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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . 10.1 Library Ratio . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 9. . . . . . . 10. . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .3.3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 21. .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . .9. . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . 21.6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . 21. . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . .4 unfoldr . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . 21. . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . Index . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . 21. . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24.11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
It should be freely available.” Haskell B. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. purely functional programming languages. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. . and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Oregon. research. and applications. It should be suitable for teaching. named after the logician Haskell B. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. a stable foundation for real applications development. 4. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. including ourselves. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. 5. have published something erroneous. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. and most of these. providing faster communication of new ideas. including building large systems. 2. even more than it is ordinarily. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. May 31. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. 3.
Resolve ambiguities. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. As Haskell becomes more widely used. this stable language is the subject of this Report. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. for the foreseeable future. making some simpliﬁcations. With reluctance. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. Clarify obscure passages. and is called “Haskell 98”. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. By the middle of 1997.4). If these program were to be portable. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. This task turned out to be much. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too.4. much larger than I had anticipated. It is not a . the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. together with a standard library called the Prelude. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). incorporating experimental features. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. The original Haskell Report covered only the language.
concurrency. Control extensions. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. so that those who wish to write text books. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. including: multiparameter type classes.org gives access to many useful resources. There is more besides. Type system innovations. exceptions. or use Haskell for teaching. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. going well beyond Haskell 98. functional dependencies. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. including: pattern guards. it provides a stable point of reference. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. Instead. including: monadic state. For example. including: . existential types. lexically scoped type variables. recursive donotation. metaprogramming facilities.
including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. University of Nottingham. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Applications of Haskell. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Tutorial material on Haskell. and continues to be sustained. Microsoft Research Ltd) . Implementations of Haskell. suggest improvements to. via the Haskell mailing list. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. You are welcome to comment on.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Building the language Haskell was created. in particular. Here they are.
Tony Warnock. Nick North. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Id. Magnus Carlsson. Josef Svenningsson.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Duke Briscoe. Lauren Smith. Amir Kishon. George Russell. Clean. Hans Aberg. Simon Thompson. John Robson. Bjorn Lisper. Gofer. Hope and Hope . Feliks Kluzniak. David Tweed. Sisal. Landin’s ISWIM. Chris Fasel. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Andy Gill. Laura Dutton. Pradeep Varma. Richard Kelsey. Chris Dornan. Jan Skibinski. Mark Lillibridge. Craig Dickson. Michael Marte. Rosser. Pat Fasel. Felix Schroeter. Ross Paterson. Simon B. Matt Harden. . Michael Webber. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Ian Lynagh. Dean Herington. Henrik Nilsson. Paul Callaghan. Curry. Raman Sundaresh. Sigbjorn Finne. John Meacham. Robert Jeschofnik. Graeme Moss. Tom Blenko. some small but many substantial. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Mark Tullsen. Arthur Norman. APL. Richard Bird. Rick Mohr. Olaf Lubeck. Dave Parrott. Sven Panne. Alexander Jacobson. Mike Thyer. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Gary Memovich. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Pablo Lopez. Andy Moran. Ralf Hinze. and others on the lambda calculus. Larne Pekowsky. Christian Maeder. Guy Cousineau. Jose Labra. Sandra Loosemore. Bjarte M. Marcin Kowalczyk. Christian Sievers. Patrik Jansson. Jan Kort. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Simon Marlow. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. SiauCheng Khoo. Mike Joy. Mark Carroll. Michael Fryers. Keith Wansbrough. Nimish Shah. Carl Witty. In addition. Kent Karlsson. Jim Mattson. Paul Otto. Franklin Chen. Tony Davie. Julian Seward. Rinus Plasmeijer. Jeff Lewis. Klemens Hemm. Manuel Chakravarty. Finally. Jones. Bob Hiromoto. Cordy Hall. Stefan Kahrs. Ketil Malde. Tom Thomson. Patrick Sansom. Chris Clack. Fergus Henderson. Backus’s FP [1]. Sergey Mechveliani. and Bonnie Yantis. Ian Holyer. Sten Anderson. ML and Standard ML. Satish Thatte. Stef Joosten. Andreas Rossberg. Ken Takusagawa. Orjan Johansen. Olaf Chitil. Libor Skarvada. Tommy Thorn. Chris Okasaki. Thomas Hallgren. Mike Gunter. Stephen Price. Wolfram Kahl. Malcolm Wallace. Stephen Blott. Ian Poole. Nic Holt. Østvold. Dylan Thurston. Randy Hudson. Michael Schneider. Mark Hall. Randy Michelsen. Stuart Wray.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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1 Program Structure In this section. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. arrays. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. nonstrict semantics. datatypes. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. 3. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. list comprehensions. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules.” 4. all described in Chapter 4. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. and ﬁxity information. 3 . described in Chapter 5. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. At the next lower level are expressions. deﬁned in Chapter 2. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. etc. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. static polymorphic typing. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. including lists. described in Chapter 3. Haskell provides higherorder functions. patternmatching. type classes. a module system.e. a monadic I/O system. interpreted. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. of which there are several kinds. compiled. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. 1. 2. programs that formally evaluate to ). 1. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs.
there are several chapters describing the Prelude. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. etc.e. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. literate programming. and Chapter 7. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. If these translations are applied exhaustively. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . However. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. or overloading (using type classes).2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. for types. In this Report. as then else . Technically. such as for expresin if sions. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. However. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic.1.4 CHAPTER 1. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. for declarations. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. Also. the concrete syntax. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. . See Section 3. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. 1. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics.
4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values.4. 2. for example. NAMESPACES 5 1. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. .1. and constructor within a single scope. class. These are the only constraints. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. type constructors. There are two constraints on naming: 1. and module names refer to modules. those for type variables. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set.]. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. However. all whitespace is expressed explicitly.. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell..1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. 2. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ .
§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .
in a nested comment. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. although case is a reserved word. however “foo” does start a comment. because both of these are legal lexemes. So. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. Instead. 2. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. 2. for example. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. then any occurrence of {.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments.2.3. and.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. although = is reserved. In an ordinary comment. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. hence. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. as explained in Chapter 11. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. ) and extends to the following newline. == and ˜= are not. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. Within a nested comment. For example. cases is not. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. terminated by “}”. “>” or “” do not begin a comment.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”.g. Similarly.
Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. as deﬁned above.b]”. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. such as “[]” and “[a. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. is treated as a lowercase letter. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. and single quotes.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. all operators are inﬁx. “_”. used as wild card in patterns.10 CHAPTER 2. digits. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. underscores. However.5).4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. Notice that a colon by itself.. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. : :: = \  <. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. : : : . this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. Underscore. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . “:”. naMe.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor.
Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name.4.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.. type constructor and type class names. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! .g F. Lexes as this f . also. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. .. This applies to variable. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1.. This f. F. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. .g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . (two tokens) F. . the other four do not. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. but not type variables or module names.4. F. Prelude. 2. . (qualiﬁed ‘.g f. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . constructor.5. .2).5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. for example.. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms.2. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.’) F . g (three tokens) F.
Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. as in ’a’. “form feed” (\f). For example. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. “new line” (\n). octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). including control characters such as \ˆX.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . as in "Hello". Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). are also provided. \x37) representations are also allowed.4. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character.4. Similarly. but must be escaped in a string. 2. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. and strings between double quotes. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. Floating literals are always decimal. a double quote " may be used in a character. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. octal (e. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. \ must always be escaped. is parsed as a string of length 1.1. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. but must be escaped in a character.1. “carriage return” (\r). Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.2. “horizontal tab” (\t).g. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating.g. “backspace” (\b). similarly. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length. "\SOH". and “vertical tab” (\v). The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a).12 CHAPTER 2.
a control character.2. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. Because layout is not required. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. When this happens. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. Informally stated. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. let. or of. which can be freely mixed within one program.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. that is.pop. an empty list “{}” is inserted. Given these rules. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted).3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. then instead of starting a layout. and \ˆX. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. For each subsequent line. do. let.e. \ \a numeric escape character.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. Figure 2. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. a close brace is inserted. Also. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. where the .1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). if it is indented the same amount. and if it is indented less. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. As an example. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. Section 9. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. by using layout to convey the same information.7). 2.7. insert a semicolon or close brace). Within these explicit open braces. b and g all part of the same layout list." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where.
push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . top.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .(pop Empty) is an error . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule.pop :: Stack a > (a. inserted because the end of the tuple was detected.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . Stack a) . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .14 CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. case s of r > i r where i x = x) . Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. push.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .top :: Stack a > a .size :: Stack a > Int .pop (MkStack x s) = (x. pop. top.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. push. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. and (c) the close brace at the very end. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. pop.push x s = MkStack x s . .top (MkStack x s) = x } .
. an associativity variable varies over . or for left. For example. In the syntax that follows. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . index: a letter . For example actually stands for 30 productions. the nonterminals . and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. and may have a double (written as a superscript). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. Except in the case of let expressions. where appropriate. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . including their translations into the Haskell kernel. Similarly. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. right.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude.
For example.. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . This f x . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible... } in x + y let { . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. . } ¦ . Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”.. Figure 4.4.(f x)) + y let { . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . let expressions.1). ¦ 2 ' . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. . } in (x + y) z + (let { .. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . and conditionals.2. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. . Sample parses are shown below.. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4..16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.4. ] ¢ £ .. ] ..2).
Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. the error message is created by the compiler. When evaluated. That is.1. Constructors. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. denoted by . all Haskell types include . Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. 3. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. For the sake of clarity. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination.2 Variables.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. when demanded. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. When undefined is used. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor .3. results in an error. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. 3. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. Operators.
and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.18 CHAPTER 3. Similarly. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.1).5). one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. For example.4). . or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes).4. These are described in Section 6. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.% ). as found in the and . An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. For example. Ratio Integer). where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. such as ` `. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. The integers and are chosen so that . a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger .% constructs a rational from two integers.4.1. such as + or $$. An operator is either an operator symbol. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. Dually. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.2).
3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3.3. as with any inﬁx operator.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x.denotes preﬁx negation. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.17. it may be rebound by the module system. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . Application associates to the left.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . .in the Prelude. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . unary . where the are patterns. if the pattern fails to match.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. then the result is . and is syntax for negate .operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . Similarly. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. . An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. . () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). However. The binary . so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor.3. There is no link between the local meaning of the . 3. page 55). Because tors are allowed.1. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . partial applications of data construc ) of ( . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing.operator and unary negation.3.
( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). EXPRESSIONS 3.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . (a+b+) is syntactically correct.is treated specially in the grammar. However. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. Because (+) is left associative. as described in the preceding section. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. () is not a section. but (+a+b) is not. For example. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. As another example. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). and similarly for ( ).20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. but an application of preﬁx negation.
and otherwise.3.1). if is False. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . and must have the same type.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. denoted []. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True.6. is a binary operator. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ .1. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8.7 Lists [] ( ) : . and the empty list is Lists are written [ . The type of type of the entire conditional expression. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. where . £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . ¥ £ ¡ 3. is an expression.3. which is also the Prelude. . ]. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. The list constructor is :.
2). The constructor for an commas. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. .2). The types of through must all be the same (call it ). ) (see Section 4.22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. .b.). Translation: ( . . Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . respectively. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . .. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .5). . 3. with precedence level 5 (Section 4.4.1. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . Thus (a. .1. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. .) a b c tuple is denoted by (. and may be of arbitrary length .8 Tuples ¢ S (. and requires no translation.1. § 3.4 and Chapter 8). where there are denote the same value.2).1. .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . ).2). ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.1. it is considered part of the language syntax. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. and is equivalent to .. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6.c) and (. It is the only member of that type apart from . It is a rightassociative operator.1.3). ) Tuples are written ( . If through are the types of through . and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. . like [].
.. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . enumFromTo. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . See Section 6. . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. .. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . ] denotes a list of values of type . § 3. ] .1.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics.. where is a pattern (see Section 3. . ] . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . page 83). and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. enumFromThen.. where each of the has type .3. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . . ] .. ..10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .10.3. and is an instance of class Enum.
2]. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. The function concatMap. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions.(3.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.24 CHAPTER 3. (3. Thus: [ x  xs <. z <.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. are deﬁned in the Prelude. ok is a fresh variable.x) <. = = = = [ ] [  .4)].(3.2).[ [(1.2)] ]. x <. .x ] [ z  y <.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ .x.4). If a qualiﬁer is a guard.x. over listvalued expressions. 3. over patterns. } in .xs ] yields the list [4. ]  <. and boolean value True. lexicallyscoped. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions..4). let (x. [(5. over boolean over declaration lists. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). Declarations are described in Chapter 4. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. over qualiﬁers. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. and introduce a nested. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . expressions. For example. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.5. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. As usual. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  .17). Pattern bindings are matched lazily.
. these identities hold.˜ ) = ( .4. . .. . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case ..4. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . where and are patterns and expressions respectively. .. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).3. in = } in = = let (˜ . not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative...13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . Once done. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = .3.3.. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator. the “” is a terminal symbol. using the translation in Section 4. > ¦§ of { } . ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . . . .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. . 3. CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 .13. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .
A note about parsing. If matches the pattern in the alternative. . and hence reject the program. If one of the pattern._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. Pattern matching is described in Section 3.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . from top to bottom. . with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3.17. The expression case x of { (a.26 CHAPTER 3. The alternatives are tried sequentially. If no match succeeds. and the type of the whole expression is that type. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. ¦ 3. the result is . Each body must have the same type._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. <let . and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . It has a single unambiguous parse. ¦ ¨ . and then by the guards evaluates to True. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. matching continues with the next alternative. therefore. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives.17. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. Programmers are advised. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . namely case x of { (a. If all the guards evaluate to False.3.
however. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . select from.15. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. Within a datatype. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ". a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name.3.. © The ellipsis ". passed to fail. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. >>=.. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <..15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4.15. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . which may be used as a translation into the kernel. 3. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct. To illustrate the last point.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. This shadowing only affects selector functions..3). the functions >>.OK .2. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. and fail are operations in the class Monad. in record construction (Section 3." stands for a compilergenerated error message. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } . a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . As indicated by the translation of do.2) and update (Section 3.15.1).BAD Here S is legal but T is not. When used as a variable.15. after eliminating empty : } . as deﬁned in the Prelude. 3.
Otherwise. then value .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. the ﬁeld labels . Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label .2.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . where is the arity of F. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . The expression F {}.1. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). it denotes F . the { and } characters must be explicit. .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. } labeled construction . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. and if appears is . where F is a data constructor.15. . these are not subject to layout. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § .
