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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . 10. . . 16. . . . 10. . . . . . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . . 16. . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. . . . .4 Library Array . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . .2 Lexical Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Array Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 160 161 161 161 . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 .4 Library Monad . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . .1 Library Maybe . . . . . . . .9 Library List . . . . . . . . . . .5 Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Reading Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . .7. . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 21. . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Indexing lists . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . .2 “Set” operations .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. .3. . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SemiClosed Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . . . . . . .2. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 17. . . .8 Handle Properties . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . 21. . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . 20. . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .1 Standard Handles . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . .vi 21. . . .10Examples . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. a stable foundation for real applications development. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. and most of these. .” Haskell B. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. have published something erroneous. named after the logician Haskell B. purely functional programming languages. including building large systems. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. including ourselves. It should be freely available. 2. Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. providing faster communication of new ideas. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. even more than it is ordinarily. May 31. 4. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. and applications. 5. research. 3. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. Oregon. It should be suitable for teaching. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus.
and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. much larger than I had anticipated. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. making some simpliﬁcations. Resolve ambiguities. As Haskell becomes more widely used. It is not a . and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication. and is called “Haskell 98”. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent.4). It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. Clarify obscure passages. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback.4. If these program were to be portable. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. This task turned out to be much. together with a standard library called the Prelude. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list. By the middle of 1997. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). incorporating experimental features. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. this stable language is the subject of this Report. for the foreseeable future. With reluctance. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two.
Control extensions. or use Haskell for teaching. going well beyond Haskell 98. including: pattern guards. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. including: monadic state. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. including: multiparameter type classes. it provides a stable point of reference. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. exceptions. concurrency. Instead. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist. recursive donotation.org gives access to many useful resources. including: .PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). Type system innovations. There is more besides. so that those who wish to write text books. existential types. functional dependencies. metaprogramming facilities. lexically scoped type variables. For example.
Details of the Haskell mailing list. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. You are welcome to comment on. Implementations of Haskell. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. by an active community of researchers and application programmers. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. suggest improvements to. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. Here they are.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. Applications of Haskell. Tutorial material on Haskell. Building the language Haskell was created. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. University of Nottingham. via the Haskell mailing list. and continues to be sustained. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Microsoft Research Ltd) . in particular. Those who served on the Language and Library committees.
Stephen Blott. SiauCheng Khoo. Richard Kelsey. Laura Dutton. Id. Malcolm Wallace. Sisal. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Pat Fasel. Clean. Sandra Loosemore. Mark Lillibridge. Magnus Carlsson. Jim Mattson. Gofer. Stef Joosten. Simon Marlow. Sergey Mechveliani. Satish Thatte. Backus’s FP [1]. Tom Thomson. Arthur Norman. Jan Skibinski. Michael Webber. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Duke Briscoe. Felix Schroeter. Amir Kishon. Ketil Malde. Craig Dickson. Ross Paterson. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Nick North. Finally. Curry. ML and Standard ML. Klemens Hemm. Michael Schneider. Østvold. John Meacham. . Jose Labra. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. Andy Gill. David Tweed. Simon B. Ralf Hinze. Hans Aberg. Paul Callaghan. Dylan Thurston. Julian Seward. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Matt Harden. Raman Sundaresh. Graeme Moss. Stephen Price. Olaf Lubeck. Kent Karlsson. Orjan Johansen. Henrik Nilsson. Jan Kort. Thomas Hallgren. Tony Davie. Patrik Jansson. Christian Sievers. Michael Marte. Bjorn Lisper. some small but many substantial. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Cordy Hall. Wolfram Kahl. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Ian Lynagh. Franklin Chen. and Bonnie Yantis. Sven Panne. Mark Hall. Nic Holt. Olaf Chitil. Mark Carroll. Robert Jeschofnik. John Robson. APL. Hope and Hope . Simon Thompson.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Andreas Rossberg. Chris Fasel. Alexander Jacobson. Rosser. Tommy Thorn. Libor Skarvada. Chris Dornan. Sigbjorn Finne. Andy Moran. Nimish Shah. Mike Gunter. Stuart Wray. Chris Okasaki. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Pradeep Varma. Patrick Sansom. Jones. Sten Anderson. Manuel Chakravarty. Pablo Lopez. Fergus Henderson. Larne Pekowsky. Landin’s ISWIM. Rick Mohr. Marcin Kowalczyk. Chris Clack. Ken Takusagawa. Michael Fryers. Mike Joy. Keith Wansbrough. Lauren Smith. Bjarte M. Gary Memovich. Stefan Kahrs. Richard Bird. Dean Herington. Carl Witty. Josef Svenningsson. Feliks Kluzniak. Guy Cousineau. Tom Blenko. Randy Hudson. Ian Holyer. Ian Poole. Paul Otto. Dave Parrott. Jeff Lewis. and others on the lambda calculus. Mike Thyer. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 . Mark Tullsen. Bob Hiromoto. Rinus Plasmeijer. Christian Maeder. In addition. Randy Michelsen. Tony Warnock. George Russell.
