passed to fail. To illustrate the last point.. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. select from.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".2. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.15. as deﬁned in the Prelude. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object.2) and update (Section 3. © The ellipsis ".15. As indicated by the translation of do. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. after eliminating empty : } . and fail are operations in the class Monad.OK . Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name.
where is the arity of F. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. Otherwise. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. and if appears is . the ﬁeld labels . then value . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . The expression F {}. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label .2.) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. the { and } characters must be explicit.1. where F is a data constructor. A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . } labeled construction .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. these are not subject to layout. it denotes F .15.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above).
f4 = ’A’.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. f3 = ’x’}. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. . such as x {f2 = 1. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. f3. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.3. } labeled update .f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. No label may be mentioned more than once.. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels.15.15. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype.. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .
17. do expressions. However.4).2).4.30 CHAPTER 3. . function deﬁnitions.1. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . Translation: 3. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. the principal type. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. The value of the expression is just that of .1).1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . and case expressions. EXPRESSIONS 3. list comprehensions. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. pattern bindings.3.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .
x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. it may succeed. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. and outside to inside. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. and allow one to use . return ). For example. For example. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once.3. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place.17. .ILLEGAL.y. For example._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .17. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. ¢ § . Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns.e. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . case e of { [x. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1._.x) = x .2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. .z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. or it may diverge (i.
) Operationally. The match diverges if this test diverges. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. and to if matching against fails or diverges. the functions >= and . 6. character. so does the overall computation. 7. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. Matching a numeric. if all matches succeed. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . § § § That is. . 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. that is. If the value is of the form .32 CHAPTER 3. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. where newtype. ¦ 32 4. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). depends on the value: against a value. 8. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. the overall match succeeds. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. is the same as in numeric literal patterns.. Matching the pattern by data. (Binding does not imply evaluation. then is matched against . Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. and if the match fails or diverges.2. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. depending on the type of the pattern. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . respectively. resulting in the binding of to . EXPRESSIONS 2. 3.are overloaded. and no binding is done. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. Again. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. and fails otherwise. the match diverges. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . Matching the pattern against a value. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. then is matched against . the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. .
’b’] is matched against [’x’.3. If the pattern [’a’. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.b)] > x) [(0. is irrefutable). then ’a’ to match against ’x’. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell.y) > 0) (\ (x. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. a wildcard. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. (a. ] (0. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x.˜(a.1).b)] > x) [(0. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. to .’b’] is matched against [ . ].’x’]. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. But if [’a’. If the match of against fails or diverges.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. then .2. All other patterns are refutable. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match. and the result is a failed match. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. ] (\ ˜[x. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num.3).1). then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. Here are some examples: 1.17.
2 involves the overloaded operator ==. For example. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. These identities all preserve the static semantics. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.1–3. (j). an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. and are expressions. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. function deﬁnition.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. it is not expected that it will use them directly. (q).34 CHAPTER 3. in Figures 3. 3. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors).Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. and is a newtype constructor. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.17. Rule (h) in Figure 3. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.3. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. . and (s) use a lambda rather than a let.2. . or pattern binding to which it is attached. and are patterns.1–3. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. In particular.2: . regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written.4).3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. (e).y. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities.1. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.2. and are variables. and are booleanvalued expressions. In Figures 3.Int. Rules (d). in f :: (Int.
 } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. } } . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . .3.17. Figure 3. PATTERN MATCHING 35 . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . .
_ > } of { > . _ otherwise case of { {} > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . = .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . character. _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } case of { > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . are new variables else } } }. Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . } > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . or string literal. _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric.2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } . _ > _ > }} where . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } case of { _ _ > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . are ﬁelds of constructor . } > . . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > } case ( ) of { > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = .
. . . type data newtype class instance default ( . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } } © 2§ . = => => => => . . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { .
3). we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. consisting of value bindings.e. An instance declaration (Section 4. and nested declarations.3.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). and default declarations (Section 4. © 4. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float.simplified class declaration for Num . whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. and data declarations (Section 4. . . consisting of class. using normal type and data declarations. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers).2). infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . deﬁned on it. instance.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. For exposition. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code.3. newtype.1. those within a let or where construct). For example. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. type signatures.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. of the given types.4). . and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . consisting of type. type classes and overloading. 5]. A class declaration (Section 4.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate.
” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12].1.e. then a type of kind . However. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . unlike types. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. ] ) . ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.1. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. addFloat.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . class methods) for (+) and negate. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones.4.1.6. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. 4.0 type system. 4. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . negateInt. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.
A parenthesized type. For example. Type variables. (.5). The declarations data T . Type constructors. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. and classes. 2.. Type application. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . Integer.. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3.). The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. Their kinds are . For example: Char. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind .40 CHAPTER 4. Since the IO type constructor has kind .9 and 6. having form ( ). 4. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. and so on. IO a. type values are built from . it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression.). also written () (see Sections 3. Float. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. The list type is written as [] and has kind . Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. The tuple types are written as (. must have kind . ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . and so on.. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. . the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. Just as data values are built using data constructors. and has exactly one value. is identical to the type . and treated as types with kind . or newtype T . to the variable a. Unlike data constructors. IO. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (..1. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. In general. As with data constructors. . The kind of T is determined by kind inference.. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. and is a type of kind .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. Int. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . type synonyms.
which is equivalent to the type (>) . nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5).1. which is equivalent to the type (. however. 2. . [ ].8 and 6. ) where . ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. the preﬁx type constructors (>). “gtycon”.1.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. (. means . we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. .4. 1. which is equivalent to the type [] . and so on (see Sections 3.. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . (). It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. and lists. regardless of what is in scope. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). and ).1. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4.3. for example. If is the type of expression or pattern . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. above.7 and 6.). Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax.) where there are commas between the parenthesis. . For clarity. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. (Hence the special production.4). These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ .1)). respectively. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. the second component of type . When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. For example. then the expressions (\ > ).3). . A list type has the form [ ]. and so on. always denote the builtin type constructors. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. and indicates the membership of the type in the class .1. A tuple type has the form ( .3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . 3. and ( ) have the types ( > ). It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . In a similar way. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. . []. they cannot be qualiﬁed. tuples. A class assertion has form . [ ]. the type expression a > a . For example.
In general. as described in Section 4.4. and each of the is either a type variable. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . where is a set of type variables . Show a. " t ¡§ is identical to . £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . For convenience. respectively. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type.3. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . In any such type. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. a type is of the form . consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. In general. Furthermore. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a).3. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. For example.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. we provide informal details of the type system. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context .4). or the application of type variable to one or more types. also holds.1). that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. we write => even if the context is empty. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers.16 and 4. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. Therefore. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. any of that are free in must also be free in . the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed.42 CHAPTER 4. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3.1.1. may be instantiated at types holds. § § § 4. For example. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). in more detail. the most general type.
the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)).4. . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. In this Report. since Num Int holds. 4.2. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. 4. ! . and type synonyms (type declarations). An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . However.2. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . because Int is an instance of the class Num. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). The user may choose to declare such an instance.
e. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . to the components of a data object.6. and is described in Section 4. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. the declaration data C = F { f1. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a.8. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components.f2 :: Int. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given.. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. For example. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. For example. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor.3. }). using the record syntax (C { .44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4.3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types .. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4.
6.2. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope.4. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. For example. “!”. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . Translation: A declaration of the form 4. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . Lexically.15.2) if is of the form ! .2. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. and function $! (see Section 6. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . The type is equivalent to the type . denoted by an exclamation point.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. . each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor.
New instances (see Section 4. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . this is not so for type synonyms. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. so that is the same as .invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. but strictly syntactic. 4. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. unlike type synonyms.2. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. Similarly. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . Also. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. Unlike algebraic datatypes. For example. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. The type ( ) renames the datatype .2).3.3. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. the newtype constructor is unlifted.2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. Type synonyms are a convenient. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead.invalid .17).
The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration.3.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . and newtype (renaming types. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. type (type synonyms). ( n ( N ) ). © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . In particular.3. whereas ( n ). TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). see Section 4. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4.3.3. .3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to .4. .) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ).
the may not constrain . the may contain a default class method for any of the . For example: class Foo a where op1. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. The may constrain only . Lastly. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . no other declarations are permitted in . whose scope extends outside the class declaration. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . in particular. as described below. . it must form a directed acyclic graph. outside the class declaration. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of .2).48 CHAPTER 4. it may mention type variables other than . For example: class (Read a. is not permitted. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. since class methods declare toplevel values. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. However. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention .. i. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name .3. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. or another class method. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. op2) = . op2 :: a > a (op1. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ .e. a ﬁeld name. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. That is. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in .. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . The superclass relation must not be cyclic.
3..a) where . it may be a qualiﬁed name. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. if a type is an instance of all superclasses. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.range. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. Let be a class declaration. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. instance C [[a]] where .. ] > . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class.2. must not be a type synonym. } .. furthermore..a) where . this is legal. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix.3.) For example.4.Ix T where range = .. ... TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.. 4. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. The type type variables distinct. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . in particular. instance C (Int. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ .
because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num.50 CHAPTER 4. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar.. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.. The class and type must have the same kind. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. instance (Eq a. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ .6. Under this assumption. Show a) => Bar [a] where .. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4.. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. must be an instance of each of . If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. In other words.... In fact.1).3. instance (Eq a. Show a) => Foo [a] where . the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. This example is valid Haskell. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. then the program would be invalid. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1... If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where .
Show a).3. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. Bounded. all mentioned in Figure 6. 4. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. and Read. For example. page 83. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. 4. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. If the form is included..invalid is ambiguous. then the expression let x = read ". ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.. But this does not hold. Ord. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type.4 Ambiguous Types. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. . Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. Show. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. For example. that is. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving ().4.3. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. For example. Enum. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. because the types for show and read.1.2. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. When deriving a class for a type .1." in show x . using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10.3. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances.
turns off all defaults in a module. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . Num or a subclass of Num). one could write: let x = read ". page 83. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. ) where . where is a class. a static error. For example. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. Such expressions are considered illtyped.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. (that is. and each must be a type for which Num holds. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. appears only in constraints of the form . and its effect is limited to that module. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases.. Occasionally. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. Such types are invalid. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. and Figure 6. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. § ¢ .. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. or Bool. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type.1.3. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . For example. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . It is a static error if no such type is found. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . . If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer.16. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. default ().2–6. § ¢ ¢ For example. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. . but and are forced to have the same type. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.52 CHAPTER 4.4. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. an ambiguous type variable. Double) The empty default declaration.
even if the signatures are identical.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . As mentioned in Section 4. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . the deﬁning occurrence.4. Moreover. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. 4. including the top level of a module. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.2). and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it.e.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred.4. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope.1. For example. this is explained in Section 4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. to ensure that type inference is still possible. Indeed. as described in Section 4. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable.2. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . or principal type . which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . . For example. possibly with respect to a context.4. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . these declarations contain a static error. i. However.5.1.1 Type Signatures .4. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. then each use of is treated as having the declared type.5. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.
54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. The following deﬁnition is pathological. Table 4.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. non. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. infixl.1 are invalid. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . 4. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. like a type signature. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). just like its type. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a .invalid . as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. declares a property of a particular operator. and ten precedence levels. (Class methods are a minor exception. and level 9 binds most tightly). For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. T a > a.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. left. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name.4.invalid are invalid. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . and infixr.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. respectively).and rightassociativity (infix. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. level 9 is assumed. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). Also like a type signature. . If the is omitted. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level.
. ˆˆ. >>= $. ‘Bar. ˆ.4. ‘Foo. $!.. ‘quot‘ +.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 .. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.) 4. /=.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators .1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ** :. ‘rem‘.4. >=. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>.4. ‘div‘. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. ‘elem‘. Here.op‘ is infixr 7. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ++ ==. <.. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar.op‘ is infix 3. ‘mod‘.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. ‘seq‘ Table 4.op‘ q) * 2 in . <=. /. >.
For example. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous.56 CHAPTER 4. otherwise. the latter.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. the binding is called a function binding.3. ¤ 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . namely: . and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. .4.
4. where a function bindings above. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. See the translation in Section 3. in other words. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. A simple pattern binding has form .4.12.3. . a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . A note about syntax.e. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.4.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
¦
¡
¦
£
¦
£
¦
¡
¦
¢ £¡
)
4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
¢
¢
6
¢
¢
¢
¢ & ¢
¢
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. However. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. len1 gets type Int.4. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous.g) = ((+).4. There is no danger of recomputation here.5. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. For example. Hence. module M1(len1) where default( Int. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. and not by any modules that import it. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1).()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions.3. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . in (f. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.
. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. For example. in the deﬁnitions above. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. 4. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. For example. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . Instead. for any kind . For example. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. for instance).e. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. synonym. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. respectively. a default of is assumed. respectively. using the default binding . type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). in such cases. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. a synonym S and a class C. i.64 CHAPTER 4.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . constructors. For example. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D.5.
When the program is executed.. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. must be called Main and must export the value main. We use the term entity to refer to a value.f >> B. making them available to other modules. and its result (of type ) is discarded. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). one of which. classes.f module A where f = . It exports some of these resources. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. imported into.5) is affected by module boundaries. etc..4). each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. and are not ﬁrst class values. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . Modules are used for namespace control. by convention.3. module B where f = .Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. Modules may be mutually recursive. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. type synonyms. 1 65 . the computation main is performed. A Haskell program is a collection of modules.. or perhaps exported from a module.. First. datatypes. Second.5. type. For example. (see Chapter 4). default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. or class deﬁned in.
Prelude. ). .6).e. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. classes. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported.3) that specify modules to be imported. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations ... © 5.. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . CHAPTER 5. There is one distinguished module. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. . . bf = . i. . consisting only of the module body.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. Section 5. Chapter 4). If this is used. etc. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. . type synonyms.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. ¦ ¦ § 5. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. is permitted. the module name. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. data types. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . (see Chapter 4). then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. optionally restricting the imported bindings. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). ( An abbreviated form of module.
or class method. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.) ( module . EXPORT LISTS 67 .8). If the export list is omitted. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. .Maybe( Nothing. or that it imports from some other module. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ .. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1.5. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. A value. must be in scope. ( . which must be in scope. For example. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5.2. . whether declared in the module body or imported. The constructor In all cases. may . ﬁeld name. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . A type synonym is in scope.) ( (.. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. The abbreviated form (.. ). the following is legal module A( Mb. all values. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. but not those that are imported. . where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. 3. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of .
item (1) above). a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. C. and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. must be in scope. item(2)).5.. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(.68 CHAPTER 5. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. MODULES The abbreviated form (. For example: module Queue( module Stack. dequeue ) where import Stack .g. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). This set may be empty. ). item (2)). one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . For example.1). It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). or by exporting an entire module (module M. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). For example module A ( C. ¡ £ .e”.). . In the second form..an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself.f. 5.. In all cases. enqueue. item (5)). g. names the class and some or all of its methods.. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax.g) g = f True .
rather than Lexically. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. . § 5. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ .f are different entities). ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.) refers to all of the constructors. hiding ( . they may also be used as variables. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration.) ( .3.f (assuming B. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. . or ﬁeld names exported from the module.3.) form of import is used for a type or class. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C.f and C. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.) ( (. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .5.g and g are different entities – remember. When the (. 5. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. The list may be empty. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. . ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . the (. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ .. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . the terminal symbols “as”. and between module B and C.g and g (assuming C.. methods..1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. modules can import each other recursively)..
Thus. For example. In contrast.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.3.’.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.+ 1) . This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. Finally. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. if ported.5. class. . the toplevel environment is extended. Section 5.3. MODULES 2.All Prelude names must be qualified .3.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. © 5.1. or type named C is excluded. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. using C in an import list names only a class or type. If the qualified keyword is omitted.3. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. exported by the imported module.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. ). is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.This + differs from the one in the Prelude . Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( .3) on the import statement. Hence. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. in fact.
A.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules.x. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. A. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. B.4).y In all cases.x x.f.y x. A.y A.x. A.x B. A.y y. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.x A.4.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists. y.y (nothing) A. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. B. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. suppose the module A exports x and y.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. 5. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. y.x. A.x. y.y (nothing) x. A.y A.5. A. B. B. 5.y x.3.x.x.
Thus.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. g x = M. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.f x x is legal. but does bring in any instances visible in M. that is. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to.ILLEGAL g x = let M.5. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. therefore.. 5. An import declaration.5. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: ..1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. For example. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.y = x+1 in .f respectively.. such as f or A. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. whether qualified or not. Thus: module M where f x = . A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list.4). there must be only one binding for f or A. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .3). A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.72 CHAPTER 5.. it is illegal to write module M where M... .f x = .f. MODULES module. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. .
. For example.. b. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. c.d.. and can be referred to in A by the names d. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.2). x. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B.. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. There is no reference to y.. and c declared in C respectively. B.x.x or C. and C. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. y = ..5. x. c.5. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B. d... b = .d.. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). y ) where import D x = . module C( d. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. or x declared in C.4.. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. ... x) module B( d. provided that the program does not mention those names. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. y = .. c = .sin (F. y ) where import D x = . the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. module D( d ) where d = ..
module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. called the “Standard Prelude.5. For example. That is.sin and F. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. the Prelude is contained in the . The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int.” In Haskell.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. However. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module.74 CHAPTER 5. classes. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. That is. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. However. 5. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. 5.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. and functions. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. That is. MODULES The references to Prelude.
These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. 5. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. and so on.6. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit.6. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. which provide less frequently used functions and types. For example. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. PreludeIO. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell.5. given in Chapter 8. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. For example: module A( null. but the implementation only gives a scheme. not part of the language deﬁnition. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. These modules are not part of Haskell 98.6.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. just like those from any other module. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. This means. and they cannot be imported separately. however. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. 5.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. complex numberss. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. arrays. they should be considered part of its implementation. for example.
to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. 5. for example. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . in terms of a different implementation of lists. On the other hand.x) and (. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x.76 CHAPTER 5.x) g x = (. For example. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. For example. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. however.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. the use of ++ is not special syntax. MODULES import Prelude statement. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. pop. For example. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. It is not possible. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. push. 5. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs.
stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. pop.5. push. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. and empty to construct such values.8. Instead. pop. For example. they must use push.
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
1. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. Ord.1. complex numbers. Enum. Eq.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. and not. Show.6. When appropriate. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. types. Enum. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. In this chapter. Eq. 6.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11].Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. 6. 6. and 79 .  (or). The basic boolean functions are && (and).4. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Ord. Show. Numeric types are described in Section 6.
’t’.Bool. map characters to and from the Int type. Lists are an instance of classes Read. and \n and \LF. Read. Show.’n’. written ‘[]’ (“nil”).Int) and (. . \r and \CR. that all their component types are). curry. and uncurry.1. Each tuple type has a single constructor. \f and \FF. and MonadPlus. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. Ord. \v and \VT. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. ASCII mnemonic escapes. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. standard functions from class Enum. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. as deﬁned in Section 3.6. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. (Int. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7.8.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. In addition. Ord. Bounded.. are described in Sections 3.11. ’i’.10 and 3. respectively.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. as described in Section 3. Bounded. Monad. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). and Show. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. \t and \HT.’ ’. However.’r’. Eq.) x y produce the same value. Ord. thus (x. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. Functor. \b and \BS. of course. 6.’s’. snd. although with special syntax.y) and (.80 CHAPTER 6. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. The same holds for tuple type constructors.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. Read. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’.7. thus.1. and the \ˆ notation. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.) Int Bool Int denote the same type.’g’] 6. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. All tuples are instances of Eq. For example. together with the instances for Eq. and Show (provided.
Monad. a function argument is evaluated only when required. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Read.1. and Part II contains many more. ($). See also Section 3. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8.2. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. the nullary constructor (). Ord. 6. that is. (. Ord. Show) member.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. 6.).6. 6. The unit datatype () has one non 6. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes.1. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. flip. Bounded. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Enum.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. const. Read. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. Enum.1. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6.1.9. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. and MonadPlus. Read. and until. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude.3). Ord. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Read. Ord. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. It is an instance of Show and Eq. Bounded.
3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. rightassociative binding precedence. such as map ($ 0) xs. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. $ has low.3. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. $! ($).1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. together with the default declarations. . then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. infixr 0 $. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. If there is no such comment. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. since seq can be used to distinguish them. 6. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' .2.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). Default class method declarations (Section 4.82 CHAPTER 6. 6. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. For the same reason. However. because it is available at every type. or zipWith ($) fs xs. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. As a consequence. However. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application.
Double RealFloat Float. Float. tuples Enum (). (>) Show All except IO. Double Fractional Float. Integer. Double Monad IO. Bool. Integer RealFrac Float. IOError Num Int. Double Bounded Int. Maybe Figure 6.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Maybe Functor IO. Double Real Int. (>) Ord All except (>) IO.3. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO.6. Float. Float. (>) Read All except IO. () Ordering. Char. Ordering. Int. Integer. []. Integer. Double Floating Float. []. Double Integral Int. Bool. Char.
All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. All basic datatypes except for functions. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. (>=). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . (<=). = = = = max x y) = (x. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. neither default method is used. If one is deﬁned.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. If both are deﬁned. .3. IO. 6.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. are instances of this class. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. each being deﬁned in terms of the other.y) or (y. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. then both will loop. and IOError.84 CHAPTER 6.
.3. and returns an ordinary String. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. is also provided.. show.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. rather than between square brackets. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. All Prelude types.3.. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.4). STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" ..read: ambiguous parse" ."") <. This is particularly useful for the Char type.6. are instances of Show and Read. by providing an instance declaration. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. (If desired. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.t) <. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. which uses precedence context zero.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. A specialised variant. ("". except function types and IO types.reads s.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x..) For convenience. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition.
m] [n.n’. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.m] . and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.3. For example. 6.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. It reads a single lexeme from the input. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.86 CHAPTER 6.. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.. of a value. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. If the input string contains only white space.10).4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. discarding initial white space. lex fails (i. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type.] [n. returns []). lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string."")].n’.. The enumFrom. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .] [n. respectively.e. see Chapter 10. used by read. (Thus lex "" = [("".. is also part of the Prelude. The function lex :: ReadS String. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor. The read function reads input from a string.. which must be completely consumed by the input process. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error..
all the list elements are the same. If the increment is zero. . or when they become less than for negative . Double. Bool. ]. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. If the increment is positive or zero. the list is empty if negative. Integer. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. For example. The increment may be zero or negative. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over.. and Ordering. .EQ. succ adds 1. the list terminates when . enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order.GT]. and Maybe are in this class. . £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ].6. . ]. For the types Int and Integer. For all four numeric types. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. . and pred subtracts 1. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . The semantics of these instances is given next. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). Float. Numeric types: Int. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. Lists. the list terminates when the next element would be less than .3. is . the list is empty if . IO. ¤ . the digits after the decimal point may be lost. . . ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . where the increment. 6. where the increment. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . In the case of Float and Double. [LT. is . ]. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. . Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. . ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. For example. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10.3. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . empty if is the list [ . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ .] is the list [LT.
and IO are all instances of Monad.3. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. In the Prelude. lists. for Maybe returns Nothing.88 CHAPTER 6. The fail method for lists returns the empty list [].14).6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. 6. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. Maybe.3). and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. g) id fmap f . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3.
¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . etc.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). but not all. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). page 83. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. In particular. single precision ﬂoating (Float). As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. Float is implementationdeﬁned. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. both real and complex. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6.3. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. NUMBERS 89 6. Figure 6. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at .4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. Similarly. indeﬁnite. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. (). or a special value such as inﬁnity. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards.1. Bool.2–6. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord.6. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). Ordering. 6.1. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq.4. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. a truncated value. an implementation may choose error ( . maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation.3. Char. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. since all numbers may be compared for equality. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. semantically). These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. The types Int. Some.
see section 3. 6. The quot. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. (*). An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.4) apply to all numbers. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).90 CHAPTER 6. rem. div. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. rem. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. and mod apply only to integral numbers. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient.5. The class methods quot. even . respectively. See Section 4.4.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. Similarly. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. (). remainder) pair. Ratio Integer).4. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones.3. div.
gcd 0 4 = 4. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. cosh. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . atanh :: a > a Figure 6. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . (*) negate abs. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power.6.4. Show (+). tan :: a > a asin. tanh :: a > a asinh. rem. acos. including zero. Enum a) quot. sqrt :: a > a (**).3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . log. gcd (3) (6) = 3. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. mod quotRem. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. 6.4. div. Part 1 Finally. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. acosh. logBase :: a > a > a sin. atan :: a > a sinh. cos. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . ().a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. NUMBERS class (Eq a. 0** is undeﬁned.
round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. isInfinite.a) b b class (Real a. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. Part 2 6.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. isDenormalized. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.92 CHAPTER 6. isNegativeZero. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations.4.
the greatest integer not greater than . If decodeFloat x yields ( . and floor . and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction.4.6. floor. respectively. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. floor. atan2 1. where is the value radix. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. For real ﬂoating and . and implementation. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. note that is the simplest rational of all. in particular. truncate. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . NUMBERS 93 6. pi]. floatDigits. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. ). where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . and tangent functions and their inverses. and sqrt are provided. then x is equal in value to . discontinuities. Default implementations of tan. logBase. and furthermore. ¢ ¢ 6. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. round returns the nearest integer to . See these references for discussions of branch cuts.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. The ceiling. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. cosine. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . tanh. truncate.4. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . The functions floatRadix. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. **.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. and: is an integral number with the same sign as .4. should return the same value as atan . with in a type that is RealFloat. inclusive. and with absolute value less than 1.
exponent 0 is zero. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. The functions isNaN. Fractional b) => a > b . significand x yields a value of the same type as x. but rather than an Integer. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers.94 CHAPTER 6. these may all return false. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. isInfinite. isDenormalized. isNegativeZero. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. scaled to lie in the open interval .
an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. Some operations are primitive actions. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. however. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. two characters of input. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. In the following. as deﬁned in the IO library. For example.6) sequentially compose actions. To achieve this. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.1. and which are described in this section. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. however. return and linefeed. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. In the case of the I/O monad.2).1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages.3. may read as a single newline character. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. the abstract values are the mentioned above. see Section 6. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. Actions. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful.