An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. f4 = ’A’.. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.3. . Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T.15. f3. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . such as x {f2 = 1.. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update.15. No label may be mentioned more than once. } labeled update . DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f3 = ’x’}. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .
As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.17. or not principal type derivable from comparable to. and case expressions. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . Translation: 3.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. function deﬁnitions. the principal type.3. do expressions. 3. The value of the expression is just that of .2).4. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. . pattern bindings. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. However. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the .30 CHAPTER 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . where is an expression and is a type (Section 4.4). EXPRESSIONS 3. list comprehensions. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions.1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient.1.1).
For example. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. it may succeed. For example._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place._. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .17.e.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values.3. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. return ). or it may diverge (i. and allow one to use . according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. ¢ § . this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. case e of { [x.ILLEGAL. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor.17. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. For example. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . .x) = x .y. . Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. and outside to inside. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once.
The match diverges if the comparison diverges.are overloaded. ¦ 32 4. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. (Binding does not imply evaluation. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. depends on the value: against a value. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. where newtype.32 CHAPTER 3. the functions >= and . resulting in the binding of to . EXPRESSIONS 2. § § § That is. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form .2. If the value is of the form . so does the overall computation. . where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. 6. The match diverges if this test diverges. Matching a numeric. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . Matching the pattern against a value. 8. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. 3. the match diverges. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . and no binding is done. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . then is matched against . respectively. that is. character. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. and fails otherwise. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge.) Operationally. Again. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). if all matches succeed. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. Matching the pattern by data. then is matched against . the overall match succeeds. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . and to if matching against fails or diverges. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. depending on the type of the pattern.. . 7. and if the match fails or diverges. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list.
Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.’b’] is matched against [ .y) > 0) (\ (x.’b’] is matched against [’x’. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x.’x’]. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4.b)] > x) [(0.˜(a. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. ]. and the result is a failed match. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.3. If the match of against fails or diverges. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.1). it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). ] (0. then .3).y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. is irrefutable). But if [’a’.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. (a.b)] > x) [(0.2. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example.1). Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.17. If the pattern [’a’. ] (\ ˜[x. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. Here are some examples: 1. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. to . Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . These examples demonstrate refutable vs. All other patterns are refutable. a wildcard.
(q). an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. Rules (d).y.17. . function deﬁnition. and are variables.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. .Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard.2. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.1–3. In Figures 3.2: . Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. in Figures 3. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. it is not expected that it will use them directly. Rule (h) in Figure 3. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors).Int. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. and are booleanvalued expressions.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions.1–3. In particular. in f :: (Int. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. 3.4). and is a newtype constructor. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. These identities all preserve the static semantics.3. and are patterns.34 CHAPTER 3. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards.1.2. (e). or pattern binding to which it is attached. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. and are expressions. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. For example. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. (j). and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4.
_ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { .3. _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . . .17. where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . } } . Figure 3. > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) .
_ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . are ﬁelds of constructor . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . or string literal. _ > } of { > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric.2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } case of { > . _ > } case of { _ _ > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . = . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3.36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . . character. _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . } > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . _ > _ > }} where . _ > } . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > } case ( ) of { > . are new variables else } } }. ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ otherwise case of { {} > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . } > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of .
} = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . type data newtype class instance default ( . . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations.¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . } } © 2§ . . ¦ { . = => => => => .
suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. consisting of value bindings.simplified class declaration for Num . instance. and default declarations (Section 4. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. © 4. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. and nested declarations.3. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. and data declarations (Section 4. 5]. . For example. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers).e. For exposition.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. using normal type and data declarations. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . . A class declaration (Section 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. those within a let or where construct). we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. consisting of class. newtype.4). An instance declaration (Section 4. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . . but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5).1. type signatures. of the given types. type classes and overloading.2). consisting of type. deﬁned on it.3.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .3).38 %§ CHAPTER 4.
but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. 4. unlike types. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. negateInt.e. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i.0 type system. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ .simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . Kind inference is discussed in Section 4.1. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. class methods) for (+) and negate. However. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .1.6. 4. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( .simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language.1. then a type of kind .4. ] ) . addFloat.
and so on. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary.. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). Double and Bool are type constants with kind . it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. and treated as types with kind . (. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . Just as data values are built using data constructors. The list type is written as [] and has kind . . or newtype T .. The tuple types are written as (.40 CHAPTER 4. type synonyms. IO a. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. For example. Float. Since the IO type constructor has kind . type values are built from . having form ( ).). Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below.1. Int. and has exactly one value. also written () (see Sections 3..). 2. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. In general. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . As with data constructors. Type constructors. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. A parenthesized type. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. Integer. Type application. and so on.. to the variable a. must have kind .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. is identical to the type . Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. Unlike data constructors.5). © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears.9 and 6.. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. The declarations data T . 4. and classes. IO. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . For example: Char. Type variables. and is a type of kind . . Their kinds are .
) where .3. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. and ( ) have the types ( > ). ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4.1. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. the preﬁx type constructors (>).) where there are commas between the parenthesis. always denote the builtin type constructors. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . For example. (. 3.4). the second component of type . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3.1. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . []. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right.8 and 6.1)). which is equivalent to the type [] .3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. . and so on. 1. however. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. regardless of what is in scope. then the expressions (\ > ). A tuple type has the form ( . “gtycon”. (). and lists. means . (Hence the special production. A list type has the form [ ]. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). [ ]. . These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions.. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . [ ]. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . they cannot be qualiﬁed.3). and so on (see Sections 3.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. .7 and 6. For clarity. In a similar way. the type expression a > a .4. For example.1. If is the type of expression or pattern . which is equivalent to the type (>) . and ). above. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. . tuples. . A class assertion has form . for example.). It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. respectively. which is equivalent to the type (. 2. the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible.1.
The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . the most general type. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>.16 and 4. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. In general. § § § 4. also holds.42 CHAPTER 4. we provide informal details of the type system. (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. respectively. may be instantiated at types holds.4). we write => even if the context is empty. Furthermore. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). The outer parentheses may be omitted when . The context must only contain type variables referenced in .) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program.1. " t ¡§ is identical to .3. For example. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. and each of the is either a type variable.3. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. in more detail. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). where is a set of type variables .1. In any such type. or the application of type variable to one or more types.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below).1). here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . In general. a type is of the form . For convenience. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. any of that are free in must also be free in . Therefore. For example. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3.4. Show a. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . as described in Section 4.
double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. The user may choose to declare such an instance. . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . 4. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . because Int is an instance of the class Num.4. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © .2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). since Num Int holds.2. In this Report.2. and type synonyms (type declarations).1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. However. 4. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). ! . because Char is not normally an instance of class Num.
and is described in Section 4. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them.8. using the record syntax (C { . A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. For example.6. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor.f2 :: Int. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns.. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . the declaration data C = F { f1.3. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. For example. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. }). This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments.3. to the components of a data object. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types .e. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5.
Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. The type is equivalent to the type . each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. whether or not F was declared with record syntax.4. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § .2. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. and function $! (see Section 6. . The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. For example.6. “!”. Lexically.2. denoted by an exclamation point. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion.2) if is of the form ! . it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4.15.
2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym.invalid . These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. Similarly. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type .46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. the newtype constructor is unlifted. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. so that is the same as . Type synonyms are a convenient. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. The type ( ) renames the datatype .3. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection.17). type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. Unlike algebraic datatypes. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. New instances (see Section 4. this is not so for type synonyms. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. unlike type synonyms. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). mechanism to make type signatures more readable. but strictly syntactic.2. Also.2). For example.3. 4. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed.
TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes).3.4. and newtype (renaming types. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. type (type synonyms). whereas ( n ). though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it.3. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . . Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. In particular. . A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .3. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. ( n ( N ) ). ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . see Section 4. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( .3. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to .) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ).
it may mention type variables other than . in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and .48 CHAPTER 4. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. is not permitted. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. it must form a directed acyclic graph. or another class method. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. a ﬁeld name. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . the may not constrain . in particular. The may constrain only . op2) = . However. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. For example: class (Read a. Lastly. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern.3.e. outside the class declaration. as described below. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . i. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. since class methods declare toplevel values.. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . For example: class Foo a where op1. op2 :: a > a (op1. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level.. That is. the may contain a default class method for any of the . no other declarations are permitted in . . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in .2).
4. } . The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.2. must not be a type synonym. it may be a qualiﬁed name.. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where .range. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . The type type variables distinct. instance C (Int.3. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . 4. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. furthermore.a) where . and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . if a type is an instance of all superclasses. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . instance C [[a]] where . . Let be a class declaration. in particular.) For example. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix...3.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial..a) where . module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. ] > ... it is not automatically an instance of the subclass..Ix T where range = .. this is legal.
If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where .. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. In fact.. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. instance (Eq a. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. instance Num a => Bar [a] where . the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a.50 CHAPTER 4. Under this assumption. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. instance (Eq a. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. then the program would be invalid. Show a) => Bar [a] where . except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. must be an instance of each of . because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program.1).. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1.. This example is valid Haskell.. In other words. The class and type must have the same kind...3. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2..6. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed... Show a) => Foo [a] where . but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context.
If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. then the expression let x = read ". then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. page 83. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances.4. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. instances for all superclasses of must exist for .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. 4.invalid is ambiguous.. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .1. For example. But this does not hold. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. Ord. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. Show. because the types for show and read. For example.3. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. ..4 Ambiguous Types.3. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ .2. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a.3.1. 4. and Read. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. Show a)." in show x . Bounded. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. If the form is included. that is. all mentioned in Figure 6. When deriving a class for a type . either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause. Enum. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. For example.
for the ambiguous expression given earlier. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . Only one default declaration is permitted per module. § ¢ ¢ For example. Such types are invalid. Double) The empty default declaration. page 83.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes.. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user.16. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. one could write: let x = read ". Such expressions are considered illtyped." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. appears only in constraints of the form .2–6. and its effect is limited to that module. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer.3. or Bool. (that is. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. but and are forced to have the same type.52 CHAPTER 4. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . Occasionally. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. a static error. and each must be a type for which Num holds. Num or a subclass of Num). For example. ) where . and Figure 6. It is a static error if no such type is found. where is a class. .6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent.1.. default (). One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. turns off all defaults in a module. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. For example. an ambiguous type variable. . In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.4. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. § ¢ .
and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. this is explained in Section 4. as described in Section 4. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ .4.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature.4. . For example.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.e.5.2. However. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. i. For example. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4.4. the deﬁning occurrence. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. to ensure that type inference is still possible. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.5. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to .1. As mentioned in Section 4. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. Indeed.1 Type Signatures . which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. including the top level of a module. these declarations contain a static error.1. Moreover. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration.2). or principal type .4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. possibly with respect to a context. even if the signatures are identical. 4.
non.invalid . infixl. respectively). A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a .invalid are invalid. and infixr.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. and ten precedence levels. level 9 is assumed. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself.4. Also like a type signature. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. 4. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . If the is omitted. (Class methods are a minor exception. declares a property of a particular operator.1 are invalid. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. and level 9 binds most tightly). T a > a. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable).1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. . The following deﬁnition is pathological. left. just like its type.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to .and rightassociativity (infix. like a type signature. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. Table 4.
op‘ q) * 2 in .4.. $!. ** :. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar.4. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. Here.) 4.4. <. <=.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . /=.. ‘elem‘. ˆ. ‘quot‘ +. /. ‘Bar.op‘ is infix 3. >.. ‘mod‘. ˆˆ.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ‘div‘. ++ ==. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ‘rem‘.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.op‘ is infixr 7. >>= $.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. ‘Foo. >=.. ‘seq‘ Table 4.
these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where .4.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. ¤ 4. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same.3. . the binding is called a function binding. For example. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . namely: . the latter. otherwise.56 CHAPTER 4. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set.
Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is .4. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4.e. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4.12. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. in other words. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . A note about syntax.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it.3. . where a function bindings above. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. See the translation in Section 3. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. A simple pattern binding has form .4.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
¦
£
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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¢ & ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. However.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. For example. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). There is no danger of recomputation here. in (f. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.g) = ((+).5. Hence. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. len1 gets type Int. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded.4. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. and not by any modules that import it. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. module M1(len1) where default( Int. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions.4. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous.3.
For example. a synonym S and a class C. constructors. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . Instead. 4. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. in the deﬁnitions above. For example. using the default binding . For example. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. for instance). the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. synonym. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . .64 CHAPTER 4. for any kind . all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds.e. For example.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . the actual kinds for these two constructors are and .6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. respectively. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . a default of is assumed. i. in such cases. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. respectively. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a).5.
which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). We use the term entity to refer to a value. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. the computation main is performed. For example. or perhaps exported from a module. classes... default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. etc. by convention. Modules may be mutually recursive. must be called Main and must export the value main.5. and are not ﬁrst class values. or class deﬁned in. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. making them available to other modules. Second.4). 1 65 . type. one of which. type synonyms. imported into. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. First.3. datatypes. (see Chapter 4). and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . module B where f = . Modules are used for namespace control.f >> B. When the program is executed. It exports some of these resources... in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules).f module A where f = . changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4.5) is affected by module boundaries. and its result (of type ) is discarded.
. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. Prelude. i. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter..66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. .6).2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . © 5. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . A module begins with a header: the keyword module. Chapter 4). consisting only of the module body.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. If this is used. (see Chapter 4). ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 .e.3) that specify modules to be imported. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. the module name. is permitted. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. Section 5. ).. bf = . etc. There is one distinguished module. CHAPTER 5. data types. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). . MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. . ( An abbreviated form of module. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. optionally restricting the imported bindings. ¦ ¦ § 5.. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . . classes. type synonyms.
5. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.) ( (. The abbreviated form (.Maybe( Nothing. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. or that it imports from some other module. must be in scope. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. . . Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. For example. ). should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2.. whether declared in the module body or imported. ( . A type synonym is in scope.. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported.) ( module . Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. which must be in scope. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. The constructor In all cases. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names.2. EXPORT LISTS 67 . ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. the following is legal module A( Mb. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . may . because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.. A value. or class method. If the export list is omitted. but not those that are imported. ﬁeld name. all values.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . . 3. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4.8). Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of .
or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). 5. C. In the second form.). because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( .5. item(2)).e”. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list..68 CHAPTER 5.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). must be in scope. enqueue. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. g. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace).. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. item (1) above).f. item (2)). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. For example.g) g = f True .. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. MODULES The abbreviated form (. ..1). ). dequeue ) where import Stack . one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . For example module A ( C. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. For example: module Queue( module Stack. ¡ £ . This set may be empty. names the class and some or all of its methods. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. In all cases. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. or by exporting an entire module (module M.g. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. item (5)). It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3.
the terminal symbols “as”. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.. 5. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . modules can import each other recursively).) refers to all of the constructors.3. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . and between module B and C. . they may also be used as variables. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (..g and g (assuming C.) ( .g and g are different entities – remember. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration.3. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. When the (. the (. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C.5. . . A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. or ﬁeld names exported from the module.) ( (.f and C. rather than Lexically. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .) form of import is used for a type or class. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.f (assuming B. hiding ( .3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.f are different entities). methods. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.. § 5. The list may be empty..