September 2002 PREFACE .xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge.
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
.
Haskell provides higherorder functions. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. programs that formally evaluate to ). userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. described in Chapter 5. a module system. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values. 1.” 4. nonstrict semantics.1 Program Structure In this section. static polymorphic typing. 1. etc. Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages. described in Chapter 3. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. including lists. This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. type classes. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. datatypes. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. a monadic I/O system. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. compiled. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. 2. interpreted. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure.e. deﬁned in Chapter 2. and ﬁxity information. 3. patternmatching. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. 3 . The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. list comprehensions. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. all described in Chapter 4.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. of which there are several kinds. At the next lower level are expressions. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers. arrays.
and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed. for types. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. and Chapter 7. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. See Section 3. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. However. so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. 1. as then else . The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced. such as for expresin if sions.e. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel. If these translations are applied exhaustively.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. However. Technically.1. the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. for declarations. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. etc.4 CHAPTER 1. . In this Report. the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. Also. the concrete syntax.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. literate programming. or overloading (using type classes). implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors.
4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. class. type constructors. Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. 2. those for type variables. These are the only constraints. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. There are two constraints on naming: 1. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module. and module names refer to modules. . and constructor within a single scope. NAMESPACES 5 1.4. for example. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system.1.
INTRODUCTION .6 CHAPTER 1.
]. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set. However.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell... Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell. 2. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax. BNFlike syntax is used throughout.
. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. / < = > ? \ ˆ  .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2.2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .
) and extends to the following newline. cases is not. although case is a reserved word.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. because both of these are legal lexemes. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment. In an ordinary comment. For example. as explained in Chapter 11. Instead. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. terminated by “}”. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. in a nested comment. however “foo” does start a comment. == and ˜= are not. If some code is commented out using a nested comment.g. 2. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. and. Similarly. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. for example. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. Within a nested comment. then any occurrence of {. So.3. although = is reserved.2.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. hence. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment. 2. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”.
is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. Notice that a colon by itself.10 CHAPTER 2. digits.> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ .5). and single quotes. as deﬁned above. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers.. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. such as “[]” and “[a. However. used as wild card in patterns. : : : . and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. underscores. : :: = \  <. “_”.b]”. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. “:”. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. naMe.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers). and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. all operators are inﬁx. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). Underscore. is treated as a lowercase letter.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax.
This f. . and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. constructor.. (qualiﬁed ‘. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer. F. also.4. Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5.’) F .4. .g f. ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. the other four do not.g F.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . g (three tokens) F. . This applies to variable. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters. Prelude. but not type variables or module names. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. .+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4. type constructor and type class names.2. 2. Sample lexical analyses are shown below. (two tokens) F. for example. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. Lexes as this f . 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . F. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name.2).. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms.. .5..5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ .
Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. For example. “form feed” (\f). similarly. “carriage return” (\r). and “vertical tab” (\v). this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next.g.1. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. a double quote " may be used in a character.4. and strings between double quotes. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. "\SOH". “backspace” (\b). Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. Floating literals are always decimal. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. “horizontal tab” (\t). as in ’a’. octal (e. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3. \x37) representations are also allowed. including control characters such as \ˆX. \ must always be escaped. but must be escaped in a string. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). as in "Hello". is parsed as a string of length 1. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. 2.1.g. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6.2. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. “new line” (\n). are also provided. but must be escaped in a character.12 CHAPTER 2. Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X). Similarly. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ .4.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.