The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO..96 CHAPTER 7. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output.[0. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). Typically. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device.19]]) Input Functions terminal). print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. deﬁned the IO library. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. For example. which is read lazily as it is needed. 2ˆn)  n <.3) on endofﬁle.
as with getContents. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.2]]) 7. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". as with print. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. The ﬁle is read lazily. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. methods in the Monad class. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. to the ﬁle. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. their second argument. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation.1. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.2. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst.x*x)  x <. on demand.[0. The two monadic binding functions. To write a value of any printable type.0.. for example when it is (). type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes.7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. their ﬁrst argument.
Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. For example.getLine s <. . The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. The isEOFError function is part of IO library.98 CHAPTER 7. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user.getLine return (c:s) 7. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. otherwise. User error values include a string describing the error. For example. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch.
(>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.6) raises a userError. .bindings for return. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.7.. thus: instance Monad IO where .3. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.. (>>=).3. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.
100 CHAPTER 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .
The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. These functions are: take. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. given with class declarations. These imports are not. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). and PreludeIO. drop. Declarations for special types such as Integer. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. To take one particular example. as it pleases. The default method deﬁnitions. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. That is. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. indicated by names starting with “prim”. Prelude. PreludeList. IO. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. This structure is purely presentational. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. Some of these modules import Library modules. of the Library modules. nor are these three modules available for import separately. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. such as Char. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude.. an implementation is free to import more. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. Monad. !!. of course. and Numeric. An ellipsis “. PreludeText. and to improve efﬁciency. 101 . To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. and three submodules. such as Integral a or Num a.. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. length.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. or less. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. These modules are described fully in Part II.
for example genericLength. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. with the preﬁx “generic”. . The more general versions are given in the List library. and replicate.102 CHAPTER 8.
rem. RealFrac(properFraction. (/=)). realToFrac. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . recip. id. otherwise. module PreludeIO. and cannot legally appear in an export list. (>>). subtract. fromEnum. not. (>). (&&). lcm. Int.)((. cos. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). scaleFloat. enumFromTo. mapM_. asinh. atan. Real(toRational). Enum(succ. truncate. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. Ord(compare. (<=). but are denoted by builtin syntax. div. fromRational). toInteger). encodeFloat. Num((+). Monad((>>=). True). log. max. (). negate. gcd. Float. signum. snd. floatDigits.Contains all ‘prim’ values .)). (ˆ). fail). asTypeOf.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. sequence_. Rational. curry. (*). enumFrom. (=<<). enumFromThen. acos. acosh. error. Ordering(LT. flip. even. quotRem. fromIntegral. min). maybe. enumFromThenTo). List type: []((:). Functor(fmap). Fractional((/). isDenormalized. (. tan. pred. (ˆˆ). Char. fromInteger). sin. etc.). uncurry. fst. atan2). Bounded(minBound. abs. mapM. ceiling. floatRange. odd. const. sequence. exp. until. (. []) Tuple types: (. sqrt. seq. maxBound). Floating(pi. Right).. decodeFloat. Integer. Integral(quot. logBase. Either(Left.)). toEnum. ($). Double. return. significand. mod. IO. cosh. floor). tanh. asin.Unicode primitives . RealFloat(floatRadix. round. (>=). module PreludeText.. EQ. atanh). divMod. isInfinite. Just). either. String.)((. Maybe(Nothing. Bool(False. (). (**). sinh. isIEEE. GT). exponent. (<). undefined. isNaN. isNegativeZero.
Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.Standard types. (<=). >>= =<< $. min :: a > a > a . ‘mod‘ +.a fixity declaration. max x y) = (x.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). classes. and cannot legally be given .  . ˆˆ. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. ‘quot‘.note that (min x y. <. (>=). (/=) :: a > a > Bool . ˆ.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. <=. instances and related functions .Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. ‘rem‘. $!. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . /=. >=. ** *. ‘div‘.y) or (y. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . > &&  >>. STANDARD PRELUDE . /. ‘seq‘ .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).
. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .. fromEnum pred = toEnum .] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.105 .. (subtract 1) . Show a) => Num a where (+).. except x ..m] [n. fromEnum y . (). fromEnum . succ = toEnum ..Minimal complete All. fromEnum y .NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .] [n. (+1) . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.Minimal complete definition: toEnum..y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a.n’. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .n’. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.m] .Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ.] [n.. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.Numeric classes class (Eq a.
acos.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q.Minimal complete definition: pi.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. sqrt :: a > a (**). log. sinh. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. atan asinh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. logBase :: a > a > a sin.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. cosh asin. cos.106 class (Real a. Enum quot. cos. atanh :: a > a . acosh. log. acos. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. atan :: a > a sinh. rem div.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. sin.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. tanh :: a > a asinh. cosh.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . mod quotRem. exp.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. r+d) else qr quotRem n d .a) a > Integer . tan :: a > a asin. acosh.
a) b b .107 class (Real a.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .1 else n where (n. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.0._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .
STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.x or y is a NaN.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. isNegativeZero. isInfinite. significand.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . return a NaN (via +) . isDenormalized.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .108 CHAPTER 8. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. scaleFloat._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent.Numeric functions subtract subtract even.floatDigits x) where (m.
return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .The xxxM functions take list arguments.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toInteger :: (Real a.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). but lift the function or .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. toRational . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude.
.) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x . g = \ x > f (g x) . Enum.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ ..110 . Bounded) .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. for illustration only ..Character type data Char = . Ord.Primitive .Function type . Bounded) .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. Show. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = ..(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).function composition (. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .. .Not legal Haskell. Ord.. Enum. ’a’  ’b’ .Boolean functions (&&).identity function id :: a > a id x = x . Read.rightassociating infix application operators .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.
.Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. fromEnum c’ ... Read.... f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = ..abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . Ord. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Ord. Read. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . return = . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c. fail s = ioError (userError s) . .IO type data IO a = .
.... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . The data declarations for these types cannot ... . Ord... .... STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. instance Integral Integer where . .... ........... maxBound . . ... instance Eq Integer where . Enum.be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be .. Bounded) . ..112 ..Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.. ... . where where where where where where where where ... instance Num Integer where . data Integer = .. 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . instance Real Integer where . instance Ord Integer where .... .. . .... ......... .. instance Enum Integer where ... ... .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where .Standard numeric types.. . Read.. Show.. ... ... 1  0  1 .far too large.... .
where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.95].1 is represented. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . depending on how 0. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . However.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. Ord) . roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.Not legal Haskell.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. 0.0.1 ..
asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . Ord.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.c) deriving (Eq.) fst :: (a. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .Not legal Haskell. Bounded) (a.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.114 . quadruples. Bounded) .(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const. Ord. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.appears. It is usually used .component projections for pairs: .as an infix operator.b) > b = y . b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .y) :: (a.Misc functions . for illustration only .It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .b) = (a.(NB: not provided for triples.c) = (a. curry :: ((a.b) deriving (Eq.b) > a fst (x.b. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . STANDARD PRELUDE (a.y) = x snd snd (x.b. .undefined" . etc. and its typing forces its first argument .
words. which must be nonempty. of a list. ‘notElem‘ . all. span. scanr1. and. (!!). zipWith. minimum. zip3. foldl1.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. cycle. head. respectively.8. tail. zip. foldr1. unzip. unwords. replicate.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . repeat. concatMap. maximum.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . (++). notElem. foldl. last. zipWith3. scanl1.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. dropWhile. null. scanr. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. unlines. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. sum. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. elem. break. reverse. iterate. concat. splitAt. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. take. lookup. takeWhile. drop. foldr. or. rather than the beginning. scanl. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘.1. product. filter. length. lines.1 Prelude PreludeList . any. init.
!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. . from left to right: foldl f z [x1. reduces the list using the binary operator. . x2.. . scanl1 is similar..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. and a list..) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument. x2. .foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1.] == [z.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .. xn] == (. applied to a binary operator.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. scanl is similar to foldl... length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l ... . and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. z ‘f‘ x1. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. x1 ‘f‘ x2.] == [x1.... a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. x2. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude..List index (subscript) operator..] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.
drop n xs). scanr. foldr1. f x. returns the prefix of xs of length n.. with x the value of every element.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one.the infinite repetition of the original list. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .8.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. It is the identity . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs . or equivalently.on infinite lists.. .repeat x is an infinite list. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . or xs itself if n > length xs. applied to a list xs. or [] if n > length xs.iterate f x == [x. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs .replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . f (f x).foldr.above functions. . drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude.1.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .
drop n xs) takeWhile. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].xs) where (ys. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s .[a]) = (take n xs. dropWhile p xs). words breaks a string up into a list of words. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. Similary. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p.zs)  otherwise = ([].zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . s’’) = break Char. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char.[a]) span p [] = ([]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. while break p uses the negation of p. which were delimited by white space. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.
. .8. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude.g. results from a False .e. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . sum.Applied to a predicate and a list. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.of the list satisfies the predicate. maximum. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or . . finite.1. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. For the result to be ..reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. x ‘elem‘ xs.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 . Similarly. however.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . elem.which must be nonempty.True. or is the . for all. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. usually written in infix form.elem is the list membership predicate. the list must be finite.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. notElem is the negation. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . False. any. map p all p = and . and.disjunctive dual of and. any determines if any element . map p . and of an ordered type.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.
b) ˜(as. instead of a tupling function.b.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[]) :: [(a.[b]) = foldr (\(a.[b]. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.c:cs)) ([].unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.c)] = zipWith3 (.c)] > ([a].b.bs. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.cs) > (a:as.b:bs.b. For example.b)] = zipWith (.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a. If one input list is short.bs) > (a:as..[c]) = foldr (\(a.c) ˜(as. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] . excess elements of the longer list are discarded.[]) . zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.b)] > ([a].b:bs)) ([].120  CHAPTER 8.[].
readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.t) (xs. showString. reads t. readFloat.t)  ("]". Show(showsPrec.’ . lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. showInt.u) readl’ s = [([].hs import Char(isSpace.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . showChar.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. Maybe.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. shows x . readSigned.8. isAlphaNum.". readDec. isAlpha. readParen. Either.2. readLitChar. lex. showFloat. showList). lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. show.t)  ("]".v)  (". showl xs . readl’ u] . showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. shows x . Ordering .Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". isDigit.t) (x. showParen ) where .t) [(x:xs.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . shows.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS.u) (xs. read.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.s) pr where readl s = [([].u)  (x. showLitChar. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.t) [(x:xs. reads. ShowS. readList). PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. Read(readsPrec.
t)  (ch. <.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.reads s.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.t) <.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.’\’’:t) <. <.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&". u)  (ch."") <.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .t) <.t) (")". t)  (str.u)  ("(". p . STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".s) (x.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax. (str.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s . showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".lex r.lexLitChar s.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. .s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex t ] .u) <. ("".optional s.t) <.lexStrItem s. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.
t) <.bad character lexFracExp (’.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".Converting to Integer avoids .2. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].t) [(c:ds++fe.Reading at the Integer type avoids .lexDigits t] ++  (ds.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.[span isSym s]]  (nam..lexFracExp s ] .t) <.s)] [(c:sym. c ‘elem‘ "+".u)  (c:t) [(e:ds. toInteger .t) <.t) <.’:ds++e. (e.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.t) lexExp s = [("".readsPrec p r] . (ds.8.[s].s) <./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.t) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .u) <.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) [(c:nam.t) <.[span isDigit s].lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n . t)  (i.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.u) <.s)] <.lexDigits (c:cs). (fe.u)  (ds.
t) <. reads s.lex r.t)<. (c.t)  ("(".’ .readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .124 CHAPTER 8. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . showLitChar c .t) <. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" . Read b) => Read (a.u) (y._) <.".b) where showsPrec p (x.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. reads u.v) (")".s) <."\’") <.lex r. shows y . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.t)  (’\’’:s.Tuples instance (Show a.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x. (")".t)  (’"’:s. lex t. (cs.s) (x.y) = showChar ’(’ .t) <. w)  ("(".u) <.u)  (c . showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . shows x .t) (".lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".readLitChar s.w) .readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l. lex v ] ) .y).lex r. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). showChar ’. Show b) => Show (a.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. (l. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.
putStr. interact. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. print. readFile. putStrLn.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. readIO. getChar. Eq IOError where . :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . IOError. catch. ioError. userError. appendFile.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . getContents.8. writeFile.3...getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents .. getLine. putChar..
getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile . ("".readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.126 CHAPTER 8.t) <.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.readIO l return r .getLine r <.reads s.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x."") <.
. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. or for left. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). this is the “maximal munch” rule. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. . right. an associativity variable varies over .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. In the contextfree syntax. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . this means that conditionals. letexpressions. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. and may have a double index: a letter . Similarly. Thus. the nonterminals . for example actually stands for 30 productions. In the lexical syntax.or nonassociativity and a precedence level.
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .
. ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  . : :: = \  <.4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . . .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . .. LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .2.
If the innermost context is 0. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. (NB: a string literal it is not. provided that .e. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. because it is not preceded only by white space. nor before the . where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. in which each element is either: – Zero. the programmer supplied the opening brace. do. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill".. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program.) A stack of “layout contexts”.130 CHAPTER 9. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule.6. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. the token is inserted after the keyword.3 Layout Section 2. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. – A positive integer. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. where. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill.
A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. For the purposes of the layout rule. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. width as an ASCII character. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ .9. to avoid visual confusion. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . . assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. To determine the column number. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . and “ ” for the empty stream. all start a new line. ﬁxed. The deﬁnition of is as follows. However. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . .3. not 0. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator.
At the end of the input. Note 2. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. then the block must be empty. then the algorithm fails. because doing so involves ﬁxities.4. If none of the rules given above matches. Note 4. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. so empty braces are inserted. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. The token is replaced by . we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. since the close brace is missing. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. then parseerror is true. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar.15). ). Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. because it translates to let { x = e. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. and a nonlayout context is active. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. If not. Note 5. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). ¤ ¥ Note 6. Note 3. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. although they could be: for example let }. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar.e.132 CHAPTER 9. For example. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. any pending closebraces are inserted. y = x in e’ is valid. For example let x = e. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails.
Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.3.9. . LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.
though it may be stylistically desirable. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. all other lines are comment.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <.134 CHAPTER 9. In this convention. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. For example. with “. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. Using this style. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. all other lines are comment. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. By convention.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. 8 8 ¥¥8 . is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. of course).
product [1.. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle..n])  n <. . LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.9.[1.4.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension.
¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . . } } © 2§ . . . = => => => => . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . .) ( module . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . } . .. hiding ( . SYNTAX REFERENCE .... .) ( .) ( (. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( .) ( (. as . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . .
. . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . ] ) .5. ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { .
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SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9. ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . . . } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . . . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (.
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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142
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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instance (
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where {
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
(v.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.w) <.lex s.1: Example of Derived Instances .Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.146 CHAPTER 10.t)  ("Leaf".readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (":ˆ:". SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " . . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.t) <.Application has precedence one more than .w)  (u. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .lex r. (m.Precedence of :ˆ: .t) <.s) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.s) <.
2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. 11. Lexically. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. . except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. pragmas appear as comments. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. 11. For example. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE .
COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.148 CHAPTER 11. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. .
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. For example. Ord (Ratio a) where . a) => Read (Ratio a) where ... Real (Ratio a) where . Num... Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where ..Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. denominator... there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type .Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = ... RealFrac (Ratio a) where .. Fractional (Ratio a) where .. numerator. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over .. RealFrac.. Enum (Ratio a) where . (%). For each Integral type . 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Real. If is a bounded type. Enum. Read. and Show. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. Fractional.. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator.. Num (Ratio a) where .. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. the results may be unpredictable... reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. Ord. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. Show (Ratio a) where . denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a.. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. In each case.. Rational. Ratio is an abstract type.
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function.152 CHAPTER 12. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and .
numerator. (%). denominator. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio..1. Rational.12. E. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio.1 Library Ratio . denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y . LIBRARY RATIO 153 12.g.
u)  (x. (y. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .s) <.154 CHAPTER 12.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. showString " % " . Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.u) <.t) <. r:%y) where (q. ("%". showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .lex s.r) = quotRem n d (q’.
The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. Put another way.. realPart.. . (RealFloat a) realPart. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle ... if the magnitude is zero. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ).. imagPart. conjugate. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. ..Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).. . . then so is the phase... The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . cis.. in the range .. and the phase. the entire number is . 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . . polar. magnitude.. mkPolar. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is .
The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. realPart. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. mkPolar. whereas signum has the phase of . polar.156 CHAPTER 13. abs is a number with the magnitude of . COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. but oriented in the positive real direction. cis. 13.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .a) = (magnitude z. conjugate.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is.Read. but unit magnitude. magnitude.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . imagPart.
13.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .
z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.158 CHAPTER 13.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 . COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.u’) else (u’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .v) = if x < 0 then (v’.
readInt. readDec. readHex. showSigned. showFFloat. showGFloat. floatToDigits. readFloat. showInt. showFloat.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. readOct. showEFloat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showOct. showIntAtBase. readSigned. showHex.
showEFloat. 245000. and 16 respectively. is the precedence of the enclosing context. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a.160 CHAPTER 14. 1.999.5e3). More speciﬁcally. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. 0. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. showInt. In what follows.1 and 9. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second.45e2. 2.0015). showFFloat. is the value to show. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0.g.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string.String)] 14. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. and is a function that can show unsigned values. if is Just . the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. 8.999. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . many of which are used in the standard Prelude. In the call showSigned . plus an exponent. .g. showOct. if is Nothing. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise.
In the hexadecimal case. showInt. showSigned.14. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . floatToDigits. showOct. is the base. readHex. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. showHex. readDec.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. 14. numerator. and hexadecimal notation respectively. given a reader for an unsigned value. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14.2. isOctDigit. showEFloat. showIntAtBase.) 14. showFloat. readFloat. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. readOct. readDec. octal. in decimal. denominator ) (!). readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. readOct. Array. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. isHexDigit digitToInt. showFFloat. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. In the call readInt . lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. showGFloat.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. intToDigit ) (%). readSigned. readInt. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. ( ( isDigit.
first. This should be used in the . or p (the exponent) <= minExp.it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). p) . NUMERIC . fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . . .Fractional instances of Float and Double.Handle exceptional cases .Conversion process: . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .that we got from the scaling.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .a first guess of the exponent.162 CHAPTER 14. scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.This converts a rational to a floating.the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .p .
digit to char > a .maxExpt) [(n. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.base > (Int > Char) .2ˆn)  n <. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . showOct.s) (x.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .4. maxExpt]] 163 ."") <<<< lex r.showInt.s)  (str. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else .Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b. .. read’’ s] lex r. readPos str] .Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.t)  ("". showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.t) read’’ r = [(n.Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.s) (n. .number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .[minExpt .14. showOct.
readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .These are the format types. readOct.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. digToInt) ds).164 CHAPTER 14.r) <.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.nonnull isDig s ] . readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . . r)  (ds. NUMERIC . .
’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.14.4.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.0e0" [d] > d : ".’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing . LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) . e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.
Print 0. . rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. is) > (0. if floatToDigits r = ([a. NUMERIC ++ ’. It should be improved.’ : s . replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. b.. K. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.base1]) . e) .z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].ab. in PLDI 96. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. not . In general.G. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . is) (1.when the format specifies no . z].Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei.. Burger and R. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. Int) .. not 34. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.and an exponent.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’.’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.. []) f d (i:is) = let (c. 0:ds) else (0.Print 34.166 CHAPTER 14. .digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. .then r = 0.34. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. is) > (1. Dybvig.
(p . 1. 1) else (f*2.the real minimum exponent .the following will err on the low side. b) else (f*be*2. be. .p 167 . 2.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . e0+n) else (f0. be*b.will have an impossibly low exponent.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). Ignoring . mUp.14.4. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.the fraction will make it err even more. s. bˆ(e)*2.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . Adjust for this.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. bˆ(e+1)*2. 2*b. e0) (r. e) = let n = minExp . b. f :: Integer e :: Int (f.
’ is optional. (k.t) <.d) <. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds). rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.t) <.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).t)  (n. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.lexDigits r.t) <.t) <.d.point than the Haskell lexer. The ‘.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.168 CHAPTER 14.readFix r.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".s) <.t)  (cs@(_:_).t) <. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.[span p s]] . k) in .lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True. t)  (ds. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.t)  (k.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .t) <. False) > dn : ds (False.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. (ds’. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. t)  ("Infinity". length ds’. t)  ("NaN".
and a subscript..u) map index (range (l.. where .Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. instance instance instance instance (Ix a... the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers..et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . .. inRange.... which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range. The index operation maps a bounding pair. and inRange. index.u) i == i .u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. . The Ix class contains the methods range.u)] 169 .u) !! index (l.u)) == [0.. Ix b) .a) > (a. to an integer. .a) > (a.when i is in range inRange (l. index. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). The range operation enumerates all subscripts.b) where where where where .. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a..a) > (a..rangeSize (l.
For an enumeration. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.Blue) index (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.1. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive.Green.e. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. For example. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.3.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes.3). the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.Blue] 1 False . Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.170 CHAPTER 15.
...u1) i1 && inRange (l2.. i2 <.Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .uk)) (i1.l’)..uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.l’)..l2.b) where range ((l..u2).1: Derivation of Ix instances .uk) * ( index (lk1. ..u2.i2.(u1.a2.(u1.i’) = index (l.u’)) = [(i.u2) i2 && ...ik) = inRange (l1.. .. Ix a2.... Ix ak) => Ix (a1.i’) = inRange (l.range (l’. i’ <..u) i && inRange (l’...u).range (l.l2.(u..u’)) (i.u1).range (lk.uk)] index ((l1.lk).15....u) i * rangeSize (l’.(u1..ik)  i1 <.u’)) (i..lk)..u2.... && inRange (lk...ik) = index (lk.instance (Ix a1.(u.i2...l2.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.1.lk).uk1) * ( . .i’)  i <..range (l2.u’) i’ inRange ((l. index (l1.u1))) inRange ((l1.(u. Ix b) => Ix (a...uk) ik Figure 15..u’) i’ ...ak) where range ((l1.....u2.. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a..u’) + index (l’.uk)) = [(i1...l’)..u’)] index ((l.i2. ik <.uk)) (i1.range (l1.
" inRange (c..n] index b@(c.n] index b@(m.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.as derived. for all tuples Ix Bool .a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.2) <= (2.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a..NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" ." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.Ix b) => Ix (a.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.1) .as derived Ix Ordering .c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci ." inRange (m.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.index: Index out of range.n) i = [m.index: Index out of range.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.n) = [m.2).n) = [m.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix. index.as derived .n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .. inRange.(2.index: Index out of range.m)  otherwise = error "Ix. For example.n) index b@(m.m error "Ix.172 CHAPTER 15. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.n] = = = i . b) .a) > [a] index :: (a.as derived Ix () . (1.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .fails if the bounds are tuples.
Ix b) => (a..export all of Ix for convenience Array.. . a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => . Show b) Read a..Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. // => Array a b = . a.. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a. . a.. array. indices..Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.. bounds. accum.. accumArray. (//).a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a..a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. elems.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. . assocs.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a) > [(a. listArray.b)] > Array a b (a. 173 .b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a.. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !.a) > [(a. (!). ..
