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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . 16. . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . 10. . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . 14. . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11.1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . .2 Specialization . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Miscellaneous . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . .
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . 21. . 21. . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . .2 Files and Handles . . . . .7. . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .2.9. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .2. . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . 20. . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . 21. . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 17. . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. 21. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . 17. . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input .3 List transformations .1 Library Maybe . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . .2. . .2 Reading Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
May 31. research.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. It should be suitable for teaching. and most of these. purely functional programming languages. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. including building large systems. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. even more than it is ordinarily. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics.” Haskell B. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. named after the logician Haskell B. a stable foundation for real applications development. 4. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. 3. Oregon. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. It should be freely available. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. including ourselves. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. 2. providing faster communication of new ideas. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. . and applications. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. have published something erroneous. 5. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus.
make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. incorporating experimental features.4). Clarify obscure passages. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. By the middle of 1997. for the foreseeable future. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. As Haskell becomes more widely used. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. Resolve ambiguities. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. If these program were to be portable. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. together with a standard library called the Prelude. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed.4. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. making some simpliﬁcations.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. and is called “Haskell 98”. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. This task turned out to be much. It is not a . much larger than I had anticipated. With reluctance. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). this stable language is the subject of this Report. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted.
local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. lexically scoped type variables. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. Control extensions. including: . it provides a stable point of reference. including: monadic state. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. existential types. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell.org gives access to many useful resources. including: multiparameter type classes. recursive donotation. going well beyond Haskell 98. Type system innovations. so that those who wish to write text books. exceptions. concurrency. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. functional dependencies. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). or use Haskell for teaching. There is more besides.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. including: pattern guards. Instead. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. For example. metaprogramming facilities.
in particular. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Details of the Haskell mailing list. You are welcome to comment on. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. University of Nottingham. Applications of Haskell. and continues to be sustained. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Building the language Haskell was created. Tutorial material on Haskell. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Implementations of Haskell.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Here they are. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Microsoft Research Ltd) . suggest improvements to. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. via the Haskell mailing list.
1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Andreas Rossberg. APL. Backus’s FP [1]. Ken Takusagawa. Chris Clack. ML and Standard ML. Simon B. SiauCheng Khoo. Nick North. Marcin Kowalczyk. Duke Briscoe. Bob Hiromoto. Jan Kort. Orjan Johansen. Satish Thatte. . Tony Davie. Stephen Price. George Russell. Sergey Mechveliani. Amir Kishon. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Richard Bird. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Randy Hudson. Arthur Norman. Chris Okasaki. Simon Marlow. Hans Aberg. Ross Paterson. Magnus Carlsson. Ian Lynagh. Mike Thyer. Mark Tullsen. Andy Moran. Libor Skarvada. Sigbjorn Finne. Laura Dutton. Hope and Hope . Julian Seward. Olaf Lubeck. Nimish Shah. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. and Bonnie Yantis. Nic Holt. Tom Thomson. Pablo Lopez. Cordy Hall. Alexander Jacobson. Gary Memovich. Sten Anderson. Thomas Hallgren. Jose Labra. Wolfram Kahl. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Robert Jeschofnik. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Michael Marte. Pat Fasel. Rinus Plasmeijer. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Mike Joy. Paul Callaghan. Dylan Thurston. Ian Poole. Patrick Sansom. John Robson. and others on the lambda calculus. Josef Svenningsson. Richard Kelsey. Mark Hall. In addition. some small but many substantial. Graeme Moss. Carl Witty. Randy Michelsen. Mark Lillibridge. Feliks Kluzniak. Stefan Kahrs. Ian Holyer. Jim Mattson. Clean. David Tweed. Christian Sievers. Jeff Lewis. Gofer. Lauren Smith. Finally. Tommy Thorn. Pradeep Varma. Malcolm Wallace. Dean Herington. Mike Gunter. Landin’s ISWIM. Patrik Jansson. Raman Sundaresh. Simon Thompson. Guy Cousineau. Mark Carroll. Sisal. Rosser. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Id. Larne Pekowsky. Stephen Blott. Rick Mohr. Klemens Hemm. Østvold. Dave Parrott. Christian Maeder.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Olaf Chitil. Keith Wansbrough. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Kent Karlsson. Ralf Hinze. Ketil Malde. Fergus Henderson. Tom Blenko. Michael Schneider. Henrik Nilsson. Matt Harden. Tony Warnock. John Meacham. Andy Gill. Sven Panne. Bjarte M. Michael Fryers. Stef Joosten. Franklin Chen. Craig Dickson. Curry. Jan Skibinski. Felix Schroeter. Chris Dornan. Bjorn Lisper. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Jones. Chris Fasel. Sandra Loosemore. Manuel Chakravarty. Stuart Wray. Michael Webber. Paul Otto.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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list comprehensions. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. of which there are several kinds. and ﬁxity information. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. type classes. all described in Chapter 4. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. described in Chapter 3. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. deﬁned in Chapter 2. static polymorphic typing. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. interpreted. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. programs that formally evaluate to ). This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. patternmatching. 3. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i.1 Program Structure In this section. a module system. 2. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. datatypes. 1. a monadic I/O system. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. nonstrict semantics. arrays. described in Chapter 5. including lists. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. compiled. At the next lower level are expressions.” 4.e. Haskell provides higherorder functions. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. 3 . etc. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. 1.
for types. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. for declarations. Technically. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. etc.4 CHAPTER 1. See Section 3. such as for expresin if sions. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. In this Report. and Chapter 7. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). However. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. as then else . literate programming. Also. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. the concrete syntax. If these translations are applied exhaustively.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. However.e. or overloading (using type classes). the speciﬁcation of derived instances. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors.1. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . 1. . INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure.
class. 2. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values.1. NAMESPACES 5 1. for example. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system.4. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. . Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. These are the only constraints. type constructors. and module names refer to modules. those for type variables. and constructor within a single scope. There are two constraints on naming: 1.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell.]. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. However. all whitespace is expressed explicitly.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. 2. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ .Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [.. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.
[ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) . . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .
3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace.3. So. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. although case is a reserved word. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. 2. as explained in Chapter 11. cases is not. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. hence. however “foo” does start a comment. In an ordinary comment. then any occurrence of {.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. Within a nested comment. == and ˜= are not. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. in a nested comment. 2. because both of these are legal lexemes. ) and extends to the following newline. and. For example. No legal lexeme starts with “{”.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . for example. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. terminated by “}”. Instead. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. If some code is commented out using a nested comment.g. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. although = is reserved. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. Similarly.2.
digits. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. “_”. used as wild card in patterns.. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. : :: = \  <. However. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1.10 CHAPTER 2. and single quotes. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer.5).4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). Underscore. : : : . Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. all operators are inﬁx. “:”.b]”. as deﬁned above. is treated as a lowercase letter. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). underscores. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. Notice that a colon by itself. such as “[]” and “[a.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. naMe.
. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. This applies to variable.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .g F.. F. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. (qualiﬁed ‘. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. constructor. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. Lexes as this f . Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. the other four do not. (two tokens) F. This f. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. .4. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.’) F .g f.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. F. Prelude. 2.. for example. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . .+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4.2). .5. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ ..4. . but not type variables or module names. also. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. type constructor and type class names. g (three tokens) F.2..
Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed.g. are also provided. \x37) representations are also allowed. “horizontal tab” (\t). “form feed” (\f). but must be escaped in a string. “backspace” (\b).1. as in ’a’.4. "\SOH". Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. \ must always be escaped. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule.1. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). but must be escaped in a character. including control characters such as \ˆX. as in "Hello".g. octal (e.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. a double quote " may be used in a character. and strings between double quotes. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). “carriage return” (\r).12 CHAPTER 2. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. similarly. Similarly. 2. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). For example. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.2. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3.4. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). and “vertical tab” (\v). is parsed as a string of length 1. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. “new line” (\n). Floating literals are always decimal.
insert a semicolon or close brace). b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. Within these explicit open braces. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. b and g all part of the same layout list. do." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. and if it is indented less. 2.2. Informally stated. where the .7. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. let. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. As an example. by using layout to convey the same information.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. For each subsequent line. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted).7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. a control character. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. Section 9. a close brace is inserted.7). and \ˆX. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i.pop. Given these rules. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. \ \a numeric escape character. if it is indented the same amount. Because layout is not required. Also. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. then instead of starting a layout. an empty list “{}” is inserted. Figure 2. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). which can be freely mixed within one program. or of. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. that is. When this happens. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal.e. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). let. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1.
push x s = MkStack x s . . inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.14 CHAPTER 2.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . and (c) the close brace at the very end.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) . inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. Stack a) .size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] . LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x .top (MkStack x s) = x } .pop (MkStack x s) = (x. pop.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. push.size :: Stack a > Int .2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. top. push. corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.pop :: Stack a > (a. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression.(pop Empty) is an error .top :: Stack a > a . pop. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. top.
For example actually stands for 30 productions. Except in the case of let expressions. where appropriate. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. Similarly.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. an associativity variable varies over . there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . index: a letter . these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. For example. .11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . or for left. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. In the syntax that follows. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. right. the nonterminals . and may have a double (written as a superscript). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.
2). Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. ¦ 2 ' . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . .f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.4. For example. The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions.  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . } in x + y let { . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. . } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or .. and conditionals.(f x)) + y let { . Sample parses are shown below.2. Figure 4.... ... The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. let expressions. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. . the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . ] .4... . This f x . } ¦ .1). EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . ] ¢ £ . } in (x + y) z + (let { ..
Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. For the sake of clarity. when demanded. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. That is. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. denoted by . When undefined is used. 3.3. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language.1. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. Constructors. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . all Haskell types include . When evaluated. results in an error. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However.2 Variables. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. the error message is created by the compiler. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. 3. Operators. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system.
Similarly.5). as deﬁned in the Ratio library. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. These are described in Section 6. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. An operator is either an operator symbol. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.% ).4).2). Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. For example. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. For example. . where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. such as + or $$.4. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . The integers and are chosen so that .18 CHAPTER 3. Ratio Integer). Dually. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y.% constructs a rational from two integers. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.1).4. such as ` `. as found in the and .1.
it may be rebound by the module system. However. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. and is syntax for negate .in the Prelude. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . Application associates to the left.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. . preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. 3.3.3. The binary . as with any inﬁx operator. Because tors are allowed. then the result is . if the pattern fails to match. unary .deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. where the are patterns.3. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . Similarly. .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude.17. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator .denotes preﬁx negation.1. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. page 55). so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( .operator and unary negation. There is no link between the local meaning of the . . partial applications of data construc ) of ( .
as described in the preceding section. EXPRESSIONS 3. but (+a+b) is not. () is not a section. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. Because (+) is left associative. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). As another example. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. However.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). and similarly for ( ).20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . but an application of preﬁx negation.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . For example. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. (a+b+) is syntactically correct. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because.is treated specially in the grammar. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression.
1.7 Lists [] ( ) : . ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . ¥ £ ¡ 3. ].6. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. and must have the same type. and otherwise. . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . and the empty list is Lists are written [ .3. is a binary operator.3. which is also the Prelude. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > .6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. is an expression. The type of type of the entire conditional expression.1). if is False. denoted []. The list constructor is :. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. where .
22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3.1.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. 3. . ).3). ) Tuples are written ( . like [].2).). and may be of arbitrary length .) a b c tuple is denoted by (. and requires no translation. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. It is a rightassociative operator. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.2). ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . . . and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. .. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( . Translation: ( . § 3. Thus (a.2). ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.1. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .5).4. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. It is the only member of that type apart from .2).8 Tuples ¢ S (. . and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. . If through are the types of through .c) and (. . with precedence level 5 (Section 4.b. . EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. where there are denote the same value. and is equivalent to .. respectively. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). ) (see Section 4. The constructor for an commas. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . it is considered part of the language syntax.4 and Chapter 8).1. .1. and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4.1.1.
which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . . ] .10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. ...11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. . enumFromThen.. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. where each of the has type .10. ] .1. See Section 6. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ..3. enumFromTo. § 3. and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . ] denotes a list of values of type .3. page 83).17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  .. ] . . depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] ... Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. where is a pattern (see Section 3. and is an instance of class Enum.
x) <. let (x.5. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over.x.2)] ]. = = = = [ ] [  . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . lexicallyscoped. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. ok is a fresh variable. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  .are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.(3. 3. are deﬁned in the Prelude.4)]. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. As usual. z <.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ .4). over boolean over declaration lists.x. .4).12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { .2). [(5.[ [(1. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. and introduce a nested. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.17). over patterns. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <.24 CHAPTER 3. } in .2]. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. and boolean value True. ]  <.(3. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. over listvalued expressions. and over sequences of qualiﬁers.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. (3. expressions.xs ] yields the list [4. The function concatMap. For example. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.x ] [ z  y <.. x <. over qualiﬁers. Thus: [ x  xs <.
. .4.. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . . Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ .4.3. 3. Once done. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions). . An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. the “” is a terminal symbol. using the translation in Section 4.3.. > ¦§ of { } . . . This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. in = } in = = let (˜ . which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.3. ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case .13. .. these identities hold. . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . where and are patterns and expressions respectively. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.˜ ) = ( . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures..13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . ...
If no match succeeds. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice.3._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. ¦ 3. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. . If matches the pattern in the alternative. therefore. If one of the pattern. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. The expression case x of { (a. matching continues with the next alternative. Programmers are advised. <let . ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ .26 CHAPTER 3. Each body must have the same type. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. It has a single unambiguous parse._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. ¦ ¨ . in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom.17. The alternatives are tried sequentially. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. A note about parsing. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . namely case x of { (a. . and then by the guards evaluates to True. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. the result is . and hence reject the program.17.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. If all the guards evaluate to False. and the type of the whole expression is that type. Pattern matching is described in Section 3. from top to bottom.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © .
When used as a variable. As indicated by the translation of do.." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . which may be used as a translation into the kernel. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct..2) and update (Section 3. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".15.15. after eliminating empty : } . and fail are operations in the class Monad. the functions >>. in record construction (Section 3. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } . passed to fail.OK .2. 3. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. © The ellipsis ". To illustrate the last point. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.3). preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . This shadowing only affects selector functions.15.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic.15. Within a datatype. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. >>=.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { ." stands for a compilergenerated error message.1). and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object.. as deﬁned in the Prelude. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter.BAD Here S is legal but T is not. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. however. 3.3. select from..