2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.3) on the import statement. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C.1. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. the toplevel environment is extended. exported by the imported module. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ .3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause.All Prelude names must be qualified . Hence. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. MODULES 2. If the qualified keyword is omitted. using C in an import list names only a class or type. class. © 5.+ 1) . in fact. Section 5. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.5. In contrast. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude.3. Thus.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. It is an error to hide an entity that is not.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.This + differs from the one in the Prelude . Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( .This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. Finally.3. . or type named C is excluded.3.3.’. ). in import M hiding (C) any constructor.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. if ported. For example. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared.
Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. y. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.x x. B.y A. A.f. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists. A.4).x.x A. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. A.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.y y. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .y In all cases. B.x. A. y. A. A. suppose the module A exports x and y.x B. y.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. B.y (nothing) x.4.3. 5.x.y (nothing) A.y x. B. A.x. 5.x.5.x. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. A.y A.y x. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.
The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. Thus. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5. such as f or A.1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. that is. whether qualified or not.72 CHAPTER 5.5.f respectively.5.f x x is legal.. MODULES module. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. Thus: module M where f x = . therefore. 5. ... A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .4). an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. there must be only one binding for f or A.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names. For example.f.y = x+1 in .f x = . A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. but does bring in any instances visible in M. it is illegal to write module M where M. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.3).. g x = M.ILLEGAL g x = let M. .. An import declaration.
b = . The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B..sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. B.x or C. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B... NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved...d.. or x declared in C.d. For example..sin (F. provided that the program does not mention those names.. c. module D( d ) where d = .. y = . even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. x..2). For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. c. and C. b. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. There is no reference to y... y ) where import D x = . The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned.4. c = . x. x) module B( d. d.. y = . y ) where import D x = .5.. module C( d. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). and c declared in C respectively. .5. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. and can be referred to in A by the names d.x. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.
5. 5. That is. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example.sin and F. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. and functions. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. However. However.5. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. called the “Standard Prelude. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. classes. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. That is.74 CHAPTER 5. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. MODULES The references to Prelude. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. For example. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope.” In Haskell. the Prelude is contained in the . That is.
and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. for example. For example: module A( null. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. These modules are not part of Haskell 98.6. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. PreludeIO.6. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. and so on. 5. they should be considered part of its implementation. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. For example. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. not part of the language deﬁnition. which provide less frequently used functions and types.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. just like those from any other module. but the implementation only gives a scheme. arrays.6. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. and they cannot be imported separately. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList.5. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. complex numberss. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. 5.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. however. given in Chapter 8. This means.
the use of ++ is not special syntax.76 CHAPTER 5.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. MODULES import Prelude statement. for example. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. For example. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. push.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. It is not possible.x) and (. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. For example. pop.x) g x = (. in terms of a different implementation of lists. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. 5. however. 5. For example.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. On the other hand.
For example. pop. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. Instead. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . pop. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. they must use push. and empty to construct such values. push. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type.8.5.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
Show. When appropriate. The basic boolean functions are && (and). The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. Show.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. 6. Ord. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude.1.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. complex numbers.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. Enum. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. In this chapter. types.  (or). 6. 6. Eq.1. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. and 79 .4. Numeric types are described in Section 6.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. and not. Ord. Enum.6. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Eq. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char.
) x y produce the same value. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. Ord. \f and \FF. and the \ˆ notation. ASCII mnemonic escapes.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.Int) and (. Ord. 6. \b and \BS.Bool. thus. However. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. \r and \CR.) Int Bool Int denote the same type.6. and MonadPlus. and uncurry. and \n and \LF.’r’. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. respectively. are described in Sections 3. curry. In addition. Lists are an instance of classes Read.’s’. of course.8.11. thus (x. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). The toEnum and fromEnum functions. Read. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. and Show (provided. as described in Section 3. \t and \HT. and Show.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. together with the instances for Eq.’ ’. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). For example. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. . Functor. Show. as deﬁned in Section 3. Ord. Bounded. although with special syntax. The same holds for tuple type constructors. Read. Monad. (Int. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors.80 CHAPTER 6. that all their component types are).1. Each tuple type has a single constructor. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples.y) and (.7. map characters to and from the Int type.’t’. \v and \VT. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. snd. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. ’i’. All tuples are instances of Eq. Bounded.10 and 3.1.’g’] 6. standard functions from class Enum.’n’. Eq. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15.
1. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id.1.6. Ord. (. the nullary constructor ().7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. Read. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. const. Read. Ord. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. flip.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Bounded. and MonadPlus. Bounded. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value.).1. a function argument is evaluated only when required. See also Section 3.3).6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. The unit datatype () has one non 6.9. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. Show) member. ($). 6. Read. It is an instance of Show and Eq. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. 6. Enum. Monad. Ord. Read. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. that is. and until. and Part II contains many more. Ord. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. 6.2. Enum. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor.1.
rightassociative binding precedence.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. since seq can be used to distinguish them. together with the default declarations. or zipWith ($) fs xs. 6. $! ($).1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). infixr 0 $. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. As a consequence. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. For the same reason.2. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. Default class method declarations (Section 4. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' .82 CHAPTER 6. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. However.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. $ has low. If there is no such comment. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. . and is deﬁned in terms of seq. However. because it is available at every type.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. such as map ($ 0) xs. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. 6.3. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application.
Float. Bool.1: Standard Haskell Classes . tuples Enum (). (>) Show All except IO. Char. Double RealFloat Float. Double Monad IO. Int. Maybe Functor IO. Double Fractional Float. Char. Integer. Integer. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Float. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. []. [].3. Double Real Int. Double Integral Int. Integer.6. IOError Num Int. (>) Read All except IO. Maybe Figure 6. Double Bounded Int. Ordering. Float. Integer RealFrac Float. () Ordering. Bool. Double Floating Float.
PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. IO. (<=).x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. .y) or (y. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. (>=). The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects.84 CHAPTER 6. and IOError. = = = = max x y) = (x. If one is deﬁned. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . neither default method is used. All basic datatypes except for functions. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.3. then both will loop. are instances of this class. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). If both are deﬁned. 6.
All Prelude types. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values."") <. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.3. except function types and IO types. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. and returns an ordinary String. ("".reads s. (If desired. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. which uses precedence context zero. rather than between square brackets. are instances of Show and Read. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show... the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . is also provided... STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. A specialised variant.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. by providing an instance declaration.t) <. show.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .6. This is particularly useful for the Char type.) For convenience..3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a..4).read: ambiguous parse" .3.
The function lex :: ReadS String. It reads a single lexeme from the input..3.n’.m] [n. of a value. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. The enumFrom. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.] [n.. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). used by read. is also part of the Prelude. discarding initial white space.. returns []). For example. lex fails (i..86 CHAPTER 6. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error.e.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. (Thus lex "" = [("".4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: ..) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.m] .] [n. which must be completely consumed by the input process.10). respectively. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. The read function reads input from a string. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. If the input string contains only white space.. 6. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3."")]. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.n’. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. see Chapter 10. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type.
. . Float.3. is . . IO.3. is .GT]. If the increment is positive or zero. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . In the case of Float and Double. all the list elements are the same. . all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. and Maybe are in this class. For the types Int and Integer. The increment may be zero or negative. Double. ]. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). ¤ . The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. Integer. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. Numeric types: Int. The list is ¥ § ¦ § .] is the list [LT. . the list terminates when the next element would be less than . It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ .5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. For all four of these Prelude numeric types. For all four numeric types. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. [LT. If the increment is zero.6. . For example. The semantics of these instances is given next. and Ordering. the list terminates when . and pred subtracts 1. . ]. . the digits after the decimal point may be lost.EQ. where the increment. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . For example. 6. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. ].. succ adds 1. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . Bool. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . empty if is the list [ . Lists. where the increment. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. the list is empty if negative. or when they become less than for negative . . the list is empty if . the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above.
3.88 CHAPTER 6. lists. In the Prelude. g) id fmap f . See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. 6. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3.14). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. for Maybe returns Nothing. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. Maybe. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h .3). and IO are all instances of Monad. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.
The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. Some. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. semantically). single precision ﬂoating (Float). a truncated value. but not all.3. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last.3. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. etc. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. The types Int. an implementation may choose error ( . and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. 6. both real and complex.6.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. NUMBERS 89 6. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. Ordering. Float is implementationdeﬁned. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. Bool. ().1. since all numbers may be compared for equality. or a special value such as inﬁnity. Figure 6. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.4. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). In particular. Char. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. page 83. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class.2–6.1. indeﬁnite. Similarly. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation.
while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2.4.90 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. See Section 4. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. The quot. even . div. div.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).3. (*). rem. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. Similarly. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. (). see section 3. 6. remainder) pair.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. and mod apply only to integral numbers.5. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. rem.4) apply to all numbers. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. respectively. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.4. The class methods quot. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. Ratio Integer). and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint.
mod quotRem. logBase :: a > a > a sin.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. acosh. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . atanh :: a > a Figure 6. log. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. rem. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . Show (+). There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. 6. tanh :: a > a asinh. sqrt :: a > a (**). logBase returns the logarithm of in base . gcd (3) (6) = 3. (). NUMBERS class (Eq a. cosh. acos.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. (*) negate abs. Part 1 Finally. cos. atan :: a > a sinh. Enum a) quot.6. 0** is undeﬁned. gcd 0 4 = 4. div. including zero.4. tan :: a > a asin.
isNegativeZero. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. Part 2 6. isDenormalized.92 CHAPTER 6.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 .a) b b class (Real a. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a.4. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isInfinite. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.
4. and tangent functions and their inverses. and with absolute value less than 1. tanh. Default implementations of tan. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . truncate. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. pi].4. truncate. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . If decodeFloat x yields ( . floatDigits. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. The ceiling. inclusive. where is the value radix. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. note that is the simplest rational of all. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. The functions floatRadix. and sqrt are provided. atan2 1. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9].6. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . where is the ﬂoatingpoint . and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. in particular. and furthermore. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. and implementation. floor. round returns the nearest integer to . should return the same value as atan . the greatest integer not greater than . ¢ ¢ 6. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). and: is an integral number with the same sign as . For real ﬂoating and . logBase. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. NUMBERS 93 6. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . with in a type that is RealFloat. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and floor . cosine. ). discontinuities. respectively.4. then x is equal in value to . floor. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ .5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . **.
significand x yields a value of the same type as x. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. isInfinite. Fractional b) => a > b . scaled to lie in the open interval . scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. isNegativeZero. these may all return false. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. but rather than an Integer.94 CHAPTER 6. The functions isNaN. isDenormalized. exponent 0 is zero.
an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. however. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype.1. as deﬁned in the IO library. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. Some operations are primitive actions. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. however.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. In the case of the I/O monad. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. corresponding to conventional I/O operations.6) sequentially compose actions.2). In the following. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . return and linefeed. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. For example. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. To achieve this. may read as a single newline character. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general.3. the abstract values are the mentioned above. two characters of input. and which are described in this section. Actions. see Section 6. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O.
[0.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () .19]]) Input Functions terminal).. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. Typically. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. which is read lazily as it is needed. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. For example.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. deﬁned the IO library.96 CHAPTER 7. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library.3) on endofﬁle. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. 2ˆn)  n <.
1. for example when it is (). The two monadic binding functions. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact.2. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string.[0.7. methods in the Monad class. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names.. The ﬁle is read lazily.0. their second argument.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. on demand. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile".x*x)  x <.2]]) 7. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. to the ﬁle. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. as with print. To write a value of any printable type. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . their ﬁrst argument. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. as with getContents. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst.
The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. . An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.getLine s <.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. otherwise. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. For example.getLine return (c:s) 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation.98 CHAPTER 7. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. User error values include a string describing the error. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. For example.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.
EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program. .3.6) raises a userError.3.. thus: instance Monad IO where . the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program. (>>=).. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.bindings for return. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.7.
100 CHAPTER 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .
and PreludeIO. To take one particular example. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type.. Prelude. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). length. or less. such as Integral a or Num a. as it pleases.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. Declarations for special types such as Integer. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. These functions are: take. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell.. These imports are not. This structure is purely presentational. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. Some of these modules import Library modules. an implementation is free to import more. Monad. PreludeText. 101 . An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. An ellipsis “. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. PreludeList. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. and to improve efﬁciency. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. and Numeric. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. such as Char. These modules are described fully in Part II. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. nor are these three modules available for import separately. given with class declarations. !!. That is. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. drop.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. IO. of the Library modules. and three submodules. indicated by names starting with “prim”. The default method deﬁnitions. of course.
The more general versions are given in the List library. with the preﬁx “generic”.102 CHAPTER 8. for example genericLength. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. . and replicate.
cosh. Integral(quot. floatRange. (ˆ). etc. ceiling. truncate. Floating(pi. isInfinite. module PreludeIO. Double. id. otherwise. floor).)((. fail). curry. Float. sinh. Fractional((/). Monad((>>=). Maybe(Nothing. error. module PreludeText. significand. gcd. floatDigits. maybe. (<=). maxBound). Real(toRational). abs. asin. seq. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . GT). subtract. signum. max. either.. isIEEE. but are denoted by builtin syntax. (<). Char. const. []) Tuple types: (. fromRational). isNegativeZero. RealFrac(properFraction. divMod. tanh. snd. fromEnum. rem. toInteger). acos. fromInteger). (.Unicode primitives . negate. (&&). acosh. List type: []((:). Enum(succ. uncurry. encodeFloat. sqrt. Rational. undefined. Just). exponent. odd. enumFrom. exp. Integer.)). decodeFloat. Functor(fmap). EQ. realToFrac. mapM. (). (). Bounded(minBound.)). pred. fromIntegral. min). mod. toEnum. (*).103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. logBase. (>=). enumFromTo. String. (>). IO.Contains all ‘prim’ values .)((. enumFromThenTo). isNaN. atan. not. True). atanh). (/=)). tan. (**). isDenormalized. (=<<). Ord(compare. sin. lcm. and cannot legally appear in an export list. Num((+). round. asTypeOf. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). enumFromThen. return. quotRem. scaleFloat. recip. atan2). sequence. log. cos..). Either(Left. Bool(False. until. mapM_. div. Ordering(LT. even. Int. fst. sequence_. (. ($). These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. Right). (ˆˆ). flip. (>>). asinh. RealFloat(floatRadix.
