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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. .1 Inlining . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12.1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . .4 Literate comments . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Library Complex . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . 147 11. . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .3. . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . .7. . . .2 Reading Input .9. . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .9. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. .6 The “By” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . 21.5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . .5 Predicates . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 21. . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Opening and Closing Files .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . 21. . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 Functions . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .8 Handle Properties . .
. . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . .1 Library Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . .1 Library Time . . . . .vi 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . 27. . .
and most of these. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. including ourselves. even more than it is ordinarily. May 31. 2. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. including building large systems. 5. It should be freely available. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. a stable foundation for real applications development. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. purely functional programming languages. . to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. named after the logician Haskell B. and applications. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. 4. research.” Haskell B. Oregon. It should be suitable for teaching. providing faster communication of new ideas. have published something erroneous. 3. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages.
Clarify obscure passages. together with a standard library called the Prelude. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. As Haskell becomes more widely used. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. By the middle of 1997. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. for the foreseeable future. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. It is not a . It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. and is called “Haskell 98”. making some simpliﬁcations. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. much larger than I had anticipated.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. incorporating experimental features. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. This task turned out to be much. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. this stable language is the subject of this Report. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. With reluctance. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement.4. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. Resolve ambiguities.4). If these program were to be portable.
metaprogramming facilities. it provides a stable point of reference. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. including: . Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. or use Haskell for teaching. exceptions. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. recursive donotation. concurrency. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). so that those who wish to write text books. functional dependencies. including: monadic state. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. including: pattern guards. For example. going well beyond Haskell 98. existential types. Instead.org gives access to many useful resources. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. There is more besides. including: multiparameter type classes. Type system innovations. Control extensions. lexically scoped type variables.
Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Implementations of Haskell. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Building the language Haskell was created. via the Haskell mailing list. and continues to be sustained.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Here they are. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. You are welcome to comment on. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. in particular. Tutorial material on Haskell. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. University of Nottingham. Details of the Haskell mailing list. Microsoft Research Ltd) . Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Those who served on the Language and Library committees. Applications of Haskell. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. suggest improvements to. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language.
Stef Joosten. Sven Panne. APL. David Tweed. Sergey Mechveliani. Sandra Loosemore. Tom Blenko. Marcin Kowalczyk. Graeme Moss. Rick Mohr. Chris Clack. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Felix Schroeter. George Russell. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Andy Gill. Tony Warnock. some small but many substantial. Michael Webber. Backus’s FP [1]. Cordy Hall. Nic Holt. Jim Mattson. Mike Joy. Andreas Rossberg. Josef Svenningsson. Michael Fryers. Dave Parrott. Clean. Ketil Malde. Feliks Kluzniak. Paul Otto. Henrik Nilsson. Jan Kort. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Patrik Jansson. Tom Thomson. Magnus Carlsson. Orjan Johansen. Arthur Norman. Finally. Chris Dornan. Dylan Thurston. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Chris Okasaki. Michael Marte. Bjarte M. Carl Witty. Sten Anderson. Sisal. Ian Lynagh. and others on the lambda calculus. Mark Hall. Michael Schneider. Amir Kishon. Mark Lillibridge. Keith Wansbrough. Larne Pekowsky. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Bob Hiromoto. Ian Poole. Rinus Plasmeijer. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. Andy Moran. Jose Labra. Robert Jeschofnik. Chris Fasel. Franklin Chen. Simon B. Klemens Hemm. Dean Herington. Christian Sievers. Nick North.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Id. Alexander Jacobson. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Jones. Raman Sundaresh. Duke Briscoe. ML and Standard ML. Sigbjorn Finne. Nimish Shah. Paul Callaghan. Guy Cousineau. Randy Michelsen. Malcolm Wallace. Pablo Lopez. . Mark Tullsen. Christian Maeder. Tony Davie. Stuart Wray. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Mike Thyer. Laura Dutton. Ken Takusagawa. Tommy Thorn. Fergus Henderson. John Robson. Rosser. Simon Thompson. Jan Skibinski. Stefan Kahrs. Ross Paterson. Hope and Hope . Bjorn Lisper. Craig Dickson. Randy Hudson. Stephen Blott. Richard Bird. Kent Karlsson. Olaf Chitil. and Bonnie Yantis. Gary Memovich. Jeff Lewis. Ian Holyer. In addition. Pradeep Varma. Stephen Price. Gofer. Patrick Sansom. Ralf Hinze. John Meacham. Satish Thatte. Wolfram Kahl. Richard Kelsey. Pat Fasel. Lauren Smith. Mike Gunter. Matt Harden. SiauCheng Khoo. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Curry. Manuel Chakravarty. Olaf Lubeck. Østvold. Thomas Hallgren. Julian Seward. Libor Skarvada. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Simon Marlow. Hans Aberg. Landin’s ISWIM. Mark Carroll.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
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arrays. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. At the next lower level are expressions. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. type classes. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers.1 Program Structure In this section. list comprehensions. a module system. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. patternmatching. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. programs that formally evaluate to ). This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. and ﬁxity information. deﬁned in Chapter 2. 2. including lists. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules.e. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. 3. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. static polymorphic typing. Haskell provides higherorder functions.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. 3 . purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. nonstrict semantics. described in Chapter 3. of which there are several kinds. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. compiled. all described in Chapter 4. etc. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. described in Chapter 5. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. a monadic I/O system. datatypes. 1.” 4. interpreted. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. 1. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated.
e. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. However. Technically. 1. for types. If these translations are applied exhaustively. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. See Section 3.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. In this Report. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. However. for declarations. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics.1. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. the concrete syntax. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. literate programming. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. or overloading (using type classes). Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. and Chapter 7. .4 CHAPTER 1. such as for expresin if sions. etc. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . Also. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. as then else . INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure.
the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. for example. There are two constraints on naming: 1. 2. and module names refer to modules.4. . and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. These are the only constraints. NAMESPACES 5 1. type constructors. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. and constructor within a single scope. class. those for type variables.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module.1.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ... with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.]. However. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. all whitespace is expressed explicitly.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. 2. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell.
{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .
© § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. for example. In an ordinary comment. although case is a reserved word. then any occurrence of {. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. because both of these are legal lexemes. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. If some code is commented out using a nested comment. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. For example. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. == and ˜= are not. So. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. Similarly. 2. hence. ) and extends to the following newline. Within a nested comment. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. although = is reserved.3. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. 2.g. terminated by “}”.2. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. cases is not. as explained in Chapter 11. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . Instead. in a nested comment. however “foo” does start a comment. and. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error.
“_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. : : : . this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound.. underscores. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers).10 CHAPTER 2. such as “[]” and “[a. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. as deﬁned above. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ . digits. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. Underscore. used as wild card in patterns. and single quotes. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. naMe. Notice that a colon by itself. is treated as a lowercase letter. However.5). “:”. : :: = \  <. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. “_”. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters.b]”.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. all operators are inﬁx. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can.
but not type variables or module names. (qualiﬁed ‘. constructor. F.5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ .’) F . variables and constructors have inﬁx forms. . Sample lexical analyses are shown below. This applies to variable. F. type constructor and type class names.. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. This f. .4. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. the other four do not. .. 2. Lexes as this f .4. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.2. Prelude. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name.. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme.2).g F.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. .5. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f .g f. g (three tokens) F. (two tokens) F. . also. for example..
This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.4. For example. as in "Hello". Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. “carriage return” (\r). Escape characters for the Unicode character set. 2. \ must always be escaped.2. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. similarly. as in ’a’. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. Similarly. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.1. this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. a double quote " may be used in a character. including control characters such as \ˆX.12 CHAPTER 2. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). octal (e. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137.1. “backspace” (\b). A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. "\SOH". Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters.4. but must be escaped in a character. is parsed as a string of length 1. are also provided. \x37) representations are also allowed. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). Floating literals are always decimal. but must be escaped in a string. “new line” (\n). and “vertical tab” (\v). octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X).6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes.g. “form feed” (\f). and strings between double quotes. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. “horizontal tab” (\t). Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed.g.
if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). Given these rules.pop. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. Because layout is not required. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted. Figure 2.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. or of. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows.2.e. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. and if it is indented less. do. which can be freely mixed within one program. that is. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. Within these explicit open braces. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. \ \a numeric escape character. if it is indented the same amount. then instead of starting a layout. by using layout to convey the same information. a control character. and \ˆX.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends.7). Also. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. an empty list “{}” is inserted. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. let. Section 9. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. a close brace is inserted. let. Informally stated.7. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. insert a semicolon or close brace).1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). 2. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. b and g all part of the same layout list." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). When this happens. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. where the . For each subsequent line. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. As an example.
(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .push :: a > Stack a > Stack a .(pop Empty) is an error .pop (MkStack x s) = (x. inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.push x s = MkStack x s . push. Stack a) . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses. size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.size :: Stack a > Int . . pop.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. pop. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .14 CHAPTER 2.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x .top (MkStack x s) = x } . top. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.pop :: Stack a > (a. top.top :: Stack a > a .1: A sample program module AStack( Stack.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. and (c) the close brace at the very end. push. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. case s of r > i r where i x = x) .
including their translations into the Haskell kernel. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. For example actually stands for 30 productions. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. where appropriate. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. an associativity variable varies over . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. the nonterminals . these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. right. or for left.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . Similarly.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. For example. index: a letter . In the syntax that follows. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. . and may have a double (written as a superscript). Except in the case of let expressions. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter.
the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . } in x + y let { .2). For example.. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or .. let expressions.. } ¦ . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { ..4. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. } in (x + y) z + (let { . } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . Sample parses are shown below. Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. ¦ 2 ' .. ] . it has the same precedence as the inﬁx .. .operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. This f x . and conditionals.. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible.f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.1)..16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.. .(f x)) + y let { . .4. Figure 4. . Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. ] ¢ £ .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ .2. .
Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. That is. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. results in an error. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. When evaluated. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. 3. For the sake of clarity. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. when demanded. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination.3. When undefined is used.2 Variables. 3. Constructors. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. the error message is created by the compiler. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system.1. all Haskell types include . implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. Operators. denoted by .
1). as deﬁned in the Ratio library.5). an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses.% ).% constructs a rational from two integers. The integers and are chosen so that . or partially applied using a section (Section 3. such as ` `. . These are described in Section 6. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. such as + or $$. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. as found in the and . where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. Ratio Integer).2). instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs.4). ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . For example. For example. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3.4. An operator is either an operator symbol. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. Similarly.1. Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger .18 CHAPTER 3. Dually. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. EXPRESSIONS () [] (.4. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes).
denotes preﬁx negation.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . unary . £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. partial applications of data construc ) of ( . Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator .1.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of .operator and unary negation. . preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor. ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . if the pattern fails to match.17. the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. Because tors are allowed. Application associates to the left. as with any inﬁx operator. The binary . .in the Prelude. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.3.will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( .3. () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). then the result is . where the are patterns. it may be rebound by the module system. 3. page 55). Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator .3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . There is no link between the local meaning of the . However. Similarly. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that. and is syntax for negate . it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. . one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3.
 £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . () is not a section. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). but an application of preﬁx negation. For example. as described in the preceding section. but (+a+b) is not. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. However. Because (+) is left associative. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). (a+b+) is syntactically correct. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). and similarly for ( ). the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). As another example. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. EXPRESSIONS 3.is treated specially in the grammar.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows.
which is also the Prelude. The list constructor is :.3. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . and must have the same type. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. is a binary operator.6. is an expression. if is False.3. denoted []. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . ¥ £ ¡ 3. as deﬁned in the must be Bool. The type of type of the entire conditional expression. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . . ].1).6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. where . False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True. and otherwise. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ .7 Lists [] ( ) : . Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.1.
it is considered part of the language syntax. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ .2). The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction.1. like []. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. If through are the types of through . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. . and may be of arbitrary length .1. § 3. .1.b.c) and (..5). and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. . ) (see Section 4. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . .1. with precedence level 5 (Section 4. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. . Translation: ( . ). where there are denote the same value.1. respectively. Thus (a. 3.).4.2). . The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4. and is equivalent to . The constructor for an commas. .9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. .. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). ) Tuples are written ( . ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.4 and Chapter 8). Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .8 Tuples ¢ S (. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6.2).3). . and requires no translation. It is the only member of that type apart from .) a b c tuple is denoted by (. It is a rightassociative operator.2).1.
§ 3.17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ ... See Section 6.3. .3. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom.. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators. ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. where is a pattern (see Section 3... .. . . enumFromThen. where each of the has type .10. ] denotes a list of values of type . ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § .11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. and is an instance of class Enum. . ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] .1. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. ] . enumFromTo. ] .4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. .. ] . page 83).
]  <. and over sequences of qualiﬁers.x.2].x) <. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. } in .2). which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.(3. (3.[ [(1. are deﬁned in the Prelude. z <. x <. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . [(5.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . If a qualiﬁer is a guard. let (x.xs ] yields the list [4. 3.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated.. over listvalued expressions. and boolean value True. over patterns. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions.(3. . As usual. expressions. over boolean over declaration lists.4).5.24 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. Declarations are described in Chapter 4.4).4)]. ok is a fresh variable. = = = = [ ] [  . The function concatMap. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. and introduce a nested. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed. Thus: [ x  xs <. lexicallyscoped.x ] [ z  y <.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . For example. over qualiﬁers.17).are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.x.2)] ].
CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . .3.. . .3. using the translation in Section 4. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ . these identities hold. the “” is a terminal symbol. in = } in = = let (˜ . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative.4. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = .. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . Once done.. . Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).4.13. where and are patterns and expressions respectively. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. . Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ .. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. . .˜ ) = ( . 3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.3..13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for .. > ¦§ of { } . . . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case .
therefore. ¦ ¨ . and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming.26 CHAPTER 3. Each body must have the same type. If no match succeeds. The alternatives are tried sequentially. from top to bottom. ¦ 3. namely case x of { (a. If one of the pattern. The expression case x of { (a. and then by the guards evaluates to True. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. <let .getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. It has a single unambiguous parse. Programmers are advised. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. . If all the guards evaluate to False. If matches the pattern in the alternative. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . Pattern matching is described in Section 3. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. the result is . matching continues with the next alternative.17. .3.17._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However. A note about parsing. and the type of the whole expression is that type. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . and hence reject the program. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3.
BAD Here S is legal but T is not. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure.2) and update (Section 3. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. in record construction (Section 3. To illustrate the last point. the functions >>. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. This shadowing only affects selector functions. Within a datatype.. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. © The ellipsis ". as deﬁned in the Prelude.. 3. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.15. 3. As indicated by the translation of do.OK . consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .3). a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { .15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. select from.1)." stands for a compilergenerated error message. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer.2..15. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. after eliminating empty : } . however. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . passed to fail. and fail are operations in the class Monad.. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. >>=.3. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".15." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . which may be used as a translation into the kernel.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter.15. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. When used as a variable.
) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . it denotes F . The expression F {}.2. . where is the arity of F. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. these are not subject to layout. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. } labeled construction . and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . then value . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . where F is a data constructor. .1. A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. Otherwise.28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. the ﬁeld labels . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . the { and } characters must be explicit.15. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . and if appears is .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position.
No label may be mentioned more than once. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f4 = ’A’. } labeled update . Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T.15. such as x {f2 = 1. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1.3. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . f3 = ’x’}. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ .f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int.3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . . This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { . A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.. f3..15.
1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . Translation: 3. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. the principal type.1. do expressions.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions.1). or not principal type derivable from comparable to.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . EXPRESSIONS 3.2).4. However. The value of the expression is just that of . function deﬁnitions. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. .4). As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. pattern bindings.3. list comprehensions. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4.17. 3. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . and case expressions. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .30 CHAPTER 3.
3.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . ¢ § . x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside.ILLEGAL.e. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . For example. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3.y. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . or it may diverge (i. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. . Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. case e of { [x._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. For example.17. and outside to inside. .17. For example. and allow one to use . return )._. it may succeed.x) = x .
depending on the type of the pattern. Again. Matching the pattern by data. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. If the value is of the form . 3. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. and no binding is done. if all matches succeed.are overloaded. then is matched against . Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). depends on the value: against a value. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. (Binding does not imply evaluation. Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. 8. that is. and if the match fails or diverges. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. where newtype. § § § That is. character. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. 6. the match diverges. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. then is matched against . The match diverges if this test diverges. so does the overall computation. ¦ 32 4.2.) Operationally. resulting in the binding of to . § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. Matching the pattern against a value.. . EXPRESSIONS 2. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. 7. and fails otherwise. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . respectively. . or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. the functions >= and . The match diverges if the comparison diverges. the overall match succeeds. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. Matching a numeric. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed.32 CHAPTER 3. and to if matching against fails or diverges. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is .
or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4.y) > 0) (\ (x.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9.1).17. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. ] (0. But if [’a’. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). If the match of against fails or diverges. If the pattern [’a’. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. then ’a’ to match against ’x’. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.3).3. Here are some examples: 1.’b’] is matched against [ . It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.1). ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.2. ] (\ ˜[x. All other patterns are refutable. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. then . (a. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . a wildcard. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. to .˜(a.’b’] is matched against [’x’. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.b)] > x) [(0. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. and the result is a failed match.b)] > x) [(0. ]. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used.’x’]. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. is irrefutable).
it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.2.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. In particular.1.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. Rule (h) in Figure 3. These identities all preserve the static semantics. in f :: (Int. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold. function deﬁnition.2. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. (q). since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. and are patterns. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). and is a newtype constructor.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. In Figures 3.2: .34 CHAPTER 3. . and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities.17. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . (j).3. .Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x.Int. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. and are booleanvalued expressions. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. (e). or pattern binding to which it is attached.1–3.4).y. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.1–3. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. and are expressions. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. in Figures 3. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. and are variables. For example. Rules (d). 3. it is not expected that it will use them directly.
} } . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . . . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . Figure 3. where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: .3.17.1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) .
are new variables else } } }. _ > _ > }} where . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > .36 CHAPTER 3. } > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } where is if labels the th component of . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. } > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . _ > } case of { _ _ > . . _ > } case of { > . = . or string literal. _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . are ﬁelds of constructor . character. _ otherwise case of { {} > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . _ > } of { > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } .
. } } © 2§ .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. ¦ { . . = => => => => . . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . type data newtype class instance default ( . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. .
2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. 5]. type classes and overloading.3. consisting of type. For example. An instance declaration (Section 4. For exposition. © 4.1. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a .3).38 %§ CHAPTER 4. deﬁned on it. type signatures. .simplified class declaration for Num . A class declaration (Section 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes. instance. using normal type and data declarations.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . newtype. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. consisting of class.4). Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). and default declarations (Section 4. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. consisting of value bindings. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . .3. those within a let or where construct).2). and data declarations (Section 4. and nested declarations. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions.e. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. . whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. of the given types.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate.
negateInt. then a type of kind . The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i.0 type system. unlike types. However. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.1. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. 4.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. 4.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where . The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1.e.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12].6. addFloat. ] ) . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where .1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( .4. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.1.1. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. class methods) for (+) and negate. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language.
In general.. also written () (see Sections 3. Type constructors. . Just as data values are built using data constructors. must have kind . Int. A parenthesized type. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. and treated as types with kind . IO a. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters.. and has exactly one value. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. Double and Bool are type constants with kind . the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. type values are built from . 2. and classes. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. Integer. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . Type application. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. Since the IO type constructor has kind .6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes.1. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. 4. ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . a process of kind inference (see Section 4. Unlike data constructors.5). The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. or newtype T . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . is identical to the type .40 CHAPTER 4. (. and is a type of kind .).9 and 6. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. Their kinds are .. having form ( ). For example: Char. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1. The declarations data T . . Type variables. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). As with data constructors.. The tuple types are written as (. to the variable a. For example.). type synonyms. The list type is written as [] and has kind . and so on. Float. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind .. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. IO. It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. and so on.
When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. .7 and 6. respectively. however. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter.4. “gtycon”. then the expressions (\ > ).. which is equivalent to the type (. . . For example. and so on.). the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. and so on (see Sections 3. always denote the builtin type constructors. (). These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. the type expression a > a . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ .3. the preﬁx type constructors (>).4).3). For clarity. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. . they cannot be qualiﬁed. [ ]. If is the type of expression or pattern .1. and ( ) have the types ( > ). and ). 2. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . For example. (. (Hence the special production. above. 3. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. and lists. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. 1. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. tuples. means .) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. A list type has the form [ ].) where there are commas between the parenthesis. A tuple type has the form ( . the second component of type . [ ]. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). . ) where . regardless of what is in scope.1. In a similar way. which is equivalent to the type [] .1. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . A context consists of zero or more class assertions. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). []. for example.8 and 6. which is equivalent to the type (>) . A class assertion has form .3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4.1.1)). we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs.
consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment.1. " t ¡§ is identical to . Furthermore. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder. Show a. For convenience. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). In general. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. a type is of the form . and each of the is either a type variable. any of that are free in must also be free in . we write => even if the context is empty. also holds. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . In general. For example. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . For example. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . may be instantiated at types holds.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program.4.4). (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes.1). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . respectively.16 and 4. where is a set of type variables . In any such type. the most general type. or the application of type variable to one or more types. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause).1. we provide informal details of the type system.3. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. in more detail. Therefore.42 CHAPTER 4. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3.3. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. as described in Section 4. § § § 4.
because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . The user may choose to declare such an instance. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. 4. we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section.2. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. since Num Int holds.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . 4. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . ! . In this Report. and type synonyms (type declarations). . renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( .4.2. However. because Int is an instance of the class Num. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char.
This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types ..3. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. using the record syntax (C { .6. and is described in Section 4..8. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances.e. For example. For example.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4.3. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . the declaration data C = F { f1. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. }). A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. to the components of a data object. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor.f2 :: Int. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4.
“!” is an ordinary varsym not a . it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.2) if is of the form ! . Lexically. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . denoted by an exclamation point.15. and function $! (see Section 6.4. . the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form .2. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. For example. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . “!”. Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. The type is equivalent to the type .2.6. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type.
The type ( ) renames the datatype . 4.3. Type synonyms are a convenient. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ).2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. but strictly syntactic. New instances (see Section 4.invalid . mechanism to make type signatures more readable. For example. unlike type synonyms.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. this is not so for type synonyms. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.3. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object.2. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes.2). This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. Similarly. so that is the same as . Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. the newtype constructor is unlifted. Unlike algebraic datatypes. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection.17).3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. Also.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments.
( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3. and newtype (renaming types. ( n ( N ) ). ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © . type (type synonyms). TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .4.3.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. whereas ( n ).3. In particular. ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. .1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). see Section 4. .3.
48 CHAPTER 4. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. the may not constrain . in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . i. For example: class Foo a where op1. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4.e. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . op2) = . the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. However. or another class method. outside the class declaration. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . since class methods declare toplevel values. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. For example: class (Read a. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition.. it must form a directed acyclic graph. The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . Lastly.3. as described below. in particular. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. it may mention type variables other than . the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . . © The class declaration introduces new class methods . For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. The may constrain only .. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. no other declarations are permitted in . the may contain a default class method for any of the . That is. is not permitted. a ﬁeld name.2). op2 :: a > a (op1.
. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope.) For example. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5. . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of . in particular. Let be a class declaration. this is legal. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ .2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where .3. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial.4.a) where .. } . even though the subclass has no immediate class methods.a) where . 4. instance C (Int. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ .3. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . must not be a type synonym. furthermore..2. it may be a qualiﬁed name. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.. instance C [[a]] where .range... The type type variables distinct. if a type is an instance of all superclasses.Ix T where range = . The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations. ] > ... module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a.
then the program would be invalid. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.. must be an instance of each of . The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption... instance (Eq a. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. instance (Eq a. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.6.. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4.. Show a) => Bar [a] where . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results... Show a) => Foo [a] where . In fact. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. The class and type must have the same kind. instance Num a => Bar [a] where .. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where .1).50 CHAPTER 4.3. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . Under this assumption.. In other words. This example is valid Haskell. If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where ..
The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq.2. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. all mentioned in Figure 6. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. Bounded.3. 4. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . Show a).3. that is. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. Show." in show x . ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. Ord. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). Enum. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. instances for all superclasses of must exist for .3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable.1. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.invalid is ambiguous. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10.1.3.4 Ambiguous Types. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. 4. For example. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10.. . then the expression let x = read ".4. For example. page 83. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. and Read. because the types for show and read. If the form is included. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. When deriving a class for a type . For example.. But this does not hold. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a.
or Bool. Num or a subclass of Num). This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of . rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6.16. for the ambiguous expression given earlier." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type.52 CHAPTER 4. ) where . In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. turns off all defaults in a module. a static error. It is a static error if no such type is found. and each must be a type for which Num holds. where is a class. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. Such types are invalid. (that is.. page 83.3. . shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. . but and are forced to have the same type. Double) The empty default declaration.1. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. one could write: let x = read ". in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . an ambiguous type variable. For example. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . § ¢ . and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. § ¢ ¢ For example. pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( .4. Such expressions are considered illtyped. and its effect is limited to that module. For example.2–6. and Figure 6.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. Occasionally. default (). appears only in constraints of the form ..
) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . as described in Section 4. possibly with respect to a context. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred.5. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. For example.1 Type Signatures .4. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num .2). in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.5.2. . If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. the deﬁning occurrence. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature.4.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. this is explained in Section 4. even if the signatures are identical. 4. For example.1. Indeed. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type.4. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: . it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization.1. including the top level of a module.e. it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. However. i.4.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . Moreover. to ensure that type inference is still possible. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. these declarations contain a static error. or principal type . As mentioned in Section 4. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4.
) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. and infixr. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. (Class methods are a minor exception. and ten precedence levels.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. The following deﬁnition is pathological. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr.invalid are invalid. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. non. Table 4.invalid . level 9 is assumed. declares a property of a particular operator. like a type signature. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a .4. If the is omitted. T a > a. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. .1 are invalid. A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. Also like a type signature. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to .2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. and level 9 binds most tightly). just like its type. respectively). Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). infixl. 4. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). left.and rightassociativity (infix.
4.. ˆˆ.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . /=. ‘seq‘ Table 4. ‘Bar..) 4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *.4. ‘div‘.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. ˆ. >=..op‘ is infix 3.. ‘rem‘. ‘mod‘. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. >>= $. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.op‘ q) * 2 in . Here.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo. /. ‘elem‘. $!. <. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . ‘quot‘ +. ‘Foo.op‘ is infixr 7.4. ** :. <=. >. ++ ==.
otherwise. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set.56 CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . namely: . The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. ¤ 4. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . the binding is called a function binding. . and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct.4. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. For example. the latter. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous.1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value.3.
4. A simple pattern binding has form . A note about syntax. in other words.3. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is .e. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values.4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding.12. See the translation in Section 3. where a function bindings above. a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. .
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
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¡
¦
£
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£
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Hence. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. module M1(len1) where default( Int. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. However. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. For example. There is no danger of recomputation here.3. in (f. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete.4.g) = ((+).) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. len1 gets type Int.4. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational .5. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. and not by any modules that import it. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding.
This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. . for any kind . and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. For example. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. in the deﬁnitions above. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. i. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. constructors. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. a default of is assumed.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. 4. It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . Instead. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a).64 CHAPTER 4.5. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. For example. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. For example. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. in such cases. respectively. does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . a synonym S and a class C. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. respectively. using the default binding . and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference.e. for instance). the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . synonym. For example.
. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules).3. must be called Main and must export the value main. For example. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. module B where f = .5. classes.5) is affected by module boundaries. datatypes. etc. type. or perhaps exported from a module.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. making them available to other modules. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. and are not ﬁrst class values. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. imported into. A Haskell program is a collection of modules. type synonyms. Modules may be mutually recursive. or class deﬁned in. the computation main is performed. and its result (of type ) is discarded..4).f >> B. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .f module A where f = . Second. 1 65 . by convention. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main. one of which. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. Modules are used for namespace control. First. It exports some of these resources.. We use the term entity to refer to a value. (see Chapter 4).. When the program is executed. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7).
1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. . consisting only of the module body. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ .. Chapter 4).2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. classes.. © 5. bf = .. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. optionally restricting the imported bindings. is permitted. Section 5. . then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module.. type synonyms. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . ). . If this is used. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. . The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. Prelude.e.6). plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. CHAPTER 5. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. (see Chapter 4). There is one distinguished module. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . ( An abbreviated form of module. the module name. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 .66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . data types.3) that specify modules to be imported. etc. ¦ ¦ § 5. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . A module begins with a header: the keyword module. i. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. .
names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . The constructor In all cases.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. A value. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed. The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. . but not those that are imported. which must be in scope.8). whether declared in the module body or imported. and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ .2.Maybe( Nothing. For example. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. EXPORT LISTS 67 .. 3. The abbreviated form (. A type synonym is in scope.) ( module . types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. or class method.5. the following is legal module A( Mb. all values. must be in scope. ( . where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. may . one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . If the export list is omitted.. ﬁeld name. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. . ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4.. . A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares.) ( (. ). or that it imports from some other module. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names.
and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. or by exporting an entire module (module M. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. dequeue ) where import Stack . It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. item (1) above). Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack. item(2)). 5. C.f. g.e”. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. For example: module Queue( module Stack. A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. enqueue. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of ..). For example module A ( C.68 CHAPTER 5. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. In all cases. must be in scope. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. This set may be empty. or as an implicitlynamed member (T(.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). ¡ £ .g) g = f True .. item (2)). but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . For example. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. names the class and some or all of its methods.5. In the second form.1). ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods.. For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). item (5)). MODULES The abbreviated form (. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).. . ).g.
the terminal symbols “as”. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.f and C. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.5.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. . 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .) ( (. .f (assuming B. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. and between module B and C. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.) refers to all of the constructors. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. hiding ( . The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.g and g are different entities – remember. they may also be used as variables. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( . the (. Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.f are different entities). IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (.) ( .. methods. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .) form of import is used for a type or class. The list may be empty.3. rather than Lexically. . The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. modules can import each other recursively).g and g (assuming C. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. § 5.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. When the (.3. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . 5...