1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. Typically. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. elems. Figure 16. in any dimension. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.10)). The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds.100) ((1. For example. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds.1) : [(i. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. elements. but nonstrict in the values. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. If any two associations in the list have the same index. ).. Since most array functions involve the class Ix.e. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . each of the index type of the array. An association (i.[2. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. but empty.(10. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. return lists of the indices.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. 16. in index order.e. If. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. in that order. arrays are treated as data. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. then the array is legal. 16. respectively.10). this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components.174 CHAPTER 16. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. in particular. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. accumArray. i * a!(i1))  i <. ).1). using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index.1. ).e. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. and assocs. . The array is undeﬁned (i. or associations.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. The functions indices. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. not as general functions. when applied to an array. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. Thus. An array may be created by the function array. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i.
z)  i <.1: Array examples function.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.2. 1)  i<is.range b] = bounds a 175 .16. as for the array function. i)  i <. n by n matrix. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i.range b]) 0 0 .Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i.n]] is the same matrix. Num b) => (a. unlike ordinary arrays. a!i * x)  i <. then accumArray is strict in the values. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. except with the diagonal zeroed. then m//[((i. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. if m is a 1origin. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . the second is an initial value. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. For example. Thus. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. 16. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES .2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument.. in the association list.[1. 0)  i <.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i.) For example. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.range b] where b = bounds a . given a list of values of some index type. (As with the array function. as well as the indices.i). Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.
u’) (\j>(i.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.176 CHAPTER 16.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’. ARRAYS .A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a. . indices. (!).y)>x) Figure 16.(u.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.2: Derived array examples 16.i)) x where ((l.export all of Ix Array. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.a) (a > b) deriving () .u) (\i>(i. Figure 16._)) = bounds x . Ix b) => a > Array (a. accum. array. assocs.l’). accumArray. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right._). (//).(_. listArray.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.j)) x where ((_. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. elems. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. respectively.u’)) = bounds x . 16.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. bounds. with the mapping that the original array embodies.2 shows some examples.
a) > [(a.ivs.b)] = [(i. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where . bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <. a!i)  i <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.range b]) :: (Ix a.v) <.a) > [(a.z)  i <._) <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . Ix b) => (a.v) > a // [(i.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.a!i)  i <. f) instance (Ix a.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.indices a.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i._) <.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.4.16.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a. a ! f i)  i <.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.
178 instance (Ix a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s.s) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.lex r. Show a. (b. (as. showChar ’ ’ . u)  ("array". Read a.u) <.t) <. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.
179 .
[]). unzip5.. span. foldl1. sum. zip4. zip6. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. unzip7. splitAt. maximumBy. minimum. dropWhile. intersectBy. intersect. unzip6. deleteBy. takeWhile. null. take. length. genericIndex..[]((:). foldr. . genericSplitAt. zip3. maximum. zipWith. findIndex. concat. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . find. scanl1. drop. zipWith3. concatMap. zipWith4. all. genericLength. genericReplicate. transpose. elem. product. genericDrop. unlines. group. unfoldr. union. sortBy. scanr1. zipWith7. replicate. (\\). sort. unwords. findIndices. deleteFirstsBy. iterate. lookup. mapAccumL.This is builtin syntax map. cycle. scanr. filter. scanl. reverse. unionBy. any. unzip4. nubBy. foldr1. break. inits. init. mapAccumR. minimumBy. or. elemIndices. groupBy. tails. zipWith5. zip5. (!!). genericTake. last. notElem. zipWith6. tail.180 CHAPTER 17. zip7. and. zip. lines. isPrefixOf.and what the Prelude exports . foldl. words. (++). . insert.. isSuffixOf. insertBy. delete. nub. intersperse. head. partition. repeat. unzip.
d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.b.b.e.[b].d. c)) > a > [b] > (a. .[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c.b.b.c.[d].b.d.c.[b].g)] > ([a].c.d.c.[b].f.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[e]) :: [(a.e)] > ([a].b.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[c].[f]) :: [(a.b.c.[f]. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.[d].e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.d)] > ([a].[e].e.[c].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a. c)) > a > [b] > (a.[d].b.[e].[d]) :: [(a.[c]. [c]) (a > b > (a.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].c.c.e.d.e.f.[c].d.d.[b].f)] > ([a].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].
delete. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.g.6. (\\). Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). union is list union. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. [1. if there is no such element.2.3] = [1.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. e.3. findIndex returns the corresponding index. if any. or Nothing.4. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).4] ‘intersect‘ [2. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. e. Thus.g. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. In the result of xs \\ ys.g. LIST UTILITIES 17..4.1. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. e. giving the occurrences of val in list. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type.. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. For example: nub [1.182 CHAPTER 17. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.3.8] == [2.3. of val in list as Just index.4] . 17.3.
"i". partition p xs == (filter p xs.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument. e.g.3. tails "abc" == ["abc".d."ab".3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument."ss". intersperse ’.c. 17.6]] == [[1.4].."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn. respectively. adjacent elements.5. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. e."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list. "c". group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. "bc".g.17.e.2. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm."i"."pp". For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". i.5].4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. transpose [[1. filter (not .b.[4.’ "abcde" == "a. shortest ﬁrst. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function. longest ﬁrst.3]. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).[2. For example: ."ss".."i". inits "abc" == ["". mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright."a".[3.
6 The “By” operations By convention. sortBy. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. minimumBy. maximumBy.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. isPrefixOf. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. unionBy. insertBy. intersectBy. 17. . when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. elemIndices. sufﬁx) of the second argument.184 CHAPTER 17. f x)) In some cases. deleteBy. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. For example. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. The library does not provide elemBy. groupBy. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\).y) f’ z = Nothing 17. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.
The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. and 7 arguments. and zipWith3.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. . unzip. For example. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. genericTake. genericDrop. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericLength is a generalised version of length. unzip3. 5. 6. zip3.7. zipWith. genericSplitAt. genericIndex (the generic version of !!).17. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. genericReplicate.
mapAccumL. . unwords. zipWith6. zip7. genericIndex. zipWith3. foldr. genericDrop. tail. span. elem. group. last. insertBy. groupBy. or. notElem. lookup. splitAt. maximum. (++). genericTake. take. zip4. null.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. LIST UTILITIES 17. []).]. break. concatMap. inits. any. deleteBy. sum. . unzip4. nub. union. lines. reverse. drop. zipWith5. words. nubBy. sortBy. init. minimumBy. scanl. filter. repeat. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. head. intersect. zip. zipWith4. elemIndices.. unzip6. partition. transpose. (\\). maximumBy. genericSplitAt. zipWith7. intersperse. takeWhile. and. iterate. product. foldl. isPrefixOf. tails. findIndex. dropWhile. mapAccumR.. unlines.zip xs [0. isSuffixOf. zipWith. replicate. all. zip5. scanr1.186 CHAPTER 17.This is builtin syntax map. unzip5. cycle. foldr1. intersectBy. sort. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) .[]((:). unionBy. insert. concat. (!!). unfoldr. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . scanl1. zip3.and what the Prelude exports . findIndices. find. unzip7. genericLength. deleteFirstsBy. scanr. zip6..i) <. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . unzip. foldl1. delete.. minimum. length. genericReplicate.
[]] = [[1."ss".elements."i".. p) xs) .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].2]."ss". transpose [[1.9.[5]] .xs. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.For example.5].[3. .4].17."i". e.[2. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ . any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."i".4."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.[a]) = (filter p xs. adjacent .transpose is lazy in both rows and columns."pp".group "Mississippi" == ["M".3].Note that [h  (h:t) <. filter (not .g.
"ab".g. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.g.."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. y:ys) where (s’’.. []) = (s’’.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. []) = (s’’. ["abc".y:ys) where (s’.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17.y ) = f s’ x (s’. shortest first. "c". y ) = f s x (s’’.e. longest first. c)) > a > [b] > (a. ["".b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.inits xs returns the . [c]) = (s."a". c)) > a > [b] > (a. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . [c]) = (s. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys.tails xs returns the . "bc".e.
genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .17.xs) = ([].xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.[]) = = = (x:xs’.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs’’) error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.9.[b]) = ([]. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].
c:cs..g)] = zipWith7 (..cs..f.ds) > (a:as.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c.b..e.[].b.[]...) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.c.c..d.b.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.b:bs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.[d]) = foldr (\(a...c.c.f)] = zipWith6 (.b.e)] = zipWith5 (.d.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.c.d)] > ([a].190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.e..d:ds)) ([].d.b.[c].[b]..bs.b.d)] = zipWith4 (.d) ˜(as.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 ...
g:gs)) ([].d.b.e.[]) :: [(a.c.f:fs)) ([].[g]) = foldr (\(a.[c].d.[b].[].ds.[].c.g) ˜(as.b:bs.e) ˜(as. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.f) ˜(as.b:bs.c.e.f:fs.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .b.e.g)] > ([a].[d].es) > (a:as.[e].e)] > ([a].c.d:ds.[].fs.17.c:cs.cs.b.[].[e].[].c.[d].ds.bs.f.[d].[].[e]) = foldr (\(a.[b].cs.c:cs.[].d.[f].f)] > ([a].d.ds.[c].b.cs.[].[].9.[].es.[c].b.[f]) = foldr (\(a.gs) > (a:as.fs) > (a:as.e:es)) ([].e.e:es.f.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.d:ds.d.c:cs.b.c.[].bs.es.d:ds.e:es.b:bs.bs.[b].d.[].
192 CHAPTER 17. LIST UTILITIES .
catMaybes. which would cause the expression to become monadic. 193 . isNothing. maybe ) where isJust.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. maybeToList.. mapMaybe. as would happen if error were used. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude.. and without using IOError from the IO monad.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. Just).. . fromMaybe. listToMaybe. fromJust. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing.
catMaybes.. listToMaybe. isNothing.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. fromJust..and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not ..fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. maybeToList. . Just). fromMaybe.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. map f .194 CHAPTER 18. mapMaybe. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.
isPrint. isPrint. isLatin1. and other printable characters. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isOctDigit.. any 195 ... isLatin1. String ) where isAscii. . lower case alphabetic. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isSpace. lexLitChar. other alphabetic. isSpace. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isControl.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. For the purposes of Haskell. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. showLitChar. isUpper. chr. intToDigit. isUpper. digitToInt. numeric digits. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. isHexDigit. toUpper. ord. isDigit. isDigit. isAlpha. toLower. isControl. isLower. isHexDigit. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isAlphaNum. isOctDigit. isLower. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting.and what the Prelude exports Char. readLitChar. isAlpha.
"Hello")] [(’\n’.’F’). here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit.’9’. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter.. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers.’f’. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. and title).e. For each sort of Unicode character. leaving any other character unchanged..196 CHAPTER 19. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. isOctDigit. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. The function readLitChar does the same. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int.15. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.. . Similarly. lower. ’0’. ’a’.. ’A’. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. leaving any other character unchanged. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".
LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.1. . isPrint. toLower. String ) where import Array .19. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isOctDigit.digitToInt: not a digit" .Used for character name table. toUpper. isControl. showLitChar. isPrint.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isLatin1.’Z’ .Charactertesting operations isAscii. isAlphaNum. isLower...’a’..and what the Prelude exports Char.. isLatin1. digitToInt. lexDigits. readLitChar.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isDigit. readOct.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isSpace. ord. isAlpha. isHexDigit. lexLitChar. isSpace. intToDigit. isHexDigit. isLower.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. . chr. isDigit.’A’.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . isControl. isUpper. import Numeric (readDec. isUpper.Source of primitive Unicode functions.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . isAlpha.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower .. readHex) import UnicodePrims . isOctDigit.
s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i . ([].t) <. t)  (n.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.t) <.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’. t)  (n.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s’) <.ord ’@’). t)  (n.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’. mne) <.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.t) <.10) error "Char.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.s’)  (c.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.table.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .
"EM". "SI". "VT". "DC1". "CAN". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ .s)] [] .1.s) = (c:t. "RS". "STX". "ESC". "DC3". "US". "DC4". "BEL". "DC2". ’ ’) ["NUL". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t.Very crude approximation to \XYZ.s)] . "NAK". "ACK". "SYN". "GS". "SO". "ETB".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "HT".c]. "SUB". "DLE". "ETX". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "BS". "LF". "CR". "SOH". "FS". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "ENQ". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "FF".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] .19.