(/=) :: a > a > Bool .y) or (y. $!. (>) :: a > a > Bool max.Standard types. >>= =<< $. ‘div‘.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. min :: a > a > a .  . /. ‘seq‘ . compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . instances and related functions .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). ** *. ˆ. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. ‘mod‘ +. STANDARD PRELUDE . (<=).The (:) operator is builtin syntax. ˆˆ.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). ‘rem‘. > &&  >>.note that (min x y. max x y) = (x.a fixity declaration. <.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . ‘quot‘. /=. and cannot legally be given . <=. (>=). >=.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. classes.
fromEnum y . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .105 .. fromEnum y . fromEnum pred = toEnum .. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n... (+1) ..NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum.Minimal complete All. (subtract 1) .n’.. fromEnum .Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.Minimal complete definition: toEnum. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs. succ = toEnum ..] [n.m] .] [n.Numeric classes class (Eq a.m] [n. except x .n’. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.. Show a) => Num a where (+). ().
atan asinh. sqrt :: a > a (**). acosh.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. log. acos. tanh :: a > a asinh. cos. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. mod quotRem. tan :: a > a asin.106 class (Real a. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. atan :: a > a sinh. cosh asin. log. sin.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q.a) a > Integer . rem div.Minimal complete definition: pi. sinh.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. acos.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x .r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . logBase :: a > a > a sin. cos. exp.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. cosh. atanh :: a > a . Enum quot. acosh.
a) b b .5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.0._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r . floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.107 class (Real a.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .
Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. significand. isDenormalized.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .x or y is a NaN.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.floatDigits x) where (m.108 CHAPTER 8._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. scaleFloat.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not . isInfinite. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. isNegativeZero. return a NaN (via +) . isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.
Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. but lift the function or . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .Minimal complete definition: (>>=).The xxxM functions take list arguments.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toRational .list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. toInteger :: (Real a.109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .
STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.function composition (. Show.flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ .. Read.identity function id :: a > a id x = x . Bounded) . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .rightassociating infix application operators .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . for illustration only .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.Character type data Char = .. g = \ x > f (g x) .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($)... Bounded) .Primitive .110 . Ord. Enum. . ’a’  ’b’ .Not legal Haskell.Boolean functions (&&).Function type .. Enum.. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True . . Ord.
. Read..111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.IO type data IO a = .. fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . return = .. . Ord. fromEnum c’ ..abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . Ord.. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] ...Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Read. fail s = ioError (userError s) .
. . maxBound .... . data Integer = ... .... instance Real Integer where ...... . .. .. Bounded) ..far too large. ........ 1  0  1 . . . .... .... .... ... instance Enum Integer where ... ..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be .Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.. instance Integral Integer where ... . Enum. Ord. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. instance Ord Integer where .. ... instance Num Integer where .... 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 ...... Show... data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound ..112 .. The data declarations for these types cannot .. where where where where where where where where . . . . Read. ... instance Eq Integer where ..... ..Standard numeric types. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ..
Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int.0. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .1 is represented.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ .may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger .113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . Ord) . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . depending on how 0.95]. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] .Not legal Haskell. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. However.1 . 0.
Bounded) (a.b.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds. STANDARD PRELUDE (a. for illustration only .error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . Ord. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .b) = (a.undefined" .(NB: not provided for triples. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .c) deriving (Eq.(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.as an infix operator. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x. curry :: ((a.b) > a fst (x.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.Misc functions .Not legal Haskell.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . . y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. etc.appears.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.b.messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined . It is usually used .114 .y) = x snd snd (x. Bounded) .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. quadruples.y) :: (a. Ord. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.component projections for pairs: .) fst :: (a.c) = (a.b) > b = y . and its typing forces its first argument .b) deriving (Eq.
and.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . notElem. product. last. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. iterate. sum. dropWhile. scanr. of a list. scanl. scanl1.8. unwords. take. zip. span. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. foldl. scanr1. foldl1. (++). ‘notElem‘ . reverse. any. zip3.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . unlines.1 Prelude PreludeList . replicate. foldr1. takeWhile. words. null.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. elem.1. lines. which must be nonempty. all. zipWith. break. init. respectively. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. length. splitAt. tail. repeat. concatMap. minimum. filter. or.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. unzip. zipWith3. rather than the beginning. cycle. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. drop. (!!). maximum. foldr. lookup. head. concat.
] == [z.. x1 ‘f‘ x2. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2. scanl1 is similar.. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1..last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. .!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. ....List index (subscript) operator. . and thus must be applied to nonempty lists..] == [x1. xn] == (. x2.. z ‘f‘ x1.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs..init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . . and a list. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude..foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘..length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. . STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. scanl is similar to foldl.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8... length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .. x2. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. from left to right: foldl f z [x1. x2. reduces the list using the binary operator. applied to a binary operator.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude.
cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. with x the value of every element. or [] if n > length xs. foldr1.on infinite lists. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs .iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . scanr.. It is the identity .cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.above functions.the infinite repetition of the original list.repeat x is an infinite list. returns the prefix of xs of length n. f x.foldr. or xs itself if n > length xs.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . drop n xs). f (f x).iterate f x == [x. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. or equivalently. . and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . applied to a list xs.1.. .foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .8.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = .
break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. and unwords joins words with separating spaces. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . unlines joins lines with terminating newlines.[a]) span p [] = ([]. Similary. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. words breaks a string up into a list of words. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. applied to a predicate p and a list xs.xs) where (ys. which were delimited by white space.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. dropWhile p xs). :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. while break p uses the negation of p.[a]) = (take n xs.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. s’’) = break Char.zs)  otherwise = ([]. drop n xs) takeWhile.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.
sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. maximum. For the result to be . or is the .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. however. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.elem is the list membership predicate. usually written in infix form.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . notElem is the negation. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .True. ..lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. . the list must be finite.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . Similarly.8. .g.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. False. finite. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .1. for all. any. any determines if any element . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 .e. elem. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. results from a False .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x. and of an ordered type.Applied to a predicate and a list. map p .which must be nonempty. sum.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list.disjunctive dual of and.of the list satisfies the predicate. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . map p all p = and . minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. and. x ‘elem‘ xs.
bs) > (a:as. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.b)] = zipWith (.[]) :: [(a.[]) . zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.[b].unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.b) ˜(as.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.b)] > ([a]. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. excess elements of the longer list are discarded. For example.bs.[].c) ˜(as.b:bs. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .c)] > ([a]..b:bs)) ([].c:cs)) ([]. instead of a tupling function. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.120  CHAPTER 8.c)] = zipWith3 (.cs) > (a:as.[c]) = foldr (\(a. If one input list is short.[b]) = foldr (\(a.b.b.b.
readParen. reads t.u)  (x. shows x . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. shows. readLitChar. showString.s) pr where readl s = [([]. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. showInt. shows x . Read(readsPrec. showFloat. readFloat.t)  ("]". ShowS.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. isDigit.". showList). showChar.t)  ("]". reads. Either. readSigned. Ordering .String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList .t) [(x:xs. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.2. readl’ u] .t) [(x:xs.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". show. isAlpha.u) (xs. Show(showsPrec.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ .t) (x.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. read. readList). lex. showParen ) where .v)  (".8.’ . showLitChar. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. isAlphaNum. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. showl xs .u) readl’ s = [([].t) (xs. readDec. Maybe. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8.hs import Char(isSpace.
"")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’"."") <. (str. u)  (ch.lex t ] .read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".s) (x.’\’’:t) <.lexStrItem s. ("".t) (")". .t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.t) <. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.reads s.t) <.u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <. p .optional s. <.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".u) <. t)  (str.u)  ("(". showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x.lexLitChar s. <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". t)  (ch.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .lex r.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.
’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.[span isDigit s]. (e. (fe.t) <.t) <.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.t) <.lexFracExp s ] . c ‘elem‘ "+".s)] [(c:sym./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.u) <.readsPrec p r] . (ds.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.t) <.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.lexDigits (c:cs).Converting to Integer avoids . toInteger .bad character lexFracExp (’.’:ds++e.t) lexExp s = [("".t) [(c:ds++fe.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.s)] <.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .[s].[span isSym s]]  (nam.u)  (ds.2.t) [(c:nam. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".s) <.t) <.u) <.Reading at the Integer type avoids .lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .8..t) <. t)  (i.
lex r.t) <. w)  ("(". reads u.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. (l.y). t) <.s) (x.b) where showsPrec p (x.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.y) = showChar ’(’ .lex r. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .124 CHAPTER 8.t)  ("(".Tuples instance (Show a. showLitChar c .readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .readLitChar s. lex t. lex v ] ) .t)<.lex r. Read b) => Read (a.v) (")".w) . showChar ’. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a. shows y ._) <.t) (".t)  (’\’’:s.". STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [(().s) <.readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".u) <."\’") <.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .t) <. (cs. reads s.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l. Show b) => Show (a. (")".’ . (c.u)  (c . showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . shows x . showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.t)  (’"’:s.u) (y.
ioError. putStr. print. Eq IOError where . getChar.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . readFile.. interact. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. IOError.. appendFile. getLine.3. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . readIO. putChar. catch. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.8. putStrLn.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . writeFile..3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath.. getContents. userError.
lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x. (""."") <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.126 CHAPTER 8.getLine r <.reads s.readIO l return r .getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .t) <.
for example actually stands for 30 productions. right.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. . letexpressions. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . this is the “maximal munch” rule. the nonterminals . Thus. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). an associativity variable varies over . . with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). or for left.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. this means that conditionals. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. In the lexical syntax. In the contextfree syntax. and may have a double index: a letter . Similarly. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible.
˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .
.4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . .2. 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . . : :: = \  <. . . .
where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed.130 CHAPTER 9. If the innermost context is 0. the token is inserted after the keyword.6. – A positive integer. because it is not preceded only by white space. (NB: a string literal it is not. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. the programmer supplied the opening brace. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. nor before the . do. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. provided that . where. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. in which each element is either: – Zero. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program.3 Layout Section 2.) A stack of “layout contexts”.e. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i.. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill".7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule.
A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop.9. width as an ASCII character. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . Tab stops are 8 characters apart. However. and “ ” for the empty stream. For the purposes of the layout rule. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. to avoid visual confusion. ﬁxed. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ .3. . the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. all start a new line. not 0. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. To determine the column number. The deﬁnition of is as follows. . and ¦ ¦ 7 7 .
If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. For example let x = e. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. because doing so involves ﬁxities. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. ¤ ¥ Note 6. so empty braces are inserted. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error.e. and a nonlayout context is active. For example. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. SYNTAX REFERENCE ).132 CHAPTER 9. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. ).15). A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. The token is replaced by . It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. Note 2. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. then parseerror is true. although they could be: for example let }. If none of the rules given above matches. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. then the algorithm fails. Note 3. Note 5. Note 4. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. If not. any pending closebraces are inserted. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. y = x in e’ is valid. At the end of the input.4. since the close brace is missing. because it translates to let { x = e. then the block must be empty. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace.
9. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. .3.
is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. all other lines are comment. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. 8 8 ¥¥8 .hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. For example. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. of course). only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9.134 CHAPTER 9.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. all other lines are comment. In this convention. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. By convention. Using this style. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. though it may be stylistically desirable. with “.
n])  n <..20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n. product [1.9.[1.4.. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. .
) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 .) ( .. hiding ( . . . . as . . SYNTAX REFERENCE .) ( (. .. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. = => => => => . . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. } . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ...) ( (. . . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . . } } © 2§ . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . .) ( module .
] ) . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . . . . . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (.5.
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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deriving (
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142
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
w)  (u.t)  ("Leaf".1: Example of Derived Instances .s) <. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .s) <.w) <.lex r.Precedence of :ˆ: . (v. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.Application has precedence one more than .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.lex s.t) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (":ˆ:".t) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u . (m. .146 CHAPTER 10.
An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. 11.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. Lexically. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. pragmas appear as comments. 11. . but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © .1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . For example. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.
factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. . COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int.148 CHAPTER 11.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
. Read. For each Integral type .. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio.. a) => Read (Ratio a) where . (%). Num (Ratio a) where . Fractional. Enum.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. If is a bounded type.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Ratio is an abstract type.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. denominator.. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. Rational... the results may be unpredictable. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. Ord. Num. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . Enum (Ratio a) where ... The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. Fractional (Ratio a) where . For example.. Real. and Show... the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over .. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive... RealFrac... In each case.. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. Ord (Ratio a) where . Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. numerator. Real (Ratio a) where . Show (Ratio a) where .
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.152 CHAPTER 12. RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .
denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio.1 Library Ratio . LIBRARY RATIO 153 12.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .1. Rational..12. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.g. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. E. (%). denominator.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. numerator.
u) <.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.t) <. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y. showString " % " . ("%".lex s.r) = quotRem n d (q’.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.u)  (x.s) <.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . (y. r:%y) where (q. RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .154 CHAPTER 12. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .
phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components.. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .... .. realPart. and the phase. . cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). Put another way.. the entire number is . phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative.. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. imagPart.. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . if the magnitude is zero.. in the range . conjugate. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. cis. then so is the phase. .a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . (RealFloat a) realPart.Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+))... 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . . magnitude. mkPolar. polar.. .
but unit magnitude.a) = (magnitude z. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. whereas signum has the phase of . magnitude. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. realPart. abs is a number with the magnitude of . 13. polar. imagPart.156 CHAPTER 13.Read.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. mkPolar. conjugate. cis. but oriented in the positive real direction.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number.