If the import declaration used the qualified keyword.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude.3. or type named C is excluded.All Prelude names must be qualified .2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared. Thus. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope.This + differs from the one in the Prelude .1. If the qualified keyword is omitted. the toplevel environment is extended. MODULES 2.3. Finally. exported by the imported module. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ .This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. ).’. Hence. class.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName.+ 1) . Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . For example. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.3. Section 5. © 5.3) on the import statement. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. if ported. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5.5. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. . in import M hiding (C) any constructor. In contrast. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. in fact.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause.3.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. using C in an import list names only a class or type. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.
x. A. A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.x x. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer.y x. A. A.x.x.y A. y. y.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. A. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A.y In all cases. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.x.y (nothing) x.y x. A.4).x A.3.f. B. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A. B. B.x.4. 5.y A.y y. 5. B. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5.x. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. suppose the module A exports x and y.5. A.x B. y. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously. A.y (nothing) A.
Thus: module M where f x = . therefore. .ILLEGAL g x = let M. An import declaration. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.y = x+1 in . 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .f respectively. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. whether qualified or not. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. that is.5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name.f x x is legal. 5.. such as f or A. but does bring in any instances visible in M. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names. For example..1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. MODULES module.f.4). . A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. Thus. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.3). A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned..5 Name Clashes and Closure 5..f x = .5.. it is illegal to write module M where M.72 CHAPTER 5. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.. g x = M. there must be only one binding for f or A. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .
B. NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. d... y = . The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.... and C. b. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C.. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned.2). The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B..x. module C( d.sin (F.5.. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. x.5. provided that the program does not mention those names. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. module D( d ) where d = . b = . or x declared in C. For example.d. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D.4. x. and c declared in C respectively. y ) where import D x = . For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b...x or C. y ) where import D x = .. There is no reference to y. c. c. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. and can be referred to in A by the names d.. y = . In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C). The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed.d.. x) module B( d. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.. . c = .
The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. For example. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. However.5.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant.74 CHAPTER 5. classes. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. That is. That is. 5. and functions. MODULES The references to Prelude.sin and F. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. However. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. 5. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. called the “Standard Prelude. That is. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. Whether or not T is explicitly exported.” In Haskell. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes. the Prelude is contained in the .
6. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. There are also many predeﬁned library modules.6. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. This means.5. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. however. they should be considered part of its implementation. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . PreludeIO. given in Chapter 8. and so on. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. but the implementation only gives a scheme. complex numberss. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. which provide less frequently used functions and types. and they cannot be imported separately. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. 5. 5. For example: module A( null.6. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. for example. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. arrays. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. For example. just like those from any other module. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. not part of the language deﬁnition.
The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. for example. 5.x) and (. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. however. It is not possible. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. For example. push.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. in terms of a different implementation of lists. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. 5. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. the use of ++ is not special syntax. For example. For example. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . On the other hand. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs).76 CHAPTER 5. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion.x) g x = (. pop. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed. MODULES import Prelude statement. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude.
8. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. they must use push. pop. For example. pop.5. Instead. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. and empty to construct such values. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . push.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11].1. Numeric types are described in Section 6.4.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. When appropriate. Enum. Ord. Enum. Show. and 79 . the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable.1. Ord. 6. Eq. and not. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. In this chapter. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. The basic boolean functions are && (and).Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. complex numbers. Eq. types.  (or).6. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. 6. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Show. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. 6.
Read. although with special syntax. However. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. as described in Section 3. Monad. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. Eq. Ord. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. snd. Each tuple type has a single constructor. and the \ˆ notation. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors.y) and (. standard functions from class Enum. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15..’t’. For example. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples.11. thus.Int) and (. and \n and \LF. 6. Bounded. Bounded. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples.’r’.1. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”).Bool. Read. together with the instances for Eq. and Show. . The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. ’i’. that all their component types are). \t and \HT. The same holds for tuple type constructors.7. \v and \VT. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). of course. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. Show. Ord. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. Ord. are described in Sections 3.’n’.80 CHAPTER 6. curry. map characters to and from the Int type. ASCII mnemonic escapes. and uncurry. thus (x.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. and MonadPlus.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions.10 and 3. Functor.) x y produce the same value.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. All tuples are instances of Eq. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. as deﬁned in Section 3.6. \f and \FF. Lists are an instance of classes Read.’ ’. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7.1.’g’] 6. (Int.’s’.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. In addition. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes.8. and Show (provided. \b and \BS. respectively. \r and \CR.
and MonadPlus.3). Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Ord.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. Read. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. 6. that is.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world.1. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Read. the nullary constructor (). Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Read. Enum.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Bounded. Read. a function argument is evaluated only when required. 6.1. The unit datatype () has one non 6.9. Show) member. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.1. and until.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations.2. Ord.). flip. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. Bounded. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. It is an instance of Show and Eq. const.1. Monad. 6. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. See also Section 3. ($). Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. Ord. Enum. (. Ord. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. and Part II contains many more.6. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id.
Default class method declarations (Section 4. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes.3. As a consequence. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. 6. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance.2. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==).82 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. since seq can be used to distinguish them. because it is available at every type. . However. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. or zipWith ($) fs xs. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. However. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. infixr 0 $. For the same reason. $ has low. $! ($).1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). together with the default declarations. 6. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. such as map ($ 0) xs. rightassociative binding precedence. (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . If there is no such comment.
Bool. Float. Integer.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Char. Integer. Maybe Functor IO. Float. Double Real Int. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Int. Double Bounded Int. Ordering. Bool.3. Integer RealFrac Float. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Maybe Figure 6. Double Floating Float. (>) Read All except IO.6. []. (>) Show All except IO. () Ordering. Double Monad IO. Float. Double Integral Int. tuples Enum (). IOError Num Int. Integer. Char. Double RealFloat Float. Double Fractional Float. [].
y) or (y.3. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . (<=). The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. then both will loop. (>=). 6. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. All basic datatypes except for functions. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. are instances of this class. If one is deﬁned.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. and IOError.84 CHAPTER 6. .Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. neither default method is used. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. If both are deﬁned. IO. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. = = = = max x y) = (x.
. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x.read: ambiguous parse" .) For convenience. Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec.4).reads s. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output.6. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.t) <. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.. A specialised variant. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" . default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function..String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . rather than between square brackets.. (If desired. show.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. All Prelude types..3. are instances of Show and Read.. is also provided.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. This is particularly useful for the Char type. which uses precedence context zero."") <. except function types and IO types. by providing an instance declaration. and returns an ordinary String. ("".3.
Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound.. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor. The enumFrom. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error.. If the input string contains only white space.n’. For example. (Thus lex "" = [(""..m] .] [n. returns []). used by read. The read function reads input from a string. 6. respectively."")]. It reads a single lexeme from the input. lex fails (i.m] [n. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. which must be completely consumed by the input process. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.n’.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.3. The function lex :: ReadS String.. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3.10).] [n. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. see Chapter 10. of a value. discarding initial white space.86 CHAPTER 6. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. is also part of the Prelude. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type..e.
.3.. . empty if is the list [ . ]. The semantics of these instances is given next. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . The list is ¥ § ¦ § .EQ.] is the list [LT. If the increment is positive or zero. If the increment is zero. is . ¤ . where the increment. and Maybe are in this class. . the list terminates when . ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. all the list elements are the same. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). For example. Bool. is . and Ordering. Lists. ]. Numeric types: Int. Float. . For the types Int and Integer. [LT. . the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ .6. Double. Integer. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . the list terminates when the next element would be less than . or when they become less than for negative . where the increment. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . . For example. the digits after the decimal point may be lost. The increment may be zero or negative. enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. For all four numeric types. . all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . For all four of these Prelude numeric types. IO. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int.3.GT]. In the case of Float and Double. . 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . ]. . Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. and pred subtracts 1.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. succ adds 1. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. the list is empty if . The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. the list is empty if negative. 6.
and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. lists. g) id fmap f . PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return . In the Prelude. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.14).3.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . Maybe.88 CHAPTER 6. 6. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. for Maybe returns Nothing. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. and IO are all instances of Monad.3).
or a special value such as inﬁnity. Ordering. (). The types Int. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. NUMBERS 89 6. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. page 83. etc. an implementation may choose error ( . The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. In particular. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. semantically). 6. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. indeﬁnite. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). and double precision ﬂoating (Double). but not all. since all numbers may be compared for equality.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. Some. Similarly.1. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. a truncated value.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes.2–6. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. both real and complex. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. single precision ﬂoating (Float). As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation.3. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6.1. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. Char. Figure 6. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at .3. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. Bool.6. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. Float is implementationdeﬁned.4. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq.
2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).4. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. See Section 4. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. Ratio Integer). see section 3.3. (*). 6.90 CHAPTER 6. rem. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint.4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. and mod apply only to integral numbers. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.5.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. (). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. remainder) pair. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. div. div.4) apply to all numbers. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y.4. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. rem. The class methods quot. The quot. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . even . Similarly. respectively.
gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . NUMBERS class (Eq a.4. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power.4. mod quotRem. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. (). gcd (3) (6) = 3. sqrt :: a > a (**). Enum a) quot. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . logBase returns the logarithm of in base . div. tanh :: a > a asinh.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. atan :: a > a sinh. acos.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. gcd 0 4 = 4. (*) negate abs. including zero. logBase :: a > a > a sin. acosh. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any .6. log. tan :: a > a asin. rem. 6. cos. cosh.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. Part 1 Finally. Show (+). 0** is undeﬁned. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. atanh :: a > a Figure 6.
Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. isInfinite. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.4. Part 2 6. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.92 CHAPTER 6.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . isNegativeZero.a) b b class (Real a.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isDenormalized.
6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. and with absolute value less than 1. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . respectively. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. and tangent functions and their inverses. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. inclusive. atan2 1. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. For real ﬂoating and . floor. and implementation. The ceiling. then x is equal in value to . where is the value radix.4.6. If decodeFloat x yields ( .4. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. logBase. round returns the nearest integer to . floatDigits. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . ). and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. in particular. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. truncate. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. and sqrt are provided. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. should return the same value as atan . machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . the greatest integer not greater than . The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . The functions floatRadix. and furthermore. ¢ ¢ 6. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. truncate. tanh. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . and: is an integral number with the same sign as . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. **. Default implementations of tan.4. floor. with in a type that is RealFloat. pi]. cosine.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. NUMBERS 93 6. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). and floor . either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. note that is the simplest rational of all. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. discontinuities.
significand x yields a value of the same type as x. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. isNegativeZero. isInfinite. exponent 0 is zero. The functions isNaN. isDenormalized. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Fractional b) => a > b . but rather than an Integer. scaled to lie in the open interval .94 CHAPTER 6. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. these may all return false.
however. For example. the abstract values are the mentioned above. In the following. In the case of the I/O monad. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions.6) sequentially compose actions. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies.2). Actions. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. Some operations are primitive actions. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. and which are described in this section.3. see Section 6. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. as deﬁned in the IO library. may read as a single newline character. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. two characters of input. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. To achieve this. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. return and linefeed. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities.1. however.
a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. Typically. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device.96 CHAPTER 7. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () .19]]) Input Functions terminal). The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. which is read lazily as it is needed. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). deﬁned the IO library. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. For example. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7.3) on endofﬁle.) main = interact (filter isAscii) . and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. 2ˆn)  n <. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.[0.. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine.
type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle.[0.. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. to the ﬁle. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. methods in the Monad class. To write a value of any printable type. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile".2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact.0.2. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example.x*x)  x <. their second argument. on demand. The two monadic binding functions. for example when it is (). are used to compose a series of I/O operations. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. as with getContents. The ﬁle is read lazily. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.7. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. their ﬁrst argument. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: .1. as with print.2]]) 7.
userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception. .readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation.98 CHAPTER 7. For example.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions.getLine return (c:s) 7. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. For example. The isEOFError function is part of IO library.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. User error values include a string describing the error. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.getLine s <. otherwise. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user.
the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program. ..6) raises a userError. thus: instance Monad IO where . EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6..7.bindings for return.3. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.3. (>>=).
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
This structure is purely presentational.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. Monad. These modules are described fully in Part II. such as Char. such as Integral a or Num a. and Numeric. Some of these modules import Library modules. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. as it pleases. These functions are: take. of course. an implementation is free to import more. These imports are not. Declarations for special types such as Integer. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude.. length.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. The default method deﬁnitions. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. !!. or less. To take one particular example. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. PreludeText. given with class declarations. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). Prelude. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. nor are these three modules available for import separately. indicated by names starting with “prim”. of the Library modules. IO. and to improve efﬁciency. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. PreludeList. That is. An ellipsis “. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors.. drop. 101 . and PreludeIO. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. and three submodules.
and replicate. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt. The more general versions are given in the List library.102 CHAPTER 8. with the preﬁx “generic”. . for example genericLength.
mod. fromEnum.)((. enumFromTo. subtract. logBase. isIEEE. negate. fromInteger).). return. (>=). realToFrac. exp. odd. gcd. enumFrom. Functor(fmap). even. floor). enumFromThenTo).Unicode primitives .Contains all ‘prim’ values . sin. GT). lcm. List type: []((:). RealFrac(properFraction. rem. (*).)((. RealFloat(floatRadix. but are denoted by builtin syntax. encodeFloat. module PreludeIO. Double. curry. (). Bool(False. sequence_. cosh. asin. sequence. signum. []) Tuple types: (. otherwise. Either(Left. ceiling. atan. sinh. abs. Integer. module PreludeText. isNegativeZero. const. and cannot legally appear in an export list. (<=). EQ. either. (. (). (>>). not. until.. (. atan2). snd. mapM. sqrt. Num((+). recip. isDenormalized. id. asTypeOf. mapM_. divMod. Maybe(Nothing.. toInteger). Fractional((/). Bounded(minBound. (ˆ). atanh). exponent. cos. asinh. fst. min). ($). Just). floatRange. fail). log. fromRational). Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). (/=)). Float. max. Int. scaleFloat. etc. acos. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. String. True). (**). undefined. tan. decodeFloat. uncurry. div. (<). significand. Enum(succ. fromIntegral. enumFromThen.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. acosh.)). seq. (ˆˆ). Ord(compare. quotRem. toEnum. isNaN. (&&). Char. Rational. flip. pred. Real(toRational). floatDigits. IO. isInfinite. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . Integral(quot. round. truncate. (>). (=<<). maybe. Ordering(LT. Right). tanh. Monad((>>=). Floating(pi.)). maxBound). error.