. the { and } characters must be explicit. the ﬁeld labels .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. these are not subject to layout. A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 .15. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. Otherwise. and if appears is .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above).2. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. it denotes F . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list .1. where F is a data constructor. The expression F {}. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . . } labeled construction . is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . then value . where is the arity of F.
This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . f3. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .15.3.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. No label may be mentioned more than once. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . . Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. } labeled update . and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . f3 = ’x’}. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . such as x {f2 = 1. f4 = ’A’.. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int..15. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.
17. The value of the expression is just that of .3. and case expressions.1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . the principal type.1).30 CHAPTER 3. function deﬁnitions.4.4). EXPRESSIONS 3. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. . so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. pattern bindings.2). 3. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . However. or not principal type derivable from comparable to.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. Translation: 3.1.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . list comprehensions. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ . the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. do expressions.
2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. it may succeed. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . For example. ¢ § .17. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 .3. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. or it may diverge (i. .17. For example. For example._. and allow one to use . Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. . case e of { [x. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail.ILLEGAL.y. and outside to inside.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. return ). this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place.e._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.x) = x .
Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). The match diverges if the comparison diverges. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . then is matched against . 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. Matching the pattern by data. . 7. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . depending on the type of the pattern. that is. character. EXPRESSIONS 2. where newtype. the match diverges. The match diverges if this test diverges. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. and fails otherwise. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used.32 CHAPTER 3. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. § § § That is. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge.) Operationally. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . so does the overall computation. Matching the pattern against a value. 3. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. 8. Again. resulting in the binding of to . ¦ 32 4. Matching a numeric. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. 6. the overall match succeeds. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern.2. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . then is matched against . (Binding does not imply evaluation. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form .are overloaded. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed.. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. depends on the value: against a value. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. If the value is of the form . . and if the match fails or diverges. and to if matching against fails or diverges. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. if all matches succeed. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . and no binding is done. respectively. the functions >= and . The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed.
An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. ] (\ ˜[x.3. to . or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4.1). and the result is a failed match.2. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.3). These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. then . it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x.’x’]. If the match of against fails or diverges. ]. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. Here are some examples: 1. These examples demonstrate refutable vs.’b’] is matched against [ .1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns. All other patterns are refutable.17.b)] > x) [(0. ] (0. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is .y) > 0) (\ (x.1). But if [’a’. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x.˜(a. If the pattern [’a’. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.b)] > x) [(0. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . (a.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. a wildcard. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. is irrefutable).’b’] is matched against [’x’.
this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. in f :: (Int. (q). Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.2. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let.2. and are booleanvalued expressions.1–3. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4.3.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities.1. and is a newtype constructor. . in Figures 3. it is not expected that it will use them directly.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. Rule (h) in Figure 3.4). function deﬁnition.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. (j). and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.17. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. or pattern binding to which it is attached.y.2: . regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. . (e). and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). 3. and are expressions. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. Rules (d). and are variables.34 CHAPTER 3.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. and are patterns.Int. In Figures 3. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. In particular. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. For example.1–3. These identities all preserve the static semantics. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code.
PATTERN MATCHING 35 . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . .17. > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . } } .3. . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . Figure 3. _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .
. _ > } case of { _ _ > . are new variables else } } }. _ > } case ( ) of { > . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . } > . } > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . _ > } of { > . character. or string literal. _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > } . _ > } case of { > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and .36 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. are ﬁelds of constructor . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > _ > }} where . _ otherwise case of { {} > . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . = . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( .
.¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . type data newtype class instance default ( . = => => => => . . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . ¦ { . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } } © 2§ .
suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. consisting of class. instance. of the given types. and nested declarations. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. For exposition. type classes and overloading.e.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .3. A class declaration (Section 4. deﬁned on it. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. and data declarations (Section 4.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: .4). using normal type and data declarations.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. those within a let or where construct). whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i.3).3. . An instance declaration (Section 4. consisting of value bindings. Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). consisting of type.simplified class declaration for Num .2). For example. newtype. type signatures.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. . but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code.1. and default declarations (Section 4. we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. 5]. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. © 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). .38 %§ CHAPTER 4.
4.0 type system. unlike types. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds.e. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . Kind inference is discussed in Section 4.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.4.6.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. then a type of kind . ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. negateInt. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. addFloat. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.1.1.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i. class methods) for (+) and negate. ] ) .1.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. 4. However.
. Int. For example: Char. The declarations data T . or newtype T . then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (.). 2. As with data constructors. and so on. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . a process of kind inference (see Section 4. The tuple types are written as (.. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. . In general. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. Just as data values are built using data constructors.5). Unlike data constructors. For example.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. having form ( ). . Float. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . must have kind . Type constructors. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). A parenthesized type. and classes. is identical to the type . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. to the variable a. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . and is a type of kind . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. and has exactly one value. Type application. 4.. Since the IO type constructor has kind . add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter.1. Type variables.40 CHAPTER 4. IO. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. type synonyms. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. (. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. and treated as types with kind . The list type is written as [] and has kind . Their kinds are . type values are built from . also written () (see Sections 3.). written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. and so on. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . Integer. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears..9 and 6. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. IO a.
For example. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. A list type has the form [ ]. For clarity.4.). then the expressions (\ > ). (Hence the special production.4). 3. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). and ). A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. (). [ ]. [ ]. for example. tuples. A class assertion has form . we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. the second component of type . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. “gtycon”. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type.3. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . always denote the builtin type constructors. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4.7 and 6. which is equivalent to the type (.1. regardless of what is in scope.8 and 6.1. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. []. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. however. (.1. For example. A tuple type has the form ( . . the preﬁx type constructors (>). and lists. which is equivalent to the type [] . the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts .) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. the type expression a > a .1)). These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type .. respectively. 2. means . If is the type of expression or pattern . . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . . ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. and so on (see Sections 3. 1.) where there are commas between the parenthesis. and ( ) have the types ( > ). they cannot be qualiﬁed. and so on. ) where . In a similar way. the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. above. .3). . which is equivalent to the type (>) . their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float).1.
the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. as described in Section 4.1.3. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. or the application of type variable to one or more types. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . " t ¡§ is identical to . Show a. For example. and each of the is either a type variable.16 and 4. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . also holds. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). the most general type. For example. in more detail. may be instantiated at types holds. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4.42 CHAPTER 4. we provide informal details of the type system. where is a set of type variables . Furthermore. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . For convenience.1. In general. respectively. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). a type is of the form . The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in .4). Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a).3. we write => even if the context is empty.1). (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. any of that are free in must also be free in .4. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . Therefore. § § § 4. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. In general.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. In any such type.
renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). since Num Int holds.2. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. The user may choose to declare such an instance. This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. However. because Int is an instance of the class Num. USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . 4. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. . In this Report. 4. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations).4.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)).2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . and type synonyms (type declarations). double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”.2. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . ! . } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © .
The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. For example.3. using the record syntax (C { . The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside.3. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. For example. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. to the components of a data object. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v .e.. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor.f2 :: Int. and is described in Section 4. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . the declaration data C = F { f1. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor.. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor.8.6.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. }).
4. . Lexically. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. and function $! (see Section 6. denoted by an exclamation point. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag.2) if is of the form ! . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.6.15. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . “!”.2. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. The type is equivalent to the type . Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . For example. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags.2. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. Translation: A declaration of the form 4.
type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4.3. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type.17). The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). Also.3. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. the newtype constructor is unlifted. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. this is not so for type synonyms. but strictly syntactic. For example. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. Unlike algebraic datatypes. The type ( ) renames the datatype . except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. unlike type synonyms. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead.2).2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. New instances (see Section 4. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3.2. Type synonyms are a convenient. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. Similarly. so that is the same as . type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. 4. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ .invalid .invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not.
3. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. whereas ( n ). Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. In particular. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). .) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax. and newtype (renaming types.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to .3.3. though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.4. ( n ( N ) ). ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . type (type synonyms).3 Type Classes and Overloading 4.3. . see Section 4. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .
op2 :: a > a (op1. op2) = . That is. is not permitted. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . it may mention type variables other than .e. i. For example: class Foo a where op1. as described below. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. The may constrain only .. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . the only type variable that may be referred to in is . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. it must form a directed acyclic graph. the may not constrain . The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition.3. However. . outside the class declaration. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . in particular.48 CHAPTER 4. For example: class (Read a. The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . the may contain a default class method for any of the . For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). since class methods declare toplevel values. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . or another class method. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. a ﬁeld name. no other declarations are permitted in . Lastly. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope.. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body.2).
2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. } .a) where . in particular. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations..2. . furthermore. this is legal.. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope.. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix... Let be a class declaration. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . if a type is an instance of all superclasses.. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part.4. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods.a) where .) For example. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple ...3. ] > .Ix T where range = . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. it may be a qualiﬁed name.3. 4. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. instance C (Int. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . must not be a type synonym. The type type variables distinct.range. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a. instance C [[a]] where .
If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . then the program would be invalid.3.. instance Num a => Bar [a] where .. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. The class and type must have the same kind. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context .. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar.. must be an instance of each of . This example is valid Haskell. instance (Eq a. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. instance (Eq a. Under this assumption...1). Show a) => Foo [a] where . the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a.. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. In other words. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context.6.50 CHAPTER 4. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). Show a) => Bar [a] where . In fact. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.... A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.
If the form is included. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10.. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. Enum. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum.3. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. . These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances.1." in show x . freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. because the types for show and read. that is.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4.1. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. 4. page 83.4 Ambiguous Types. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.2. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. Show a).invalid is ambiguous. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. Show. Ord. 4. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. For example. Bounded. But this does not hold.3. For example. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. then the expression let x = read ". and Read. instances for all superclasses of must exist for .3. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes.. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. When deriving a class for a type .4. all mentioned in Figure 6. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. For example.
there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ .52 CHAPTER 4. § ¢ . Num or a subclass of Num). where is a class. Such expressions are considered illtyped. for the ambiguous expression given earlier.4. and each must be a type for which Num holds. Double) The empty default declaration. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. It is a static error if no such type is found. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. For example. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. appears only in constraints of the form .16. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered.2–6.1. turns off all defaults in a module. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. page 83.. § ¢ ¢ For example. (that is. and Figure 6. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. . . rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. but and are forced to have the same type.. a static error. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. an ambiguous type variable. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . and its effect is limited to that module. default (). approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. Only one default declaration is permitted per module. Occasionally. ) where .3. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . Such types are invalid. one could write: let x = read ". or Bool.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. For example.
2). ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. 4.4. including the top level of a module.1. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of .1 Type Signatures . it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature.2. However. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. Indeed.4. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . . As mentioned in Section 4.4.5. i.1.4. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . or principal type . to ensure that type inference is still possible. Moreover. this is explained in Section 4. possibly with respect to a context. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it.5. the deﬁning occurrence. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. For example. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. For example.e. as described in Section 4. these declarations contain a static error. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . even if the signatures are identical. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.
as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . non. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. and level 9 binds most tightly). the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. level 9 is assumed.1 are invalid.invalid are invalid.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. declares a property of a particular operator.4. T a > a. 4.and rightassociativity (infix. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). like a type signature. Also like a type signature. respectively). For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix .1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . and infixr. . If the is omitted. infixl. (Class methods are a minor exception. just like its type.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. The following deﬁnition is pathological. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). and ten precedence levels. Table 4. left.invalid .
3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . ˆ.4. ‘seq‘ Table 4.) 4. /=.4.. >=.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. ˆˆ. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. >>= $.op‘ q) * 2 in . $!. ‘rem‘. ‘Bar. <=.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ‘mod‘. ‘div‘.4.. Here. ++ ==. <. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. /. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.op‘ is infix 3. ** :. ‘quot‘ +. ‘Foo. >...op‘ is infixr 7.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . ‘elem‘.
DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. For example. the binding is called a function binding. the latter. ¤ 4.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value.3. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct.56 CHAPTER 4. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ .4. . namely: . The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. otherwise. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators.
A note about syntax. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. A simple pattern binding has form .3. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. . See the translation in Section 3. in other words. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. where a function bindings above. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values.e. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding.12.4.4.4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( .
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
¦
£
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¡
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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and not by any modules that import it.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer.4.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. in (f. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone.5. module M1(len1) where default( Int. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. However. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings.4. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded.3. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. For example. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. Hence.g) = ((+). (If the above code is actually what is wanted. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. len1 gets type Int. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational . There is no danger of recomputation here. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num.
For example. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Instead. synonym. using the default binding . Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] .6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. in the deﬁnitions above. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. constructors. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. respectively. in such cases. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. For example. respectively. for any kind . The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. a default of is assumed. . i.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. a synonym S and a class C. 4. For example. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind .e. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. For example. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7].64 CHAPTER 4.5. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. for instance).
by convention. datatypes. etc..5) is affected by module boundaries. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. 1 65 .f >> B. or class deﬁned in. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). or perhaps exported from a module. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. the computation main is performed. imported into. classes. First. one of which. Second. Modules may be mutually recursive. We use the term entity to refer to a value.5. Modules are used for namespace control. It exports some of these resources. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main.3. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. type. When the program is executed.4). For example.. module B where f = . making them available to other modules. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . (see Chapter 4). which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A.. and are not ﬁrst class values. must be called Main and must export the value main.. type synonyms. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. and its result (of type ) is discarded. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values.f module A where f = .
type synonyms.e. optionally restricting the imported bindings. etc. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. .2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( .. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . Prelude. bf = . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. classes.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module.6). and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. Section 5. (see Chapter 4). ¦ ¦ § 5.. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {.. data types. . If this is used. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. the module name. consisting only of the module body. There is one distinguished module. .. CHAPTER 5. is permitted.3) that specify modules to be imported. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ . Chapter 4). . ). MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. © 5. i. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . ( An abbreviated form of module.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . .
) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ..8). or class method. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.2. The abbreviated form (. ﬁeld name.. must be in scope. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2.) ( (. EXPORT LISTS 67 . Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. ( . names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . which must be in scope. .) ( module . 3. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. but not those that are imported. The constructor In all cases. A value. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . all values. may . Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. ). Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. whether declared in the module body or imported.. .) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). For example. . ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4.5. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. If the export list is omitted. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. the following is legal module A( Mb.Maybe( Nothing. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. or that it imports from some other module. A type synonym is in scope.
one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of .5.f. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. ¡ £ . It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list.. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. ). . The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). or by exporting an entire module (module M. item(2)). This set may be empty. C.. In all cases.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. names the class and some or all of its methods. In the second form. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. item (5)). For example module A ( C. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list.68 CHAPTER 5.). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.1). enqueue. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f..) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). item (1) above). or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). For example.g. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. dequeue ) where import Stack . 5. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. item (2)).g) g = f True . must be in scope. MODULES The abbreviated form (.. For example: module Queue( module Stack. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). g.e”. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax.