Informally stated. Section 9. Also. let. that is.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it.e. by using layout to convey the same information.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. For each subsequent line. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3.pop. As an example. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}.7. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). and if it is indented less. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. an empty list “{}” is inserted. then instead of starting a layout. 2. \ \a numeric escape character. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). a close brace is inserted. When this happens. Figure 2. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. and \ˆX.7). these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. a control character. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). b and g all part of the same layout list. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted.2. or of. Because layout is not required. Given these rules. insert a semicolon or close brace). a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. let. Within these explicit open braces. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. do. which can be freely mixed within one program. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more. where the .7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions. if it is indented the same amount. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i.
push x s = MkStack x s . case s of r > i r where i x = x) . push. inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token.(pop Empty) is an error . case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) .pop :: Stack a > (a.push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .top (MkStack x s) = x } . push.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .top :: Stack a > a . pop.14 CHAPTER 2. Stack a) .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. .(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression.pop (MkStack x s) = (x.size :: Stack a > Int . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. top. inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. top.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. and (c) the close brace at the very end. pop.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a. LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.
we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. . A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. where appropriate. index: a letter . there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. the nonterminals .Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to.11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . right. Similarly. or for left. Except in the case of let expressions. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. including their translations into the Haskell kernel. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. and may have a double (written as a superscript). For example. an associativity variable varies over . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. For example actually stands for 30 productions. In the syntax that follows.
Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”.. the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { .. } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing. } in x + y let { ..f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (.operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. For example. ] .2). This f x .. .. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. } in (x + y) z + (let { .. . ¦ 2 ' .. ..4. let expressions. Sample parses are shown below. it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . .(f x)) + y let { . and conditionals. } ¦ . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . Figure 4.. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. .1). } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . ] ¢ £ .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3.  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4.4.2. Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error.
It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. That is.3. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . all Haskell types include . are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system.1. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. Constructors. 3. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. 3. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. When evaluated. implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language. results in an error. For the sake of clarity. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. Operators. denoted by . when demanded. When undefined is used. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user.2 Variables. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation. the error message is created by the compiler.
For example. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4.% ). Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger . as deﬁned in the Ratio library.4. These are described in Section 6. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y. where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y.18 CHAPTER 3. An operator is either an operator symbol.4). Similarly. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs.% constructs a rational from two integers.1. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. (+) x y is equivalent to x + y. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.2). such as ` `. The integers and are chosen so that . as found in the and .5). a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. Ratio Integer). or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes). . For example. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6.1). ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation.4. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator . Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. such as + or $$. Dually.
Application associates to the left. ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . There is no link between the local meaning of the . Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). if the pattern fails to match. as with any inﬁx operator.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > .4 Operator Applications £ The special form . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator . and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.3. where the are patterns. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator . partial applications of data construc ) of ( . .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude.1.3. v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3.denotes preﬁx negation. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor.operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . The binary . ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 .3. unary .operator and unary negation. it may be rebound by the module system. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. . Because tors are allowed. and is syntax for negate . then the result is . .in the Prelude. CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. However. £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers.deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4. Similarly. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y. 3.17. page 55).
(a+b+) is syntactically correct. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. As another example. as described in the preceding section.20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ). The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose.5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. However. EXPRESSIONS 3. but an application of preﬁx negation. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because .  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). and similarly for ( ). For example. (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. but (+a+b) is not. () is not a section. ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )). ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section.is treated specially in the grammar. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3). Because (+) is left associative.
1. and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. ] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . if is False.1).6.3. ]. and otherwise. and must have the same type. ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . as deﬁned in the must be Bool. £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . denoted []. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . ¥ £ ¡ 3. The list constructor is :. is an expression.3. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. is a binary operator. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . . where . which is also the Prelude. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6. The type of type of the entire conditional expression.7 Lists [] ( ) : .
and requires no translation. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( . respectively. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to .8 Tuples ¢ S (. .1. with precedence level 5 (Section 4.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. . ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude. it is considered part of the language syntax. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .c) and (. § 3.1. Translation: ( . . where there are denote the same value.2). .5). The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction.. Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.2).4.1.) a b c tuple is denoted by (.22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. It is the only member of that type apart from .3).. The constructor for an commas. . . ). and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists.4 and Chapter 8). . . Thus (a. ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . ) (see Section 4. If through are the types of through . and is equivalent to .b.1. like []. ) Tuples are written ( .2). It is a rightassociative operator.).1. 3. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. . and may be of arbitrary length .1.2). and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.