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
sequence_. unless. fail). > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM5. liftM4. (>>). msum. mplus).and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). (=<<). ap. filterM.. zipWithM. liftM. return. .. Functor(fmap). ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. guard.c)) > [a] > m ([b].202 CHAPTER 20. mapM_. zipWithM_.. liftM3. mapAndUnzipM. mapM. join. when. liftM2. foldM. sequence.
and provides some useful operations on monads. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.20.1. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. 20. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. for example. Thus. So. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where .
which promotes function application. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations.f a1 x1 a3 <. . .. putStr ": ". x2.1] [0.2. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. For example. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads..f a2 x2 . For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. For example. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. xm ] == do a2 <. and otherwise do nothing.. preﬁxing each line with its line number. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). liftM2 (+) [0.2] = [0. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. The function arguments are scanned left to right...3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. foldM f a1 [x1.204 CHAPTER 20. putStrLn line) [1. MONAD UTILITIES 20.. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. the input list should be reversed. returning the result as a pair of lists.1.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl.
.. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .. xn 205 . ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .20..3.
msum. MONAD UTILITIES 20.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. guard. zipWithM. ap. join. return. liftM. (=<<).. mapM.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). filterM..c)) > [a] > m ([b]. foldM. zipWithM_. when. . [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . mapAndUnzipM. unless. unzip . (>>).Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . ) where .206 CHAPTER 20. mplus). liftM4. sequence_. liftM5. mapM_. liftM2.. fail).The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . Functor(fmap). sequence. liftM3.
b’ <.a.filterM p xs. d’ <.d.a.b. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.b.e. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } . return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <. b’ <.d.p x. d’ <.4. b’ <. c’ <.a. ys <.c.a.a. e’ <.c. c’ <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.b.b.c. c’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.20. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
Enum. stderr. instance Eq HandlePosn where . interact.. putStrLn. Read. instance Show Handle where .. Ix. hGetPosn. ioeGetFileName. hIsEOF. hClose. catch.. Ord.SeekFromEnd).RelativeSeek. Ord. BufferMode(NoBuffering.. bracket_. readIO. hFlush. hIsOpen. isEOFError. isPermissionError. Read. stdout. hGetBuffering. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. hSetPosn.BlockBuffering). Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq.. openFile. getChar. isUserError.LineBuffering.AppendMode. isFullError. Show) stdin. hIsWritable. hSetBuffering. hReady. hIsSeekable.. Enum. hIsClosed. ioeGetErrorString. hPutChar. ioError. Ix. hPutStrLn.implementationdependent .WriteMode. isEOF.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. hGetContents. putStr. isIllegalOperation. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . hWaitForInput.. HandlePosn. instance Eq Handle where . writeFile. IOMode(ReadMode. hGetLine. appendFile. IOError. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = .implementationdependent . stdout. hPrint. putChar..210 CHAPTER 21.. . hFileSize. FilePath.. Ord. hSeek.. hGetChar. print. Bounded. userError. try. stdin. hLookAhead. ioeGetHandle. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq.and what the Prelude exports IO. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . getContents. isAlreadyInUseError.ReadWriteMode). Read.. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. Bounded. readFile. isAlreadyExistsError. isDoesNotExistError.implementationdependent . getLine. bracket. hPutStr. data HandlePosn = . hIsReadable.
Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported.211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. This library contain more advanced I/O features. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .
the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. which is already being used (for example. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). for all other errors. In some cases. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. The bracket function captures a common allocate. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. CHAPTER 21. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. and Nothing otherwise. compute. This is an abstract type. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail.212 are contained in the Directory library. the string is implementationdependent. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. All these functions return a Bool. and False otherwise.
For simplicity. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. closed or semiclosed. Physical ﬁles are persistent. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. In some implementations. although it could in fact be a communication channel. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging.2. File and directory names are values of type String. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). . represented by values of type Handle.21. likewise. whether it is open. Files can be opened. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. whether buffering is disabled. ordered ﬁles.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects.2. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. whether the object is seekable. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. and normally reside on disk. or any other object recognised by the operating system.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. 21. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. a buffer (whose length may be zero). no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. or enabled on a line or block basis. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. These handles are initially open. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
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Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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21.9. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21.9. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. which is made semiclosed.10.9. EXAMPLES 219 21.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .10.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . 21.21. blocking until a character is available. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. 21.
openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.getArgs h1 <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.x2 readNum = readLn 21.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1. using string I/O is: .Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.f2] <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.10. This version uses characterlevel I/O. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.
actions that IO exports.21. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.11 Library IO module IO {.11. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .f return (Right r)) (return .readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.f2] <.before rs <.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.before rs <.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .export list omitted } where .getArgs s <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
readable. doesDirectoryExist... removeFile. searchable ). > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . .224 CHAPTER 22. executable. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. getCurrentDirectory. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where ... renameDirectory. setPermissions.. doesFileExist.. executable. createDirectory. writable. .. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. getDirectoryContents.. . setCurrentDirectory. getPermissions. removeDirectory. renameFile. writable.
or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. inaccessible. Error reporting. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. or may not be in use by other processes). removes an existing directory . it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory.. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. If the object already exists. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. however. Some entries may be hidden. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. Note that. directory etc. or have some administrative function (for instance. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. Entries in subdirectories are not. in particular. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes).225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system.1. as described in Section 21.). The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. Error reporting. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. it is atomically replaced by the object. considered to form part of the directory contents. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . it is removed as if by removeDirectory. but the constraints must be documented. renaming to an existing directory. A directory contains a series of entries. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation.” under POSIX). all other permissible errors are described below. removal of the root directory). The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. If the directory already exists.” or “. it is atomically replaced by the directory. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. the directory has to be empty. In some operating systems. or across different physical devices). “. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories.
Note that to change some. doesFile(Directory)Exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. but not to examine the directory contents. For directories. not as an absolute path. respectively. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. and False otherwise. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . but the constraints must be documented. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. ¦ ¦ . Error reporting.226 CHAPTER 22. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. Error reporting. the executable ﬁeld will be False. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. renaming across different physical devices). and False otherwise. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. but not all permissions. Error reporting. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. Each entry in the changes . The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. makeReadable f = do p <. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . a construct on the following lines must be used. get(set)Permissions.
or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. . The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.227 does not exist.
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. getArgs. If variable is undeﬁned. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. getEnv. getProgName. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. Ord. Read. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised.ExitFailure).1. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Note that. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. system. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . exitWith. as described in Section 21. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . all other permissible errors are described below. In particular. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. in particular.
but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). returning to the program’s caller. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . Otherwise.230 CHAPTER 23. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . Before the program terminates. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . could not recover. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch.
231 .
Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Month(January.February.September. tdHour. Bounded. addToClockTime. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctYear. Ord. instance Ord ClockTime where . tdHour. tdMin. Int. getClockTime. ctYDay.August. tdSec.. ctHour. Int. Enum. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.Tuesday. ctIsDST). ctMin.June..Monday. String. Read. ctWDay. Integer. toClockTime.. calendarTimeToString.. Day. tdYear. Day(Sunday.Wednesday. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Read. .November. tdDay.232 CHAPTER 24. ctMin. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Bounded. tdMin.October. Month. Ord. Ix. Read. ctSec.April.Thursday. tdMonth. ctPicosec. TimeDiff(TimeDiff.. Enum. tdDay. tdMonth. July.Saturday). Int. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.May. Show) . ctDay. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. ctTZName. Ord.December). tdSec :: Int. Ix.March. diffClockTimes. toUTCTime. ctHour. toCalendarTime. ctTZ. Ord.. tdPicosec). ctMonth. instance Eq ClockTime where .Friday. Read.
including timezone information. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. used for the system’s internal clock time. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. ClockTime is an abstract type.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Because of this dependence on the local environment. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time.233 . The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. and False otherwise.
and ﬁelds. t © S§ 24. Read.Thursday. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.Saturday). . Enum. Bounded.May... toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .September. tdDay. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(.). Ix.Monday.December). tdHour.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime.. . tdMin.234 § CHAPTER 24. ctTZ. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . Bounded. Day(Sunday. Ord. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. tdPicosec).. Ix.Friday. tdMonth. ctPicosec.. instance Eq ClockTime where . toCalendarTime..November. . toUTCTime. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. toClockTime. getClockTime. Enum. ctMin. ctMonth. calendarTimeToString.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . ctSec. July.June.August.April. ctYear. Ord. Month(January. tdSec.Wednesday.February. ctWDay.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdYear. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. ctTZName. ctHour. diffClockTimes. ctIsDST). ctDay.October.Tuesday. instance Ord ClockTime where .March.. addToClockTime. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. ctYDay. Read.
tdDay.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .. .. :: ClockTime = .. Ord. ctHour. Int. tdSec :: Int. Integer.. Read.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . > ClockTime > ClockTime . ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq..Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . Month. tdMin. :: ClockTime = .. Int. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear.24. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Day.. :: ClockTime = .1. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.. .. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int.. Ord.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . Read. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . tdMonth.. tdHour. ctMin. Int.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . String..Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .
DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . ..1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then ..if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .236 CHAPTER 24. days) = (yday + 7 .
if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).1. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. show2’. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.24.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.). it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. At present. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. amPm :: (String. String). dateTimeFmt. 239 . timeFmt. String)]. dateFmt.. months :: [(String. Ord. String)].Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
This is very useful in functional programs (for example. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. . or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float.1. g) .Int) next :: g > (Int. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. For example. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator.27. ¦ ¡ ¡ . The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. 27. and a new generator. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. then . That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. or by supplying a seed from some other source.Default method genRange g = (minBound. g) split :: g > (g.1 The RandomGen class. – genRange – If genRange .4] are the only examples we know of). The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).
.. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. In addition. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given... But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed).Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where .. of course. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. instance Read StdGen where . . A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. Implementation warning. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g.. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. It is required that read (show g) == g. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string.246 CHAPTER 27. Until more is known about implementations of split. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .3]. split g = (g.. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. then g1 and g2 should be independent. . mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. supply their own instances of RandomGen. variantOf g) Here. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. Programmers may.. by mapping an Int into a generator. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. In general. Again. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators.. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.. instance Show StdGen where .
depending on the implementation and the interval. together with a new generator. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int..2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. randomRs and randoms.. random does the same as randomR. . .a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . the range is normally the whole type. .. .. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 .g’) = random g randomRs = . – For fractional types. such as Char). It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .2.. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.. but they may be. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . . – For Integer. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a... produce an inﬁnite list of random values. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.... but does not take a range. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. and do not return a new generator. .similar... a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a.27. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27.. The plural versions... a) > g > (a.
Comm ACM 31(10).3 The global random number generator There is a single.sbg. Oct 1988.mat. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. “Distributed random number generation”. randomRIO and randomIO. pp11921201.248 CHAPTER 27. April 1992. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function.at/ is a great source of information.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. Journal of Functional Programming. For example. pp8289. global random number generator of type StdGen. by using the time of day. “Random number generators .ac. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. implicit. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. Jan 1990.3). 27. 33(1). and KW Miller. To get deterministic behaviour. [4] P Hellekalek. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. 2(2):203212. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. for example. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. respectively. [3] DG Carta. Comm ACM. use setStdGen. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. pp8788. updates it with one of the results. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). and returns the other. . setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. [2] SK Park. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. The Web site http://random. July 1998.
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55. 177 acos. 142 =<<. see also negation . 104. 104. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 142 >>. 156 ::. 104. 67. 186. 80 \\. 91. 104. 84. 115 . 115. 176. 139 ambiguous type. 55.Index font. see lambda abstraction \&. 109 _. 92. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 91. 55. 110 /. 19 function. 55. 104. 81. 91. 104. 109 ˆˆ. see operator application approxRational. 90. 25. 90. 55. 182 \a. 139 algebraic datatype. 129 any. 230 ˆ. 174. 91. 30 <. 106 addToClockTime. 84. 129 ap. 79. 153 &&. 142 :. 66 abs. 109 @.). see function application operator. 25. 110 %. 104. 104. see aspattern [] (nil). 119 ANYseq. 12 \f. 12 \v. 12 \t. 90. 91. 55. 55. 104. 177 accumArray. 175. 119 ANY. 9. 12 . 92. 31. 97. !. 126 AppendMode. 129 any. 173. 119 alt. 104. 106 //. 90. 44. 55.). 12 \\. 82. 106 acosh. 16. 104. 97. 91. 91. see also + pattern ++. 141 all. 80 (. 91. 91. see wildcard pattern . 177 !!. 12 \r. 80 :+. 88. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 202. 55. 79. 104. 84. 235 aexp. 55. 105 **. 55. 206 apat. 55. 9. 88. 140 appendFile. 104. 91. 92.. 9. 105. 139 alts. 43. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 104. 81. 109 ==. 105. 55. 214 application. 84. 55. 80 (). 55. 174. 173. 81. 104. 142 <=. 109 >>=. 142 >=. 104. 51. 217 abstract datatype. 110 ˜. 116 $. 173. 106 +. 155. 151.. 55. 12 \b. 62 and. 151. 233. 104. 17. 12 \n. 180. 20–23. 55. 110 $!. 55. 88. 55. 55. 76 accum. 45. 55. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 173. 187 \. 82. see trivial type and unit expression *. 55. 92. 175–177 /=. 93. 104. 104. 110 (. 104. 142 >. 97. 104.