They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. § 5. and between module B and C.f (assuming B. the (.3. 5. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .) form of import is used for a type or class. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. . hiding ( .3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. When the (... or ﬁeld names exported from the module. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported.f and C.) refers to all of the constructors. . ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ .) ( (. modules can import each other recursively). rather than Lexically. the terminal symbols “as”..g and g (assuming C. they may also be used as variables.3. . The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.g and g are different entities – remember. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.5. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as . ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ .) ( . The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant.. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1.f are different entities). The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. methods. The list may be empty. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module.
Thus.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.’. exported by the imported module. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . MODULES 2. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword.This + differs from the one in the Prelude . It is an error to hide an entity that is not. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. In contrast.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. ). then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3) on the import statement.1. in fact.All Prelude names must be qualified . is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared.+ 1) . The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. .2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5.3.3. Hence.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. For example. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. © 5. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.3.3. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. the toplevel environment is extended. using C in an import list names only a class or type. or type named C is excluded. class. Section 5.5. If the qualified keyword is omitted. Finally. if ported.
An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. suppose the module A exports x and y.f.x.y A.x.y In all cases. A.x. A. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.x A.x x. A. y. A. B. B.y y. B.x.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.y (nothing) A.y (nothing) x.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. y.x. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. A.4. A.x. 5. 5.y A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported . It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.x B. y.3.y x. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5. A.5.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.y x. A.4). B.
ILLEGAL g x = let M. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned.5.72 CHAPTER 5.f respectively. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .f x = . an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. .ILLEGAL By an import declaration.5.f. Thus. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as . .1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration.4). import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. An import declaration.. but does bring in any instances visible in M. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list.3). MODULES module. such as f or A.. whether qualified or not. it is illegal to write module M where M.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.f x x is legal.. For example..2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. therefore. g x = M. there must be only one binding for f or A. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. 5. that is. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.. Thus: module M where f x = .y = x+1 in .
5.4..2).. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.x. y = .. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.. module D( d ) where d = . x. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. ... x. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. c.. and C. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. b. For example. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. y ) where import D x = . The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. x) module B( d. and c declared in C respectively. c.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. b = . y = . y ) where import D x = . or x declared in C..d. d. B.5. provided that the program does not mention those names.d. Consider the deﬁnition of tup.x or C... and can be referred to in A by the names d.sin (F.. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. There is no reference to y.. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B. module C( d. c = ..
sin and F. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. However. That is. called the “Standard Prelude.5.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. the Prelude is contained in the . The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. For example. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms.” In Haskell.74 CHAPTER 5. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. classes. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. MODULES The references to Prelude. That is. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. That is. and functions. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. 5. 5. However.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant.
if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. they should be considered part of its implementation. PreludeIO.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. for example. 5. given in Chapter 8. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes.6. and so on. which provide less frequently used functions and types. but the implementation only gives a scheme. These modules are not part of Haskell 98.5. complex numberss. just like those from any other module. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. This means. 5. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. arrays. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. and they cannot be imported separately. however. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. For example. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. not part of the language deﬁnition. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit.6. For example: module A( null. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition.6.
to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). MODULES import Prelude statement. 5. however. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. For example. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. for example.76 CHAPTER 5.x) g x = (. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. On the other hand. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. For example. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. in terms of a different implementation of lists.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. the use of ++ is not special syntax. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. 5.x) and (. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. push. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. pop. It is not possible. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . For example. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.
It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. they must use push.8.5. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. pop. pop. push. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. Instead. and empty to construct such values. For example.
78 CHAPTER 5. MODULES .
4.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. In this chapter. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Show.1. 6. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. types. 6. Show.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. When appropriate. and not. Enum. Ord.  (or). Ord. Eq. 6. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. The basic boolean functions are && (and). Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Enum. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. Eq.1. Numeric types are described in Section 6.6. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. complex numbers. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. and 79 . Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11].Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes.
4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. standard functions from class Enum.’r’. In addition.6.’ ’. Show.10 and 3. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. For example.Int) and (. and Show (provided. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15.’g’] 6.11.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. Functor. However. are described in Sections 3. Lists are an instance of classes Read.’n’. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. \r and \CR. The module PreludeList (see Section 8..3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Read. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. Ord. respectively. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. map characters to and from the Int type. of course. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. that all their component types are). The ﬁrst constructor is the null list.) x y produce the same value. \v and \VT. and Show. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. \f and \FF. and the \ˆ notation.80 CHAPTER 6. All tuples are instances of Eq. curry. snd. 6. together with the instances for Eq. (Int. \t and \HT.Bool. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. thus (x. Ord.7. Monad.y) and (. and uncurry.’s’. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions.1. and \n and \LF. The same holds for tuple type constructors. Bounded. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. as deﬁned in Section 3. ASCII mnemonic escapes. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). thus. . two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. and MonadPlus. although with special syntax. ’i’. Eq. \b and \BS. as described in Section 3. Read. Bounded.’t’. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions.1. Each tuple type has a single constructor. Ord.8.
const. It is an instance of Show and Eq. that is. Bounded. a function argument is evaluated only when required. Ord. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . (.9. Read.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.2. The unit datatype () has one non 6. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. Show) member. Ord. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Enum. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Ord. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. and until. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. Bounded. and MonadPlus. and Part II contains many more. flip. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Monad.1. Read. the nullary constructor (). Chapter 7 describes I/O operations.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. 6.).1. Ord.1. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. See also Section 3.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6.6.3). 6. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. Read.1. ($). 6. Enum. Read. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user.
3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. because it is available at every type. 6.3. $! ($). . or zipWith ($) fs xs. As a consequence. 6.82 CHAPTER 6. such as map ($ 0) xs. However. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. However. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' .2. Default class method declarations (Section 4. together with the default declarations. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. infixr 0 $. $ has low.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x).1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. For the same reason. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. since seq can be used to distinguish them. rightassociative binding precedence. Strict datatypes (see Section 4.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. If there is no such comment.
Float. Maybe Functor IO. Integer RealFrac Float. Integer. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Float. Char. Double Floating Float. []. (>) Show All except IO. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. tuples Enum (). Bool. Maybe Figure 6. () Ordering. Bool. Double Bounded Int. Double RealFloat Float. []. Ordering.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Double Real Int. IOError Num Int. Int.3. Char. Double Monad IO. Double Fractional Float. Float. Integer. (>) Read All except IO. Integer. Double Integral Int.6.
(>=). are instances of this class. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. If both are deﬁned. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. 6. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. and IOError. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. All basic datatypes except for functions. = = = = max x y) = (x. IO. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes.3. (<=). then both will loop. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. If one is deﬁned.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances.y) or (y. neither default method is used.84 CHAPTER 6. . If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .
where values of type String should be shown in double quotes..read: ambiguous parse" . Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec. except function types and IO types. (If desired. by providing an instance declaration.t) <. is also provided. show. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. ("".3.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText.. which uses precedence context zero.. and returns an ordinary String. A specialised variant."") <.. All Prelude types.) For convenience. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10.6. This is particularly useful for the Char type. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. are instances of Show and Read. rather than between square brackets.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText.4). Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function.. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a.reads s.3..
10). lex fails (i. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.n’.3. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. returns []). The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. If the input string contains only white space. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. (Thus lex "" = [("". The read function reads input from a string."")].e.86 CHAPTER 6. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum..Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. see Chapter 10.m] [n. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). which must be completely consumed by the input process. The enumFrom. respectively. It reads a single lexeme from the input. For example. 6.] [n.. of a value.] [n. used by read. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type.n’. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. The function lex :: ReadS String.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.m] . is also part of the Prelude... discarding initial white space. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: ..4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ.. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.
. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. ¤ . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . Integer. where the increment. . . all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. empty if is the list [ . ¥ ¢ For Float and Double.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. The semantics of these instances is given next. the list terminates when . For example. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. the list is empty if . Double. ]. and pred subtracts 1. is . £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. 6. IO. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . . In the case of Float and Double. . . If the increment is the next element would be greater than . all the list elements are the same. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . ]. For all four of these Prelude numeric types. For example. succ adds 1. Lists.6.. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. where the increment. the list is empty if negative. For the types Int and Integer. and Maybe are in this class. ]. is . and Ordering.GT]. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ .] is the list [LT. The increment may be zero or negative. . For all four numeric types. If the increment is zero. Float.3. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. .EQ. [LT. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). Numeric types: Int. or when they become less than for negative .3. Bool. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. If the increment is positive or zero. .
and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad.14).3).88 CHAPTER 6. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. and IO are all instances of Monad. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. Maybe. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . for Maybe returns Nothing. lists. 6. In the Prelude. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. g) id fmap f .3.
as deﬁned in the Ratio library. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. a truncated value. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. 6. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). both real and complex. Char. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . NUMBERS 89 6.1.3.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. indeﬁnite. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. single precision ﬂoating (Float). ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . page 83. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. or a special value such as inﬁnity. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. but not all. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. Similarly. (). Some. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). Bool. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. Figure 6. semantically). Float is implementationdeﬁned. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned.6. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6.1. an implementation may choose error ( . using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6.3. The types Int. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. In particular.4. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. since all numbers may be compared for equality. Ordering. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. arbitrary precision integers (Integer).4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded.2–6.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. etc. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. and double precision ﬂoating (Double).
(). The quot.1: Standard Numeric Types 6.5. Ratio Integer). single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . Similarly. 6. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. respectively.4.3. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+). while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. div. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. see section 3.90 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. See Section 4. even . div. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. rem.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. (*). divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y.4) apply to all numbers. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero.4. and mod apply only to integral numbers. rem. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. remainder) pair. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. The class methods quot.
acos. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. rem. (). cosh. log. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . tan :: a > a asin. gcd (3) (6) = 3. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a.4. cos. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. 0** is undeﬁned. sqrt :: a > a (**). ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. 6. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. div. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. atan :: a > a sinh.4. Show (+). mod quotRem. atanh :: a > a Figure 6.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. (*) negate abs. including zero. tanh :: a > a asinh. logBase :: a > a > a sin. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. NUMBERS class (Eq a. Part 1 Finally.6. acosh. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. Enum a) quot. gcd 0 4 = 4.
92 CHAPTER 6. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isInfinite.a) b b class (Real a. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. isNegativeZero. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. isDenormalized. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign.4.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. Part 2 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a.
then x is equal in value to . atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. pi]. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . and floor . where is the ﬂoatingpoint . floor. and tangent functions and their inverses. If decodeFloat x yields ( . It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. **.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. atan2 1. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. where is the value radix. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. and sqrt are provided. discontinuities. note that is the simplest rational of all. in particular. round returns the nearest integer to .4. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . ). and with absolute value less than 1.4. the greatest integer not greater than . ¢ ¢ 6.6. and furthermore. with in a type that is RealFloat. NUMBERS 93 6. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . logBase. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. respectively. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. Default implementations of tan. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . truncate. The ceiling. inclusive. For real ﬂoating and . and implementation. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. tanh. floatDigits. cosine. The functions floatRadix. either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number.4. truncate. floor. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . should return the same value as atan . truncate yields the integer nearest between and . Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments.
The functions isNaN.94 CHAPTER 6. isInfinite. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. scaled to lie in the open interval . isDenormalized. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. but rather than an Integer. these may all return false. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. exponent 0 is zero. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. isNegativeZero. Fractional b) => a > b .
The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude.6) sequentially compose actions. however. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7.3. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. as deﬁned in the IO library. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. two characters of input. To achieve this.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . In the case of the I/O monad. however. return and linefeed. the abstract values are the mentioned above. Actions.2). All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented.1. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. In the following. and which are described in this section. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. Some operations are primitive actions. see Section 6. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. may read as a single newline character. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. For example.
The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. which is read lazily as it is needed. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.3) on endofﬁle. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output.. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show.19]]) Input Functions terminal). The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine.) main = interact (filter isAscii) .96 CHAPTER 7. Typically. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. deﬁned the IO library. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . For example. 2ˆn)  n <. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library.[0. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument.
The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example.2.7.[0. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. as with print.2]]) 7. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. their second argument. on demand. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . The two monadic binding functions. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. are used to compose a series of I/O operations.1.x*x)  x <. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. to the ﬁle. The ﬁle is read lazily.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. To write a value of any printable type. their ﬁrst argument.0. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. methods in the Monad class. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. as with getContents. for example when it is (). but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting..
An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.getLine s <.98 CHAPTER 7.getLine return (c:s) 7.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. User error values include a string describing the error. The isEOFError function is part of IO library. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. For example. . BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. For example. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. otherwise. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.
. the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.6) raises a userError.3.. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. (>>=).3.7. thus: instance Monad IO where . .bindings for return. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
These functions are: take. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. These imports are not. of course. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. and Numeric. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. nor are these three modules available for import separately. of the Library modules. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. given with class declarations. such as Integral a or Num a. as it pleases. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. The default method deﬁnitions.. an implementation is free to import more. That is. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). indicated by names starting with “prim”. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. An ellipsis “. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. PreludeText. and to improve efﬁciency. and PreludeIO. drop. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. and three submodules. Declarations for special types such as Integer. !!. length. Monad.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. IO.. Some of these modules import Library modules. To take one particular example. These modules are described fully in Part II.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. or less. 101 . Prelude. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. such as Char. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. This structure is purely presentational. PreludeList. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type.
. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. with the preﬁx “generic”.102 CHAPTER 8. and replicate. The more general versions are given in the List library. for example genericLength.
module PreludeIO. Enum(succ. log. atan. curry. ceiling. sqrt. Float. id. fromRational). maxBound). decodeFloat. flip. tan. isNaN.Contains all ‘prim’ values . abs.). Functor(fmap). signum. const. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). and cannot legally appear in an export list. Integral(quot. (. Double. lcm. enumFromThenTo). RealFrac(properFraction. tanh. sin. isDenormalized. Fractional((/). odd. (). even. String. scaleFloat. fst. mod. max. etc. quotRem. Bool(False. pred. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude.)). (). Maybe(Nothing. Char. recip. until. asin. Right). floatRange. asinh. mapM_. either. Ord(compare. []) Tuple types: (.. (**). (<=). fromInteger). subtract. toInteger). Real(toRational). cos. error. sequence. EQ. Bounded(minBound. (. (*). realToFrac. (>>). Either(Left. round. maybe. True). ($). Rational. IO. otherwise. not. min). asTypeOf. acosh. logBase. atanh).103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. gcd. Floating(pi. (<). fail). Int. fromEnum. but are denoted by builtin syntax. (>=). snd. negate. return.)((. Monad((>>=). acos. isInfinite. encodeFloat. sinh. seq. enumFromTo. atan2). enumFrom. isNegativeZero. rem. uncurry.. floor). Just). undefined. enumFromThen. mapM. (>). toEnum. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . (=<<). divMod. GT). (/=)). Num((+). (ˆˆ). isIEEE. exponent.)((. (&&). Integer. div. Ordering(LT. List type: []((:). RealFloat(floatRadix. significand. fromIntegral. (ˆ). truncate. floatDigits. module PreludeText. cosh. exp.Unicode primitives . sequence_.)).
min :: a > a > a . (>=).a fixity declaration. >=. STANDARD PRELUDE .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). >>= =<< $. ** *. max x y) = (x.The (:) operator is builtin syntax.y) or (y. classes. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. instances and related functions . /. ‘seq‘ . ‘mod‘ +. (/=) :: a > a > Bool .Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . <. > &&  >>.note that (min x y.Standard types.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==).  . ˆ. ‘rem‘. ‘quot‘. (<=). ˆˆ. /=. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. ‘div‘. and cannot legally be given . $!. <=.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.
Numeric classes class (Eq a.Minimal complete definition: toEnum.m] [n. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum pred = toEnum . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. (subtract 1) .NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.m] .. ().n’.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. succ = toEnum . (+1) .105 . except x .] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . Show a) => Num a where (+). Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational ... fromEnum y .] [n.] [n.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ.n’.y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. fromEnum ....Minimal complete All. fromEnum y . fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .
r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. log. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. Enum quot. tanh :: a > a asinh. log. atan :: a > a sinh. tan :: a > a asin. cos. cosh asin. atan asinh. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. cosh. atanh :: a > a . cos.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. logBase :: a > a > a sin.Minimal complete definition: pi.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. sinh.106 class (Real a. sqrt :: a > a (**). sin. acos. rem div.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. acos.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. acosh. mod quotRem. exp. acosh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d .a) a > Integer .
a) b b .r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .107 class (Real a. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.0. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n ._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.
Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int.Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. isDenormalized.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . scaleFloat.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y . isNegativeZero.floatDigits x) where (m.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. return a NaN (via +) . isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .x or y is a NaN. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. significand.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .108 CHAPTER 8.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not .Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. isInfinite.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.
Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. toInteger :: (Real a.Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toRational . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). but lift the function or .The xxxM functions take list arguments.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.
Enum.Boolean functions (&&).(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ . Enum.Primitive .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. for illustration only .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f ..function composition (. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = . g = \ x > f (g x) .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .. . ’a’  ’b’ . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .identity function id :: a > a id x = x .Function type .Not legal Haskell..Character type data Char = .. Show. Ord. Bounded) . Read.. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. Bounded) . Ord..rightassociating infix application operators .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.110 . .
Ord.Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . .. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . Read. return = . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y ..... fromEnum c’ .. fail s = ioError (userError s) . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . Read. Ord.abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c..IO type data IO a = .. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.
. instance Ord Integer where .... .... maxBound . .... . . ... Ord. Read..... ... . instance Eq Integer where . 1  0  1 . instance Enum Integer where .. Show.... data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ..far too large.. ...... Enum........ . Bounded) . instance Real Integer where . . The data declarations for these types cannot .... ....... .. 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . data Integer = .. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. where where where where where where where where ... .112 ..Standard numeric types. . .. ..... instance Integral Integer where . ..... instance Num Integer where ..be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be .. . .. ..Ordering type data CHAPTER 8... . data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .
The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .1 .113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. 0.Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Ord) .1 is represented.Not legal Haskell. However. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. depending on how 0. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .95].may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ .0. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.
asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.(NB: not provided for triples. . Ord.undefined" . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) . Ord.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .b) = (a. Bounded) (a.y) :: (a. quadruples.c) = (a.Misc functions .(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. for illustration only . undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.component projections for pairs: .Not legal Haskell.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .appears.b) > b = y . Bounded) .b.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. etc.uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.b.as an infix operator.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.c) deriving (Eq. and its typing forces its first argument .Tuples data data CHAPTER 8. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.b) deriving (Eq.114 .y) = x snd snd (x.b) > a fst (x. curry :: ((a. It is usually used . b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.) fst :: (a. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .
foldl. product. scanr1.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . head. filter. sum. elem. minimum. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. (++). (!!). unlines. words. zip3. or. drop. zipWith3. takeWhile. foldr1. and. span. concat. lines. scanr. repeat. which must be nonempty. lookup. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. replicate. foldl1. maximum.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . length. concatMap. foldr.8. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. scanl. splitAt. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. dropWhile. rather than the beginning. zipWith. ‘notElem‘ . reverse. scanl1. cycle. unwords. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. last.1 Prelude PreludeList . any. respectively. init.1. iterate. null. take. unzip. tail. break. of a list.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. zip. all. notElem.
applied to a binary operator. z ‘f‘ x1. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . x2.. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator). scanl1 is similar..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude.. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists.. .] == [z.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl..] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs. scanl is similar to foldl... (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2.. x2.. x1 ‘f‘ x2.... STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. x2.List index (subscript) operator.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. xn] == (. . and a list.116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. reduces the list using the binary operator. from left to right: foldl f z [x1. . . ..foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .] == [x1...
Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = .8. . applied to a list xs.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . drop n xs). cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude.above functions. with x the value of every element. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . f (f x). splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.iterate f x == [x.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . It is the identity . scanr. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . foldr1. . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .foldr. returns the prefix of xs of length n. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements.on infinite lists.. f x.repeat x is an infinite list.the infinite repetition of the original list.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one.. or equivalently. or [] if n > length xs. or xs itself if n > length xs.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .1. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n.
p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. while break p uses the negation of p. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not . Similary. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p.[a]) span p [] = ([].isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. drop n xs) takeWhile. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].xs) where (ys.[a]) = (take n xs. s’’) = break Char. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. dropWhile p xs). span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. words breaks a string up into a list of words.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s .zs)  otherwise = ([]. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. which were delimited by white space. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.
False. usually written in infix form. x ‘elem‘ xs.elem is the list membership predicate.True. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. Similarly.of the list satisfies the predicate. .e.disjunctive dual of and.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.8.lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. notElem is the negation. sum.g. map p all p = and . . any.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.which must be nonempty. however. for all. For the result to be . and of an ordered type. the list must be finite. any determines if any element .Applied to a predicate and a list. maximum. results from a False .maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. and. finite. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .. . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . or is the . elem. map p . notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys .1.
excess elements of the longer list are discarded.b) ˜(as. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.b)] > ([a].b. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.[]) . For example.cs) > (a:as.c)] = zipWith3 (.bs) > (a:as.c)] > ([a].b. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.c:cs)) ([].b:bs)) ([].[b]) = foldr (\(a. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .[c]) = foldr (\(a.b. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs..unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.b:bs.c) ˜(as. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.bs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.[]. If one input list is short.b)] = zipWith (.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[b].[]) :: [(a. instead of a tupling function.120  CHAPTER 8.
u) readl’ s = [([]. showFloat. showChar. reads t.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. readFloat.t) [(x:xs. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8.8. Either. isDigit. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. readl’ u] . showParen ) where . readLitChar.s) pr where readl s = [([]. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a. isAlphaNum.t)  ("]". readParen. showList).String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . Read(readsPrec.t)  ("]". readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.t) (xs. read.t) (x.hs import Char(isSpace. showInt. ShowS. shows.u)  (x.v)  (". showString. show.t) [(x:xs.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . lex. shows x . readDec.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. shows x .are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. showl xs . showLitChar. reads.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". readList). readSigned.2. Maybe. Show(showsPrec. Ordering . isAlpha.u) (xs.".’ .
<.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&". STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. u)  (ch.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ . t)  (str.t) <.t) <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.reads s.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lex r.lexLitChar s.optional s. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str. (str.lexStrItem s.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". t)  (ch.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.lex t ] . . showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.u)  ("(". <.s) (x.’\’’:t) <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. ("".lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". p .t) (")"."") <.u) <.t) <.
t) <.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.t) <.s)] <. c ‘elem‘ "+".t) <.bad character lexFracExp (’.u)  (ds.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.Converting to Integer avoids . toInteger .[span isSym s]]  (nam.lexFracExp s ] .possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.t) [(c:nam.u) <.2. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) lexExp s = [("".readsPrec p r] . (fe.u) <.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .s)] [(c:sym.lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.’:ds++e.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.8.t) <.[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.[s].s) <. t)  (i.[span isDigit s].Reading at the Integer type avoids .t) [(c:ds++fe.t) <.t) <./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ". (ds.. (e.lexDigits (c:cs).
lex t.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.124 CHAPTER 8.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ . shows y .t) (".y).t)<.t) <._) <. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c . w)  ("(".s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. t) <. (c.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.lex r.".s) (x.y) = showChar ’(’ .readLitChar s.t)  ("(".u) <.v) (")".u) (y.lex r. reads u. Show b) => Show (a. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .s) <.t)  (’"’:s.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.b) where showsPrec p (x. (")".readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("".t)  (’\’’:s. showChar ’."\’") <. showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.’ . (l. reads s. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . shows x . STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList . showLitChar c . Read b) => Read (a. lex v ] ) .u)  (c .t) <.Tuples instance (Show a.lex r. (cs.w) .
PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8... :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. getLine.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . ioError. writeFile. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .3.. IOError. Eq IOError where . appendFile. interact. readFile.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents .. putStr. getContents. catch. userError.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. getChar.8. putStrLn. readIO. putChar. print.
getLine r <. ("".readIO l return r .126 CHAPTER 8.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.t) <."") <. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.reads s.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.
In the contextfree syntax.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. Thus. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). . and may have a double index: a letter . In the lexical syntax. an associativity variable varies over . resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. for example actually stands for 30 productions. the nonterminals . and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. this means that conditionals. or for left. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . .or nonassociativity and a precedence level.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. Similarly. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. right. letexpressions. this is the “maximal munch” rule.
. / < = > ? \ ˆ  . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .
.. LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . . . : :: = \  <.2.
do. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. the programmer supplied the opening brace. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. If the innermost context is 0. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . This section deﬁnes it more precisely. the token is inserted after the keyword. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. because it is not preceded only by white space. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. provided that . with the following additional tokens: – If a let.. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. – A positive integer.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme.6. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {.) A stack of “layout contexts”.3 Layout Section 2.e. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill".130 CHAPTER 9. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. (NB: a string literal it is not. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. in which each element is either: – Zero. nor before the . or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. where. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line.
Tab stops are 8 characters apart. The deﬁnition of is as follows. ﬁxed. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. not 0. and “ ” for the empty stream. . } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters .9. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . to avoid visual confusion. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. . the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . all start a new line. width as an ASCII character. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator.3. To determine the column number. However. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . For the purposes of the layout rule. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1.
because it translates to let { x = e. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. The token is replaced by . This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace.132 CHAPTER 9. Note 5. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. ). Note 2. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. because doing so involves ﬁxities. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. If not. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. Note 3. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. If none of the rules given above matches. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . and a nonlayout context is active.15). Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. then parseerror is true. although they could be: for example let }. then the algorithm fails.4. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. ¤ ¥ Note 6. any pending closebraces are inserted. so empty braces are inserted. At the end of the input. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. then the block must be empty. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. For example let x = e. since the close brace is missing. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar.e. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. y = x in e’ is valid. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. For example. Note 4.
9. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. .3.
it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. though it may be stylistically desirable. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. all other lines are comment. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. By convention. with “. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. Using this style.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. 8 8 ¥¥8 . and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. In this convention. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. For example. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. all other lines are comment. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. of course).134 CHAPTER 9. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle.
9.. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.[1.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. ..n])  n <. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. product [1. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.4.
.) ( (. 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9... ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ .. .) ( (.) ( . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (.. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . hiding ( . .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . SYNTAX REFERENCE . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . as . = => => => => . } } © 2§ .) ( module . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. . . . . . } .
} ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . .5. ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . . . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . ] ) . .
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
s) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .1: Example of Derived Instances .Application has precedence one more than . SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .lex r. .lex s.w) <.s) <. v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.w)  (u. (m.t) <. (":ˆ:". showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .146 CHAPTER 10.Precedence of :ˆ: .readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .t)  ("Leaf".Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v. (v.t) <.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.
An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. For example. 11. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. Lexically. 11. . in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . pragmas appear as comments.
148 CHAPTER 11. . COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
. Fractional.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio... Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. Ord. Fractional (Ratio a) where .. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where ... the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . Real (Ratio a) where . Ord (Ratio a) where . reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. For each Integral type . approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator.... 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Enum. If is a bounded type. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. a) => Read (Ratio a) where . In each case. and Show. Ratio is an abstract type. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . (%). For example.. Enum (Ratio a) where . Num (Ratio a) where . Rational.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. Num. Read.... for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. Show (Ratio a) where . RealFrac. the results may be unpredictable. denominator.. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . numerator... The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a... 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2.. Real. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio.
RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ .152 CHAPTER 12. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and .
numerator. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator.1.1 Library Ratio .Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. E. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. Rational. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio.. (%).% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .g.12. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. denominator.
154 CHAPTER 12.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r .r) = quotRem n d (q’.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger . truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.u) <.lex s.u)  (x. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y. (y.s) <.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . showString " % " . ("%". showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .t) <. r:%y) where (q.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.
(RealFloat a) realPart. the entire number is . The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. Put another way.. if the magnitude is zero.... .. . cis.. magnitude.. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar.. imagPart. realPart.. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude.. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § ..a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). The function cis produces a complex number from an angle . phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. conjugate. . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. then so is the phase. and the phase. .Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)). in the range . polar. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is .. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. mkPolar. .
13.156 CHAPTER 13.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . but unit magnitude. cis. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. conjugate. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. but oriented in the positive real direction. mkPolar. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. realPart. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. whereas signum has the phase of . phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . polar.Read. imagPart. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. magnitude.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)).Show) (RealFloat a) realPart.a) = (magnitude z. abs is a number with the magnitude of .
max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 . LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .1.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .13.
v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = . COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.158 CHAPTER 13.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .
showHex. showOct.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showGFloat. floatToDigits. readFloat. readDec. showFloat. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showEFloat. showIntAtBase. showInt. showFFloat. readInt. showSigned. readOct. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. readHex. readSigned.