] denotes a list of values of type . .. Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom.17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  .. page 83). The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . See Section 6. . ] .. where each of the has type . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <. ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . enumFromThen. . ] .1. .3. § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ .10.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics. § 3. . where is a pattern (see Section 3. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list.3.. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ .. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3. which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators.11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. ] . and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. . ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] . and is an instance of class Enum... ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . enumFromTo.
For example. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. over patterns.x.2)] ]. over listvalued expressions. expressions. As usual. (3. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3.x ] [ z  y <.2). it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. ]  <. Thus: [ x  xs <.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . [(5. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions.(3. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. .17).4). ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  . mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). and introduce a nested. and boolean value True. let (x. for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities. Pattern bindings are matched lazily.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4.x) <. The function concatMap.5. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions. over boolean over declaration lists..[ [(1. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over.x. z <.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ . The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations. ok is a fresh variable. bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes.xs ] yields the list [4. } in . an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable. 3. x <.4).2]. and over sequences of qualiﬁers.4)].24 CHAPTER 3.(3. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. are deﬁned in the Prelude. = = = = [ ] [  . over qualiﬁers. lexicallyscoped.
˜ ) = ( .4. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . . these identities hold. } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.. .4. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .. in = } in = = let (˜ .. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation.. .) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. . ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . . . . . using the translation in Section 4.13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . Once done. . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . 3. where and are patterns and expressions respectively. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator..3. > ¦§ of { } .3. CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 .13. the “” is a terminal symbol.. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).3. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative.
A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. and the type of the whole expression is that type.3. If matches the pattern in the alternative.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However.26 CHAPTER 3. EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. If one of the pattern. ¦ ¨ . It has a single unambiguous parse. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. Pattern matching is described in Section 3. the result is . from top to bottom. <let . If no match succeeds. . . in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. and then by the guards evaluates to True. If all the guards evaluate to False. Each body must have the same type. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. The expression case x of { (a. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3.17. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . namely case x of { (a. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. ¦ 3. therefore. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. A note about parsing.17._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. Programmers are advised. matching continues with the next alternative. The alternatives are tried sequentially. and hence reject the program.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © .
DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. >>=. in record construction (Section 3. © The ellipsis ".15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4.BAD Here S is legal but T is not." stands for a compilergenerated error message. To illustrate the last point. consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } .2) and update (Section 3.. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. When used as a variable.2.15. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic.OK . Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. however.3.. 3. as deﬁned in the Prelude.1).3).. This shadowing only affects selector functions. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . Within a datatype. and ok is a fresh identiﬁer. select from. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter. As indicated by the translation of do. ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables. and fail are operations in the class Monad. the functions >>. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope..15.15. 3.1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".15. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype. passed to fail." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ . after eliminating empty : } .
. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = .1. these are not subject to layout. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . then value . Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. the ﬁeld labels . A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. } labeled construction .) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § . Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. where F is a data constructor. the { and } characters must be explicit. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. 0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3.2. . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . it denotes F .15. and if appears is . The expression F {}. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. Otherwise. where is the arity of F.
Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. No label may be mentioned more than once. such as x {f2 = 1. Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. f4 = ’A’. } labeled update . v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where ...15. At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value.3. . This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels. T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { .3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. f3.15. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in . f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. f3 = ’x’}.
the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . the principal type. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions.17. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. 3. The value of the expression is just that of .1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . EXPRESSIONS 3. list comprehensions. Translation: 3.30 CHAPTER 3. . } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . do expressions. and case expressions. As with normal type signatures (see Section 4. = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .4). function deﬁnitions.4. or not principal type derivable from comparable to.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: . However. pattern bindings.3. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions.1.1). so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient.2).
x) = x . For example._. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place. and allow one to use . All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once.ILLEGAL. .2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values. or it may diverge (i. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x. returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. ¢ § . Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns.17. return ). . it may succeed. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. For example. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. For example. according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1.z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. Pattern matching proceeds from left to right.e._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x.y. x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail.3. and outside to inside.17. case e of { [x. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) .