176. 155. 91. 174 Array (module). 108 atanh. 129 ascSymbol. 174. 115 conditional expression. 110 boolean. 9 nested. 156 class. 48. 137 basic input/output. 136 cntrl. 173. 173. 11. 140 . 137 ceiling. 42 class method. 235 case expression. 40. 129 ascii. 106 atype. 115 concatMap. 197 array. 111 bounds. 9. 74 cname. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 177 aspattern (@). 84. 173. 38. 106 asinh. 38. 234 closecom. see simple pattern binding body. 93. 9. 51. 9. 129 compare. 40. 18. 197. 105 derived instance. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 47. 79 literal syntax. 9. 140 concat. 130 conjugate. 193. 12. 91. 91. 41 class declaration. 18. 49 clock time. 23. see transparent character set charesc. 232. 155. 110 Char (module). 106 atan2. 177 bracket. 235 calendarTimeToString. 156 con. 174 derived. 93. 173 accumulated. 173. 9 endofline. 161. 114 atan. 79. 130 ASCII character set.252 arithmetic operator. 174. 232. 230 catMaybes. 129 asin. 66. 142 Complex (module). 211. 177 asTypeOf. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 9. 234 char. 143 instance for Char. 130 chr. 91. 47. 136 Bool (datatype). 89. 90 arithmetic sequence. 174. 198 cis. 38. 194 cdecl. 17. 129 ascSmall. 195. see ASCII character set transparent. see function binding pattern. 98. 12. 155. see pattern binding simple pattern. 9 comment. 176 array. 156 conop. 137 class assertion. 211. 48 class environment. 47. 31. 93 comment. 7 ascLarge. 9. 106 assocs. 125. 118 btype. 233. 79. 104. 95 binding. 38. 121. 221 bracket_. 67 with an empty where part. 41. 80 Array (datatype). 37 function. 47 class. 92. 39. 92. 161. 10. 21 conid. 221 break. 107 changing the directory. 12 character set ASCII. 215 closure. 12. 79 Bounded (class). 130 coercion. 137 cdecls. 25 INDEX catch. 69. 12. 226 Char (datatype). 33 ascDigit. 195. 130 character. 17. 129 closing a ﬁle.
49 declaration group. 232. 129 data constructor. 104. 180. 38. 41 context. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 177 encodeFloat. 43 abstract. 180. 43. 24 within an instance declaration. 10. 81. 106 do expression. 47 within a let expression. 129 digitToInt. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 180. 232. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 137 context reduction. 138 constructor class. 235 ctMin. 232. 240 Day (datatype). 240 dateTimeFmt. 182. 112 drop.. 235 ctHour. 91. 114 Curry. 115. 89. 38. 91. 182. 145 default declaration. 225 denominator. 187 deleting directories. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 92. 51. 235 digit. see class declaration datatype. 93 CPU time. 91. 9. 43. 58 derived instance. 137 declaration. 186 elems. 225 deleting ﬁles. see data declaration recursive. see data declaration default. 40 consym.INDEX const. see import declaration instance. 226 curry. 81. 241 CPUTime (module). 232. 93. 141. 41. 43. Haskell B. 241 createDirectory. 80. 235 current directory. 55. 27. 130 context. 174. 173. see recursive datatype renaming. 235 ctIsDST. 224. vii cycle. 130 decl. 224 Directory (module). 108 . 240 delete. 187 deleteBy. 195. 106 divMod. 182. 106 cosine. 213. 214 ctDay. 92. 43 data declaration. 117 dashes. 138 constrs. 56. 90. 81. 180. 59 cos. 111 either. 108 default class method. 197 directories. 239. 43 datatype. 184. 48. see algebraic datatype declaration. 26. 167 Either (datatype). 55. 118 dropWhile. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 50. 9. 38 constructor expression. 225 creating a ﬁle. 138 decimal. see abstract datatype algebraic. 37 class. 43. 239. 118 e. 110 constr. 97 doDiv. 92. 91. 93. 239. 234 dclass. 233. 184. 106 cosh. see ﬁxity declaration import. 151. 119 elemIndex. 224 Double (datatype). 232. 224 doesFileExist. see also instance declaration deriving. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 137 decodeFloat. 180. 224 div. 11. 153 dependency analysis. 138 diffClockTimes. 111 elem. 58 decls. 186 elemIndices.
105 enumFromTo. 86. 67. 82. see conditional expression let. see label. 110 superclass of Num. see simple case expression type. 109. 106 enumeration. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 104 derived instance. 54 flip. 164 ﬁeld label. 177 instance for Char. 28 selection. 104 error. 91. 136 export list. 186 findIndices. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 24–26. 16. 99. 138 ﬁle. 44 construction. 159. 215 entity. 54. 108 floatRange. 4. 105 environment class. 88. 92. 224 execution time. 105 enumFromThenTo. 49. 65 Enum (class). 93. 17 error. 19. 215 ﬁle system. 105 derived instance. 12. 98 executable. 66 exports. 19. 81 Eq (class). 21. 89. 93. 163 f. 18 ﬁxity. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 158 superclass of RealFloat. 229 . 106 exponent. 162 expts. 93. 91 export. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 92. 139 exp. 108 exponentiation. 48. 67. 180. 108 Floating (class). 130 even. 97. 105 superclass of Ord. see let expression simple case. 112 ﬂoat. 86. 229 exitFailure. 12 floatDigits.254 end of ﬁle. see class environment type. 16. 89. 229 ExitFailure. 81. 170 enumFrom. 105 enumFromThen. 180. 52 expt. 92. 213 ﬁle buffering. 182. 139 exp. see type environment environment variables. 51. 30. 38. 229 exitWith. 142 instance for Array. 33 floatRadix. 108 floatToDigits. 16. 202. 91. 92. 229 EQ. 51. 230 escape. 154 superclass of Integral. 113 instance for Float. 86. 114. 92. 229 ExitSuccess. 167 fail. 27 update. see type expression unit. see unit expression expression typesignature. 180. 89. 125 filter. 43. 4. 79 fbind. 15 case. 111 instance for Double. 136 v INDEX expression. 142 instance for Char. see case expression conditional. 17. 113 instance for Ratio. 86. 115 filterM. 106 instance for Complex. 91. 212 False. 51. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 28. 108 exception handling. 86. 207 find. 139 fexp. 110 Float (datatype). 94. 186 findIndex. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 186 ﬁxity. 29 ﬁelddecl. 30.
189 genericReplicate. 229 getStdGen. 96. 138 gendecl. 194 fromRat. 244. 140 Fractional (class). 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 108 gcon. 188 GT. 91. 189 genericIndex. 159. 3 Haskell kernel. 89. 181. 193. 129 group. 217 fmap. 105 fromIntegral. 139 gdrhs. 18 gd. 107 fromEnum. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 40. 202. 31. 92. 137 generalization. 49. 40. 162 fromRat’. 34 guard. 11. 138 gdpat. 210. 91. 162 fromRational. 80. 177 instance for IO. 81 gtycon. 176 foldl. 117 foldr1. 224. 109 instance for []. 113 instance for Array. 225 getEnv. 18. 210 handles. 183. 87. 9. 56. 59 generalization preorder. 55. 130 hexit. 193. 92. 181. 91. 23 genericDrop. 9. 25. 96. 25. 225 getDirectoryContents. 106 fst. 41 functional language. 153 superclass of Floating. 189 genericTake. 181. 129 255 . 181. 137 guard. 114 function.INDEX floor. 86. 189 genRange. 109. 129 fpat. 109 fromJust. 87 funlhs. 181. 56. 42 generator. 187 groupBy. 125 getModificationTime. 236 formatRealFloat. 38. 244. 94. 111 functor. 91. 116 foldl1. 233. 190 genericSplitAt. 12. 4 hClose. vii Functor (class). 81 function binding. 25. 190 genericLength. 202. 229 getChar. 165 formfeed. 92. 18. 54. 140 fpats. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 181. 47. 87. 233. 125 getCPUTime. 215 head. 224. 90. 23. 181. 117 formal semantics. 116 foldM. 56 function type. 125 getClockTime. 18. 138 gap. 115 hexadecimal. 105 fromInteger. 206 Handle (datatype). 18. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). vii. 194 fromMaybe. 111 instance for Maybe. 140 gconsym. 224 getPermissions. 157 instance for Ratio. 31. 9. 244. 3 formatCalendarTime. 207 foldr. 96. 90. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 219 getArgs. 130 gcd. 248 getStdRandom. 93. 213 Haskell. 248 graphic. 184. 224 getProgName. 229 getLine. 106 instance for Complex. 235 getContents. 181.
24. 4. 182. 81. 212 isHexDigit. 112 integer. 177 init. 50. 212 isFullError. 215 hFlush. 218 hGetPosn. 211. 66. 195. 96. 211. 195. 211. 126 intersect.256 hFileSize. 211. 212 ioError. 92. 181. 212 ioeGetFileName. 188 insertBy. 171. 181. 181. 195. 136 import. 58 hIsClosed. 212 isJust. 218 hGetContents. 219 hPutStrLn. 215 hIsOpen. 174. 38. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 195. 215 isEOFError. 219 hGetLine. 212 id. 215 isEOF. 216 hSetPosn. 211. 218 hLookAhead. 112 Integer (datatype). 212 IOError (datatype). 221 ioeGetErrorString. 211. 193. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 211. 169. 173. 211. 137 idecls. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 49. 38. 210. 211 hReady. 183. 211. 211. 125. 212. 49. 69. 163 Integral (class). 125 IOMode (datatype). 172 indices. 210. 136 import declaration. 89. 184. 189 inst. 211. 197 isIllegalOperation. 156 impdecl. 211. 216. 217 hGetBuffering. 187 intersperse. 187 intersectBy. 211. 195. 181. 198 IO. 218 hIsSeekable. 34. 49. 211. see conditional expression imagPart. 218 hSeek. 184. 211. 210 I/O errors. 69. 211. 187 intToDigit. 217 hSetBuffering. 197 isControl. 211. 195. 210 input/output examples. 217 hiding. 211. 197 isAlphaNum. 116 inits. 188 inlining. 211. 183. 71 with an empty where part. 81. 215 isAscii. 212. 110 idecl. 211. 181. 136 impdecls. 197 isDigit. 211. 136 index. 33. 211. 172 insert. 147 INDEX input/output. 92. 211. 137 identiﬁer. 219 hPrint. 155. 211. 217 hWaitForInput. 91. 219 hPutStr. 211. 106 interact. 33 integerLogBase. 219 inRange. 38. 171. 194 . 181. 195. 98. 49. 211. 214 irrefutable pattern. 57 isAlpha. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 218 hIsEOF. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 49 Int (datatype). 210 IO (datatype). 69 impspec. 211. 9 ifthenelse expression. 211. 69. 218 I/O. 111 IO (module). 138 instance declaration. 89. 211. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 12 integer literal pattern. 211. 217 hGetChar. 219 hPutChar. 214. 81. 169. 218 hIsReadable. 212 ioeGetHandle. 211. 183.
195. 45. 180. 195. 239. 172. 23 lex. 193. 40. 202. 119 maximumBy. 170 instance for Char. 202. 81 kind. 173. 206 mapM. 195. 91 logBase. 109 match. 181. 105. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 172 instance for Integer. 80 list comprehension. 31. 64 label. 212 iterate. 197 isSpace. 202. 81. 171. 194 isOctDigit. 88. 232. 183. 143 maximal munch rule. 197 isSuffixOf. 212. 19 large. 23. 169. 21. 86. 207 v 257 liftM2. 92. 109 mapMaybe. 202. 40. 140 LT. 207 liftM5. 219 lookup. 210. 206 Just. 207 liftM4. 176. 92 magnitude. 39. 74 liftM. 184. 155. 116 layout. 172 instance for Int. 56 linearity. 197 isNothing. 50. 139 libraries. 109 Left. 65 main. 91. 9. 199 . 234. 88. 194 literal. 26 in list comprehensions. 32 literate comments. 129 lexical structure. 44. 181. 215 isPrefixOf. 16. 45. 89. 116 let expression. 130. 106 logarithm. 159. 129 last. 197 isPermissionError. 195. 134 Locale (module). 181. 225 map. 202. 127 maximum. 122 lexDigits. 207 liftM3. 174. 119 . 195. 202. 183. 173. 172 Ix (module). 195. 172 derived instance. 188 isPrint. 117 Ix (class). 188 isUpper. 239 log. 186 list. 40. 31. 44. 169. 240 locale. 177 join. 211. 9. 177 listToMaybe. 104. 9. 181. 173. 19. 156 Main (module). 41 listArray. 115 mapAccumL. 118 List (module). 188 mapAccumR. 176. 234 ixmap. 194 mapM_. 84. 31. 7 lexLitChar. 50. 9. 91. 64 kind inference. 193. 129 literal pattern. 193. 211. 12. 181.INDEX isLatin1. 168 lexeme. see also offside rule lcm. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 19. 202. 195. 198 max. 142 maxBound. 106 lookahead. 176. 27 lambda abstraction. 91. 81 length. 80 list type. 197 isUserError. 65 making directories. 207 linear pattern. 189 Maybe (datatype). 24 in do expressions. 197 isLower. 56 lines. 81 magnitude. 13.