(<=).Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==).  . compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . min :: a > a > a . max x y) = (x. ‘seq‘ . (>) :: a > a > Bool max. >=. instances and related functions . ‘rem‘. ˆ.Standard types. (>=). $!. <=.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. ‘mod‘ +.a fixity declaration.note that (min x y.Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. > &&  >>. classes. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . ‘quot‘.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8. ‘div‘. /=. ˆˆ. /.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . and cannot legally be given . >>= =<< $.y) or (y. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. <. ** *. STANDARD PRELUDE .
y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. fromEnum ..] [n... fromEnum y . signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a ..Minimal complete definition: toEnum.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. fromEnum y .. succ = toEnum . (subtract 1) .Minimal complete All. ().Numeric classes class (Eq a.105 .Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. (+1) . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n..n’.. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a . fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational .] [n.] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.n’. Show a) => Num a where (+).] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . fromEnum pred = toEnum .. except x .m] [n.m] .
cos. Enum quot.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. mod quotRem. log.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. cosh asin.106 class (Real a. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a. sinh. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8. atan :: a > a sinh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . acosh.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. acosh. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q.a) a > Integer .Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. acos. logBase :: a > a > a sin.Minimal complete definition: pi. cos. tan :: a > a asin.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. log. exp. sqrt :: a > a (**).r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. sin. rem div.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. atan asinh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. acos. atanh :: a > a .5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . cosh. tanh :: a > a asinh.
r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n .1 else n where (n. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.107 class (Real a.a) b b . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .0.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.
STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isNegativeZero.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.Numeric functions subtract subtract even.must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y .floatDigits x) where (m. isDenormalized.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) . return a NaN (via +) .n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. significand. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. scaleFloat. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not .must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y . isInfinite.108 CHAPTER 8.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.x or y is a NaN.
Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . toRational .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .The xxxM functions take list arguments.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. but lift the function or .109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . toInteger :: (Real a.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude.
constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x .110 . .. Enum. Ord..flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.. Bounded) . . flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = . Enum.Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8.Not legal Haskell.) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f . Show. Read..function composition (. Ord.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ ..Boolean functions (&&).rightassociating infix application operators . for illustration only .identity function id :: a > a id x = x . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.Function type .(useful in continuationpassing style) ($). Bounded) ..Character type data Char = . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True .Primitive . g = \ x > f (g x) . ’a’  ’b’ . ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x .
Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.. f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = ..Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return .. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .. Read. Ord. Read... fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c. . fromEnum c’ . fail s = ioError (userError s) ... Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y .IO type data IO a = . return = .111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Ord.
. instance Num Integer where . where where where where where where where where ...Standard numeric types.... ................ 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . Ord. .. .. 1  0  1 ... instance Real Integer where . ...be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be ...... ..... instance Ord Integer where .. . . .far too large..Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.. ........ STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq... Show. ..... .. . instance Eq Integer where .. .... . instance Integral Integer where . Bounded) . data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . instance Enum Integer where . Enum.112 . data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where . . .. The data declarations for these types cannot .. data Integer = . .. .. .. . maxBound .. .... Read.
Not legal Haskell. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] .1 . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .95]. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.1 is represented.0. Ord) . However. 0. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ .. depending on how 0.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements.
c) deriving (Eq. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) . b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x. Ord.y) = x snd snd (x. STANDARD PRELUDE (a.undefined" .b) > b = y . undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.b) > a fst (x. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. quadruples. .Not legal Haskell. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) .curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.b) deriving (Eq.(NB: not provided for triples.c) = (a. It is usually used . and its typing forces its first argument . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error . etc. curry :: ((a.114 . Bounded) (a.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.appears.component projections for pairs: .as an infix operator. for illustration only .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.b) = (a.) fst :: (a.Misc functions .y) :: (a.messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError . Ord. Bounded) .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.b.b.
head. null.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . takeWhile. ‘notElem‘ . lines. or.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. minimum. product.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . which must be nonempty. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. words.1. last. iterate. length. foldr1. lookup. replicate. rather than the beginning. break. concat. unlines. (++). span. reverse. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. foldr. (!!). init. sum. scanr1. maximum. scanr. foldl1. zip. tail. zipWith3. notElem. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude.8. dropWhile. any. foldl. unzip. and. unwords. filter. respectively. concatMap. scanl. scanl1. zip3. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. cycle. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. zipWith. take.1 Prelude PreludeList . splitAt. of a list. all. drop. elem. repeat.
!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] .] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.] == [x1. ..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘.. x1 ‘f‘ x2.!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2.. scanl is similar to foldl... from left to right: foldl f z [x1. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude..init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .. xn] == (. scanl1 is similar. .] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude... x2.. . but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. z ‘f‘ x1.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument. applied to a binary operator. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists.. x2. reduces the list using the binary operator. . x2. a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator).last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. .. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .List index (subscript) operator... STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int.] == [z..116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. and a list. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1.
splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. f (f x).replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . applied to a list xs. It is the identity .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .repeat x is an infinite list. . foldr1.on infinite lists.1. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 . drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. or xs itself if n > length xs. f x. scanr. drop n xs). foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude.the infinite repetition of the original list. returns the prefix of xs of length n. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs .iterate f x == [x. or equivalently. with x the value of every element. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . .8. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude.foldr.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one.above functions.. or [] if n > length xs.iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the ..foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .
STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a].zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not .xs) where (ys. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. drop n xs) takeWhile. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . words breaks a string up into a list of words. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.[a]) = (take n xs.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l.[a]) span p [] = ([]. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines. The resulting strings do not contain newlines. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. s’’) = break Char. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char.zs)  otherwise = ([]. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. while break p uses the negation of p.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. dropWhile p xs). which were delimited by white space. Similary. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.
maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. notElem is the negation.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys .1. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .elem is the list membership predicate.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. or is the . lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs . elem. For the result to be .b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x.g. usually written in infix form. results from a False . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. and. False. any determines if any element .e. however.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.8. . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . and of an ordered type. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) .True.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. map p . Similarly. maximum. for all. map p all p = and . . sum.disjunctive dual of and.of the list satisfies the predicate.which must be nonempty. finite..Applied to a predicate and a list. x ‘elem‘ xs. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. the list must be finite. .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. any.
c) ˜(as. For example.b:bs)) ([].[b].b. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.b)] > ([a]. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b) ˜(as. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[c]) = foldr (\(a.bs) > (a:as.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.c)] > ([a]..120  CHAPTER 8.bs. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] . Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.[]) .b)] = zipWith (.b.cs) > (a:as.c)] = zipWith3 (. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.b:bs.[b]) = foldr (\(a.[]. instead of a tupling function. If one input list is short.[]) :: [(a.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.c:cs)) ([].b.
ShowS. showFloat.t) [(x:xs.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. isDigit. show. showl xs . showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". readDec.’ .u) (xs.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude.t) (x.". showChar. read. readLitChar. showString. shows x . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.v)  (". readl’ u] . shows x . isAlpha. Either. showParen ) where . Ordering . shows. readList).hs import Char(isSpace.t)  ("]". showLitChar.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. Read(readsPrec. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. Maybe. Show(showsPrec.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . readParen. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.t)  ("]".8. readFloat. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.u)  (x. readSigned.u) readl’ s = [([]. reads.t) [(x:xs.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList . isAlphaNum. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. lex.s) pr where readl s = [([].t) (xs. reads t. showList).2.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. showInt.
read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&". .t) <. <.u) <.t) <.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.’\’’:t) <.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.reads s.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s . showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. t)  (str.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.lexLitChar s.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax. t)  (ch. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. (str. p . u)  (ch.u)  ("(".lex t ] .s) (x.t) <.t) (")".lex r.lexStrItem s.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude. (""."") <."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".optional s.
(fe. toInteger .lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.u)  (ds.[span isSym s]]  (nam..[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.lexDigits t] ++  (ds.8. (e.s) <.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.t) <.t) <.[span isDigit s].2.Reading at the Integer type avoids .lexFracExp s ] .t) <.s)] [(c:sym.lexDigits (c:cs).’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.t) [(c:nam.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .readsPrec p r] .possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.t) <.bad character lexFracExp (’. t)  (i.’:ds++e.t) [(c:ds++fe.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .t) <.u) <.s)] <.[s].u) <.Converting to Integer avoids .()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) lexExp s = [("". c ‘elem‘ "+". (ds. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c]./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.t) <.
_) <. shows x .t)  (’\’’:s. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c. (")".w) . Read b) => Read (a. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). w)  ("(". shows y .s) (x.y).s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". lex t.t) <.124 CHAPTER 8.".t) <. (l.s) <.t)  ("(". showChar ’. (c.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .t)<.b) where showsPrec p (x. (cs."\’") <.t)  (’"’:s.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.Tuples instance (Show a.y) = showChar ’(’ . showChar ’)’ instance (Read a. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" . showLitChar c . Show b) => Show (a.readLitChar s.’ .lex r.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .u) (y.u) <. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .lex r.v) (")".t) (". reads u.u)  (c . reads s. t) <.lex r. lex v ] ) .b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x.
. IOError. readFile. appendFile. writeFile. userError. putStrLn.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . Eq IOError where . interact. print.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. getContents. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. getChar. putStr.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents . getLine.. catch. readIO. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .8. putChar.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <... PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. ioError.3.
STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () ."") <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.t) <.readIO l return r .reads s.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.getLine r <.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.126 CHAPTER 8. ("".The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.
. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. right. In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. . In the contextfree syntax. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. letexpressions. In the lexical syntax.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. and may have a double index: a letter . or for left.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . the nonterminals . Similarly. an associativity variable varies over . for example actually stands for 30 productions.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). this is the “maximal munch” rule. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. Thus. this means that conditionals.
[ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .
2. .> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .. . . : :: = \  <.4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.
because it is not preceded only by white space. (NB: a string literal it is not. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. the programmer supplied the opening brace. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". – A positive integer. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line.130 CHAPTER 9.6. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . the token is inserted after the keyword. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program.e. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive.3 Layout Section 2. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. nor before the . where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one.. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. in which each element is either: – Zero.) A stack of “layout contexts”. where. If the innermost context is 0. provided that . "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. do. then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout.
u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . . § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. not 0. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . ﬁxed. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above. . Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . For the purposes of the layout rule. To determine the column number. However.3. The deﬁnition of is as follows. and “ ” for the empty stream. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. all start a new line. to avoid visual confusion. width as an ASCII character.9. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. Tab stops are 8 characters apart.
For example. because it translates to let { x = e. Note 3. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. ¤ ¥ Note 6. Note 2. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. although they could be: for example let }. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. then parseerror is true. The token is replaced by .4. y = x in e’ is valid. any pending closebraces are inserted. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. If none of the rules given above matches. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. so empty braces are inserted. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above.15). then the algorithm fails. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. At the end of the input. If not. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context.e. because doing so involves ﬁxities. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. Note 4. and a nonlayout context is active. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. Note 5. since the close brace is missing. then the block must be empty. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached.132 CHAPTER 9. For example let x = e. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. ). Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm.
3. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. . namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.9.
ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. all other lines are comment. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. though it may be stylistically desirable. In this convention.134 CHAPTER 9. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. of course). By convention. 8 8 ¥¥8 . all other lines are comment. For example. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. with “. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. Using this style.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line.
[1.4. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials.n])  n <. .9. product [1..20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.
. } } © 2§ . . .) ( (. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( .) ( (. . } . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (.) ( . as . SYNTAX REFERENCE .. . . . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . .. ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 .) ( module . . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . . = => => => => . ..5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . hiding ( .
%§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. .5. . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . . ] ) . . . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration .
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Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
w) <.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . (v.t) <. showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .t)  ("Leaf". SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .Application has precedence one more than .lex s.1: Example of Derived Instances .w)  (u.the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.Precedence of :ˆ: . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.s) <.lex r.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. (":ˆ:".s) <.146 CHAPTER 10. . (m.t) <.
This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. For example. Lexically.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. 11. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. This chapter summarizes this existing practice.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. 11. . except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. pragmas appear as comments. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE .
COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. .148 CHAPTER 11. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
.. Num.. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. the results may be unpredictable. If is a bounded type.. Show (Ratio a) where .. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. and Show. Real..Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a.. Read. denominator.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. numerator.. For each Integral type . approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio.. Fractional.. (%)... RealFrac (Ratio a) where . these are in reduced form with a positive denominator.. Num (Ratio a) where ... For example.. a) => Read (Ratio a) where . In each case. Real (Ratio a) where ... The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. Ord. Enum. Enum (Ratio a) where .. Rational. Ord (Ratio a) where .Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . Fractional (Ratio a) where . RealFrac. Ratio is an abstract type. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type .
RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.152 CHAPTER 12. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational.
LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. E. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator..1.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.12. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. numerator.1 Library Ratio .% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .g. denominator. Rational. (%). It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.
u) <. showString " % " .assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.t) <.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q. (y. r:%y) where (q.s) <.r) = quotRem n d (q’. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.lex s.u)  (x.154 CHAPTER 12.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . ("%".
.. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. .a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . in the range . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. the entire number is ... magnitude. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude. Put another way. cis.. .. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is . then so is the phase. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle ...Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)). phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. if the magnitude is zero. mkPolar. (RealFloat a) realPart. . phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. polar.. 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . .. conjugate. . realPart.. and the phase. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. imagPart..
156 CHAPTER 13. 13. realPart. but oriented in the positive real direction. magnitude.a) = (magnitude z. whereas signum has the phase of . polar.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x .Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. conjugate. imagPart. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. mkPolar. cis.Read. abs is a number with the magnitude of . but unit magnitude.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq.
LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .13.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .1.
z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .u’) else (u’.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .v) = if x < 0 then (v’.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .158 CHAPTER 13.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.
lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showIntAtBase. showFloat. readSigned. showHex. showOct. readHex. showSigned. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 .Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showFFloat. showEFloat. floatToDigits. readInt. readDec. readFloat. showGFloat. showInt. readOct.
is the precedence of the enclosing context. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. and 16 respectively.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string.5e3). plus an exponent. More speciﬁcally.160 CHAPTER 14.999. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. and is a function that can show unsigned values. In what follows. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. is the value to show. showOct.String)] 14. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. In the call showSigned . 1. if is Nothing.1 and 9.45e2. 8. showFFloat. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.g. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument.0015). if is Just . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. 2.g.999. showInt. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. 0. 245000. . if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. showEFloat.
readHex. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. isHexDigit digitToInt. showHex. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. readDec. given a reader for an unsigned value.) 14. readFloat. intToDigit ) (%). showGFloat. is the base.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident.2. showIntAtBase. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . readOct. readOct. showInt. denominator ) (!). and converts a valid digit character to an Int. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. showOct. and hexadecimal notation respectively.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. readDec. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . showFFloat. octal.14. 14.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. In the hexadecimal case. numerator. In the call readInt . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. showSigned. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. floatToDigits. readSigned. isOctDigit. Array. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. ( ( isDigit. showFloat. readInt. showEFloat. in decimal.
p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. . or p (the exponent) <= minExp.Fractional instances of Float and Double. fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then . p) .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .This converts a rational to a floating.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. NUMERIC .Conversion process: .first. p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax.Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. .a first guess of the exponent.p .Handle exceptional cases . This should be used in the . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.that we got from the scaling. .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat).fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get . _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .162 CHAPTER 14.
showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a .14. maxExpt]] 163 .t) read’’ r = [(n.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .digit to char > a . readPos str] .Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.maxExpt) [(n.[minExpt .showInt.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.base > (Int > Char) . let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l .s) (n.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.t)  ("". showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. read’’ s] lex r. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . .2ˆn)  n <. showOct. showOct..but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.s)  (str. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.s) (x. ."") <<<< lex r.4. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’.
readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . .readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.164 CHAPTER 14.nonnull isDig s ] .Unsigned readers for various bases readDec. readOct.r) <. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric . NUMERIC . readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.These are the format types. digToInt) ds). . r)  (ds.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.
4. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing . LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.14.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) . e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.0e0" [d] > d : ".
Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei. Int) ..and an exponent. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0..’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0.166 CHAPTER 14.base1]) . 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei.’ : s . not .. Burger and R. is) > (1. .Print 34. . Dybvig.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. b.ab. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. []) f d (i:is) = let (c.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. in PLDI 96. if floatToDigits r = ([a. K.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.then r = 0.when the format specifies no . ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. is) > (0.34. not 34." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > . z]. 0:ds) else (0.Print 0. . is) (1. e) .. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. It should be improved.G. In general. NUMERIC ++ ’.
the fraction will make it err even more.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . mUp. 2*b. 1) else (f*2. bˆ(e)*2.Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2. 1. b.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn). 2.the following will err on the low side. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. b) else (f*be*2.will have an impossibly low exponent. e0) (r. e0+n) else (f0.14. be.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . Adjust for this. bˆ(e+1)*2. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2.4. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .p 167 . (p . e) = let n = minExp . be*b. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. .the real minimum exponent . s.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. Ignoring .
lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’). The ‘. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. t)  (ds.t) <. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).d) <. t)  ("NaN".lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.[span p s]] .t) <.point than the Haskell lexer. t)  ("Infinity".168 CHAPTER 14. True) > dn+1 : ds (True. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.t)  (n.’ is optional.d.lexDigits r. (k.t) <. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.t) <.readFix r.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("".t) <.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. length ds’.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k. False) > dn : ds (False.t)  (cs@(_:_). (ds’.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . k) in .s) <.t)  (k.t) <.
. and inRange.a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.... ..u) map index (range (l..a) > (a. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). index.u)) == [0..et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where .u) i == i .u)] 169 .rangeSize (l.u) !! index (l. The Ix class contains the methods range.b) where where where where ..a) > (a. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.. The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers. inRange. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.a) > (a.. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.. and a subscript.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a. . index. . instance instance instance instance (Ix a..Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.when i is in range inRange (l. where . Ix b) .u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. The index operation maps a bounding pair. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range. to an integer.
170 CHAPTER 15.3).Blue) index (Yellow. For an enumeration. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. For example.3.Blue] 1 False . A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15.e.Green. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class.1. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes.
range (l’. Ix b) => Ix (a..ik) = inRange (l1...uk) ik Figure 15.uk1) * ( .ik)  i1 <.u’)] index ((l.u’)) (i.(u..Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: . DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a..uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.l’).l’).u) i * rangeSize (l’...l2.ak) where range ((l1..a2.l’).1.... index (l1.uk)] index ((l1.lk).. Ix ak) => Ix (a1..(u1.15.u2.i2..instance (Ix a1..i2..u’) i’ .uk)) = [(i1. .lk).i’)  i <..lk).(u1.(u.u).....uk) * ( index (lk1. .. Ix a2...range (l2..uk)) (i1.u2..(u1..u1)....(u.l2. i2 <.1: Derivation of Ix instances . ik <..i’) = inRange (l....u2) i2 && ..u’) i’ inRange ((l...u’) + index (l’...u2.i2.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1. && inRange (lk.u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u1))) inRange ((l1.uk)) (i1.range (l1. i’ <.u2)...ik) = index (lk..u’)) (i.range (l.u) i && inRange (l’.l2.u’)) = [(i.i’) = index (l...range (lk.. ...b) where range ((l.
a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.m error "Ix.a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.n) = [m.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.Ix b) => Ix (a.as derived Ix () ." inRange (c.n] index b@(m. (1.but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n) index b@(m.index: Index out of range.index: Index out of range.n) i = [m.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.2)." inRange (m.2) <= (2. For example. b) .n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .1) .(2.. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.fails if the bounds are tuples.172 CHAPTER 15.as derived .index: Index out of range." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" . index.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci . inRange.n] index b@(c.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.a) > [a] index :: (a.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .as derived Ix Ordering . for all tuples Ix Bool .as derived.n] = = = i .n) = [m.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a..a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.
array.export all of Ix for convenience Array. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . accumArray.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a...a) > [(a.. (//).Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a..Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a.. . elems. 173 . . . .a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a.. a.a) > [(a. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.. listArray... . // => Array a b = . a. Ix b) => (a. (!).a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a. bounds. indices. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .b)] > Array a b (a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. a.b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.. accum. Show b) Read a.. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. assocs.
For example.1) : [(i. each of the index type of the array. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. not as general functions. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. arrays are treated as data. ).e. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. If any two associations in the list have the same index. Typically. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1. 16. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. .1.100) ((1.10)). accumArray.e. when applied to an array. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list.. in particular. 16.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. Figure 16. i * a!(i1))  i <. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. but empty. ). An array may be created by the function array.174 CHAPTER 16. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound.1). in that order. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. If. Thus.[2.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. ). Since most array functions involve the class Ix. elements. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. but nonstrict in the values. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. in index order. return lists of the indices.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. elems. or associations. Because the indices must be checked for these errors.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. The array is undeﬁned (i. An association (i. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1.(10.e. The functions indices. and assocs.10). but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. in any dimension. then the array is legal. respectively.
Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. except with the diagonal zeroed.. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES .1: Array examples function.[1.n]] is the same matrix. i)  i <. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.range b]) 0 0 . hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. (As with the array function. as well as the indices. then m//[((i.) For example. if m is a 1origin. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i.2. Num b) => (a. then accumArray is strict in the values.range b] = bounds a 175 .The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. z)  i <. Thus.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. in the association list.i). Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. given a list of values of some index type. as for the array function.16. 16. the second is an initial value. 0)  i <. 1)  i<is.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. For example. unlike ordinary arrays. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . a!i * x)  i <. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. n by n matrix. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict.range b] where b = bounds a .
16.2 shows some examples.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a. ARRAYS .(u. (!).export all of Ix Array. accumArray.l’). they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.176 CHAPTER 16. array. assocs.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.(_.u) (\i>(i.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.2: Derived array examples 16.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones._).a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) . elems._)) = bounds x .i)) x where ((l. Ix b) => a > Array (a. bounds. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !.u’) (\j>(i. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.y)>x) Figure 16.a) (a > b) deriving () . indices.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. listArray. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a. with the mapping that the original array embodies. (//). .a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l. respectively. accum.j)) x where ((_.u’)) = bounds x . Figure 16.
a) > [(a. f) instance (Ix a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.z)  i <.range b]) :: (Ix a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.v) <.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array. a!i)  i <.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. a ! f i)  i <.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . Ix b) => (a.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.a!i)  i <.4.16.b)] = [(i. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.indices a._) <._) <.v) > a // [(i.a) > [(a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.ivs.
readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.178 instance (Ix a.lex r. Read a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16.u) <. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . (as.s) <. Show a. (b. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " .Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as. showChar ’ ’ . u)  ("array".t) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .
179 .
break. union. scanr1. unlines. intersectBy.. genericSplitAt. dropWhile. insert. mapAccumR. takeWhile. zipWith7. group. reverse. deleteBy. mapAccumL. foldl1. sort. words. length. product. elem.This is builtin syntax map. maximumBy. nubBy.[]((:). scanl1. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . unzip. scanl. unfoldr. null. repeat. zip6. genericDrop. find. splitAt. transpose. zip7. zipWith3. zip5. tails. elemIndices.180 CHAPTER 17. (++). sortBy. head. iterate. lines. unzip4. zip4.and what the Prelude exports . init.. unwords. unzip6. genericReplicate. intersect. foldl. minimumBy. foldr. replicate. and. lookup. intersperse. concat. unzip7. zipWith5. scanr. zipWith6. tail. last. isPrefixOf. any.. nub. zipWith. filter. or. zipWith4. sum. concatMap. take. span. partition. findIndices. maximum. []). LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. notElem. cycle. unionBy. genericLength. groupBy. zip. foldr1. delete. zip3. . drop. . insertBy. inits. isSuffixOf. deleteFirstsBy. unzip5. findIndex. genericIndex. (\\). (!!). genericTake. minimum. all.
.c.b.[c].[e]) :: [(a.c.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[b].b.d)] > ([a].e.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.c.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.b.[d].[c]. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.[f].[d].c.[b].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.g)] > ([a].[e].e)] > ([a].d.[f]) :: [(a.[d]) :: [(a.[b].[d].e.[c].b.d. c)) > a > [b] > (a.f.d.d.c.b.[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.d.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].f.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].b.[e].f)] > ([a].b. [c]) (a > b > (a.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.[c].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.c.e.[b].b.c.d.c.
if any. Thus.3.2.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative).. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type.182 CHAPTER 17. In the result of xs \\ ys. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).g. findIndex returns the corresponding index.4. union is list union. e. nub removes duplicate elements from a list. of val in list as Just index.1. if there is no such element. LIST UTILITIES 17.4. or Nothing.6.. For example: nub [1.3.g. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. delete. e. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. (\\).8] == [2.3] = [1. 17.. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. e.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.g. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection.4] .3. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. [1. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. giving the occurrences of val in list.3.
tails "abc" == ["abc". "c".17.[4.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.5]. shortest ﬁrst."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order)."pp".[3. LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17. inits "abc" == ["".e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.3]."ss"."ss".4].. longest ﬁrst. For example: ."ab"."a". transpose [[1.e.b. "bc".d.5.3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. intersperse ’. filter (not . respectively. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm.""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn."i".6]] == [[1."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". adjacent elements. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation."i".’ "abcde" == "a.3. 17. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.[2.c. e.g.. partition p xs == (filter p xs.2.g.. i."i". mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. e.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.
when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. sortBy. isPrefixOf.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. elemIndices. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. insertBy. sufﬁx) of the second argument. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. . minimumBy. 17. maximumBy. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”.6 The “By” operations By convention. f x)) In some cases. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. deleteBy. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. intersectBy. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.184 CHAPTER 17. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. groupBy. The library does not provide elemBy. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. unionBy. For example. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\).
genericReplicate. genericDrop. genericSplitAt. and zipWith3.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). genericTake. . For example. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericLength is a generalised version of length. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. 5.17. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. 6. zipWith.7. unzip3. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. and 7 arguments. zip3. unzip.
length. zip3. genericIndex. last..zip xs [0. unzip5. zip6. genericReplicate. break. notElem. foldr1. tail. replicate. null. minimumBy. partition. genericTake. or. splitAt. maximumBy. union. and. elem.. zipWith3. zip. cycle.. (++). intersperse. deleteBy. foldl.[]((:). foldl1. take. zipWith6. scanl1. (!!).9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. sum. insert. words. intersect. groupBy. foldr. genericSplitAt. drop. insertBy. group. head. delete. reverse. deleteFirstsBy. sort. takeWhile. (\\). intersectBy. iterate. zip4. dropWhile. transpose. concat. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . unwords. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . scanr. elemIndices. inits. isSuffixOf.].i) <.. genericDrop. findIndex. LIST UTILITIES 17. unlines. zip7. unzip.This is builtin syntax map. lines. unzip4. . findIndices. filter. unzip6. genericLength. concatMap. zipWith4. zipWith. unzip7. repeat. product.and what the Prelude exports . unionBy. find. scanr1. nub. span. any. scanl. sortBy. zip5. []). maximum. lookup. zipWith7. nubBy. isPrefixOf. unfoldr. init. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . tails. . mapAccumL. zipWith5.186 CHAPTER 17. minimum. mapAccumR. all.
and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .17.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.For example."ss".2].[2.4].transpose is lazy in both rows and columns. p) xs) .5].xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]."pp".[]] = [[1. transpose [[1.group "Mississippi" == ["M".xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <..4. adjacent .g.Note that [h  (h:t) <.[5]] ."ss".elements."i".3]. ."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) . e. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .xs.[3. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.9."i"."i". filter (not .[a]) = (filter p xs.
y ) = f s x (s’’."a". c)) > a > [b] > (a. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . "c".ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a."ab".e.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a.y ) = f s’ x (s’."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. []) = (s’’.g. []) = (s’’. [c]) = (s. shortest first. ["".b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert .g. ["abc". ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a. [c]) = (s. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a.e.. y:ys) where (s’’.tails xs returns the . tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17. "bc".zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .inits xs returns the . longest first.y:ys) where (s’. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys..
genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .[b]) = ([].xs) = ([].[]) = = = (x:xs’.9. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.17.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) error "List.