1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .13.
z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .158 CHAPTER 13. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.
readSigned. showSigned. showGFloat. showFFloat. showInt. readHex. showHex. readFloat. floatToDigits. readOct. showFloat. readDec. readInt. showEFloat.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showIntAtBase. showOct.
many of which are used in the standard Prelude. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. is the value to show.160 CHAPTER 14. plus an exponent.999. if is Just . showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. .5e3). Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. 1. showFFloat. 0. More speciﬁcally. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. 245000. showOct.String)] 14. and is a function that can show unsigned values. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise.1 and 9.g.45e2.g. is the precedence of the enclosing context. if is Nothing. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. showInt.0015). In what follows. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. 2. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . 8.999.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. In the call showSigned . then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. showEFloat. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. and 16 respectively.
octal. floatToDigits. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. readOct. isHexDigit digitToInt. In the call readInt . ( ( isDigit. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. readInt. Array. showInt. showGFloat. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. readHex. readOct. In the hexadecimal case.14. is the base. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. given a reader for an unsigned value. and hexadecimal notation respectively.) 14. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. showHex. showFFloat. numerator. readSigned.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. readDec.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. showOct. readFloat. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt.2. isOctDigit. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. in decimal. 14. showEFloat. readDec. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. showIntAtBase. denominator ) (!). showSigned. showFloat. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . intToDigit ) (%). lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base.
or p (the exponent) <= minExp.p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0.Conversion process: . . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). .Handle exceptional cases .Fractional instances of Float and Double. Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. This should be used in the .that we got from the scaling. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. p) .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then . scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.a first guess of the exponent.first.This converts a rational to a floating. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn . NUMERIC .p .162 CHAPTER 14.Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until .
showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a ."") <<<< lex r.Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.14.t) read’’ r = [(n. . showOct.4. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . .2ˆn)  n <.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.s)  (str.s) (n. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’..t)  ("". readPos str] .Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .[minExpt .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.base > (Int > Char) .digit to char > a . read’’ s] lex r.showInt.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.maxExpt) [(n.s) (x. showOct.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b. maxExpt]] 163 .
data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . .These are the format types. .nonnull isDig s ] .Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere. digToInt) ds). readOct.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.r) <. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral .readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base. NUMERIC . r)  (ds.164 CHAPTER 14. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.
’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .0e0" [d] > d : ". LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.4.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .14. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.
’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1.ab.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. b." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . z].34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. not 34. in PLDI 96. []) f d (i:is) = let (c.. In general.166 CHAPTER 14.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. is) > (1.when the format specifies no . The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.base1]) . [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. is) > (0. e) . 0:ds) else (0.Print 0.and an exponent. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.. is) (1. not .digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. NUMERIC ++ ’. It should be improved.G.’ : s . . . i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. Int) . Dybvig. . is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .Print 34.then r = 0. Burger and R. K.. if floatToDigits r = ([a..z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].34. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.
Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. Ignoring .e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).p 167 . s. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . (p . e0) (r. be*b.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . bˆ(e)*2. .the following will err on the low side.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . e) = let n = minExp .the fraction will make it err even more. 2*b. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0.14. mUp. e0+n) else (f0. 1. bˆ(e+1)*2. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. 2.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers .4. b.will have an impossibly low exponent. Adjust for this. be. 1) else (f*2. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. b) else (f*be*2.the real minimum exponent .
s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.t) <.t) <.point than the Haskell lexer. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).readFix r. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. t)  ("Infinity". rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.’ is optional. t)  (ds.t)  (cs@(_:_).168 CHAPTER 14.s) <. k) in . The ‘. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).lexDigits r. length ds’.t) <.t)  (k.t) <.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.t) <.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t)  (n. t)  ("NaN".This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".d) <. (ds’.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. True) > dn+1 : ds (True. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.d. False) > dn : ds (False.t) <. (k.[span p s]] .
rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a. . An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.. and a subscript. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range..u) map index (range (l... The range operation enumerates all subscripts. The Ix class contains the methods range. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16).when i is in range inRange (l.u)] 169 .. instance instance instance instance (Ix a.. where .a) > (a..u) !! index (l.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. .. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range. The index operation maps a bounding pair.. index.u) i == i .. index.a) > (a.. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers. and inRange.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .a) > (a.. inRange. ..b) where where where where . to an integer.rangeSize (l.u)) == [0. Ix b) .a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.
Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.170 CHAPTER 15.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.Green. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.3). For example.Blue] 1 False . For an enumeration. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15.e. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.3. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.Blue) index (Yellow. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.1.
Ix ak) => Ix (a1.(u.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1.uk) * ( index (lk1..(u1.ik)  i1 <.ik) = index (lk..i’) = index (l.lk).u’) i’ inRange ((l.uk)) (i1.(u.1: Derivation of Ix instances ...(u1.l’). i2 <. .l’)..a2.... Ix b) => Ix (a...uk)] index ((l1.u’)) (i. ik <.u) i * rangeSize (l’.l2.uk) ik + rangeSize (lk...u2) i2 && .lk). && inRange (lk.u’)) (i..u2).l2..Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: ...u1))) inRange ((l1......lk).u2.. Ix a2.(u.u’)) = [(i.u) i && inRange (l’.15. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a..u’) i’ ...i’)  i <.i2.ik) = inRange (l1.u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u1).range (lk.uk)) = [(i1.l’)..i’) = inRange (l.(u1.u2...ak) where range ((l1..uk1) * ( ...u’) + index (l’.instance (Ix a1. index (l1.u2.u).... ..range (l.b) where range ((l.l2.range (l2..i2..range (l1. .. i’ <...uk)) (i1..i2.uk) ik Figure 15...range (l’..1.u’)] index ((l....
n] index b@(m.as derived Ix () .index: Index out of range.n) index b@(m.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m." inRange (m.n) = [m..NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" . rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a..n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i . For example.(2." inRange (c. for all tuples Ix Bool .a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.index: Index out of range.172 CHAPTER 15.Ix b) => Ix (a.n] index b@(c.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.fails if the bounds are tuples.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.m error "Ix.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .2) <= (2.n] = = = i .as derived." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.n) = [m. index.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.n) i = [m.as derived Ix Ordering .index: Index out of range.as derived .h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .2).2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.a) > [a] index :: (a. inRange.1) . (1. b) ..
elems.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a. bounds. Show b) Read a.. array... // => Array a b = .. ..Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.. assocs.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.b)] > Array a b (a. accumArray.a) > [(a..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . a. .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.. a.export all of Ix for convenience Array.Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a...c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. . (!).a) > [(a. Ix b) => (a.. (//). ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. 173 . . listArray. indices.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a.. . accum.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .
An array may be created by the function array. If. accumArray. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. arrays are treated as data..[2. Thus. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. elements.1). The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. The array is undeﬁned (i. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. Because the indices must be checked for these errors.1) : [(i. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. but empty. and assocs. respectively. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. An association (i.e. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. return lists of the indices. 16. ). . These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. If any two associations in the list have the same index. in index order. not as general functions.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. elems. or associations. then the array is legal. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. Typically.1. For example.(10. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers.e.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. in that order.100) ((1. but nonstrict in the values. 16.174 CHAPTER 16. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. in particular. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. ). Figure 16. The functions indices.10). i * a!(i1))  i <. when applied to an array.e. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. ). Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. Since most array functions involve the class Ix.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type.10)). The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. in any dimension. each of the index type of the array.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.
Thus. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. the second is an initial value.2. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.n]] is the same matrix. 16. except with the diagonal zeroed. a!i * x)  i <. in the association list.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. 0)  i <.1: Array examples function. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list.range b]) 0 0 . hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. n by n matrix. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES .Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. i)  i <. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. unlike ordinary arrays. given a list of values of some index type.range b] where b = bounds a . For example. then accumArray is strict in the values.range b] = bounds a 175 . (As with the array function. Num b) => (a. then m//[((i. z)  i <.i).) For example. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function .a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. as for the array function.[1.16.. if m is a 1origin. as well as the indices. 1)  i<is.
accumArray.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.176 CHAPTER 16.export all of Ix Array. elems.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a._)) = bounds x . (//). bounds.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. .l’).y)>x) Figure 16. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.(_. listArray.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.2: Derived array examples 16. with the mapping that the original array embodies.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.j)) x where ((_.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.u) (\i>(i.(u. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b. Figure 16. accum. ARRAYS .a) (a > b) deriving () .u’) (\j>(i. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right. respectively. Ix b) => a > Array (a.i)) x where ((l.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.u’)) = bounds x . 16. assocs. array.2 shows some examples. (!). The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. indices.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x._).
range b]) :: (Ix a.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .b)] = [(i. a!i)  i <. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. Ix b) => (a.indices a. a ! f i)  i <.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .a!i)  i <.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.v) > a // [(i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a._) <._) <.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.16. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.v) <. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a. f) instance (Ix a.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.ivs.a) > [(a.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.4.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.a) > [(a.z)  i <.
Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. showChar ’ ’ . Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.u) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .s) <. (as.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .178 instance (Ix a. u)  ("array". Read a.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . (b. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) .lex r.t) <. Show a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a.
179 .
repeat. deleteBy. scanl. intersperse. foldl1. notElem. group. reverse. zipWith7. filter. or. lookup. isSuffixOf. span. zipWith6. zipWith4. unionBy. takeWhile. tail. nub. maximumBy. zipWith. zip3. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . zipWith5. unzip5. isPrefixOf. unlines. insert. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex.and what the Prelude exports . scanr. zip6. (++). intersectBy.[]((:). []). tails. genericReplicate. insertBy. concatMap. foldl. genericTake. all. any. length. genericSplitAt. minimum. partition. zip7. unwords. zip. foldr1. foldr. genericDrop. minimumBy. unzip. lines. sum. break. (!!). intersect. dropWhile. concat. findIndex. union. unzip7. . mapAccumL. and. drop. scanr1. genericIndex. maximum. unzip6. find.. delete. head.This is builtin syntax map. genericLength. init. take. iterate... findIndices. (\\). nubBy. mapAccumR. product. transpose. words. scanl1. cycle. deleteFirstsBy. sort. zip5. elem. groupBy. null. zip4.180 CHAPTER 17. splitAt. sortBy. . elemIndices. unzip4. replicate. inits. last. zipWith3. unfoldr.
b.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.b.[d].f.c.e.c.d.[e]) :: [(a.[c].b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.d.[b].d.[b].f)] > ([a].[e].b.d)] > ([a].d.c.d.b.e)] > ([a].[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.e.b.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a. [c]) (b > Maybe (a. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b.[c].181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].c.f.d.[c].[d]) :: [(a.c.b.[c].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.[d].[b].g)] > ([a].c. [c]) (a > b > (a.c.e.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.e.[f]) :: [(a.[f].[d].b. .c.[b].[e]. c)) > a > [b] > (a.
3. union is list union.182 CHAPTER 17. (\\). For example: nub [1.4.4] .8] == [2. 17. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates.g.. if there is no such element. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). of val in list as Just index. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. findIndex returns the corresponding index. delete.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.3] = [1.4] ‘intersect‘ [2..2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. e. e. [1.1. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. giving the occurrences of val in list. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. or Nothing. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.4. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. In the result of xs \\ ys. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).3. e. if any. LIST UTILITIES 17.2.6.3. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. findIndices returns a list of all such indices.. Thus.g.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.g.3. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.
g. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". 17. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation."pp". e."ss". mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.[4.3]. tails "abc" == ["abc"."i". partition p xs == (filter p xs.2."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17. longest ﬁrst.[3. e. filter (not . p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.3."ss". shortest ﬁrst.6]] == [[1.’ "abcde" == "a. intersperse ’.d. inits "abc" == ["".b.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.4].""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn..5. adjacent elements..17. "bc".5].c."ab"."a"."i".e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument."i".e.g. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function. For example: . transpose [[1.[2. i. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).. respectively.3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. "c".
isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. .184 CHAPTER 17. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. intersectBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. sortBy. groupBy. 17. isPrefixOf. minimumBy.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. For example. deleteBy. elemIndices. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. The library does not provide elemBy.6 The “By” operations By convention. unionBy. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. insertBy. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. maximumBy. f x)) In some cases. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. sufﬁx) of the second argument.
For example. 5. genericTake. genericLength is a generalised version of length.17.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. . unzip3. genericReplicate. unzip. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. zip3. and 7 arguments. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. genericSplitAt. 6. genericDrop. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). and zipWith3.7. zipWith.
findIndex. foldr. zip7. unlines. union. . tail. groupBy. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . zip6. unzip5.i) <. find. unzip. product. unzip4. all. group. foldl. maximumBy. intersectBy. iterate.186 CHAPTER 17. scanr1. foldl1. lines. []).9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. words. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . zipWith5. inits. deleteFirstsBy. (!!). partition. zip4. lookup. notElem. head. genericDrop. null. zipWith6. intersect. genericReplicate. mapAccumL. transpose. any. dropWhile. takeWhile. (\\). genericTake. unfoldr. or. insert. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . scanr. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. unzip6. span. unzip7.[]((:). zip3. sort. drop. elemIndices. (++). intersperse. nub. length. sum. mapAccumR. tails. foldr1. concatMap. findIndices.]. init.. zipWith7. zip5. last. and. deleteBy. delete. zipWith3. scanl. .zip xs [0. take. isPrefixOf. concat. reverse. repeat.. splitAt. genericSplitAt. filter.This is builtin syntax map. minimum. maximum. unionBy. sortBy. replicate. unwords. genericLength.. zipWith4. cycle.. scanl1. minimumBy.and what the Prelude exports . insertBy. zip. genericIndex. LIST UTILITIES 17. isSuffixOf. elem. zipWith. nubBy. break.
"i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .[5]] . transpose [[1."i"."ss".group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.4]. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .3].4.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].5].[a]) = (filter p xs..elements.group "Mississippi" == ["M".g.xs. p) xs) . adjacent .transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. filter (not .9. .2]. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs . e. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.Note that [h  (h:t) <.xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <."ss"."i".xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.[2."pp".For example."i".[3.[]] = [[1.17.
y:ys) where (s’.g.g.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. longest first. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . c)) > a > [b] > (a. "c". y ) = f s x (s’’. [c]) = (s. "bc"."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. y:ys) where (s’’."ab".""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) . []) = (s’’.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. ["abc". ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a... []) = (s’’.e.e.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . shortest first.zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.y ) = f s’ x (s’. c)) > a > [b] > (a.inits xs returns the .tails xs returns the . tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. ["". [c]) = (s. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys."a".
xs’’) error "List.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].[b]) = ([].xs) = ([].genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.17.[]) = = = (x:xs’.9.
c.c:cs.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.c.b.e.bs..d)] = zipWith4 (...d:ds)) ([].c.b.b.b:bs.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.[d]) = foldr (\(a.d..b.c.ds) > (a:as.d)] > ([a].f)] = zipWith6 (.[].d.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.b.cs.g)] = zipWith7 (..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.d.e)] = zipWith5 (..f..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[b]..e.b.[].genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a..genericIndex: negative argument" error "List..c.. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.[c].d) ˜(as..[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 ..c..
bs.ds.d:ds.f)] > ([a].cs.f.17.e.b:bs.es.b:bs.[b].e.f.[].[b].[f]) = foldr (\(a.es.d.ds.c.[f].b.[]) :: [(a.[e]) = foldr (\(a.bs.[d].e:es)) ([].[].d.d.d:ds.[].g) ˜(as.b.es) > (a:as.d.f:fs.b.fs.[d].c:cs.d:ds.ds.f:fs)) ([].e.[].[g]) = foldr (\(a.b.e)] > ([a].c.[e].e:es.[d].cs.d.[].fs) > (a:as.[e].c.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .e.c:cs.f) ˜(as.c.e:es.[b].c:cs.9.[c].d.cs.[c].[].[].g)] > ([a].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.bs.[].[].c.e) ˜(as.b:bs.g:gs)) ([].[].c. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.gs) > (a:as.[].[].b.b.[c].