38. 129 openFile. 138 newline. 9. 119 Nothing. 55. 11. 119 Ord (class). 90. 140 opencom. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 105. 84. 105 negation. 202. 65 module. 245 nonnull. 244. 130. 108 offside rule. 18 numerator. 129 negate. 111 instance for Ratio. 186. 234 moving directories. 113 instance for IO. 119 minimumBy. 198 Ordering (datatype). 248 newtype declaration. 105 number. 91. 136 Monad (class). 225 moving ﬁles. 189 mkPolar. 91. 214 operating system commands. 113 octal. 206 Monad (module). 206 instance for Maybe. 115. 180. 142 minBound.258 Maybe (module). 27. see class method min. 19. 32. 33. 11. 157 instance for Ratio. 206 instance for []. 110 notElem. 116 Num (class). 180. 84. 181. 111 instance for Maybe. 104 derived instance. 161. 11 translation of literals. 206 monomorphic type variable. 186 nubBy. 55. 130 octit. 193. 232. 95 MonadPlus (class). 5. 105 ord. 105 instance for Complex. 193. 142 instance for Array. 10. 61 Month (datatype). 81 nub. 137 or. 153 superclass of Fractional. 206 + pattern. 51. 194 method. 66. 153 superclass of Real. 19 ops. 88. 61 monomorphism restriction. 143 minimum. 111 maybeToList. 34. 88. see qualiﬁed name special. 32–34. 104. 214 opening a ﬁle. 206 monad. 57 name qualiﬁed. 244. 109 instance for []. 202. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 17. 89. 210. 81. 46 INDEX next. 194 maybe. 9. 202. 89. 246 mod. 91. 182. 155. 121. 159. 129 newStdGen. 244. 151. 136 module. 9. 202. 195. 54. 90 numericEnumFrom. 225 mplus. 156 mkStdGen. see special name namespaces. 106 superclass of Real. 13. 187 null. 52. 16. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 104. 89 literal syntax. 9. 153 Numeric (module). 26. 9. 206 msum. 60. see also layout op. 206 mzero. 230 operator. 197 numeric type. 81. 168 not. 79. 91. 54. 112 ¢ ¦ . 19. 129 odd. 19 operator application. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 10 ncomment. 18. 178 instance for Char. 66. 106 modid. 184. 90. 89. 184. 46. 202. 20 newconstr.
140 qconsym. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 130 qtycon. 139 qualiﬁed name. 130 qual. see wildcard pattern constructed. 169. 125 putStrLn. 25. 155. 247 randoms. 229 program name. 54 polymorphism. 93. 125 PreludeIO (module). 104. 31. 47 defaults. 151 Read (class). 140 qvarsym. 247 randomRs. 181. 96. see linear pattern + . 244. 85. 171. see + pattern refutable. 183. 121 principal type. 245 randomIO. 140 qtycls. 225 pattern. 140 path. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 103. 53 print. 124 instance for Array. 3 properFraction. 224 phase. 169. 103. 18. 125 PreludeList (module). 18. 130 qop. 115 PreludeText (module). 153. 11. 155. 96. see also ﬁxity pred. 247 randomRIO. 91. 70. 106 quotRem. 18. 247 Random (module).INDEX otherwise. 106 polar. 30 @. 244. 151 Ratio (module). 90. 247 randomR. 130 qvarop. 51. 156 polling a handle for input. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 23. 143 instance for [a]. 107 putChar. 19. 130 Random (class). 23 quantiﬁcation. 11. 151. 125 putStr. 244 random. 103. 244. 151. 75. 244. 11. 96. 217 RandomGen. see aspattern _. 11. 4 pragmas. 91. 229 program structure. 31. 18. 125 qcon. 57 patternmatching. 72 qualiﬁer. 244. 34 Permissions (datatype). 103. 11. 130 qconop. 96. 129 v 259 program arguments. 213 pi. 156 physical ﬁle. 172 Ratio (datatype). 247 range. 187 . 75 Prelude (module). 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 51 partition. 140 qconid. 147 precedence. 244. 121 derived instance. 91. 11. 140 qvarid. 18. 172 rangeSize. see irrefutable pattern linear. 43. 125 product. see patternmatching overloading. 218 polymorphic recursion. 247 random access ﬁles. 41 quot. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 161 Rational (type synonym). 110 overloaded functions. 106 qvar. 92. 171. 103. 119 program. 30 overloaded constant. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 9. 79. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 153 rational numbers. 42. 140 pat. 38 overloaded pattern. 55. 11.
91. 117 scontext. 224. 217 semantics formal. 20. 81. 106 removeDirectory. 76 seq. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 126 readList. 31. 225 renameDirectory. 107 instance for Ratio. 166 . 88. 85. 46 refutable pattern. 214 readFloat. 126 ReadMode. 16. 130 return. 121 reads. 163 readsPrec. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 143 readLitChar. 164 readEsc. 143 ReadWriteMode. 244. 90. 88. 10. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 164 readIO. 92. 94. 107 RealFloat (class). 138 Right. 117 replicate. 154 read. 225 setPermissions. 225 renaming ﬁles. 198 readFile. 92. 116 scanr. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 85. 225 renameFile. 104. 123 instance for Integer. 195. 92. 224 readDec. 164 reading a directory. 226 Show (class). 198 readLn. 225 removeFile. 225 renaming directories. 93. 85. 109 reverse. 137 searchable. 10. 55. 56. 10. 117 reservedid. 86. 88. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 92. 139 rhs. 143 instance for [a]. 225 removing directories. 105 instance for Ratio. 218 readInt. 214 Real (class). 92. 159. 156 realToFrac. 85. 51. 33 RelativeSeek. 121. 164 readParen. 168 readHex. 224. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 224. 86. 210. 91. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 119 . 155. 226 reading from a ﬁle.260 instance for Char. 108 realPart. 225 removing ﬁles. 107 roundTo. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 81 round. 89. 126. 123 instance for Float. 122 readSigned. 117 scanr1. 108 RealFrac (class). 248 setting the directory. 121. 162 scanl. 116 scanl1. 109 recip. 224 setStdGen. 96. 108 scaleRat. 109 sequence_. 159. 124 instance for Double. 110 sequence. 130 reservedop. 159. 123 instance for Ratio. 214 readOct. 159. 121 derived instance. 153 superclass of Integral. 122 readable. 104. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 123 instance for Int. 225 repeat. 224. 217 rem. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 91. 159. 96. 85. 214 separate compilation. 93. 85. 106 recursive datatype. 224. 159. 224 section. 97.
232. 124 instance for Double. 91. 130 subtract. 92. 213 StdGen (datatype). 86. 183. 127 System (module). 86. 106 size of ﬁle. 85. 137 simpletype. 123 instance for Float. 210 instance for Integer. 9. 235 tdMonth. 129 snd. 246 stdin. 235 tdMin. 123 instance for Int. 210. 118 special. 188 take. 80. 213 stmt. 159. 232. see transparent string string. 91. 118 sqrt. 80. 9. 188 sortBy. 85. 130 synonym. 143 showLitChar. 62 simpleclass. 122 sign. 163 showParen. 129. 159.INDEX instance for Array. 154 superclass of Num. 9. 122 showEFloat. 199 showOct. 181. 106 sine. 138 sin. 210. 106 tangent. 9. 184. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 12. see also Prelude stderr. 229 system. 121 show2. 117 takeWhile. 57. 244. 237 show2’. 105 sum. 164 showGFloat. 121. 106 tdDay. 45 strictness ﬂags. 9. 232. 163 showIntAtBase. 183. 49 symbol. 237 showChar. 122 showSigned. 74. 181. 46. 188 space. see type signature signdecl. 79 literal syntax. 129 span. 92. 232. 237 show3. 129 split. 164 showFloat. 213 stdout. 93 tanh. 85. 159. 111 string. 26. 85. 139 stmts. 129 tail. 91. 12 transparent. 235 tdPicosec. 119 superclass. 92 signature. 93 sinh. 43. 108 signum. 244. 163 showList. 121 shows. 45. 159. 118 tan. 181. 178 instance for Char. 143 showString. 121. 94. 213 standard prelude. 159. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 159. 245 splitAt. 108 succ. 91. 235 tdHour. 164 showHex. 105 show. 164 showFFloat. 159. 91. 114 sort. 159. 235 261 . 195. 163 showInt. 163 showsPrec. 82 String (type synonym). 123 instance for Ratio. 105 simple pattern binding. 215 small. 115 tails. 53 significand. 229 tab. 106 standard handles. 139 strictness ﬂag. 210. 232. 48. 159. 41. 85. see type synonym syntax. 91. 26.
see function type list. 136 toRational. see tuple type type. 130 tycon. 7. 181. 191 unzip7. 181. 235 transpose. 114 unfoldr. 230 the ﬁle system. 136 topdecls. 81 True. 187 uniSmall. 181. 221 tuple. 198 topdecl (class). 22. 47 topdecl (data). 105 toUpper. 86. 38. 233. 40. 66. 185. see expression typesignature type synonym. 49 topdecl (newtype). 17. 81. see principal type INDEX trivial. 232 time12Fmt. 195. see ambiguous type constructed. 41. 98. 42 type expression. 93. 42. 129 uniLarge. 211. 41 tycls. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 180. 233. 22. 39. 198 toUTCTime. 184. 107 try. see list type monomorphic. 119 until. 181. 38. 43 topdecl (default). 232. 235 terminating a program. 79 truncate. 106 toLower. 191 unzip6. 180. 235 timeFmt. see numeric type principal. 233. 105 toInteger. 9. 129 uniSymbol. 11. 232 time of day. 187 unionBy. 183. 9. 130 uncurry. 224. 11. 80. see newtype declaration type signature. 224 Time (module). 45 topdecl. 42 ambiguous. 4. 240 to12. 120 unzip4. 197 uniDigit. 17. 182. 235 toClockTime. 181. see class type constructor. 49 value. 125 valdefs. 10. 120 unzip3. 9. 46 tyvar. 80 tuple type. 234 time. 137 type class. 130 type. 140 . 11. 119 unzip. see monomorphic type numeric. 232. 46 topdecl (type). 53 for an expression. 239. 239. 188 Unicode character set. 45. 240 TimeDiff (datatype).262 tdYear. 114 undefined. 40. 40. 129 unless. 67. 239. 103. see constructed type function. 235 toEnum. 195. 181. 130 varop. 232. 41. see trivial type tuple. 18. 129 union. 187 trigonometric function. 4 var. 114 unwords. see also datatype recursive. 49. 93. 236 toCalendarTime. 91. 38. 18. 93 trivial type. 202. 140 varid. 92. 17. 9. 206 unlines. 4. 49. 11. 9. 190 unzip5. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 51 topdecl (instance). 129 unit datatype. 43 type environment. 191 userError. 22 uniWhite. 40 type renaming. see trivial type unit expression.
207 263 . 9.INDEX vars. 120 zip3. 224 writeFile. 9. 9. 214 zip. 120 zip4. 190 zipWithM. 181. 190 zip5. 206 whitechar. 80. 214 WriteMode. 126. 129 when. 185. 120 zipWith4. 9. 97. 53. 181. 137 varsym. 202. 185. 181. 190 zipWith. 181. 181. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 202. 202. 181. 190 zipWith7. 130 vertab. 129 whitestuff. 190 zipWith6. 118 writable. 129 whitespace. 181. 190 zip7. 190 zip6. 190 zipWith5. 38. 31 words. 10. 120 zipWith3. 207 zipWithM_. 181.
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