[].ds) > (a:as.d.c:cs.g)] = zipWith7 (.e)] = zipWith5 (.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.cs....b.c.. LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List..c.d.e.d)] > ([a].d) ˜(as.d)] = zipWith4 (.d.b.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.[d]) = foldr (\(a.b.f)] = zipWith6 (.c.c..) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[c].b....b:bs.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .[b].e..b.d:ds)) ([]..bs.c.b.f.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17....) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.[].
b.c.fs) > (a:as.ds.9.d.cs.[].c.[].f.f.b.e.d.[].[].f:fs)) ([].c.bs.g)] > ([a].f:fs.[g]) = foldr (\(a.fs.[]) :: [(a.b:bs.d:ds.d:ds.[].[d].d.b.[]) unzip7 unzip7 .[c].b:bs.b:bs.d.[e].[b].ds.[].[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.d.e.[].[c].ds.[c].g) ˜(as.[].[e].c.b.gs) > (a:as.c:cs.bs.17.[].[f].e)] > ([a].b.bs.e:es)) ([].es.f) ˜(as.[b].[e]) = foldr (\(a.[f]) = foldr (\(a.[].d.cs.f)] > ([a].e:es.es.[d]. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.e.[d].g:gs)) ([].cs.e) ˜(as.c:cs.e.d:ds.[].c:cs.c.[].b.[b].e:es.es) > (a:as.c.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. 193 .and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. and without using IOError from the IO monad. listToMaybe. catMaybes.. isNothing. mapMaybe. . fromMaybe. as would happen if error were used. Just). A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. fromJust. maybeToList... Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. which would cause the expression to become monadic. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. maybe ) where isJust.
fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust.194 CHAPTER 18. fromMaybe. fromJust. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe.. isNothing. map f .and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. catMaybes. listToMaybe.. . maybeToList.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . mapMaybe. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . Just).
This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. other alphabetic. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isOctDigit. isControl. showLitChar. ord.and what the Prelude exports Char. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. toLower. lexLitChar. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting.. . numeric digits. and other printable characters. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. readLitChar. digitToInt. isAlpha. For the purposes of Haskell. intToDigit. isHexDigit.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. chr. isPrint. isSpace. isUpper. lower case alphabetic.. isLower. isUpper. toUpper. isLower. isAlpha. isLatin1. isSpace. isLatin1. isHexDigit. isControl. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. String ) where isAscii. isOctDigit. any 195 . the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library. isPrint. isDigit. isDigit.. isAlphaNum.
and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. "Hello")] [(’\n’. ’0’.. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range..e.’f’.15. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int.. ’A’. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. For each sort of Unicode character.. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. ’a’. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. leaving any other character unchanged. isOctDigit. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. Similarly.196 CHAPTER 19. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. lower.’9’. leaving any other character unchanged. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. The function readLitChar does the same. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers.’F’). and title). intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. . CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".
Charactertesting operations isAscii.. isUpper.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . lexDigits.19. isDigit. digitToInt.’a’.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isControl.Used for character name table.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . intToDigit. .Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . isLatin1. chr.and what the Prelude exports Char. readOct.. String ) where import Array .’Z’ . isDigit. isAlpha.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. showLitChar. isOctDigit. isLatin1. isSpace. isPrint. isAlphaNum. ord.Source of primitive Unicode functions.. isLower.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c .. toUpper.. readHex) import UnicodePrims . isPrint. isAlpha. toLower. isControl.’A’.1. isUpper. . import Numeric (readDec.’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . isOctDigit. isLower. isHexDigit. isSpace.digitToInt: not a digit" . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isHexDigit. lexLitChar. readLitChar.
t)  (n.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.10) error "Char.s’)  (c.table.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.s’) <.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum . s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’.t) <.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’. mne) <.t) <.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’. t)  (n.intToDigit: not a digit" . ([]. t)  (n.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.t) <.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .ord ’@’).198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].
"SOH".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "DC1". "BS". "ACK". 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "HT". "FF".1. "FS". "ENQ". "DC4". ’ ’) ["NUL". "DLE". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "STX". "EM". "LF". "CAN". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "ESC".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. "DC3". "RS".s)] [] . "SO". "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "DC2". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "CR". "SYN". "BEL".19. "ETB". protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "VT".s)] . "SUB".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "ETX". "GS". "SI".s) = (c:t. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c]. "US".c]. "NAK".
200 CHAPTER 19. CHARACTER UTILITIES .
201 .
> m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . liftM2. foldM. sequence_.202 CHAPTER 20.. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. (=<<). return. unless. join. liftM. fail). liftM4. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. zipWithM_. filterM..c)) > [a] > m ([b]. msum. mplus). mapM_. sequence. Functor(fmap). (>>). . liftM5. ap. guard.. zipWithM. liftM3.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). mapAndUnzipM. when. mapM.
20. So. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). and provides some useful operations on monads.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad.1.20. Thus. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. for example. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else.
For example. xm ] == do a2 <. . This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. MONAD UTILITIES 20.1] [0. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments. projecting its bound argument into the outer level. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. returning the result as a pair of lists.. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). preﬁxing each line with its line number.f a1 x1 a3 <.f a2 x2 .2] = [0. foldM f a1 [x1. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list..3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations.. For example. putStr ": ". the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure.204 CHAPTER 20. The function arguments are scanned left to right..2. the input list should be reversed.. x2. which promotes function application. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. and otherwise do nothing. liftM2 (+) [0. putStrLn line) [1.. .3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle.1.
... xn 205 . FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ .20.. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 .3.
fail). msum. unzip . mapM_. guard. mplus). mapM.. filterM. mapAndUnzipM.206 CHAPTER 20. liftM5. .Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. (>>).Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) .The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . Functor(fmap). when. return.. foldM. MONAD UTILITIES 20. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return .. zipWithM_. ) where .and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). liftM2. unless. (=<<).c)) > [a] > m ([b]. liftM3. sequence. sequence_. ap. zipWithM. join. liftM.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM4.
b’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <. d’ <.p x.d.a. b’ <.b.c.b.20.c. d’ <. e’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.b.4.e. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.a.d. c’ <. c’ <.a. b’ <. ys <.a.c. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .b. b’ <. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.a. c’ <.filterM p xs.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
BufferMode(NoBuffering. ioeGetHandle. data HandlePosn = . isFullError. isIllegalOperation. ioeGetFileName.implementationdependent . hIsSeekable. hReady. hGetChar. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek.. Read. hLookAhead.. catch.implementationdependent . print. getChar. appendFile. Ord. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . .AppendMode.ReadWriteMode). Bounded. hSeek. isEOF. hIsClosed. Read. try.SeekFromEnd).RelativeSeek. bracket. stderr. hPrint.210 CHAPTER 21. hGetPosn. getLine. userError.WriteMode.BlockBuffering). interact. isEOFError. hIsReadable. putStr. Show) stdin. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. hGetLine. hPutStr. ioError. stdin. hIsWritable. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . hIsEOF. hSetBuffering. writeFile. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . putChar.. stdout. isUserError. stdout.. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle.LineBuffering.. putStrLn. isPermissionError. Ix.. FilePath. Read. IOMode(ReadMode. isDoesNotExistError. readIO. openFile. Ord. hGetContents. hPutChar. instance Eq Handle where . Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq... hSetPosn.. bracket_. getContents. hFlush.. Ix. ioeGetErrorString. isAlreadyInUseError. Bounded. IOError. hClose. hWaitForInput. readFile. Enum. instance Eq HandlePosn where .. hPutStrLn. instance Show Handle where ..implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. Ord.implementationdependent . hFileSize. hGetBuffering. hIsOpen.and what the Prelude exports IO. HandlePosn. isAlreadyExistsError. Enum.
Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. This library contain more advanced I/O features. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report.
CHAPTER 21. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. compute. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ .212 are contained in the Directory library.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. The bracket function captures a common allocate. for all other errors. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. the string is implementationdependent. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. and Nothing otherwise. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. All these functions return a Bool. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. In some cases. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. and False otherwise. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). which is already being used (for example. This is an abstract type. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible.
Physical ﬁles are persistent. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. whether it is open. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. represented by values of type Handle. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). or any other object recognised by the operating system. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. Files can be opened.21. In some implementations. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. . it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. whether buffering is disabled. a buffer (whose length may be zero). Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. These handles are initially open. File and directory names are values of type String. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both.2. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. closed or semiclosed. ordered ﬁles. likewise. although it could in fact be a communication channel. For simplicity. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. and normally reside on disk. or enabled on a line or block basis.2. 21. whether the object is seekable.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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which is attached to a physical ﬁle, hFileSize 0).
returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
¥
blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
¥
if
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if
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is NoBuffering, then buffering is disabled if possible.
is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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is LineBuffering, linebuffering is enabled if possible.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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sets the mode of buffering for handle
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21.7. REPOSITIONING HANDLES
217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
¥ ¥
Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
¥
Computation hFlush to the operating system.
¥
causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
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is set to offset from the current position.
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is set to .
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Computation hSeek
sets the position of handle
depending on
. If
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CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT
to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
¥
Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § .3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.10. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .9.10. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . which is made semiclosed. 21. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21. 21. blocking until a character is available.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for .4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.9. EXAMPLES 219 21. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline.9.21.1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. 21. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.
INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .f2] <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program. This version uses characterlevel I/O.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.getArgs h1 <.10. using string I/O is: .hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.220 import IO CHAPTER 21. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.x2 readNum = readLn 21.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.
try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.before rs <.21.before rs <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21. Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.export list omitted } where .actions that IO exports.11.f return (Right r)) (return .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.getArgs s <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .f2] <.11 Library IO module IO {.
222 CHAPTER 21. INPUT/OUTPUT .
223 .
executable. searchable ). renameFile.. doesFileExist. writable. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . getCurrentDirectory. . .224 CHAPTER 22. readable. writable. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. executable.. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. setPermissions. getDirectoryContents. searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . renameDirectory.. setCurrentDirectory.. removeDirectory.... . createDirectory. removeFile.. doesDirectoryExist. getPermissions.
Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. inaccessible. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. Some entries may be hidden. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path.1. the directory has to be empty. however. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. as described in Section 21. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. Note that. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. it is atomically replaced by the object. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed.. it is atomically replaced by the directory. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. in particular. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. In some operating systems. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ .225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. Entries in subdirectories are not. removal of the root directory). but the constraints must be documented. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. or may not be in use by other processes). considered to form part of the directory contents. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. or have some administrative function (for instance. all other permissible errors are described below. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . “. or across different physical devices). ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty.). removes an existing directory . If the object already exists.” or “. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. A directory contains a series of entries. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. Error reporting.” under POSIX). renaming to an existing directory. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. Error reporting. directory etc. If the directory already exists.
The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. ¦ ¦ . doesFile(Directory)Exist. Note that to change some. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . For directories. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed.226 CHAPTER 22. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. Error reporting. Error reporting. Each entry in the changes . respectively. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. makeReadable f = do p <. the executable ﬁeld will be False. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. Error reporting. but not all permissions.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. get(set)Permissions. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and False otherwise. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. not as an absolute path. but not to examine the directory contents. but the constraints must be documented. renaming across different physical devices). and False otherwise. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. a construct on the following lines must be used. Error reporting. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory.
or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.227 does not exist. . The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess.1.ExitFailure). In particular. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised. Read. getProgName. as described in Section 21. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. in particular. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . some values of may be prohibited (for instance. If variable is undeﬁned. all other permissible errors are described below. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Note that. Ord. exitWith. Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. getEnv. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). getArgs. system.
The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . Otherwise. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch.230 CHAPTER 23. returning to the program’s caller. Before the program terminates. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. could not recover. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent.
231 .
.April. ctPicosec. Enum.November. instance Ord ClockTime where . DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime.232 CHAPTER 24. ctTZ.February.. Ord. Ix. tdMin. Bounded. ctYear. July. Month. Bounded. String. ctWDay. Read. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. instance Eq ClockTime where . tdYear. ctSec. tdMonth.December).Friday. . ctMonth. tdMin.June. tdDay. Int. ctMin.May. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. ctHour.. tdSec. Ord. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Ord. Integer. Read. Read. getClockTime. Day. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. addToClockTime. ctTZName. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. tdDay.August. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.. toUTCTime.Thursday. Read.. tdHour. tdSec :: Int.Monday. Int.Saturday). formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . ctHour.Tuesday. toCalendarTime. calendarTimeToString. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Month(January.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdPicosec).. diffClockTimes.September.October. tdHour.March. toClockTime. Day(Sunday. ctIsDST). ctDay. Show) . Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. ctYDay.Wednesday. Ix. tdMonth. ctMin. Ord. Enum. Int.
Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. The returns difference may be either positive or negative.233 . § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). including timezone information. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Because of this dependence on the local environment. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. and False otherwise. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. used for the system’s internal clock time. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. ClockTime is an abstract type. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way.
toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . instance Eq ClockTime where ... Bounded.).Thursday. July. t © S§ 24.May. Read.December). Ix. ctYear. Month(January. . Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. ctDay. Read. and ﬁelds. tdPicosec). toUTCTime. calendarTimeToString. ctIsDST). Day(Sunday.March. addToClockTime.Wednesday. getClockTime. tdHour.November.. ctYDay. Ord. toCalendarTime.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime.Saturday). Ord. ctTZName.September.. tdMonth. ctMonth. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . CalendarTime(CalendarTime. Ix. . tdMin. instance Ord ClockTime where .October.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . ctMin.April. toClockTime. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. tdDay.June.. ctSec. Enum.August. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. . tdYear.. Bounded. ctWDay.Monday.Tuesday. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. tdSec. ctHour.234 § CHAPTER 24.February. ctTZ.Friday. Enum. ctPicosec. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format.. diffClockTimes.
Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = ... Int. Day. Ord.. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . Read. Int.. :: ClockTime = .. Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int..24. tdDay. > ClockTime > ClockTime . LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. tdMonth. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . ctHour. Int.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime . tdHour. Integer. :: ClockTime = . tdMin. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. tdSec :: Int. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. :: ClockTime = ..1. Month. . ctMin.. .. String.Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime ... Read.Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff . Ord..
.1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then . DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .236 CHAPTER 24..Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . days) = (yday + 7 .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week. .
1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. show2’. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .1. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .24. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
String)]. timeFmt. String). dateTimeFmt. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions..). dateFmt. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library. Ord. amPm :: (String. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. months :: [(String. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. String)]. 239 . At present.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
1. For example. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. ¦ ¡ ¡ . This is very useful in functional programs (for example. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1.Default method genRange g = (minBound. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators. and a new generator.27.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator.1 The RandomGen class. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. or by supplying a seed from some other source. then . The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. . by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. – genRange – If genRange . when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls).Int) next :: g > (Int. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. g) . 27. g) split :: g > (g. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points).4] are the only examples we know of). and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen.
the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string.. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . Programmers may.. all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. . In general. . The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. In addition. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. split g = (g. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator.. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. then g1 and g2 should be independent. Again.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation.. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). of course. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. It is required that read (show g) == g. by mapping an Int into a generator.. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results.. variantOf g) Here.. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g.3].. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . Until more is known about implementations of split. instance Show StdGen where . Implementation warning. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. instance Read StdGen where .. supply their own instances of RandomGen..246 CHAPTER 27.
.. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where . randomR takes a range and a random number generator . – For bounded types (instances of Bounded.. such as Char).....a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .27. – For Integer. . but does not take a range..2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. the range is normally the whole type. .similar. a) > g > (a. but they may be. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. depending on the implementation and the interval.. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. random does the same as randomR.. ..g’) = random g randomRs = .. . .. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a. randomRs and randoms. and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if ... – For fractional types.2. . together with a new generator. The plural versions. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. and do not return a new generator. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int..
27. pp11921201. use the global random number generator (see Section 27.248 CHAPTER 27.mat. July 1998.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page.3 The global random number generator There is a single. for example. The Web site http://random. April 1992. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. . setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. Comm ACM 31(10). 33(1). Oct 1988. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. and KW Miller. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. To get deterministic behaviour. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). pp8289. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. Jan 1990. randomRIO and randomIO. global random number generator of type StdGen.3).sbg. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. [4] P Hellekalek. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. [3] DG Carta. Comm ACM. For example. use setStdGen. by using the time of day.at/ is a great source of information. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. respectively. [2] SK Park. 2(2):203212. and returns the other. pp8788. Journal of Functional Programming.ac. updates it with one of the results.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. “Distributed random number generation”. implicit. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. “Random number generators .
Principal type schemes for functional programs. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. [8] Mark P. Co.L. and J. 249 . San Francisco. MA. [6] P. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Milner. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. October 1999. N. 1987. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. Haskell Workshop. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Penﬁeld. pages 248–256. Jones. 146:29–60. January 1989. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901. Hindley. [2] H. NorthHolland Pub. Addison Wesley. e [5] J. Texas. Journal of Functional Programming. Paris. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. 5(1). Fasel.M. [3] L. September 1981. [12] P. Hudak. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Combinatory Logic. January 1995.R.Bibliography [1] J. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism.. The Unicode Standard. Amsterdam. Jones.0. Wadler and S. Albuquerque. 1958. 21(8):613–641. Peyton Jones. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Feys. Austin. Englewood Cliffs. Jr. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. [7] Mark P. December 1969. pages 60–76. [11] Unicode Consortium. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. [10] S. 2002. Reading. August 1978. New Jersey. [4] KF. January 1982. Damas and R. pages 207–212. [9] P. PrenticeHall International. Peterson. J. Yale University. 2000. Backus. CACM. Version 3. Curry and R.B. May 1996.. Blott.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
92. !. 79. 106 addToClockTime. 116 $. 55. 81. 139 algebraic datatype. 153 &&.).. 91. 105. 90. 20–23. see operator application approxRational. 55. 104. 174. 129 ap. 140 appendFile. 25. 104. 55. 51. 129 any. 119 ANYseq. see function application operator. 115. 55. 105 **. 110 (. 55. 12 \b. 156 ::. see also negation . 55. 142 >>. 119 alt. 92. 104. 142 >. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 175. 186. 55. 115 . 109 @. 90.Index font. 104. see also + pattern ++. 55. 106 //. 55. 91. 12 . 88. 97. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 104. 66 abs. 31. 110 /. 174. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 104. 92. 109 >>=. 43. 55. 90. 93. 84. 82. 9. 30 <. 176. 88. 55. 109 ==. 173. 142 :. 109 _. 97. 79. 110 $!. 90. see trivial type and unit expression *. 187 \. 217 abstract datatype. 62 and. 97. 104. 104. 25. 9. see aspattern [] (nil). 91. 141 all. 91. 110 %.). 206 apat. 55. see lambda abstraction \&. 67. 55. 173. 182 \a. 12 \v. 9. 84. 173. 81. 44. 233. 91. 12 \\. 177 acos. 104. 84. 155. 55. 12 \t. 80 (). 104. 81. 84. 80 \\. 55. 55. 12 \n. 91. 177 !!. 139 alts. 19 function. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 92. 104. 82. 104. 16. 45. 91. 139 ambiguous type. 88. 55. 142 =<<. 104. 104. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 80 (. 106 +. 230 ˆ. 129 any. 214 application. 104. 110 ˜. 104. 12 \f. 109 ˆˆ. 104. 55. 12 \r. 55. 142 >=. 106 acosh.. 175–177 /=. 104. 104. see wildcard pattern . 104. 91. 17. 91. 151. 126 AppendMode. 80 :+. 55. 105. 119 ANY. 91. 202. 177 accumArray. 55. 104. 173. 180. 235 aexp. 142 <=. 55. 151. 76 accum.
195. 121. 38. 9. 9 endofline. 41 class declaration. 197. 108 atanh. see transparent character set charesc. 91. 197 array. 129 closing a ﬁle. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 156 class. 9 nested. 40. 156 con. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 137 basic input/output. 155. 47. 125. 39. 173. 104. 98. 38. 110 Char (module). 137 ceiling. 211. 79. 80 Array (datatype). see pattern binding simple pattern. 66. 74 cname. 106 atan2. 130 character. 106 assocs. 140 concat. 93. 9. 91. 193. 140 . 177 bracket. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 106 asinh. 110 boolean. 12. 79. 47 class. 90 arithmetic sequence. 114 atan. 130 coercion. 111 bounds. 69. 226 Char (datatype). 42 class method. see simple pattern binding body. 161. 12. 174. 12. 38. 92. 23. 84. 235 case expression. 9. 95 binding. 174 Array (module). 173. 48 class environment. 67 with an empty where part. 7 ascLarge. 173. 47. 232. 176. 21 conid. 155. 233. 173. 156 conop. 91. 137 class assertion. 79 literal syntax. 195. 174. 115 conditional expression. 49 clock time. 177 aspattern (@). 48. 136 Bool (datatype). 230 catMaybes. 143 instance for Char. 10. 79 Bounded (class). 137 cdecls. 18. 221 break. 155. 215 closure. 9 comment. 173 accumulated. 41. 211. 129 ascSmall. 9. 129 asin. 91. 130 ASCII character set. 12. 92. 176 array. 234 closecom. 47. 9. 11. 177 asTypeOf. 33 ascDigit. 129 compare. 130 chr. 18. 118 btype. 130 conjugate. 40. 234 char. 136 cntrl. 93. 105 derived instance. 9. 174 derived. 106 atype. 107 changing the directory. 142 Complex (module). 12 character set ASCII. 51. see ASCII character set transparent. 221 bracket_. 37 function. 198 cis. 194 cdecl. see function binding pattern. 161. 129 ascii. 25 INDEX catch. 129 ascSymbol. 17. 89. 174. 235 calendarTimeToString. 115 concatMap. 38.252 arithmetic operator. 17. 31. 93 comment. 232.
90. 9. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 240 Day (datatype). see also instance declaration deriving. 138 diffClockTimes. 225 creating a ﬁle. 195. 138 constrs. 239. 226 curry. 38. 41 context. 106 do expression. 213. 89. see import declaration instance. 106 cosh. 240 delete. 81. 114 Curry. 37 class. 27. see data declaration recursive. 50. 91. 38. 112 drop. 187 deleting directories. 145 default declaration. 186 elemIndices. 182. 235 ctHour. vii cycle. 56. 118 e. 43. 151. 235 ctMin. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 182. see data declaration default. 111 either. 106 cosine. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 232. 225 denominator. 232. 93 CPU time. 235 ctIsDST. 186 elems. 240 dateTimeFmt. 108 default class method. 47 within a let expression. 43 abstract. 187 deleteBy. 41. 9. 91. 48. 129 data constructor. 137 decodeFloat. 138 constructor class. 241 CPUTime (module). 241 createDirectory. 115. 80. 224 doesFileExist. 117 dashes. 180. 92. 49 declaration group. 97 doDiv. 214 ctDay. 129 digitToInt. 43. 43 data declaration. see newtype declaration dateFmt. see class declaration datatype. 104.. 91. 177 encodeFloat. 224 div. 43 datatype. 119 elemIndex. 118 dropWhile. 92. 224. 137 declaration. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 81.INDEX const. 141. 167 Either (datatype). 234 dclass. 180. 110 constr. 55. 55. 58 decls. 239. 180. 180. 224 Double (datatype). 138 decimal. 232. 10. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 93. 235 digit. 58 derived instance. 111 elem. 43. see recursive datatype renaming. 180. 51. 26. see abstract datatype algebraic. 232. 235 current directory. 174. 224 Directory (module). 239. 81. 197 directories. 40 consym. 106 divMod. 38 constructor expression. 92. 130 decl. 232. 153 dependency analysis. 24 within an instance declaration. see algebraic datatype declaration. 108 . 184. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. Haskell B. 233. 93. see ﬁxity declaration import. 184. 59 cos. 225 deleting ﬁles. 182. 43. 91. 130 context. 173. 137 context reduction. 11.
17. 94. 88. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 16. 105 environment class. see let expression simple case. 111 instance for Double. 24–26. 4. 98 executable. 93. 180. 19. 108 floatRange. 108 Floating (class). 213 FilePath (type synonym). 67. 86. 16. 67. 154 superclass of Integral. 97. 52 expt. 104 error. 108 floatToDigits. 54 flip. 170 enumFrom. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 167 fail. 49. 91 export. 89. 21. 92. 15 case. 105 derived instance. 207 find. 130 even. 104 derived instance. 86. 229 exitWith. 92. 215 ﬁle system. 229 EQ. see class environment type. 106 enumeration. 136 v INDEX expression. 212 False. see simple case expression type. 142 instance for Char. 105 enumFromThenTo. 79 fbind. 86. 113 instance for Float. 33 floatRadix. 114. 138 ﬁle. 108 exponentiation. 12. 17 error. 51. 182. 30. 224 execution time. 92. 186 ﬁxity. 105 superclass of Ord. 27 update. 86. 28 selection. 81 Eq (class). 51. 93. 48. 110 Float (datatype). see label. 28. 4. 229 ExitFailure. 229 ExitSuccess. 105 enumFromTo. 213 ﬁle buffering. see conditional expression let. 112 ﬂoat. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 139 fexp. 139 exp. 105 enumFromThen. 93. 180. 19. 44 construction. 202. 177 instance for Char. see case expression conditional. 91. 186 findIndex. 89. see type environment environment variables. 159. 54. 38. 51. 180. 91. 229 . 125 filter. 18 ﬁxity. 82. 92. 164 ﬁeld label. 108 exception handling. 43. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 230 escape. 91. 65 Enum (class). 106 instance for Complex. 110 superclass of Num. 113 instance for Ratio. 115 filterM. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 86. 99. 136 export list.254 end of ﬁle. 109. see unit expression expression typesignature. 12 floatDigits. 162 expts. 66 exports. 163 f. 139 exp. 215 entity. 16. 81. 29 ﬁelddecl. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 106 exponent. 186 findIndices. 142 instance for Array. 92. 30. see type expression unit. 229 exitFailure. 89.
18. 219 getArgs. 9. 4 hClose. 41 functional language. 105 fromIntegral. 115 hexadecimal. 229 getStdGen. 165 formfeed. 189 genericIndex. 224. 25. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 108 gcon. 92. 181. 42 generator. 157 instance for Ratio. 137 guard. 23 genericDrop. 138 gdpat. 91. 183. 194 fromMaybe. 153 superclass of Floating. 129 255 . 229 getChar. 31. 49. 181. 18. 137 generalization. 225 getDirectoryContents. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 9. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 235 getContents. 190 genericSplitAt. 139 gdrhs. 23. 109 fromJust. 181. 188 GT. vii. 244. 244. 181. 233. 181. 109. 18. 162 fromRat’. 138 gendecl. 130 gcd. 25. 224 getProgName. vii Functor (class). 184. 189 genRange. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 38. 91. 81 gtycon. 117 formal semantics. 96. 111 instance for Maybe. 87. 125 getClockTime.INDEX floor. 189 genericTake. 177 instance for IO. 86. 12. 87. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 92. 117 foldr1. 96. 93. 25. 202. 140 Fractional (class). 107 fromEnum. 54. 113 instance for Array. 248 getStdRandom. 87 funlhs. 215 head. 207 foldr. 80. 106 instance for Complex. 109 instance for []. 210 handles. 217 fmap. 244. 56 function type. 90. 40. 47. 236 formatRealFloat. 3 Haskell kernel. 130 hexit. 94. 229 getLine. 125 getCPUTime. 138 gap. 129 fpat. 224 getPermissions. 210. 193. 90. 181. 125 getModificationTime. 114 function. 116 foldM. 89. 233. 162 fromRational. 213 Haskell. 105 fromInteger. 194 fromRat. 187 groupBy. 91. 106 fst. 92. 96. 248 graphic. 18 gd. 111 functor. 206 Handle (datatype). 18. 91. 81 function binding. 31. 9. 202. 159. 11. 55. 129 group. 224. 190 genericLength. 140 gconsym. 56. 116 foldl1. 181. 140 fpats. 193. 176 foldl. 3 formatCalendarTime. 34 guard. 40. 181. 189 genericReplicate. 59 generalization preorder. 225 getEnv. 56.
156 impdecl. 92. 215 hFlush. 218 hIsSeekable. 211. 212 ioError. 218 hLookAhead. 110 idecl. 212 isHexDigit. 172 indices. 211. 184. 218 hSeek. 81. 24. 195. 212 isJust. 69. 194 . 211. 9 ifthenelse expression. see conditional expression imagPart. 211. 33 integerLogBase. 81. 195. 211. 136 index. 212. 49. 211. 183. 211. 219 hGetLine. 211. 217 hGetBuffering. 195. 58 hIsClosed. 49. 112 Integer (datatype). 197 isControl. 218 I/O. 218 hIsEOF. 181. 211. 50. 211. 216. 96. 38. 210 IO (datatype). 212 id. 125. 137 identiﬁer. 106 interact.256 hFileSize. 92. 218 hIsReadable. 184. 218 hIsWritable. 211. 181. 211. 49. 212 ioeGetFileName. 4. 69. 214. 169. 171. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 137 idecls. 211. 212. 181. 171. 211. 211. 111 IO (module). 211. 49. 33. 195. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 187 intToDigit. 163 Integral (class). 211. 136 import declaration. 112 integer. 136 impdecls. 116 inits. 211 hReady. 38. 211. 197 isAlphaNum. 173. 219 hPutStrLn. 215 isEOFError. 211. 34. 219 hPutChar. 211. 211. 211. 98. 193. 217 hSetBuffering. 198 IO. 218 hGetPosn. 195. 89. 211. 181. 136 import. 57 isAlpha. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 211. 218 hGetContents. 211. 126 intersect. 181. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 215 isAscii. 169. 210. 195. 217 hiding. 188 inlining. 212 IOError (datatype). 138 instance declaration. 81. 214 irrefutable pattern. 197 isDigit. 125 IOMode (datatype). 147 INDEX input/output. 219 hPrint. 212 isFullError. 155. 211. 183. 210 input/output examples. 219 hPutStr. 211. 49 Int (datatype). 217 hGetChar. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 211. 189 inst. 216 hSetPosn. 212 ioeGetHandle. 12 integer literal pattern. 182. 188 insertBy. 172 insert. 183. 219 inRange. 211. 187 intersperse. 215 hIsOpen. 197 isIllegalOperation. 211. 69 impspec. 89. 181. 38. 69. 91. 210 I/O errors. 195. 215 isEOF. 211. 66. 187 intersectBy. 210. 211. 174. 217 hWaitForInput. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 177 init. 71 with an empty where part.