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. catMaybes.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. fromJust. as would happen if error were used. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. mapMaybe. maybe ) where isJust... maybeToList.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. . listToMaybe. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. isNothing. 193 . which would cause the expression to become monadic. and without using IOError from the IO monad. Just).. fromMaybe.
Just). maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not .ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . catMaybes. fromMaybe. listToMaybe.. isNothing. mapMaybe. map f . isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. fromJust.194 CHAPTER 18.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. . maybeToList.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. MAYBE UTILITIES 18..
isLatin1.. . isControl. String ) where isAscii. isControl. For the purposes of Haskell. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. readLitChar. isHexDigit. isOctDigit. isAlpha. isPrint. ord. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. intToDigit. isSpace. any 195 . other alphabetic. toLower. showLitChar. isOctDigit. isUpper. numeric digits.. toUpper. chr.and what the Prelude exports Char. isLower. isAlpha. isAlphaNum.. isPrint. isDigit. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isLower. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. isUpper. lower case alphabetic. lexLitChar. isLatin1. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. digitToInt. isSpace. isDigit. isHexDigit. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. and other printable characters. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set.
Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed..’9’. ’a’. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers..15. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".196 CHAPTER 19. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. "Hello")] [(’\n’. leaving any other character unchanged.’f’. lower. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. isOctDigit. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. leaving any other character unchanged. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. The function readLitChar does the same. For each sort of Unicode character. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range.e. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. . and title). CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. ’A’. Similarly. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. ’0’. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter.. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes.’F’).
...digitToInt: not a digit" . isLower. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . toLower. isDigit.19. .fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . lexLitChar. isLatin1.’Z’ . isPrint. isPrint. isDigit.Charactertesting operations isAscii. intToDigit.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. digitToInt.’a’. lexDigits. isAlpha. isSpace. isLatin1. isUpper. readLitChar. isAlphaNum.Used for character name table.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . readOct. toUpper.Source of primitive Unicode functions..1. showLitChar. isHexDigit. import Numeric (readDec.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c .and what the Prelude exports Char..Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isControl. ord.’A’.. isOctDigit. isControl.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . chr. isHexDigit. isAlpha. isLower. readHex) import UnicodePrims . isUpper. String ) where import Array . LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. isSpace. isOctDigit.
198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c. mne) <.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .s’)  (c.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.t) <.ord ’@’).Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.table. t)  (n.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’. ([].s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys . t)  (n.intToDigit: not a digit" .t) <.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .s’) <.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.10) error "Char. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.t) <.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’. t)  (n.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c . CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .
"SOH". "HT". "CR". "STX". "ENQ". ’ ’) ["NUL". "DC1". "FF". "RS". "ETB".s)] [] . protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "EM". "LF". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t.c]. "DC4". "SO". "SYN".s) = (c:t.1. "SUB". "DLE". "ESC". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "SI". "ETX". "ACK". "DC3". "FS". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "VT". "US".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "CAN". "NAK". "DC2".19. "BS".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "BEL".s)] .Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "GS".
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
liftM2. Functor(fmap). when. join. zipWithM. (=<<). liftM5. return. liftM.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). mapAndUnzipM. guard. unless. foldM.. sequence_. sequence. mapM. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. fail). filterM.202 CHAPTER 20.. zipWithM_. msum. (>>).. ap. . liftM4.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . mapM_. mplus). liftM3.
Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form.1. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. for example. Thus. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . 20.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else.20. So. and provides some useful operations on monads. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.
The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. putStr ": ". xm ] == do a2 <.2] = [0. . which promotes function application.f a2 x2 .readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i).1. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. and otherwise do nothing.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations..1] [0..] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap.f a1 x1 a3 <. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. For example. For example. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. The function arguments are scanned left to right. .. liftM2 (+) [0.2... x2. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. foldM f a1 [x1. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list..204 CHAPTER 20. preﬁxing each line with its line number. MONAD UTILITIES 20. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. returning the result as a pair of lists. the input list should be reversed. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. putStrLn line) [1. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad.
20. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ . xn 205 ...3..
(>>).Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .206 CHAPTER 20. return. join. when. Functor(fmap). mapM. . mapM_. zipWithM_. liftM4. liftM3. foldM. unless. zipWithM. ap. liftM2. msum. ) where . (=<<). filterM. sequence_..The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . unzip .4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM5.. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . mapAndUnzipM.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. mplus). liftM.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). guard. MONAD UTILITIES 20.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. sequence. fail)..
a.c.b.filterM p xs.c.20. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.b. c’ <.a.p x. d’ <. b’ <. d’ <.d.b.c. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .e.a. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <. b’ <.a. ys <. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.d. b’ <.4. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <. c’ <.a.b. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. c’ <. e’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
readFile. isAlreadyExistsError. Read.. instance Eq HandlePosn where . stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . Enum. bracket. Enum. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq.210 CHAPTER 21. putStrLn. getContents. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . isFullError. isAlreadyInUseError. Read. hGetBuffering. hPutStrLn. hSetPosn. hGetContents.. data HandlePosn = . catch.LineBuffering. Ord. hGetChar...AppendMode. HandlePosn. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . ioeGetErrorString. hIsEOF. userError. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. isEOFError. ioeGetHandle. getLine.WriteMode. putChar. writeFile. ioeGetFileName.BlockBuffering). hFlush.. hPutStr. isIllegalOperation. Bounded.implementationdependent . Read. hSeek.SeekFromEnd). isUserError. instance Eq Handle where . IOError. Ord. try. . hFileSize.. hLookAhead. instance Show Handle where . hGetLine. Show) stdin. IOMode(ReadMode. Ix. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. BufferMode(NoBuffering. print. hIsClosed... isPermissionError. stdout.implementationdependent . isEOF. stderr.ReadWriteMode). hReady.RelativeSeek. Ix. hIsSeekable. putStr. Ord. appendFile. Bounded. openFile. interact..implementationdependent . Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. hIsReadable. hClose.. ioError. isDoesNotExistError. FilePath. hWaitForInput. hPutChar.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq.and what the Prelude exports IO. hGetPosn. hPrint. bracket_. getChar.. stdout.. hSetBuffering. hIsOpen. stdin. hIsWritable. readIO.
Some related operations on ﬁle systems .211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features.
Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. The bracket function captures a common allocate. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. the string is implementationdependent. and Nothing otherwise. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail).1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. compute. All these functions return a Bool. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. CHAPTER 21. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. which is already being used (for example. for all other errors. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. In some cases. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation.212 are contained in the Directory library. and False otherwise. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. This is an abstract type.
In some implementations. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. Files can be opened. or enabled on a line or block basis. and normally reside on disk. a buffer (whose length may be zero). whether the object is seekable. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle.2. closed or semiclosed. represented by values of type Handle. whether buffering is disabled. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. These handles are initially open. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it.21. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. For simplicity. . it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. or any other object recognised by the operating system. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. whether it is open.2. although it could in fact be a communication channel. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. 21. ordered ﬁles. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. likewise. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. Physical ﬁles are persistent.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. File and directory names are values of type String. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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if
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if
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is NoBuffering, then buffering is disabled if possible.
is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
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is set to offset from the current position.
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is set to .
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Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
depending on
. If
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § .3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . which is made semiclosed. EXAMPLES 219 21. 21.10. 21.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. 21. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .10. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.9.9. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. 21.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. blocking until a character is available. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.21.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .9. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ .
x2 readNum = readLn 21.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.10. This version uses characterlevel I/O.f2] <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.getArgs h1 <.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <. using string I/O is: . This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.
11 Library IO module IO {.f2] <.actions that IO exports.before rs <.21.f return (Right r)) (return .try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .11.before rs <.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .getArgs s <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.export list omitted } where .
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
doesDirectoryExist.224 CHAPTER 22... executable. removeDirectory. . searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where ... createDirectory. readable.. getDirectoryContents. getCurrentDirectory. renameDirectory. setPermissions. removeFile. .. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. renameFile.. executable. writable. . doesFileExist. getPermissions.. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . writable. searchable ). DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. setCurrentDirectory.
but the constraints must be documented. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. inaccessible. removes an existing directory . all other permissible errors are described below.” under POSIX). Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. Error reporting. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance.. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. Some entries may be hidden. the directory has to be empty. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. renaming to an existing directory. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. “. In some operating systems. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. however. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. If the directory already exists. A directory contains a series of entries.1. considered to form part of the directory contents. Note that. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects.). A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). If the object already exists. removal of the root directory). All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. Entries in subdirectories are not. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to .” or “. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. directory etc. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . in particular. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. or have some administrative function (for instance. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. or may not be in use by other processes). each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. it is atomically replaced by the object. as described in Section 21. or across different physical devices). A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. it is atomically replaced by the directory. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . Error reporting.
but not all permissions. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. the executable ﬁeld will be False. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. and False otherwise. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory.226 CHAPTER 22. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. makeReadable f = do p <. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. and False otherwise. Error reporting. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. but the constraints must be documented. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. doesFile(Directory)Exist. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. For directories. ¦ ¦ . The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. Each entry in the changes . Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. not as an absolute path. Note that to change some. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. renaming across different physical devices). Error reporting. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. get(set)Permissions. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. respectively. a construct on the following lines must be used. but not to examine the directory contents. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in .
The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. .227 does not exist.
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
0 on a POSIXcompliant system). The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Read. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . in particular.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. If variable is undeﬁned.1. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. exitWith. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. all other permissible errors are described below. Note that. getProgName. Ord. system. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . getEnv. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. In particular. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked.ExitFailure). getArgs. as described in Section 21. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation.
The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed.230 CHAPTER 23. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. returning to the program’s caller. Otherwise. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. Before the program terminates. If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . could not recover. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ .
231 .
tdMonth. Ix. tdPicosec). TimeDiff(TimeDiff.February. ctMin. Int. ctMin. Month. tdHour.Friday. tdMin. Ord. Month(January. Ord.. Read. diffClockTimes. Int. ctMonth. Read. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. ctIsDST). Int. ctYDay. Enum. Show) . Ord.. Read. calendarTimeToString. Enum. toUTCTime.April.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctWDay.Monday. tdDay. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. Day(Sunday. toClockTime.. Ord. addToClockTime. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. ctYear.September. Integer. tdSec :: Int.. Ix. tdSec.August.March. Read. ctPicosec.Saturday). getClockTime. instance Ord ClockTime where . formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . . July. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. tdHour..Thursday. ctDay.232 CHAPTER 24. instance Eq ClockTime where . String. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Day.November. ctTZName. tdYear. ctHour. toCalendarTime. tdMin.December). DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. ctHour.Wednesday.June.October..May. Bounded. tdDay. ctSec. tdMonth. ctTZ. Bounded.Tuesday.
The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way.233 . Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. and False otherwise. Because of this dependence on the local environment. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § .Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. including timezone information. ClockTime is an abstract type. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. used for the system’s internal clock time. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation.
ctMin.June.. calendarTimeToString.Friday. toClockTime. Read. Month(January. July. ctYDay. ctTZ. and ﬁelds. Bounded. Ord.). DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. Day(Sunday. tdYear. toCalendarTime. t © S§ 24. tdMin.February.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq.September.Wednesday. ctSec.December). . ctYear. tdHour.234 § CHAPTER 24. ctMonth. Enum. instance Ord ClockTime where .August. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .. instance Eq ClockTime where .October. Read. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(.. ctWDay.November. tdPicosec)..1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. ctPicosec. ctDay.. Enum. . Ix.. Ord.. . tdMonth.Thursday.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . diffClockTimes. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Ix.May. tdSec. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .April. toUTCTime.March. addToClockTime. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. getClockTime.Saturday).Tuesday. ctTZName. ctHour. tdDay.Monday. Bounded. ctIsDST).
ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. tdHour.. tdSec :: Int. ctHour..Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = ..Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . :: ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.. :: ClockTime = .. . Ord... Read.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = . Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int.24. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Int... :: ClockTime = . . String. Int. Integer.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . tdDay. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . Ord.. ctMin. tdMin. > ClockTime > ClockTime ..1. Int. Day. Month.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear.. Read. tdMonth.
Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . .. days) = (yday + 7 .1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .236 CHAPTER 24. DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec ..if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.
intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . show2’. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .1. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2.24.
238 CHAPTER 24. DATES AND TIMES .
At present. dateFmt. String)]. months :: [(String. String)]. dateTimeFmt. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. amPm :: (String. timeFmt. Ord. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. 239 . defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String..). String). it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float.27. For example. 27. g) split :: g > (g. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. or by supplying a seed from some other source.Int) next :: g > (Int. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. . The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. – genRange – If genRange . The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits.4] are the only examples we know of). The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. ¦ ¡ ¡ .1. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. and a new generator. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).1 The RandomGen class. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. g) . then .Default method genRange g = (minBound. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen.
.. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. .3].. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators.. then g1 and g2 should be independent. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. In general. In addition. Again. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. by mapping an Int into a generator. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where .. supply their own instances of RandomGen.. Implementation warning.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. Until more is known about implementations of split. . split g = (g. It is required that read (show g) == g. of course. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. instance Read StdGen where .. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g.246 CHAPTER 27. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. Programmers may. instance Show StdGen where .. variantOf g) Here. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator..
such as Char). g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. – For Integer.2.. The plural versions.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x.. .similar.... .27. – For fractional types.. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .. but does not take a range. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand... and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . randomRs and randoms.g’) = random g randomRs = . and do not return a new generator.... produce an inﬁnite list of random values. . THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. .. but they may be. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.. together with a new generator. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if .. . the range is normally the whole type. . random does the same as randomR. a) > g > (a. depending on the implementation and the interval.
ac.3). by using the time of day. . ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. [2] SK Park.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. respectively. updates it with one of the results. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. April 1992. pp8788. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. For example. and returns the other. 2(2):203212. “Random number generators .3 The global random number generator There is a single. To get deterministic behaviour. [4] P Hellekalek. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. 33(1). July 1998. “Distributed random number generation”. Comm ACM 31(10). setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. pp11921201. randomRIO and randomIO. [3] DG Carta. use setStdGen. Journal of Functional Programming. or Linux’s kernel random number generator.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. Comm ACM. implicit. for example. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion.sbg. pp8289. and KW Miller. use the global random number generator (see Section 27.mat.at/ is a great source of information.248 CHAPTER 27. global random number generator of type StdGen. Jan 1990. Oct 1988. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. The Web site http://random. 27. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad.
Penﬁeld. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Combinatory Logic. 2002.R. Journal of Functional Programming. [2] H. Version 3..M. A gentle introduction to Haskell. N. [12] P. and J. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. 1987.0. Wadler and S. Hudak. e [5] J. 2000. Feys. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. [10] S. Jr. pages 60–76. Peyton Jones. Hindley. Fasel. October 1999. San Francisco. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. CACM. August 1978. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Albuquerque. The Unicode Standard. December 1969. Yale University. 21(8):613–641. January 1989. pages 207–212. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Jones. [11] Unicode Consortium. May 1996. New Jersey. 5(1). J. Paris. Jones. Damas and R. [9] P. Amsterdam. Curry and R. January 1982. [3] L. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Reading. MA. PrenticeHall International. Backus. [4] KF. Peterson. January 1995. [8] Mark P..L. 146:29–60. Blott. Principal type schemes for functional programs. Englewood Cliffs. [7] Mark P. 1958. pages 248–256. 249 . In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.Bibliography [1] J. September 1981. Addison Wesley. Texas. NorthHolland Pub. Milner. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Co.B. Haskell Workshop. Austin. [6] P. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
90. see also negation . 139 algebraic datatype. 55. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 142 >>. 55. 12 \n. 110 $!. 105. 104. 214 application. see operator application approxRational.. 17. 91. 90. 104. 140 appendFile. 55.). 45. 55. 129 ap. see aspattern [] (nil). 51. 19 function. 104. 84. 44. 12 \v. 104. 155. 139 alts. 106 //. 80 :+. 91. !. 142 >=.Index font. 104. 104. 12 . 109 @. 90. 12 \b. 109 ˆˆ. 177 !!. 91. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 104. 153 &&. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 110 %. 79. 177 acos. 55. 91. 20–23. 55. 93. 110 (. 55. 176. 104. 174. 109 ==. 84. 82. 104. 97. 173. 104. 88. 109 >>=. 116 $. 105. 91. 142 =<<. 88. 92. 55. 119 alt. 91. 104. see lambda abstraction \&. 31. 12 \\. 104. 9. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 180. 142 :. 55. 55. 104. 80 \\. 67. 62 and. 217 abstract datatype. 104. 186. 12 \f. 55. 142 <=. 84. see also + pattern ++. 104. 110 ˜. 106 +. 55. 80 (. 97. 235 aexp. 25. 30 <. 76 accum. 106 acosh. 81. 105 **. 151. 104.. 173. 104. 175–177 /=. 177 accumArray. 80 (). 91. 55. 106 addToClockTime. see function application operator. 55. 55. 92. 126 AppendMode. 55. 115 . 129 any. 79. 81. 139 ambiguous type. 115. 173. 92. see wildcard pattern . 142 >. 202. 104. 88. 175. see trivial type and unit expression *. 66 abs. 12 \t. 129 any. 84. 109 _. 91. 182 \a. 16. 104. 55. 91. 206 apat. 90. 25. 141 all. 151. 119 ANYseq. 104. 55. 92. 81. 9. 105 AbsoluteSeek.). 119 ANY. 233. 110 /. 55. 174. 173. 156 ::. 9. 230 ˆ. 82. 104. 43. 55. 97. 55. 12 \r. 91. 187 \. 55.
9. 115 conditional expression. 137 ceiling. 232. 161. 173. 106 asinh. 197. 79. 173. 38. 130 conjugate. 234 char. 47. 129 ascii. 12 character set ASCII. 40. 48 class environment. 9. 41. 221 break. 91. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 47. 74 cname. 176. 137 basic input/output. see function binding pattern. 136 cntrl. 9 endofline. 174. 9. 129 asin. 232. 93. 198 cis. 84. 80 Array (datatype). 155. 31. 143 instance for Char. see transparent character set charesc. 161. 90 arithmetic sequence. 174. 92. 106 atype. 91. 79 Bounded (class). 33 ascDigit. see simple pattern binding body. 38. 156 conop. 194 cdecl. 176 array. 234 closecom. 108 atanh. 174.252 arithmetic operator. 125. 92. 193. 156 class. 9. 233. 130 ASCII character set. 174 Array (module). 91. 107 changing the directory. 110 boolean. 173. 226 Char (datatype). 40. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 47 class. 17. 51. 142 Complex (module). 106 assocs. 17. 67 with an empty where part. 174 derived. 48. 66. 121. 136 Bool (datatype). 129 ascSymbol. 79. 230 catMaybes. see ASCII character set transparent. 129 closing a ﬁle. 39. 235 case expression. 93 comment. 9 nested. 173. 91. 156 con. 69. see pattern binding simple pattern. 106 atan2. 79 literal syntax. 155. 12. 49 clock time. 12. 18. 42 class method. 195. 47. 111 bounds. 177 bracket. 110 Char (module). 89. 140 concat. 130 chr. 118 btype. 130 coercion. 130 character. 38. 137 class assertion. 9. 105 derived instance. 93. 155. 37 function. 11. 173 accumulated. 95 binding. 137 cdecls. 21 conid. 114 atan. 18. 215 closure. 41 class declaration. 211. 12. 104. 10. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 9 comment. 7 ascLarge. 195. 129 ascSmall. 177 asTypeOf. 38. 115 concatMap. 98. 211. 235 calendarTimeToString. 197 array. 177 aspattern (@). 23. 12. 140 . 129 compare. 25 INDEX catch. 221 bracket_. 9.
138 decimal. 174. 81. 232. 51. 91. 173. 108 default class method. 43. 110 constr. see data declaration default. 233. 184. 153 dependency analysis. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 141. 138 diffClockTimes. 232. 41. see class declaration datatype. 180. see data declaration recursive. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 93. 180. 58 decls. 80. see also instance declaration deriving. 180. 235 ctIsDST. 182. 151. 55. 106 do expression. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 92. 241 CPUTime (module). 130 context. 43. 59 cos. 27. 43. 91. 195. 224 Double (datatype). see instance declaration within a class declaration. 104. 38 constructor expression. 129 data constructor. 145 default declaration. 37 class. 114 Curry. 111 either. 91. 106 divMod. 41 context. 58 derived instance. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 129 digitToInt. 43 abstract. 38. see ﬁxity declaration import. 92. 137 context reduction. see algebraic datatype declaration. 108 . 26. 89. 186 elemIndices. 177 encodeFloat. 50. 40 consym. 235 current directory. 235 ctHour. 106 cosine. 182. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 81. 97 doDiv. 118 dropWhile. 137 declaration. 43 data declaration. 182. 241 createDirectory. 137 decodeFloat. 55. 235 digit. 93 CPU time. 187 deleteBy. 56. 48. see abstract datatype algebraic. 240 dateTimeFmt. 115. 9. 49 declaration group. 11. 213. 106 cosh. 180. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 112 drop. 47 within a let expression. 239. 232. 92. 234 dclass. 232. 225 deleting ﬁles. 118 e. 167 Either (datatype). 232. 214 ctDay. 9. 38. 224 Directory (module). 225 creating a ﬁle. 180. 93. 197 directories. 239. 226 curry. 24 within an instance declaration.. 119 elemIndex. Haskell B. 90. 235 ctMin. 224 doesFileExist. 187 deleting directories. 184. 186 elems. 224. 117 dashes. 138 constrs. vii cycle. 239.INDEX const. 43 datatype. 130 decl. 224 div. 81. 43. 91. 240 Day (datatype). see import declaration instance. 111 elem. 240 delete. see recursive datatype renaming. 138 constructor class. 10. 225 denominator.
33 floatRadix. 30. 215 ﬁle system. 115 filterM. 28 selection. 43. 94. 108 floatRange. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 81. 91. 48. 229 exitFailure. 105 derived instance. 224 execution time. 113 instance for Ratio. see simple case expression type. 104 error. 91. 92. 93. 177 instance for Char. 105 environment class. 229 ExitSuccess. 139 exp. 113 instance for Float. 186 findIndices. see let expression simple case. 81 Eq (class). 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 44 construction. 170 enumFrom. 105 enumFromThenTo. 109. 93. 164 ﬁeld label. 163 f. 106 instance for Complex. 139 fexp. 213 ﬁle buffering.254 end of ﬁle. 86. 105 superclass of Ord. 159. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 29 ﬁelddecl. 229 . 215 entity. 91. 108 Floating (class). 93. 111 instance for Double. 86. 82. 4. 99. 105 enumFromThen. 30. 182. 16. 162 expts. 86. 230 escape. 89. 92. 91 export. 79 fbind. 229 EQ. 108 exponentiation. 28. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 138 ﬁle. 16. see case expression conditional. 86. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 186 findIndex. 67. 66 exports. 88. 51. 51. 16. see class environment type. 54. see unit expression expression typesignature. 180. 52 expt. 112 ﬂoat. 108 floatToDigits. 15 case. 86. 92. see type expression unit. 19. 106 exponent. 18 ﬁxity. 89. 97. 136 v INDEX expression. 51. 89. 4. 92. 139 exp. 27 update. see type environment environment variables. 229 ExitFailure. 106 enumeration. 202. 49. 19. 142 instance for Char. 92. 17 error. 54 flip. 12. 125 filter. 142 instance for Array. 38. 12 floatDigits. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 229 exitWith. 180. see label. 167 fail. 136 export list. 104 derived instance. 65 Enum (class). 207 find. 114. 212 False. 154 superclass of Integral. 17. 180. 21. 110 superclass of Num. 130 even. 105 enumFromTo. 186 ﬁxity. 67. 110 Float (datatype). 98 executable. 108 exception handling. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 24–26. see conditional expression let.
18. 107 fromEnum. 138 gap. 56. 137 guard. 233. 18. 25. 93. 215 head. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 138 gdpat. 9. 109 instance for []. 176 foldl. 125 getCPUTime. 116 foldM. 18. 244. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 202. 49. 181. 140 gconsym. 181. 96. 183. 189 genericReplicate. 187 groupBy. 224 getPermissions. 18. 153 superclass of Floating. 81 gtycon. 125 getClockTime. 177 instance for IO. 244. 87 funlhs. 194 fromMaybe. 109. 105 fromIntegral. 3 formatCalendarTime. 106 fst. 91. 106 instance for Complex. 140 fpats. 225 getDirectoryContents. 34 guard. 219 getArgs. vii Functor (class). 225 getEnv. 181. 80. 55. 189 genericTake. 91. 113 instance for Array. 248 graphic. 38. 181. 111 functor. 9. 56. 87. 202. 47. 117 formal semantics. 42 generator. 117 foldr1. 213 Haskell. 89. 59 generalization preorder. 96. 233. 235 getContents. 3 Haskell kernel. 157 instance for Ratio. 138 gendecl. 224 getProgName. 129 group. 224. 25. 12. 41 functional language. 207 foldr. 23 genericDrop. 188 GT. 162 fromRational. 11. 229 getChar. 181. 140 Fractional (class). 109 fromJust. 111 instance for Maybe. 92. 181. 181. 31. 18 gd. 31. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 108 gcon. 115 hexadecimal. 86. 56 function type. 137 generalization. 217 fmap. 181. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 9. 92. 162 fromRat’. 210. 96. 210 handles. 81 function binding. 194 fromRat. 193. 248 getStdRandom. 105 fromInteger. 125 getModificationTime. 130 hexit. 236 formatRealFloat. vii. 40. 193. 165 formfeed. 190 genericSplitAt. 94. 190 genericLength. 189 genericIndex. 244. 229 getStdGen. 116 foldl1. 130 gcd. 40. 224. 91. 54. 129 fpat.INDEX floor. 159. 92. 129 255 . 189 genRange. 23. 87. 114 function. 184. 139 gdrhs. 4 hClose. 91. 229 getLine. 206 Handle (datatype). 90. 25. 90.
181. 215 isAscii. 219 hPutStr. 89. 211. 212. 212 isHexDigit. 218 hIsWritable. 111 IO (module). 219 hPutChar. 211. 210 I/O errors. 211. 69. 98. 218 hLookAhead. 217 hGetChar. 184. 211. 211. 89. 188 inlining. 219 hPrint. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 215 isEOF. 177 init. 34. 156 impdecl. 219 hPutStrLn. 211. 155. 181. 181. 137 idecls. 195. 212 isJust. 217 hGetBuffering. 92. 33. 215 hFlush. 126 intersect. 91. 218 I/O. 169. 212 ioError. 210. 116 inits. 217 hiding. 181. 211.256 hFileSize. 195. 195. 194 . 171. 49. 172 indices. 216. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 214 irrefutable pattern. 195. 187 intersectBy. 214. 211. 49 Int (datatype). 57 isAlpha. 50. 106 interact. 187 intersperse. 218 hIsSeekable. 49. 112 integer. 169. 212 ioeGetHandle. 211. 187 intToDigit. 174. 171. 182. 181. 147 INDEX input/output. 49. 211. 163 Integral (class). 195. 211. 24. 110 idecl. see conditional expression imagPart. 136 impdecls. 188 insertBy. 218 hIsReadable. 172 insert. 69. 211. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 92. 218 hGetContents. 195. 211. 183. 38. 212 ioeGetFileName. 211. 210. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 49. 33 integerLogBase. 211. 217 hWaitForInput. 197 isAlphaNum. 211. 181. 125 IOMode (datatype). 12 integer literal pattern. 211. 211. 38. 211. 211. 125. 112 Integer (datatype). 173. 138 instance declaration. 136 index. 69. 81. 189 inst. 193. 212 isFullError. 219 hGetLine. 216 hSetPosn. 211. 71 with an empty where part. 215 isEOFError. 96. 217 hSetBuffering. 211. 197 isDigit. 69 impspec. 136 import. 211. 38. 9 ifthenelse expression. 211. 137 identiﬁer. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 218 hIsEOF. 211. 212 IOError (datatype). 81. 211. 211. 211. 210 input/output examples. 218 hSeek. 211. 211 hReady. 211. 197 isControl. 215 hIsOpen. 58 hIsClosed. 197 isIllegalOperation. 136 import declaration. 211. 210 IO (datatype). 81. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 183. 195. 211. 218 hGetPosn. 212 id. 4. 212. 219 inRange. 66. 183. 198 IO. 184.