160 CHAPTER 14. and is a function that can show unsigned values. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument.45e2. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. In the call showSigned . 0.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string.String)] 14. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].g. is the value to show. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. if is Just . showEFloat. showOct. 1. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second.0015).5e3). 245000.999. and 16 respectively.1 and 9. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. showFFloat.g. plus an exponent.999. . the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. if is Nothing. 8. In what follows. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. More speciﬁcally. showInt. is the precedence of the enclosing context. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. 2. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ].
denominator ) (!). § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. Array. readOct. showOct. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. is the base. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . In the hexadecimal case. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. showIntAtBase.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. showHex. showGFloat.14. octal. intToDigit ) (%). readOct. 14. ( ( isDigit. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. and hexadecimal notation respectively. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. showInt. readDec. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. floatToDigits. showFloat. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. in decimal. isOctDigit. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation.2. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . The inconsistent naming is a historical accident.) 14. showSigned. In the call readInt . given a reader for an unsigned value.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showFFloat. isHexDigit digitToInt. showEFloat. readDec.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. readInt. readHex. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. readFloat. readSigned. numerator.
Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x. NUMERIC . .162 CHAPTER 14. fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .a first guess of the exponent. .p . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .Fractional instances of Float and Double. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . This should be used in the .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’.it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat).To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .This converts a rational to a floating.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.Conversion process: . fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. . or p (the exponent) <= minExp. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .first.Handle exceptional cases .that we got from the scaling. p) . scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x.
. read’’ s] lex r.2ˆn)  n <. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .t)  (""."") <<<< lex r. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.maxExpt) [(n. showOct.4. showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.showInt. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x. . showOct.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. maxExpt]] 163 ..digit to char > a .base > (Int > Char) .t) read’’ r = [(n.s)  (str. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.[minExpt .s) (x. readPos str] .s) (n.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .14.
.r) <. digToInt) ds).Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.nonnull isDig s ] .readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere. r)  (ds.164 CHAPTER 14. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported. NUMERIC . readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . readOct.These are the format types. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . .
14. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing . LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.4.0e0" [d] > d : ".
Int) .ab.Print 0. not 34. in PLDI 96. e) . In general. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. K. Dybvig. if floatToDigits r = ([a.. 0:ds) else (0. not . z].G.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . It should be improved. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.34. is) > (1.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int..when the format specifies no .Print 34. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. b. is) (1.. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls. .166 CHAPTER 14.and an exponent. []) f d (i:is) = let (c.base1]) . NUMERIC ++ ’. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. .34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’.. Burger and R. .This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.then r = 0.’ : s .’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. is) > (0.
mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. be*b. e0) (r. (p . 2*b. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . 1. e) = let n = minExp . f :: Integer e :: Int (f.p 167 . s.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).the following will err on the low side.the real minimum exponent . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. b. b) else (f*be*2.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . bˆ(e+1)*2. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. be.will have an impossibly low exponent. e0+n) else (f0. Adjust for this. . bˆ(e)*2. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .4. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0.14. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so .1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . 1) else (f*2.the fraction will make it err even more. 2. mUp. Ignoring .
point than the Haskell lexer.s) <.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. t)  ("NaN".t)  (k. k) in .t) <. t)  (ds.d.168 CHAPTER 14. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’. t)  ("Infinity". (k. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".d) <.t) <.’ is optional. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.readFix r.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. (ds’.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. length ds’.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).t)  (cs@(_:_).t) <.[span p s]] . The ‘.lexDigits r. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.t) <. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).t)  (n.t) <.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t) <. False) > dn : ds (False.
inRange. and a subscript..Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range. index.. instance instance instance instance (Ix a..rangeSize (l. index.u) map index (range (l. and inRange.u) !! index (l. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .. to an integer.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. The index operation maps a bounding pair. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.a) > (a. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16).when i is in range inRange (l.u)) == [0... Ix b) . .. .. where . The Ix class contains the methods range..a) > (a.u) i == i .b) where where where where .u)] 169 . An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.a) > (a... .
Blue] 1 False .3). datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.3. For example.e.Blue) index (Yellow. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15.1.170 CHAPTER 15.Green. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. For an enumeration. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.
lk)..1: Derivation of Ix instances .uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1. i2 <.uk) * ( index (lk1..l2......instance (Ix a1.i’) = index (l... && inRange (lk.(u1... i’ <.range (l2....l2....range (lk..uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.u’)) (i....b) where range ((l.u’)) (i.i2.u2).u’) i’ inRange ((l.u) i && inRange (l’.ik) = inRange (l1..uk1) * ( .(u..u’) i’ . ..u’) + index (l’.i2. index (l1.uk)) (i1.15.uk)) = [(i1.u’)) = [(i..(u. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a.u’)] index ((l.1.(u1.ik) = index (lk.(u1..i2.l2.a2...l’)...i’)  i <...ik)  i1 <. .u2...uk)] index ((l1.(u. ..range (l.. Ix a2..l’).ak) where range ((l1.range (l’. Ix b) => Ix (a.lk). Ix ak) => Ix (a1..l’). ik <.u2..u) i * rangeSize (l’...u1))) inRange ((l1.uk) ik Figure 15.u2) i2 && .u2.range (l1.u).lk)..uk)) (i1....u1).u1) i1 && inRange (l2.i’) = inRange (l...Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: .
n] = = = i .n) i = [m.as derived Ix () .but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.fails if the bounds are tuples..m error "Ix. index. b) .1) .172 CHAPTER 15.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.as derived. (1." inRange (m..n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci . For example.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.index: Index out of range.n) = [m.as derived Ix Ordering .m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n] index b@(m. for all tuples Ix Bool . rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.2)." inRange (c.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix. inRange.index: Index out of range.index: Index out of range.n) index b@(m.(2.a) > [a] index :: (a.n) = [m.2) <= (2.Ix b) => Ix (a.n] index b@(c.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m..a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.as derived .h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.
Show b) Read a..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a. assocs... Ix b) => (a.. array.a) > [(a.a) > [(a.. 173 . . . a.b)] > Array a b (a.. . bounds.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a. a. accum.. accumArray. indices.export all of Ix for convenience Array..a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a...Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . elems. . listArray. a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a..c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. (//). :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. . // => Array a b = . (!).
the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b.e. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. ). this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. arrays are treated as data. An array may be created by the function array. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. An association (i. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. ). i * a!(i1))  i <.e. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.174 CHAPTER 16. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. Thus. Figure 16. then the array is legal. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. The functions indices. or associations.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. but empty. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. when applied to an array.1. not as general functions.10)). in particular. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. 16.(10. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. elements. Because the indices must be checked for these errors.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. elems. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. respectively.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. in index order.1) : [(i. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. each of the index type of the array. Typically.[2.10). accumArray. in that order. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. The array is undeﬁned (i. but nonstrict in the values. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index.1). a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. If any two associations in the list have the same index. return lists of the indices. For example. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. Since most array functions involve the class Ix. If. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. and assocs. 16.100) ((1. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. . ).100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.e.. in any dimension.
16. a!i * x)  i <. (As with the array function.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.i).The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16.range b]) 0 0 .range b] where b = bounds a . accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . if m is a 1origin. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <.16. Thus. i)  i <. then accumArray is strict in the values. 0)  i <. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.. except with the diagonal zeroed.range b] = bounds a 175 .[1. then m//[((i. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. 1)  i<is.1: Array examples function.) For example. Num b) => (a. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive. in the association list.2.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. given a list of values of some index type. as for the array function. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. n by n matrix.n]] is the same matrix. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . unlike ordinary arrays. the second is an initial value. For example. z)  i <. as well as the indices.
u’)) = bounds x . indices. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.a) (a > b) deriving () .a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) . with the mapping that the original array embodies. respectively.u’) (\j>(i.u) (\i>(i. (//).b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.l’). ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. array.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a._).c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.2 shows some examples. listArray.(_.176 CHAPTER 16. ARRAYS .y)>x) Figure 16.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l._)) = bounds x . The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices. (!). accum. Figure 16.i)) x where ((l.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. elems.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix. assocs.(u. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a. bounds.2: Derived array examples 16. .A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.j)) x where ((_. Ix b) => a > Array (a.export all of Ix Array. accumArray. 16.
Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where ._) <.a) > [(a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a. a!i)  i <.v) > a // [(i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a._) <. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i. a ! f i)  i <.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. Ix b) => (a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.a!i)  i <.a) > [(a.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.v) <.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.range b]) :: (Ix a.16.b)] = [(i. f) instance (Ix a.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.z)  i <.ivs.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.indices a.4.
u)  ("array". showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a.t) <.178 instance (Ix a.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . (as. Show a. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. (b.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s.u) <. showChar ’ ’ .s) <. Read a. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .lex r. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.
179 .
minimum. zip6. maximumBy. zip3.and what the Prelude exports . length. zipWith. foldr. any. zip7. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . dropWhile. inits. repeat. concat. maximum. notElem. unzip7.[]((:). unwords. tails. isPrefixOf. genericTake. zipWith5. foldr1. zip4. insertBy. (\\). scanl. reverse. minimumBy. foldl1. unfoldr. insert. intersperse. mapAccumR. cycle. or. sort. zipWith3.. lookup. iterate. findIndices. elem. lines. scanr1. concatMap. zipWith6.180 CHAPTER 17. filter. union. group. mapAccumL. words. break. sum. delete. . tail. isSuffixOf. splitAt. genericLength. last. . find. genericSplitAt. takeWhile. []). (!!). elemIndices. product. sortBy. transpose. unlines. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. span. drop. groupBy. all. intersectBy. genericReplicate. replicate. (++). genericDrop. findIndex. head. partition. nub. zip. unzip6. scanl1. unzip4. intersect. unzip. unzip5. genericIndex. deleteBy. scanr.. and. take.. null. zip5. zipWith7. deleteFirstsBy. init. unionBy. foldl. zipWith4.This is builtin syntax map. nubBy.
d)] > ([a].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c.f)] > ([a].[e].d.e.b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.f.[b].[b].b.c.c.g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a. c)) > a > [b] > (a. .f.[b].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.[b].c.e.c.[d]) :: [(a.b.e)] > ([a].f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.b.[c].g)] > ([a].[d].[c].d.c.d.[d].b.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.e.[f]) :: [(a.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[e].[d]. [c]) (a > b > (a.[e]) :: [(a.c.e.[f].d.[c].b.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].b.d. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.b.[c].d.
4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. e. Thus. delete. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). or Nothing.1. In the result of xs \\ ys.8] == [2. if any.3. e.. (\\).6. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). if there is no such element.4. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.3.182 CHAPTER 17. union is list union. e..3] = [1.4. 17. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. For example: nub [1. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. [1.g. of val in list as Just index. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. findIndex returns the corresponding index.4] ‘intersect‘ [2.4] . (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys..2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate.g.2. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. LIST UTILITIES 17.3.3. giving the occurrences of val in list.g. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices.
3]. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. adjacent elements."ab". group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.[2."a".b. inits "abc" == ["".e. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function. transpose [[1. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument.[4. shortest ﬁrst. 17.3. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm.[3. e. intersperse ’. i."ss". For example group "Mississippi" == ["M"."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.5].d. "bc".4]."i".g. "c".6]] == [[1."i". e.17..3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. For example: . insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order).6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.."pp".4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.5. partition p xs == (filter p xs.g."i".""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.c. respectively.’ "abcde" == "a.2. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17.."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list."ss". longest ﬁrst. tails "abc" == ["abc". filter (not .
LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. deleteBy. unionBy.184 CHAPTER 17. f x)) In some cases. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”.6 The “By” operations By convention. elemIndices. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. groupBy.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. insertBy. sufﬁx) of the second argument. intersectBy. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. . the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. The library does not provide elemBy. minimumBy. isPrefixOf. For example. maximumBy. 17. sortBy. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.
:: Integral a => [b] > a 17. and 7 arguments. genericSplitAt. unzip3.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. . unzip.7. zipWith. and zipWith3.17. genericDrop.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. zip3. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericReplicate. For example. genericTake. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. 6. 5. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericLength is a generalised version of length.
genericTake. elemIndices. . scanr1. sum.. unzip5. group. words. zipWith5. span. zip. takeWhile. genericIndex. partition. zip4. cycle. minimum. zipWith3. findIndices. intersect. intersperse. intersectBy. genericReplicate. unfoldr. unlines. groupBy. replicate.This is builtin syntax map. transpose. scanl. isSuffixOf. genericDrop. length. zipWith. isPrefixOf. foldr. LIST UTILITIES 17. iterate. (\\). repeat. all. deleteFirstsBy. unzip7. or. filter. unzip. elem.[]((:). scanl1. product. zip5. inits. break.zip xs [0. (!!). unionBy. genericLength. minimumBy. tails. unzip6.i) <.. mapAccumR. last. zipWith7. scanr. concatMap. maximum. unwords.. take. maximumBy. deleteBy. init. findIndex.9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. and. zipWith6. unzip4. sort. zipWith4. lookup. find. sortBy. nubBy. foldr1. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . tail. union.186 CHAPTER 17. nub. genericSplitAt. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . lines. dropWhile. . foldl1. delete. (++). []). reverse. head. zip3. any. zip7.and what the Prelude exports .]. insertBy. mapAccumL. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . concat. drop.. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. null. insert. zip6. splitAt. notElem. foldl.
transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. filter (not . transpose [[1.[5]] .group "Mississippi" == ["M".For example."i". p) xs) ..[3."i".5]. adjacent .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.xs.17.4].4.9.3]."ss".xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <. e."pp".xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].g. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <."i".[a]) = (filter p xs.[]] = [[1.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) . any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs ."ss".Note that [h  (h:t) <. .[2.elements. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .2].
shortest first.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . c)) > a > [b] > (a. [""."a". []) = (s’’.g.inits xs returns the . tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17."ab".""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.y ) = f s’ x (s’. [c]) = (s.y:ys) where (s’."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs.e.. longest first. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys. y ) = f s x (s’’. []) = (s’’.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a.. [c]) = (s.tails xs returns the . ["abc".e. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.g. c)) > a > [b] > (a. y:ys) where (s’’. "c". "bc".188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .
[b]) = ([].[]) = = = (x:xs’.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.9.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.17.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].xs) = ([].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs’’) error "List.