197 isNothing. 12. 172 instance for Int. 41 listArray. 44. 92. 174. 194 literal. 195. 81. 193. 207 liftM5. 195. 44. 197 isSpace. 39. 139 libraries. 26 in list comprehensions. 40. 9. 119 maximumBy. 45. 89. 181. see also offside rule lcm. 91. 225 map. 198 max. 234 ixmap. 134 Locale (module). 219 lookup. 188 isUpper. 129 last. 173. 9. 195. 211. 195. 81 length. 234. 19 large. 193. 31. 199 . 176. 177 listToMaybe. 197 isUserError. 105. 64 kind inference. 50. 116 layout. 40. 172 derived instance. 202. 176. 197 isLower. 19. 181. 207 liftM3. 56 linearity. 31. 188 mapAccumR. 19. 202. 91. 169. 84. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 27 lambda abstraction. 183. 188 isPrint. 16. 142 maxBound. 88. 155. 202. 109 Left. 180. 109 mapMaybe. 207 liftM4. 88. 86. 24 in do expressions. 9. 173. 32 literate comments. 106 lookahead. 23 lex. 91 logBase. 177 join. 206 Just. 116 let expression. 9. 170 instance for Char. 211. 239. 186 list. 215 isPrefixOf. 212. 45. 181. 159. 171. 202. 240 locale. 181. 65 main. 232. 115 mapAccumL.INDEX isLatin1. 181. 31. 64 label. 172 instance for Integer. 212 iterate. 195. 80 list type. 183. 21. 74 liftM. 92 magnitude. 140 LT. 23. 80 list comprehension. 130. 91. 119 . 239 log. 210. 168 lexeme. 207 linear pattern. 202. 104. 173. 197 isSuffixOf. 129 lexical structure. 195. 106 logarithm. 206 mapM. 109 match. 156 Main (module). 169. 81 magnitude. 13. 189 Maybe (datatype). 118 List (module). 172. 40. 65 making directories. 129 literal pattern. 7 lexLitChar. 194 isOctDigit. 193. 172 Ix (module). 202. 143 maximal munch rule. 81 kind. 197 isPermissionError. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 117 Ix (class). 195. 176. 56 lines. 122 lexDigits. 194 mapM_. 50. 202. 127 maximum. 207 v 257 liftM2. 184.
140 opencom. 184. 138 newline. 11. 104 derived instance. 18 numerator. 194 method. 57 name qualiﬁed. see class method min. 105. 11. 202. 115. 9. 81. 90. 104. 143 minimum. 10. 55. 194 maybe. 202. 113 octal. 105 negation. 119 Nothing. 105 instance for Complex. 106 modid. 142 instance for Array. 129 odd. 110 notElem. 89. 225 moving ﬁles. 187 null. 17. 206 mzero. 89 literal syntax. 109 instance for []. 91. 38. 20 newconstr. 66. 5.258 Maybe (module). 161. 244. 206 msum. 105 ord. 55. 202. 113 instance for IO. 46 INDEX next. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 153 Numeric (module). 246 mod. 106 superclass of Real. 248 newtype declaration. 184. 129 openFile. 119 minimumBy. 186. 157 instance for Ratio. 202. 153 superclass of Fractional. 206 monad. 33. 210. 180. 137 or. 159. 116 Num (class). 153 superclass of Real. see special name namespaces. 198 Ordering (datatype). 89. 214 opening a ﬁle. 244. 186 nubBy. 13. 18. 88. 46. 151. 193. 27. 9. 19. 202. 19. 156 mkStdGen. 60. 130 octit. 180. 11 translation of literals. 136 module. 81. 84. 234 moving directories. 26. 88. 245 nonnull. 155. 195. 16. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 9. 52. 95 MonadPlus (class). 181. 121. 66. 119 Ord (class). 108 offside rule. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 19 operator application. 206 instance for []. 193. 91. 182. 10 ncomment. 206 instance for Maybe. 9. 9. 105 number. see also layout op. 91. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 90. 111 maybeToList. 214 operating system commands. 189 mkPolar. 54. 244. 61 Month (datatype). 206 Monad (module). 104. 225 mplus. 230 operator. 81 nub. 89. 232. 90 numericEnumFrom. 19 ops. 130. 32. 129 negate. 206 monomorphic type variable. 51. 178 instance for Char. 168 not. see qualiﬁed name special. 136 Monad (class). 111 instance for Maybe. 84. 32–34. 65 module. 206 + pattern. 129 newStdGen. 34. 111 instance for Ratio. 54. 112 ¢ ¦ . 142 minBound. 91. 61 monomorphism restriction. 79. 197 numeric type.
see patternmatching overloading. 25. 151. 183. 130 qop. 151 Read (class). 79. see + pattern refutable. 181. 11. 171. 51. 103. 247 random access ﬁles. 125 product. 247 Random (module). 140 qconid. 90. 72 qualiﬁer. 11. 19. 103. 42. 247 randomRIO. 31. 213 pi. 169. 115 PreludeText (module). 172 rangeSize. 151. 34 Permissions (datatype). 229 program name. 244. 106 qvar. 121 derived instance. 225 pattern. 245 randomIO. see aspattern _. 103. 143 instance for [a]. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 121 principal type. 106 polar. 103. 140 path. 125 PreludeList (module). 229 program structure. 244. 75 Prelude (module). 18. 91. 96. 244. 247 randoms. 130 qconop. 92. 4 pragmas. 30 overloaded constant. 125 putStr. 75. 18. 139 qualiﬁed name. 130 qual. 85. 140 qvarsym. 244. 247 randomRs. 57 patternmatching. 55. 30 @. 54 polymorphism. 96. 11. 125 putStrLn. 104. 217 RandomGen. 18. 96. 11. 156 physical ﬁle. 125 qcon. 151 Ratio (module). 51 partition. 11. 218 polymorphic recursion. 124 instance for Array. 41 quot. 153. 244. 53 print. 106 quotRem. 93. 155. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 130 Random (class). 153 rational numbers. 187 . see refutable pattern pattern binding. 11. 23 quantiﬁcation. 130 qvarop. 147 precedence. 155. 47 defaults. 156 polling a handle for input. 140 qtycls. 172 Ratio (datatype). 23. 140 pat. 43. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 91. 247 range. 91. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 140 qvarid. 18. 18. 171. 70. see also ﬁxity pred. 130 qtycon. 3 properFraction. 247 randomR. 125 PreludeIO (module). 161 Rational (type synonym). 38 overloaded pattern. 224 phase. 140 qconsym. 244. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 244 random. see linear pattern + . 31. 129 v 259 program arguments. 9.INDEX otherwise. 96. 119 program. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). see wildcard pattern constructed. 110 overloaded functions. see irrefutable pattern linear. 103. 169. 11. 107 putChar.
225 removeFile. 92. 218 readInt. 121. 214 readFloat. 93. 109 sequence_. 224. 92. 210. 109 recip. 55. 166 . 225 repeat. 92. 16. 108 realPart. 121. 96. 107 RealFloat (class). 162 scanl. 85. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 117 scontext. 123 instance for Integer. 91. 224 readDec. 225 renameFile. 85. 224 section. 225 renaming ﬁles. 214 Real (class). 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 244. 76 seq. 164 readIO. 159. 91. 56. 143 ReadWriteMode. 159. 225 removing directories. 224 setStdGen. 124 instance for Double. 248 setting the directory. 107 instance for Ratio. 123 instance for Int. 116 scanr. 86. 104. 217 semantics formal. 85. 81. 107 roundTo. 138 Right. 88. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 10. 94. 85. 214 separate compilation. 163 readsPrec. 108 scaleRat. 85. 88. 164 reading a directory. 117 replicate. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 214 readOct. 164 readEsc. 126 ReadMode. 217 rem. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 86. 225 removing ﬁles. 155. 224. 91. 104. 225 renameDirectory. 92. 130 reservedop. 93. 51. 159. 154 read. 88. 130 return. 85.260 instance for Char. 225 renaming directories. 121 reads. 123 instance for Float. 20. 126. 117 reservedid. 33 RelativeSeek. 198 readFile. 10. 164 readParen. 92. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 156 realToFrac. 97. 89. 116 scanl1. 195. 139 rhs. 224. 159. 106 removeDirectory. 143 readLitChar. 137 searchable. 153 superclass of Integral. 81 round. 117 scanr1. 225 setPermissions. 90. 122 readSigned. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 143 instance for [a]. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 46 refutable pattern. 31. 121 derived instance. 122 readable. 226 Show (class). 119 . 168 readHex. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 105 instance for Ratio. 106 recursive datatype. 126 readList. 108 RealFrac (class). 109 reverse. 96. 10. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 159. 123 instance for Ratio. 110 sequence. 159. 224. 198 readLn. 224.
210. 62 simpleclass. 159. 232. 232. 26. 188 space. 163 showParen. 91. 159. 80. 232. 85. 121. 159. 244. 159. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 123 instance for Int. 92 signature. 129 tail. 195. 181. 74. 86. 85. 105 simple pattern binding. 106 size of ﬁle. 123 instance for Float. 106 tdDay. 45. 159. 121 show2. 129 split. 49 symbol. 85. 163 showInt. 164 showFFloat. 235 tdPicosec. 106 standard handles. 85. 164 showGFloat. 108 signum. 164 showHex. 57. 237 showChar. 91. 232. 105 show. 118 sqrt. 86. 45 strictness ﬂags. 127 System (module). 123 instance for Ratio. see type signature signdecl. 159. 143 showString. 105 sum. 235 tdMin. 237 show2’. 229 tab. 92. 106 tangent. 43. 213 stdout. 183. 188 take. 237 show3. 46. 215 small. 213 stmt. 79 literal syntax. 130 synonym. 139 strictness ﬂag. 181. 163 showIntAtBase. 159. 118 special. 91. 117 takeWhile. 163 showsPrec. 129 span. 9. 137 simpletype. 9. 82 String (type synonym). see also Prelude stderr. 245 splitAt. see type synonym syntax. 48. 178 instance for Char. 80. 12. 244. 91. 115 tails. 85. 9. 91. 122 sign. 106 sine. 114 sort. 93 sinh.INDEX instance for Array. 138 sin. 12 transparent. 164 showFloat. 235 tdMonth. 93 tanh. 213 standard prelude. 235 261 . 121 shows. 181. 235 tdHour. 210 instance for Integer. 91. 184. 210. 9. 229 system. 53 significand. 9. 159. 108 succ. 129 snd. 122 showEFloat. 183. 129. 26. 122 ShowS (type synonym). see transparent string string. 154 superclass of Num. 163 showList. 41. 213 StdGen (datatype). 130 subtract. 232. 199 showOct. 119 superclass. 188 sortBy. 111 string. 121. 143 showLitChar. 139 stmts. 122 showSigned. 94. 92. 159. 118 tan. 210. 124 instance for Double. 246 stdin.
130 type. 38. 183. 232. 11. 184. 119 until. 81. 239. see trivial type unit expression. 137 type class. 81 True. 106 toLower. 42 type expression. 40. 47 topdecl (data). 130 uncurry. see ambiguous type constructed. see function type list. 9. 17. 180. 232 time of day. 136 toRational. 181. 42. 239. 232. 107 try. 230 the ﬁle system. 114 undefined. 233. 66. 53 for an expression. 206 unlines. 79 truncate. 43 topdecl (default). 22. see principal type INDEX trivial. see tuple type type. 39. 181. 240 to12. 187 uniSmall. 11. 198 topdecl (class). 234 time. 46 topdecl (type). see expression typesignature type synonym. 181. 235 toClockTime. 182. 187 unionBy. 49 value. 181. 224. 17. see newtype declaration type signature. 98. 80 tuple type. 232 time12Fmt. 40 type renaming. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 130 tycon. 181. 187 trigonometric function.262 tdYear. 41. 119 unzip. 191 userError. 129 union. 140 varid. 42 ambiguous. 9. 235 terminating a program. 235 toEnum. 235 transpose. 46 tyvar. 4. 45. 93. 40. 49. 191 unzip7. 9. 40. 80. 10. 125 valdefs. 45 topdecl. 41 tycls. see numeric type principal. 38. 17. 129 unless. 67. 236 toCalendarTime. 91. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 232. 86. 43 type environment. 185. 93 trivial type. 11. 114 unwords. 129 uniLarge. 224 Time (module). 197 uniDigit. 114 unfoldr. 4 var. see monomorphic type numeric. 49 topdecl (newtype). 198 toUTCTime. 235 timeFmt. 221 tuple. 195. 51 topdecl (instance). 188 Unicode character set. 181. 93. 92. see also datatype recursive. 18. 129 unit datatype. 211. 49. 233. 129 uniSymbol. 7. 22 uniWhite. see constructed type function. 191 unzip6. 233. 105 toInteger. 120 unzip4. 136 topdecls. 120 unzip3. 41. 11. 9. see list type monomorphic. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 103. 239. 195. see class type constructor. 105 toUpper. 4. 130 varop. 18. 180. 9. 38. 140 . 202. 22. 190 unzip5. see trivial type tuple.
224 writeFile. 181. 181. 190 zipWith7. 190 zip7. 190 zipWithM. 190 zip5. 53. 129 whitespace. 126. 190 zip6. 214 zip. 129 when. 137 varsym. 129 whitestuff. 130 vertab. 214 WriteMode. 185. 190 zipWith5. 9. 38. 181. 207 263 .INDEX vars. 185. 181. 118 writable. 120 zipWith3. 202. 202. 206 whitechar. 202. 120 zipWith4. 181. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 181. 97. 9. 9. 190 zipWith. 207 zipWithM_. 9. 120 zip3. 10. 80. 181. 31 words. 190 zipWith6. 120 zip4. 181.