239 log. 197 isSuffixOf. 119 maximumBy. 7 lexLitChar. 232. 193. 193. 197 isSpace. 80 list type. 26 in list comprehensions. 32 literate comments. 207 linear pattern. 129 literal pattern. 81 length. 44. 40. 109 mapMaybe. 40. 9. 195. 194 literal. 16. 173. 172 instance for Integer. 139 libraries. 195. 194 isOctDigit. 177 join. 109 Left. 199 . 172. 195. 115 mapAccumL. 19. 207 v 257 liftM2. 104. 210. 116 layout. 195. 44. 206 Just. 195. 81 kind. 188 mapAccumR. 176. 19 large. 202. 184. 88. 129 lexical structure.INDEX isLatin1. 212. 88. 174. 207 liftM4. 181. 142 maxBound. 56 linearity. 168 lexeme. 172 instance for Int. 173. 181. 119 . 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 45. 65 main. 64 label. 183. 172 Ix (module). 215 isPrefixOf. 181. 181. 134 Locale (module). see also offside rule lcm. 91. 169. 80 list comprehension. 206 mapM. 106 logarithm. 31. 24 in do expressions. 202. 198 max. 130. 202. 197 isLower. 155. 159. 225 map. 50. 239. 91. 23. 197 isNothing. 234. 171. 12. 127 maximum. 129 last. 211. 181. 19. 40. 9. 117 Ix (class). 92. 188 isUpper. 202. 50. 9. 195. 143 maximal munch rule. 27 lambda abstraction. 13. 39. 84. 64 kind inference. 186 list. 188 isPrint. 207 liftM5. 109 match. 81. 91. 156 Main (module). 234 ixmap. 9. 81 magnitude. 183. 116 let expression. 180. 91 logBase. 41 listArray. 170 instance for Char. 74 liftM. 92 magnitude. 106 lookahead. 169. 173. 31. 194 mapM_. 197 isPermissionError. 197 isUserError. 207 liftM3. 240 locale. 65 making directories. 212 iterate. 56 lines. 193. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 189 Maybe (datatype). 176. 89. 202. 202. 122 lexDigits. 211. 21. 105. 176. 31. 45. 202. 172 derived instance. 177 listToMaybe. 195. 23 lex. 140 LT. 118 List (module). 219 lookup. 86.
84. 232. 180. 79. 105 number. 129 negate. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 89. 106 superclass of Real. 17. 186. 111 maybeToList. 109 instance for []. 244. 116 Num (class). 111 instance for Ratio. 54. 13. 104. 244. 187 null. 88. 16. 90. 136 Monad (class). 27. 91. 5. 121. 55. 193. 194 maybe. 194 method. 61 Month (datatype). 10 ncomment. 119 minimumBy. 153 superclass of Real. 161. 206 msum. 113 instance for IO. 11. 119 Nothing. 138 newline. 91. 193. 198 Ordering (datatype). 225 moving ﬁles. 104. 181. 66. see qualiﬁed name special. 111 instance for Maybe. 38. 140 opencom. 130. 159. 9. 110 notElem. 9. 202. 206 instance for Maybe. 46. 189 mkPolar. 129 newStdGen. 202. 155. 65 module. 95 MonadPlus (class). 9. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 186 nubBy. 90 numericEnumFrom. 105 negation. 202. 225 mplus. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 105 ord. 246 mod. see also layout op. 105. 81 nub. 202. 66. 184. 105 instance for Complex. 206 monomorphic type variable. 206 instance for []. 142 minBound. 19. 130 octit. 89. 91. 197 numeric type. 248 newtype declaration. 157 instance for Ratio. 57 name qualiﬁed. 9. 129 odd. 214 opening a ﬁle. 143 minimum. 104 derived instance. 90. 18 numerator. 19 ops. 142 instance for Array. 89. 180. 153 Numeric (module). 51. 214 operating system commands. 81. 206 + pattern. 20 newconstr. 137 or. 26. 206 Monad (module). 184. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 61 monomorphism restriction. 46 INDEX next. 81. 60. 168 not. 108 offside rule. 32. 89 literal syntax. 54.258 Maybe (module). 55. 136 module. 206 mzero. see class method min. 115. see special name namespaces. 156 mkStdGen. 88. 178 instance for Char. 18. 11 translation of literals. 19. 153 superclass of Fractional. 84. 34. 32–34. 182. 11. 112 ¢ ¦ . 10. 91. 245 nonnull. 113 octal. 129 openFile. 52. 106 modid. 234 moving directories. 19 operator application. 9. 33. 195. 210. 244. 119 Ord (class). 206 monad. 230 operator. 151. 202.
see + pattern refutable. 229 program structure. 51 partition. 125 PreludeList (module). 43. 30 @. see patternmatching overloading. 18. 23 quantiﬁcation. 96. 171. 151 Ratio (module). 213 pi. 106 qvar. 151. 225 pattern. 96. 25. 139 qualiﬁed name. 244. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. see aspattern _. 103. 41 quot. 47 defaults. 156 physical ﬁle. 130 qop. 92. 18. 75. 18. 106 polar. 119 program. 18. 96. 96. 104. 181. 11. 140 pat. 130 Random (class). 11. 217 RandomGen. 244. 115 PreludeText (module). 90. 75 Prelude (module). 247 randomR. 70. 247 random access ﬁles. 244. see linear pattern + . 11. 85. 140 qconid. 30 overloaded constant. 11. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 125 qcon. 121 derived instance. 93. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 153 rational numbers. 121 principal type. 110 overloaded functions.INDEX otherwise. 19. 247 randomRIO. 38 overloaded pattern. 245 randomIO. 140 qconsym. 140 qvarsym. 129 v 259 program arguments. 244. 31. 91. 140 path. 3 properFraction. see wildcard pattern constructed. 151. 72 qualiﬁer. 31. 218 polymorphic recursion. 54 polymorphism. 107 putChar. 229 program name. 130 qtycon. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 125 putStrLn. 247 range. 106 quotRem. 244 random. 244. 103. 79. 55. 224 phase. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 153. 34 Permissions (datatype). 183. 18. 51. 42. 244. 130 qual. 124 instance for Array. 53 print. 140 qtycls. 103. 23. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 143 instance for [a]. 161 Rational (type synonym). 151 Read (class). see refutable pattern pattern binding. 172 Ratio (datatype). 91. 155. 171. 130 qconop. 247 randomRs. 247 randoms. 125 product. 91. 57 patternmatching. 140 qvarid. 4 pragmas. 247 Random (module). 11. 172 rangeSize. 147 precedence. 11. 125 putStr. 9. 103. 187 . 11. 103. 156 polling a handle for input. 155. see also ﬁxity pred. 169. 125 PreludeIO (module). 130 qvarop. 169. see irrefutable pattern linear.
85. 91. 91. 159. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 248 setting the directory. 225 renameDirectory. 130 reservedop. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 119 . 123 instance for Ratio.260 instance for Char. 159. 86. 214 separate compilation. 10. 143 instance for [a]. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 92. 224. 168 readHex. 153 superclass of Integral. 116 scanl1. 110 sequence. 109 recip. 198 readFile. 126 readList. 164 readEsc. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 107 roundTo. 81 round. 224 readDec. 225 removeFile. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 126. 85. 117 replicate. 121. 225 repeat. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 122 readSigned. 123 instance for Int. 108 scaleRat. 126 ReadMode. 105 instance for Ratio. 214 Real (class). 224. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 85. 210. 121. 122 readable. 56. 10. 156 realToFrac. 214 readOct. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 117 reservedid. 108 realPart. 92. 91. 137 searchable. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 97. 162 scanl. 109 sequence_. 154 read. 138 Right. 116 scanr. 226 Show (class). 46 refutable pattern. 143 readLitChar. 104. 33 RelativeSeek. 85. 225 renaming directories. 81. 106 removeDirectory. 85. 92. 225 renameFile. 107 instance for Ratio. 20. 93. 195. 88. 224. 92. 10. 166 . 244. 76 seq. 198 readLn. 225 renaming ﬁles. 96. 130 return. 224. 124 instance for Double. 164 readParen. 90. 225 setPermissions. 139 rhs. 94. 121 reads. 93. 106 recursive datatype. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 31. 164 readIO. 117 scontext. 159. 123 instance for Float. 225 removing ﬁles. 214 readFloat. 51. 55. 96. 86. 224. 16. 107 RealFloat (class). 85. 218 readInt. 224 section. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 89. 159. 88. 88. 109 reverse. 143 ReadWriteMode. 117 scanr1. 121 derived instance. 159. 155. 164 reading a directory. 217 rem. 217 semantics formal. 92. 108 RealFrac (class). 159. 224 setStdGen. 123 instance for Integer. 104. 163 readsPrec. 225 removing directories.
237 show3. 213 standard prelude. 154 superclass of Num. 121. 159. 232. see transparent string string. see type signature signdecl. 106 size of ﬁle. 94. 122 showSigned. 123 instance for Float. 80. 118 sqrt. 210 instance for Integer. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 9. 139 strictness ﬂag. 138 sin. 85. 159. 119 superclass. 232. 215 small. 91. 181. 92 signature. 164 showFFloat. 213 StdGen (datatype). 85. 105 sum. 127 System (module). 159. 210. 213 stmt. 235 tdPicosec. 91. 41. 9. 121. 106 tangent. 163 showIntAtBase. 108 succ. see also Prelude stderr. 183. 122 showEFloat. 129 split. 188 sortBy. 235 tdHour. 106 standard handles. 143 showLitChar. 91. 159. 178 instance for Char. 164 showGFloat. 43. 129 tail. 82 String (type synonym). 143 showString. 85. 163 showInt. 49 symbol. 86. 188 take. 232. 74. 106 sine. 163 showsPrec. 45 strictness ﬂags. 159. 12 transparent. 91. 129 span. 199 showOct. 85. 26. 9. 213 stdout. 86. 105 show. 80. 121 show2. 163 showParen. 122 sign. 159. 235 261 . 53 significand. 45. 129. 237 showChar. 123 instance for Ratio. 79 literal syntax. 188 space. 181. 237 show2’. 105 simple pattern binding. 181. 232. 118 special. 57. 92. 114 sort. 246 stdin. see type synonym syntax. 235 tdMonth. 130 synonym. 9. 130 subtract. 46. 118 tan. 129 snd. 108 signum.INDEX instance for Array. 12. 93 sinh. 92. 137 simpletype. 244. 159. 48. 26. 91. 159. 244. 164 showHex. 123 instance for Int. 106 tdDay. 124 instance for Double. 91. 232. 115 tails. 210. 159. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 245 splitAt. 163 showList. 62 simpleclass. 164 showFloat. 139 stmts. 85. 195. 183. 235 tdMin. 229 system. 93 tanh. 229 tab. 210. 121 shows. 117 takeWhile. 111 string. 184. 9.
see also datatype recursive. 51 topdecl (instance). 140 varid. 190 unzip5. 232 time of day. 40. 129 uniLarge. 239. 40 type renaming. 181. 136 topdecls. 120 unzip4. see ambiguous type constructed. 53 for an expression. 105 toInteger. 41 tycls. see class type constructor. 66. see numeric type principal. 42 type expression. 9. 119 until. 181. 183. 233. 49.262 tdYear. 211. 42. 198 toUTCTime. 185. 130 uncurry. 130 varop. see newtype declaration type signature. 120 unzip3. 232. see expression typesignature type synonym. 236 toCalendarTime. 114 unwords. 198 topdecl (class). 197 uniDigit. see trivial type unit expression. 4. 130 type. 181. see principal type INDEX trivial. 180. 11. see monomorphic type numeric. 105 toUpper. 79 truncate. 235 terminating a program. 129 union. 136 toRational. 7. 93. 114 unfoldr. 91. 114 undefined. see trivial type tuple. 67. 4 var. 18. 191 unzip7. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 235 transpose. 230 the ﬁle system. see constructed type function. 49 topdecl (newtype). 38. 17. 140 . 224 Time (module). 129 unless. 182. 181. 181. 232. 233. 45. 206 unlines. 240 to12. 232 time12Fmt. 92. 18. 47 topdecl (data). 42 ambiguous. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 191 unzip6. 80. 11. 235 toClockTime. 9. 106 toLower. 81 True. 43 topdecl (default). 221 tuple. 11. 130 tycon. 39. 86. 235 toEnum. 9. 239. see list type monomorphic. 187 unionBy. 187 trigonometric function. 9. 224. 195. 41. 191 userError. 80 tuple type. 137 type class. 235 timeFmt. 181. 38. 49 value. 17. 11. 41. 17. 98. 119 unzip. 180. 202. 46 tyvar. 103. 40. 10. 40. 239. 22. 43 type environment. 38. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 234 time. 9. 129 unit datatype. 93 trivial type. 22. 4. 233. 184. 125 valdefs. 93. 46 topdecl (type). 187 uniSmall. 195. 188 Unicode character set. 22 uniWhite. see function type list. see tuple type type. 232. 107 try. 81. 45 topdecl. 129 uniSymbol. 49.
190 zip7. 181. 120 zip4. 202. 80. 9. 9. 206 whitechar. 202. 118 writable. 120 zipWith3. 190 zipWithM. 181. 129 whitestuff.INDEX vars. 207 zipWithM_. 185. 190 zip5. 214 WriteMode. 126. 224 writeFile. 129 when. 181. 53. 181. 9. 31 words. 207 263 . 185. 97. 120 zip3. 190 zip6. 38. 202. 120 zipWith4. 181. 181. 190 zipWith. 190 zipWith7. 190 zipWith5. 137 varsym. 129 whitespace. 214 zip. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 10. 9. 130 vertab. 181. 190 zipWith6. 181.
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