[]..b:bs. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.[d]) = foldr (\(a.b.c..f.[]..c.d) ˜(as.b.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a..[c].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.cs.d..e)] = zipWith5 (.d:ds)) ([].b...b.ds) > (a:as.c..[b].b.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 ..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.c.bs..c.b.e..d)] > ([a].d.e..c:cs..f)] = zipWith6 (.c..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.g)] = zipWith7 (.d)] = zipWith4 (.d.
[d].[d].e:es)) ([].e:es.[e].d.[].b.c.[].bs.c.e)] > ([a].b.[]. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.b.[].d:ds.[].[g]) = foldr (\(a.b.b:bs.[c].c.[]) :: [(a.d:ds.d.f)] > ([a].[d].cs.[b].bs.bs.fs.ds.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .g:gs)) ([].c.d.d:ds.c:cs.[b].[].d.g) ˜(as.e.e) ˜(as.[e].ds.c.[f]) = foldr (\(a.f:fs.g)] > ([a].es.[].17.[c].gs) > (a:as.b.d.[b].[e]) = foldr (\(a.[].e.[c].e.b.b:bs.[].es) > (a:as.f.d.f:fs)) ([].[].e.c:cs.[f].[].[].es.b:bs.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.f) ˜(as.cs.fs) > (a:as.f.e:es.cs.ds.c.9.c:cs.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
isNothing.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. 193 . isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. fromMaybe. maybeToList. Just). mapMaybe.. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. and without using IOError from the IO monad. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. which would cause the expression to become monadic. as would happen if error were used. maybe ) where isJust. . fromJust. catMaybes. listToMaybe... A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.
maybeToList. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. isNothing. . maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . Just).. catMaybes. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. fromMaybe. map f ..194 CHAPTER 18.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. fromJust..and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . listToMaybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. mapMaybe.
isUpper. ord. showLitChar. isPrint. isLower. isControl. isHexDigit. isLatin1. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isDigit. isDigit. toUpper. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper.. isOctDigit. any 195 . other alphabetic. isControl. digitToInt. . lower case alphabetic. lexLitChar. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. isHexDigit. isLatin1.. String ) where isAscii. and other printable characters. isAlpha. intToDigit. isAlpha. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isSpace. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isAlphaNum.. chr. isOctDigit. isPrint. For the purposes of Haskell. isUpper. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. toLower. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isSpace. readLitChar.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii.and what the Prelude exports Char. numeric digits. isLower.
.’f’. leaving any other character unchanged.. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.e.. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit.. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. . For each sort of Unicode character. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper.’9’. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. ’A’. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". ’0’. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. isOctDigit. ’a’. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0.’F’). intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. leaving any other character unchanged. and title). The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers.196 CHAPTER 19.15. Similarly. "Hello")] [(’\n’. lower. The function readLitChar does the same. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes.
and what the Prelude exports Char.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .1. readLitChar. isAlpha. isLatin1. isControl. digitToInt. intToDigit.’Z’ . isDigit. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . readOct. isOctDigit. isSpace. isPrint..... . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isPrint.Source of primitive Unicode functions. isControl. String ) where import Array . lexDigits.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isSpace. isHexDigit. ord. isOctDigit. toLower. import Numeric (readDec.Used for character name table. isLatin1. showLitChar. . isUpper. readHex) import UnicodePrims .19. toUpper..fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c .Charactertesting operations isAscii. lexLitChar.’A’. isHexDigit.’a’.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . isAlpha. isAlphaNum. isUpper.digitToInt: not a digit" . isDigit. isLower. isLower. chr.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c .
s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.t) <.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’. t)  (n.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.table.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.intToDigit: not a digit" .s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c . s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.s’)  (c.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19. ([].s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’. mne) <.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s’) <.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.10) error "Char.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’. t)  (n.t) <.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .ord ’@’).readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .t) <. t)  (n. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .
"BS".s)] . ’ ’) ["NUL". "ETB". "DC3". "SI". "DC4". "SO".c].1. "HT". "SUB". "SOH".19. "SYN". "ETX".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "ESC". "ACK". "DC1". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ .s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "US". "RS". "CAN". "DLE". "VT". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c].s)] [] . "LF". "EM". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "CR". "FF". "BEL". "NAK". "STX". "DC2". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "FS". "GS". "ENQ". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f .Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t.s) = (c:t. cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’.
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
(=<<). liftM3.. liftM. filterM. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). mapAndUnzipM. when.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM4. liftM2. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. sequence_. mplus). fail). sequence.. zipWithM. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. ap.. Functor(fmap). guard.202 CHAPTER 20. return. foldM. mapM. zipWithM_. (>>). . unless. mapM_. msum. join. liftM5.
1. for example. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. So. and provides some useful operations on monads. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. Thus. 20. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20.20.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()).2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad.
This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. which promotes function application.1] [0. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. liftM2 (+) [0.204 CHAPTER 20.1. xm ] == do a2 <. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. For example.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations.. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. preﬁxing each line with its line number. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments.. . the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. The function arguments are scanned left to right.. .. putStr ": ". x2. the input list should be reversed.2. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. foldM f a1 [x1.f a2 x2 . returning the result as a pair of lists.. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. putStrLn line) [1.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). For example. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. MONAD UTILITIES 20.f a1 x1 a3 <. and otherwise do nothing.2] = [0. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required.
xn 205 . ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .20.... FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .3..
mapAndUnzipM. mapM_..The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . guard.. liftM4. foldM. . Functor(fmap). sequence. ) where .Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. unless. liftM.. unzip . filterM. when. MONAD UTILITIES 20. (=<<).4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. mapM. join. liftM5.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM3. mplus). return. zipWithM_. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . msum.206 CHAPTER 20.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). sequence_. zipWithM. fail). (>>). ap.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . liftM2.
4. e’ <.b.a.b.d.b.c. b’ <.a. b’ <. d’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <. ys <.20. c’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .b.c. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.a. d’ <. b’ <.e. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <.a. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.c.p x.a. c’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.filterM p xs. b’ <. c’ <.d.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
implementationdependent . print. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. hIsOpen. isAlreadyExistsError. isEOF...LineBuffering. hIsSeekable. hGetPosn.BlockBuffering). hGetChar. hGetBuffering. FilePath.AppendMode. hSetBuffering. ioeGetHandle. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . bracket_.. hFileSize. hReady. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . writeFile..WriteMode. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. hFlush.. ioeGetErrorString. HandlePosn. isPermissionError. try. isFullError. putStr. userError. Show) stdin. bracket. Ix. IOMode(ReadMode. hIsEOF. Enum. Enum.. hPutStr. Ord. data HandlePosn = . hGetLine. stdout. putChar. openFile. getChar. stdout. hPrint. getLine. readFile.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. BufferMode(NoBuffering. isEOFError. Bounded. hWaitForInput. Ord. Read. getContents. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. instance Eq Handle where .implementationdependent . hSeek. hClose. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . hLookAhead.. Ix.implementationdependent . stdin. ioError. hPutChar. interact. Ord. catch. hGetContents. isAlreadyInUseError. instance Eq HandlePosn where .. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq..RelativeSeek. Read. isIllegalOperation. ioeGetFileName. hSetPosn. appendFile. hIsClosed. hPutStrLn. hIsWritable. Bounded.and what the Prelude exports IO. . putStrLn. instance Show Handle where . readIO. stderr.SeekFromEnd).. isUserError.ReadWriteMode). IOError. hIsReadable... isDoesNotExistError.210 CHAPTER 21. Read.
Some related operations on ﬁle systems . This library contain more advanced I/O features.211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported.
and Nothing otherwise.212 are contained in the Directory library. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . INPUT/OUTPUT 21. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. The bracket function captures a common allocate. compute. the string is implementationdependent. CHAPTER 21. This is an abstract type. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). and False otherwise. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. which is already being used (for example. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. In some cases. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. for all other errors. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. All these functions return a Bool. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle .1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists.
Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. ordered ﬁles. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. File and directory names are values of type String. Files can be opened. whether buffering is disabled. although it could in fact be a communication channel. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it.21. whether the object is seekable. In some implementations. whether it is open. represented by values of type Handle.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects.2. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output.2. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. 21. or any other object recognised by the operating system. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. For simplicity. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. likewise. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. Physical ﬁles are persistent. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. or enabled on a line or block basis. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. a buffer (whose length may be zero). These handles are initially open.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. and normally reside on disk. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. . closed or semiclosed.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
¥ ¥
Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
¥
Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
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is set to offset from the current position.
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is set to .
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Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
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. If
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.10. 21.9. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. 21.9.21.10. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § . EXAMPLES 219 21.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § . blocking until a character is available.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . 21. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.9. 21. which is made semiclosed.
INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. This version uses characterlevel I/O.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. using string I/O is: .hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.getArgs h1 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.x2 readNum = readLn 21.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.10.f2] <.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on . Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.
readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .11 Library IO module IO {.before rs <.f2] <. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.11.before rs <.21.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.f return (Right r)) (return .export list omitted } where .actions that IO exports.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .getArgs s <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
writable. removeFile. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . getDirectoryContents. readable. . getCurrentDirectory..224 CHAPTER 22. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. removeDirectory.. createDirectory. getPermissions. setCurrentDirectory. ... doesFileExist. doesDirectoryExist. .. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. executable... writable. executable.. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . renameDirectory. renameFile. setPermissions. searchable ).
Some entries may be hidden. A directory contains a series of entries.). Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. as described in Section 21. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . the directory has to be empty. considered to form part of the directory contents. but the constraints must be documented. however. removes an existing directory . Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. Error reporting. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. If the directory already exists. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory.1. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle.” or “. or have some administrative function (for instance. If the object already exists. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. or across different physical devices). in particular. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. renaming to an existing directory. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . Entries in subdirectories are not. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. it is atomically replaced by the object. Note that. removal of the root directory). Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. all other permissible errors are described below. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. “. inaccessible. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. Error reporting. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. it is atomically replaced by the directory. directory etc. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance.” under POSIX). it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. or may not be in use by other processes). In some operating systems. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty.
A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. Error reporting. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. makeReadable f = do p <. and False otherwise. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. Note that to change some. Error reporting. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False.226 CHAPTER 22. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. but not to examine the directory contents. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. Error reporting. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . For directories. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. ¦ ¦ . Each entry in the changes . doesFile(Directory)Exist. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. and False otherwise. renaming across different physical devices). if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. get(set)Permissions. but not all permissions. not as an absolute path. a construct on the following lines must be used. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. the executable ﬁeld will be False. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. but the constraints must be documented. respectively.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory.
227 does not exist. . The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . If variable is undeﬁned. getProgName. In particular. all other permissible errors are described below. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value .Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. getEnv. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return.1. Ord. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. getArgs. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Note that. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . system.ExitFailure). Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. in particular. as described in Section 21. exitWith. Read. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name).
If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . could not recover. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. Before the program terminates. returning to the program’s caller. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion.230 CHAPTER 23. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. Otherwise.
231 .
tdHour. Integer. ctIsDST). Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. ctMonth. Read.232 CHAPTER 24. . Ord. tdSec. getClockTime. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.. tdMin. Bounded. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. Read. Read.August. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. ctWDay. tdDay. toClockTime. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. tdHour. ctPicosec.Wednesday.May.Saturday).Tuesday. tdSec :: Int. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. tdDay. Read. Ix.March. ctTZName.November. Bounded. Ix. Month(January. ctMin.December). Int..Thursday.April. calendarTimeToString. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . Ord.February. tdMonth. ctDay. addToClockTime.September. toCalendarTime.. tdMonth. ctHour. ctYear. Ord. diffClockTimes. tdYear.October.. ctYDay.Friday.June. instance Eq ClockTime where . July. Ord. Int. ctSec. Show) . instance Ord ClockTime where .Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Int. Month.. tdMin. Day. Enum. tdPicosec). String.Monday.. ctTZ. ctMin. toUTCTime. ctHour. Day(Sunday. Enum. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime.
toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § .Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. Because of this dependence on the local environment. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. ClockTime is an abstract type. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. used for the system’s internal clock time. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone.233 . and False otherwise. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. including timezone information. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation.
Read. tdHour.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . Enum. addToClockTime.March. tdYear. Read. Bounded. tdMonth. instance Ord ClockTime where . . tdDay.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = .234 § CHAPTER 24. Ord.April. ctTZName. Ord. Bounded.. ctDay. ctIsDST).September. calendarTimeToString. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.June. ctSec. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . .Saturday). and ﬁelds. toClockTime. ctMin. . diffClockTimes.Friday. ctYear.Thursday.November. instance Eq ClockTime where . ctTZ. Month(January. Enum. toUTCTime. Ix. Day(Sunday. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format.. ctWDay.Monday. tdSec.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime.Tuesday. ctMonth.February.Wednesday...August. tdPicosec).May. toCalendarTime.).. tdMin. July. getClockTime.October. t © S§ 24. ctPicosec.December). Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string.. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. ctYDay. ctHour.. Ix.
Read. .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .. tdMonth. tdHour. Ord..1. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. ctHour. Int.. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. Month. Read.. Day. tdMin.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . Int.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = .24. tdSec :: Int. :: ClockTime = . > ClockTime > ClockTime . :: ClockTime = . Integer. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear.. Ord... .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . Int.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay.. tdDay. ctMin.. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. :: ClockTime = .. String... Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = .
Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 . .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec . days) = (yday + 7 ..236 CHAPTER 24..
1. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.24.1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. show2’. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
Ord. months :: [(String. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. dateTimeFmt. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. timeFmt. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. At present. 239 . dateFmt. String)]. amPm :: (String. String)]. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.).. String).Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. . The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. For example.1. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. g) . but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. – genRange – If genRange .Default method genRange g = (minBound. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. or by supplying a seed from some other source. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. g) split :: g > (g. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. and a new generator. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int.1 The RandomGen class. This is very useful in functional programs (for example.27. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. then . 27.4] are the only examples we know of). It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument.Int) next :: g > (Int. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. ¦ ¡ ¡ . by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float.
variantOf g) Here. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. In general. supply their own instances of RandomGen.. It is required that read (show g) == g. Implementation warning. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator.. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators... .. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation. Until more is known about implementations of split. Again. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2.. instance Read StdGen where .. Programmers may. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string.3]. In addition.. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . .. then g1 and g2 should be independent. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. split g = (g. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. instance Show StdGen where .246 CHAPTER 27.. by mapping an Int into a generator. of course. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results.
THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27.. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a... randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .g’) = random g randomRs = . . the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . random does the same as randomR. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . and do not return a new generator.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .2. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded..27. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if .. together with a new generator. – For Integer.. – For fractional types. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. but does not take a range. depending on the implementation and the interval.. such as Char). The plural versions. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a.. but they may be.2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand..Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. the range is normally the whole type. . For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. .. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. . . a) > g > (a....similar. . randomRs and randoms...
StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. . For example. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. Journal of Functional Programming. pp8289. global random number generator of type StdGen.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. “Distributed random number generation”. for example.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. Comm ACM. 27. “Random number generators . getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. [4] P Hellekalek. 33(1).sbg. To get deterministic behaviour. pp8788. 2(2):203212. Comm ACM 31(10). It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. by using the time of day. Jan 1990. randomRIO and randomIO. [2] SK Park. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. updates it with one of the results.3). or Linux’s kernel random number generator.248 CHAPTER 27. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. [3] DG Carta. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). The Web site http://random. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. and returns the other. respectively. use setStdGen. pp11921201.mat. implicit. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. April 1992. July 1998. Oct 1988. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1.ac.3 The global random number generator There is a single. and KW Miller.at/ is a great source of information. use the global random number generator (see Section 27.
Peyton Jones. Wadler and S. Jones. Penﬁeld. Blott. Peterson. September 1981. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. Texas. Principal type schemes for functional programs. pages 207–212. NorthHolland Pub. Addison Wesley. December 1969. PrenticeHall International. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. 1958.. [9] P. Damas and R. Paris. N. CACM. [7] Mark P. 2000. Version 3. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society.Bibliography [1] J. Amsterdam. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. 249 . In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Co. August 1978. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. [6] P. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. New Jersey. January 1995. [4] KF. Combinatory Logic. Backus. January 1982.L.. Jr. Austin. Yale University. MA. Journal of Functional Programming. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Englewood Cliffs. [2] H. Fasel. [8] Mark P. pages 248–256. 5(1). 1987. [11] Unicode Consortium. [3] L.R. Typing Haskell in Haskell. e [5] J. Haskell Workshop. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. San Francisco. [10] S. Reading.0. 2002. Jones. 146:29–60. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. pages 60–76. Milner. Feys. October 1999. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. January 1989. [12] P. May 1996. 21(8):613–641. The Unicode Standard. Curry and R. Hudak.M. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. and J. J. Hindley. Albuquerque.B.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
155. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 92. 81. 91. 91. 105 **. 19 function. 151. 55. 9. 66 abs. 88. 91. 142 :. 55. see lambda abstraction \&. 104. 16. 79. 12 \v. 110 (. see also + pattern ++. 12 \r. 55. 51. 104. 62 and. 110 %. 104. 104.). 55. 80 (). 187 \. 12 \n. 139 algebraic datatype. 206 apat. 82. 119 alt. 140 appendFile. 55. 55. 106 +. 91. 217 abstract datatype. 55. 173. 104. 110 $!. 79. 90. 97. 55. 104. 109 >>=. 202. 182 \a. 91. 55. 119 ANY. 119 ANYseq. 174. 67. 233. 84. 156 ::. 55. 129 any. 142 =<<. see operator application approxRational. 55. 177 !!. 91. 55. 104. 104. 177 accumArray. 235 aexp. 88. see wildcard pattern . 175–177 /=. 91. 91. 105. 17. see trivial type and unit expression *. 139 alts. 91. 9. 90.Index font. 214 application. 97. 93. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 55. 110 ˜. 105. 92. 45. 12 \f. 76 accum. 104. 129 ap. 104. 55. 116 $. 230 ˆ. 129 any. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 81. 55.. 84. 97. 109 ˆˆ. 92. 55. 126 AppendMode. 177 acos. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 153 &&. 115. 90. 109 ==. 55. 12 \b. 180. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 44. 104. 20–23. 55. 173. 84. 88. 81. 55. 25. 110 /. 106 //. 174. 80 :+. 104. 90. 104. see function application operator. 43.. 91. 80 (. 104. 55. 142 >. 104. 92. 139 ambiguous type. 82. 9. see also negation . 142 >>. 55. 55. 104. 106 addToClockTime. see aspattern [] (nil).). 109 @. 104. 106 acosh. 80 \\. 12 \\. 186. 104. 84. 12 \t. 31. 141 all. 142 <=. 176. 151. !. 104. 30 <. 173. 142 >=. 104. 12 . 115 . 175. 104. 173. 109 _. 25.
176. 47. 12. 93 comment. see simple pattern binding body. 110 boolean. 106 atan2. 108 atanh. 194 cdecl. 129 asin. 9 endofline. 23. 121. 9. 130 conjugate. 41 class declaration. 47. 48. 130 ASCII character set. 105 derived instance. 137 basic input/output. 137 ceiling. 137 cdecls. 92. 91. 48 class environment. 9. 197 array. 69. 173. 125. 177 bracket. 12. 12 character set ASCII. 110 Char (module). 107 changing the directory. 137 class assertion. 195. 25 INDEX catch. 211. 49 clock time. 7 ascLarge. 11. 129 ascSmall. 40. 47. 114 atan. 177 asTypeOf. 104. 51. 195. 42 class method. 9. 12. 38. 155. 80 Array (datatype). 39. 37 function. 38. 9 comment. 41. 174. 79 Bounded (class). 106 asinh. 17. 211. 12. 93. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 129 ascSymbol. 9. 33 ascDigit. 193. 92. 98. 129 ascii. see function binding pattern. 197. 234 char. 232. 9. 215 closure. 177 aspattern (@). 173 accumulated. 155. 17. 79. 235 calendarTimeToString. 84. 232. 21 conid. 129 closing a ﬁle. 136 Bool (datatype). 95 binding. see ASCII character set transparent. 79. 174. 173. 40. 66. 10. 155. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 221 bracket_. 156 class. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 140 . 130 character. 130 chr. 91. 106 atype. 156 con. 79 literal syntax. 221 break. 9 nested. 173. 174 Array (module). 38. 234 closecom. 198 cis. see transparent character set charesc. 161. 111 bounds. 143 instance for Char. 233. 129 compare. 74 cname. 176 array. 91.252 arithmetic operator. 115 concatMap. 161. 18. 174 derived. 173. 235 case expression. 230 catMaybes. 90 arithmetic sequence. 156 conop. 136 cntrl. 47 class. 67 with an empty where part. 38. 174. 9. see pattern binding simple pattern. 18. 142 Complex (module). 130 coercion. 115 conditional expression. 118 btype. 91. 31. 140 concat. 106 assocs. 89. 93. 226 Char (datatype).
226 curry. 239. 225 creating a ﬁle. 177 encodeFloat. 173. see newtype declaration dateFmt. Haskell B. 145 default declaration. 129 digitToInt. 187 deleting directories. 93. 232. 240 dateTimeFmt. 58 decls. see ﬁxity declaration import. vii cycle. 153 dependency analysis. 138 constructor class.INDEX const. 213. 138 constrs. 151. 111 either. 195. 92. 40 consym. 91. 108 . 9. 235 ctHour. 138 diffClockTimes. 114 Curry. 48. 43 abstract. see also instance declaration deriving. 180. 115. 184. 240 Day (datatype). see abstract datatype algebraic. 118 e. 51. 234 dclass. 239. 117 dashes. 224 Double (datatype). 59 cos. 119 elemIndex. 232. see data declaration default. 106 divMod. 235 ctMin. 111 elem. 43. 9. 106 cosh. 138 decimal. 41 context. 81. see class declaration datatype. 241 createDirectory.. 186 elemIndices. 112 drop. 180. 97 doDiv. 232. 104. 56. 180. 81. 224 doesFileExist. 43. 184. 233. 11. 225 denominator. 89. 50. 137 declaration. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. see algebraic datatype declaration. 55. 174. 180. 81. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 90. 38. 55. 224 div. 43. 186 elems. 130 decl. 187 deleteBy. 108 default class method. 240 delete. 91. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 239. 232. 37 class. 43 datatype. 224. 92. 197 directories. 137 decodeFloat. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 93. 106 cosine. 43 data declaration. 110 constr. 27. 241 CPUTime (module). 182. 106 do expression. 137 context reduction. 182. 225 deleting ﬁles. 130 context. 118 dropWhile. 235 current directory. 235 ctIsDST. 141. 38 constructor expression. 24 within an instance declaration. 49 declaration group. 187 deleteFirstsBy. see data declaration recursive. 41. 10. 232. 43. 58 derived instance. 80. 180. 26. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 182. see recursive datatype renaming. 224 Directory (module). 129 data constructor. 91. 92. 214 ctDay. 38. 91. 235 digit. 47 within a let expression. see import declaration instance. 93 CPU time. 167 Either (datatype).
105 superclass of Ord. 113 instance for Ratio. 89. 159. 125 filter. see let expression simple case. 93. 28 selection. 170 enumFrom. 92. 92.254 end of ﬁle. 136 export list. 30. 229 ExitFailure. 65 Enum (class). 51. 112 ﬂoat. 142 instance for Array. see type environment environment variables. 114. see unit expression expression typesignature. see conditional expression let. 113 instance for Float. 164 ﬁeld label. 163 f. 110 Float (datatype). 92. 51. 15 case. 108 Floating (class). 52 expt. 17. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 106 exponent. 67. 86. 97. 54. 98 executable. 105 enumFromTo. 18 ﬁxity. see label. 167 fail. 182. 86. 139 exp. 212 False. 139 fexp. 92. 12 floatDigits. 28. 108 exponentiation. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 91. 16. 89. 229 exitFailure. 207 find. 229 . 86. 202. 66 exports. 180. 81 Eq (class). 54 flip. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 110 superclass of Num. 93. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 81. 104 derived instance. 229 ExitSuccess. 91 export. 142 instance for Char. 215 entity. 19. 82. see type expression unit. 109. 43. 91. 229 exitWith. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 136 v INDEX expression. 215 ﬁle system. 139 exp. 180. 86. 4. 99. 48. 162 expts. 111 instance for Double. 224 execution time. 16. 105 environment class. 44 construction. 86. 138 ﬁle. 24–26. 106 instance for Complex. 177 instance for Char. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 186 ﬁxity. 4. 79 fbind. 105 enumFromThenTo. 16. 27 update. 88. 186 findIndices. 67. 229 EQ. 38. see case expression conditional. 154 superclass of Integral. 108 floatRange. 49. 92. 105 enumFromThen. see simple case expression type. 89. 93. 29 ﬁelddecl. 17 error. 104 error. 21. 19. 180. 130 even. 230 escape. 106 enumeration. 186 findIndex. 213 ﬁle buffering. 108 exception handling. 105 derived instance. 33 floatRadix. 30. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 12. 91. 94. 115 filterM. 51. see class environment type. 108 floatToDigits.
117 formal semantics. 56 function type. 25. 31. 183. 92. 92. 140 fpats. 96. 153 superclass of Floating. 233. 34 guard. 86. 181. 125 getModificationTime. 181. 90. 9. 91. 244. 109 instance for []. 130 gcd. 41 functional language. 129 255 .INDEX floor. 25. 229 getLine. 229 getStdGen. 181. 12. 111 instance for Maybe. 4 hClose. 229 getChar. 38. 18. 9. vii. 137 generalization. 105 fromInteger. 176 foldl. 87. 111 functor. 106 instance for Complex. 193. 213 Haskell. 87 funlhs. 125 getCPUTime. 189 genRange. 181. 210 handles. 90. 49. 225 getDirectoryContents. 189 genericTake. 116 foldM. 92. 40. 114 function. 210. 181. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 206 Handle (datatype). 224 getPermissions. 109. 139 gdrhs. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 81 function binding. 117 foldr1. 59 generalization preorder. 224 getProgName. 18. 11. 188 GT. 189 genericIndex. vii Functor (class). 106 superclass of RealFrac. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 96. 89. 140 gconsym. 202. 162 fromRational. 113 instance for Array. 224. 184. 248 getStdRandom. 3 Haskell kernel. 181. 181. 47. 108 gcon. 93. 91. 140 Fractional (class). 190 genericSplitAt. 91. 244. 138 gendecl. 56. 106 fst. 181. 130 hexit. 194 fromMaybe. 25. 105 fromIntegral. 235 getContents. 187 groupBy. 55. 3 formatCalendarTime. 80. 157 instance for Ratio. 54. 56. 189 genericReplicate. 115 hexadecimal. 18. 165 formfeed. 125 getClockTime. 224. 116 foldl1. 207 foldr. 96. 244. 219 getArgs. 193. 129 group. 138 gap. 162 fromRat’. 87. 42 generator. 40. 31. 202. 233. 215 head. 159. 177 instance for IO. 138 gdpat. 137 guard. 18 gd. 217 fmap. 225 getEnv. 94. 236 formatRealFloat. 18. 81 gtycon. 129 fpat. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 194 fromRat. 23. 190 genericLength. 109 fromJust. 23 genericDrop. 91. 9. 107 fromEnum. 248 graphic.
81. 125 IOMode (datatype). 163 Integral (class). 49. 187 intersectBy. 92. 92. 212 isFullError. 194 . 211. 211. 49 Int (datatype). 215 hFlush. 172 insert. 69. 188 insertBy. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 211. 211. 33. 171. 211. 173. 211. 188 inlining. 219 inRange. 219 hPutChar. 174. 181. 195. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 181. 211. 195. 211 hReady. 181. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 12 integer literal pattern. 136 impdecls. 211. 211. 195. 57 isAlpha. 210. 215 isAscii. 211. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 211. 218 hIsEOF. 197 isAlphaNum. 211. 69. 183. 137 identiﬁer. 110 idecl. 217 hiding. 211. 215 isEOF. 49. 218 hGetContents. 218 hGetPosn. 24. 33 integerLogBase. 218 hSeek. 212 ioError. 212. 212 IOError (datatype). see conditional expression imagPart. 9 ifthenelse expression. 215 isEOFError. 49. 112 integer. 81. 169. 198 IO. 214 irrefutable pattern. 111 IO (module). 219 hPutStrLn. 218 hLookAhead. 193. 197 isIllegalOperation. 218 hIsReadable. 211. 211. 125. 116 inits. 197 isDigit. 136 import. 217 hGetBuffering. 218 hIsSeekable. 81. 172 indices. 216. 219 hPutStr. 189 inst. 212 ioeGetHandle. 38. 210 input/output examples. 211. 91. 181. 126 intersect. 211.256 hFileSize. 211. 210 IO (datatype). 211. 98. 217 hGetChar. 187 intToDigit. 69. 211. 211. 210 I/O errors. 96. 171. 219 hPrint. 155. 211. 212 ioeGetFileName. 89. 147 INDEX input/output. 211. 184. 106 interact. 197 isControl. 136 import declaration. 211. 215 hIsOpen. 219 hGetLine. 211. 49. 211. 38. 66. 177 init. 216 hSetPosn. 195. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 195. 71 with an empty where part. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 187 intersperse. 136 index. 212 isJust. 217 hSetBuffering. 210. 218 I/O. 217 hWaitForInput. 89. 181. 50. 34. 156 impdecl. 137 idecls. 211. 138 instance declaration. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 195. 212. 211. 211. 212 isHexDigit. 112 Integer (datatype). 183. 182. 169. 195. 58 hIsClosed. 211. 181. 183. 4. 211. 38. 184. 214. 212 id. 69 impspec.
234 ixmap. 65 making directories. 207 linear pattern. 207 liftM4. 172 instance for Int. 173. 9. 104. 116 let expression. see also offside rule lcm. 45. 195. 172 derived instance. 86. 81 length. 219 lookup. 195. 64 label. 195. 139 libraries. 181. 172 Ix (module). 180. 142 maxBound. 117 Ix (class). 239 log. 189 Maybe (datatype). 194 mapM_. 199 . 177 listToMaybe. 207 v 257 liftM2. 130. 19 large. 41 listArray. 106 logarithm. 64 kind inference. 197 isUserError. 184. 19. 56 lines. 129 lexical structure. 44. 50. 206 Just. 197 isPermissionError. 40. 195. 23 lex. 39. 91. 92 magnitude. 193. 176. 129 last. 194 literal. 109 Left. 177 join. 19. 9. 197 isSuffixOf. 44. 211. 172. 169. 106 lookahead. 140 LT. 188 isUpper. 23. 119 . 155. 56 linearity. 197 isNothing. 109 match. 13. 65 main. 195. 129 literal pattern. 80 list type. 32 literate comments. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 195. 181. 116 layout. 176. 212 iterate. 40. 171. 16. 89. 240 locale. 168 lexeme. 176.INDEX isLatin1. 193. 202. 173. 193. 88. 119 maximumBy. 181. 105. 31. 181. 92. 174. 202. 202. 212. 24 in do expressions. 134 Locale (module). 9. 234. 186 list. 81 kind. 206 mapM. 31. 197 isLower. 211. 181. 202. 202. 81 magnitude. 31. 7 lexLitChar. 26 in list comprehensions. 207 liftM5. 198 max. 88. 169. 225 map. 194 isOctDigit. 197 isSpace. 74 liftM. 232. 80 list comprehension. 156 Main (module). 215 isPrefixOf. 159. 210. 239. 12. 202. 40. 9. 91. 50. 183. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 188 mapAccumR. 115 mapAccumL. 91. 173. 188 isPrint. 195. 183. 172 instance for Integer. 109 mapMaybe. 127 maximum. 143 maximal munch rule. 91 logBase. 202. 45. 122 lexDigits. 84. 170 instance for Char. 27 lambda abstraction. 207 liftM3. 21. 118 List (module). 81.
129 newStdGen. 55. 60. 119 Ord (class). 195. 79. 244. 194 method. 54. 137 or. 168 not. 189 mkPolar. 105 ord. 66. 129 openFile. 89. 113 instance for IO. 234 moving directories. 26. 105 negation. 32. 138 newline. 245 nonnull. 244. 184. 19. 88. 106 superclass of Real. 113 octal. 153 Numeric (module). 111 instance for Ratio. 90 numericEnumFrom. 202. 206 msum. 210. 186. see also layout op. 108 offside rule. 206 mzero. 38. 119 minimumBy. 19 operator application. 182. 151. 105. 46. 202. 105 instance for Complex. 105 number. 232. 104. 84. 81. 206 monad. 225 moving ﬁles. 84. 54. 90. 81 nub. 206 instance for []. 20 newconstr. 13. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 17.258 Maybe (module). 89. 230 operator. 225 mplus. 52. 9. 81. 129 odd. 10. 91. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 110 notElem. 11 translation of literals. 104 derived instance. 65 module. 91. 142 minBound. 91. 206 monomorphic type variable. 214 operating system commands. 193. 248 newtype declaration. 153 superclass of Fractional. 89. 91. 34. 11. 109 instance for []. see qualiﬁed name special. 206 Monad (module). 18 numerator. 246 mod. 9. 90. 202. 197 numeric type. 129 negate. 111 instance for Maybe. 198 Ordering (datatype). 104. 106 modid. 121. 46 INDEX next. 140 opencom. 180. 9. 61 Month (datatype). 9. 111 maybeToList. 115. 112 ¢ ¦ . 153 superclass of Real. 180. 143 minimum. see class method min. 214 opening a ﬁle. 186 nubBy. 5. 206 instance for Maybe. 10 ncomment. 19 ops. 156 mkStdGen. 88. 16. 142 instance for Array. 155. 206 + pattern. 193. 33. 18. 89 literal syntax. 51. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 184. 181. 119 Nothing. 178 instance for Char. 202. 161. 95 MonadPlus (class). 136 module. 130. 61 monomorphism restriction. 244. 55. 157 instance for Ratio. 66. 57 name qualiﬁed. 187 null. 202. 19. 194 maybe. 116 Num (class). 130 octit. 32–34. 159. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 9. 27. see special name namespaces. 136 Monad (class). 11.
183. 25. 121 principal type. 91. 247 randomR. 38 overloaded pattern. 92. 140 qvarid. 244. 155. 218 polymorphic recursion. 11. 151 Ratio (module). 51 partition. 18. 106 polar. 151. 181. 70. see + pattern refutable. 91. 125 qcon. 217 RandomGen. 43. 130 qconop. see aspattern _. 139 qualiﬁed name. 11. 18. 11. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 247 randomRIO. 103. 171. 104. see also ﬁxity pred. 169. 18. 106 qvar. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 23.INDEX otherwise. 151. 130 qtycon. 91. 96. 115 PreludeText (module). 96. 103. 187 . 125 putStr. see linear pattern + . 124 instance for Array. 106 quotRem. 18. 110 overloaded functions. 244 random. 151 Read (class). 169. 156 polling a handle for input. 244. 93. 125 PreludeIO (module). 4 pragmas. 130 qual. 153 rational numbers. 79. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 31. 129 v 259 program arguments. 30 @. 11. 9. 42. 244. 125 product. 172 Ratio (datatype). 140 path. see wildcard pattern constructed. 90. 172 rangeSize. 55. 140 qconsym. 171. 34 Permissions (datatype). 245 randomIO. 47 defaults. 107 putChar. 140 qconid. 31. 51. 247 randomRs. 156 physical ﬁle. 57 patternmatching. 244. 53 print. 54 polymorphism. see refutable pattern pattern binding. see patternmatching overloading. 247 randoms. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 41 quot. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 229 program structure. 130 Random (class). 247 range. 19. 143 instance for [a]. 11. 121 derived instance. 140 qvarsym. 130 qop. 229 program name. 155. 213 pi. 125 PreludeList (module). 247 Random (module). 140 pat. 96. 11. 103. 103. 18. 75 Prelude (module). 153. 161 Rational (type synonym). 72 qualiﬁer. 225 pattern. 140 qtycls. 23 quantiﬁcation. 130 qvarop. 125 putStrLn. 247 random access ﬁles. 96. 244. 85. 224 phase. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . see irrefutable pattern linear. 3 properFraction. 11. 103. 244. 147 precedence. 30 overloaded constant. 119 program. 75.
214 separate compilation. 143 readLitChar. 163 readsPrec. 108 realPart. 244. 164 readParen. 91. 126 readList. 130 return. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 224. 122 readSigned. 96. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 81 round. 159. 55. 225 repeat. 210. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 105 instance for Ratio. 107 instance for Ratio. 217 rem. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 86. 106 recursive datatype. 16. 92. 86. 224 readDec. 88. 195. 85. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 85. 143 instance for [a]. 106 removeDirectory. 110 sequence. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 117 scontext. 123 instance for Float. 94. 81. 124 instance for Double. 225 removing directories. 10. 10. 122 readable. 85. 108 scaleRat. 85. 90. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 91. 88. 109 sequence_. 117 replicate. 126 ReadMode. 91. 224. 225 renameFile. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 89. 168 readHex. 107 RealFloat (class). 107 roundTo. 143 ReadWriteMode. 31. 217 semantics formal. 137 searchable. 104. 162 scanl. 104. 224 setStdGen. 33 RelativeSeek. 159. 159. 224. 159. 155. 139 rhs. 93. 109 reverse. 164 reading a directory. 56. 76 seq. 225 renaming ﬁles. 166 . 117 reservedid. 123 instance for Integer. 116 scanr. 117 scanr1.260 instance for Char. 123 instance for Int. 92. 156 realToFrac. 225 removeFile. 121. 225 renaming directories. 97. 116 scanl1. 121. 92. 108 RealFrac (class). 224. 226 Show (class). 164 readEsc. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 138 Right. 154 read. 214 Real (class). 10. 224. 159. 121 reads. 214 readFloat. 153 superclass of Integral. 159. 214 readOct. 225 removing ﬁles. 123 instance for Ratio. 198 readFile. 88. 224 section. 51. 126. 46 refutable pattern. 218 readInt. 130 reservedop. 96. 225 renameDirectory. 225 setPermissions. 109 recip. 85. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 93. 85. 248 setting the directory. 164 readIO. 92. 121 derived instance. 198 readLn. 119 . 92. 20.
INDEX instance for Array. 235 tdMonth. 129 tail. 137 simpletype. 129 split. 210 instance for Integer. 215 small. 237 showChar. 91. 244. 85. 124 instance for Double. 121 shows. 159. 232. 118 sqrt. 164 showFFloat. 235 tdMin. 108 signum. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 143 showLitChar. 123 instance for Ratio. 91. 159. 213 stdout. 123 instance for Float. 74. 121. 115 tails. 184. 92. see type synonym syntax. 237 show3. 181. 85. 245 splitAt. 9. 139 strictness ﬂag. 237 show2’. 26. 45 strictness ﬂags. 159. 232. 53 significand. 9. 130 subtract. 85. 45. 106 tdDay. 49 symbol. 106 size of ﬁle. 9. 232. 159. 195. 122 showEFloat. 129 snd. 91. 48. 235 tdPicosec. 85. 188 take. 164 showGFloat. 159. 108 succ. 178 instance for Char. 159. 210. 12 transparent. 159. 92. 114 sort. 183. see also Prelude stderr. 57. 123 instance for Int. 118 tan. 79 literal syntax. see transparent string string. 80. 188 space. 199 showOct. 121 show2. 129 span. 164 showFloat. 62 simpleclass. 213 stmt. 91. 139 stmts. 106 sine. 210. 159. 235 tdHour. 229 tab. 94. 181. 164 showHex. 105 show. 159. 85. 86. 91. 246 stdin. 138 sin. 111 string. 26. 43. 143 showString. 121. 232. 106 standard handles. 82 String (type synonym). 106 tangent. 93 tanh. 163 showParen. 188 sortBy. 105 sum. 91. 163 showIntAtBase. 183. 232. 122 sign. 12. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 122 showSigned. 46. 163 showList. 118 special. 210. see type signature signdecl. 163 showsPrec. 80. 213 StdGen (datatype). 105 simple pattern binding. 93 sinh. 9. 130 synonym. 127 System (module). 244. 129. 163 showInt. 213 standard prelude. 181. 41. 86. 117 takeWhile. 92 signature. 119 superclass. 154 superclass of Num. 229 system. 9. 235 261 .
206 unlines. 239. 181. 120 unzip4. 9. 9. 239. see trivial type unit expression.262 tdYear. 40. 130 type. 181. 180. see principal type INDEX trivial. 11. 39. 38. see tuple type type. 129 unit datatype. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 53 for an expression. 233. 4 var. 188 Unicode character set. 129 unless. 187 unionBy. 81 True. 41. 93 trivial type. 195. 42 type expression. 22 uniWhite. 130 uncurry. 43 topdecl (default). 10. 40. 47 topdecl (data). 129 union. see function type list. 106 toLower. 184. 11. 9. 11. 9. see constructed type function. 105 toInteger. 190 unzip5. 235 toClockTime. 41 tycls. see numeric type principal. 234 time. 140 varid. 136 toRational. 4. 197 uniDigit. 119 until. 67. 120 unzip3. 130 tycon. 232. 86. 45. 239. 107 try. 130 varop. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 198 topdecl (class). 40. 49 topdecl (newtype). 224 Time (module). 198 toUTCTime. 230 the ﬁle system. 18. 42 ambiguous. 41. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 191 userError. 17. 187 trigonometric function. 195. 114 unwords. 185. 91. 235 terminating a program. 92. 235 toEnum. 22. 233. 114 undefined. 232. 18. 140 . 232 time of day. see monomorphic type numeric. 46 tyvar. 191 unzip6. 182. 98. 22. 45 topdecl. 43 type environment. 232 time12Fmt. 4. 125 valdefs. 93. see trivial type tuple. 232. 103. 17. 42. 105 toUpper. 11. 181. 81. 93. 202. 181. 79 truncate. 233. 66. 119 unzip. 17. see expression typesignature type synonym. 181. 129 uniSymbol. 191 unzip7. see ambiguous type constructed. 38. 7. 187 uniSmall. 49 value. 235 timeFmt. 114 unfoldr. 40 type renaming. 49. 235 transpose. 137 type class. 136 topdecls. 181. 240 to12. see newtype declaration type signature. 236 toCalendarTime. 211. 129 uniLarge. 224. 180. 49. see also datatype recursive. 51 topdecl (instance). 80 tuple type. 46 topdecl (type). 9. 221 tuple. 38. 80. see list type monomorphic. see class type constructor. 183.
181. 181. 190 zipWith5. 31 words. 120 zipWith3. 181. 38. 10. 9. 190 zip5. 120 zipWith4. 9. 214 WriteMode. 190 zipWith. 206 whitechar. 129 whitestuff. 207 263 . 129 when. 53. 181. 9. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 118 writable.INDEX vars. 181. 202. 190 zip6. 80. 126. 9. 181. 185. 190 zipWith7. 185. 97. 129 whitespace. 202. 214 zip. 120 zip4. 181. 207 zipWithM_. 181. 120 zip3. 190 zipWithM. 190 zipWith6. 224 writeFile. 130 vertab. 137 varsym. 202. 190 zip7.
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