Matching a numeric. the overall match succeeds. Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). that is. § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . Again. The match diverges if the comparison diverges. if all matches succeed. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. then is matched against . Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. where newtype.) Operationally. and no binding is done. . The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor.are overloaded. . At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ . where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . is the same as in numeric literal patterns. and to if matching against fails or diverges. respectively. 8.2. 7. and if the match fails or diverges. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. resulting in the binding of to . where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. Matching the pattern by data. then is matched against . ﬁelds may not be named more than once. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type.. so does the overall computation. § § § That is. character. The match diverges if this test diverges. (Binding does not imply evaluation. depends on the value: against a value. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value. ¦ 32 4. the match diverges. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. EXPRESSIONS 2. 3. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. and fails otherwise. the functions >= and . depending on the type of the pattern. If the value is of the form . Matching the pattern against a value. 6.32 CHAPTER 3. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails.
then . ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ .3). ]. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. ] (0.’x’]. ] (\ ˜[x. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges. But if [’a’.’b’] is matched against [’x’.˜(a. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.2.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. If the pattern [’a’. then ’a’ to match against ’x’.b)] > x) [(0. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral.17.3.1). Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is .y) > 0) (\ (x. where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. If the match of against fails or diverges. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable.1).’b’] is matched against [ . it is a static error to match a character against a boolean). Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match. All other patterns are refutable. is irrefutable). and the result is a failed match. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num. Here are some examples: 1.b)] > x) [(0. to . PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against . (a. a wildcard. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional.
(j).z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard. (e). . and are variables. in f :: (Int. In Figures 3. and is a newtype constructor.4).2 involves the overloaded operator ==.2: .1–3. In particular. 3. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions.34 CHAPTER 3.Int. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.1–3. and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. in Figures 3. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ . (q). . then True is substituted for the guards in the forms. Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.2. These identities all preserve the static semantics. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. and are booleanvalued expressions. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants.2. it is not expected that it will use them directly. Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. function deﬁnition. and are patterns. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched.3.1. and are expressions. For example. Rule (h) in Figure 3.y. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. Rules (d). and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors).17. or pattern binding to which it is attached. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard.
1: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . Figure 3. where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . } } .17. }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . PATTERN MATCHING 35 . _ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > . . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { .3.
_ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . or string literal. EXPRESSIONS Figure 3. _ > } case of { > . = . _ otherwise case of { {} > . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . _ > _ > }} where . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . _ > } case ( ) of { > . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > . character. are new variables else } } }. _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > } of { > . } > .) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . _ > } . } > . are ﬁelds of constructor .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = .
. = => => => => . type data newtype class instance default ( . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations. } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . ¦ { . } } © 2§ .¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . . .
3. consisting of value bindings. those within a let or where construct). and default declarations (Section 4.1.1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class.simplified class declaration for Num . . . and nested declarations. type classes and overloading. 5].e. An instance declaration (Section 4. newtype.3). type signatures. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions. For example. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . instance. using normal type and data declarations. infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ .38 %§ CHAPTER 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3.4). we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5). Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). . and data declarations (Section 4. of the given types. consisting of type. but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code.2). consisting of class. For exposition.3. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4. A class declaration (Section 4. deﬁned on it. © 4.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6.” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: .
The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i.0 type system.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where .” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. 4. but in general could be any userdeﬁned function.1. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions. then a type of kind . kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . However.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . addFloat. ] ) . Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. negateInt. unlike types.1. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors. ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones. ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes.e. 4. class methods) for (+) and negate.1. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions.6. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt.4.
IO a. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (.. . ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors . Float. Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter.. The tuple types are written as (. Type variables. Since the IO type constructor has kind . Type constructors. Their kinds are . The list type is written as [] and has kind . type values are built from . inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). also written () (see Sections 3.1.). Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. 2. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. is identical to the type . If is a type of kind type expression of kind . having form ( ). The declarations data T . Unlike data constructors. Maybe and IO are unary type constructors. Type application. The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1... © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind . It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. (. Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. Int. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. In general.9 and 6. and so on.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. For example. A parenthesized type. IO. 4. type synonyms. and has exactly one value. As with data constructors. Just as data values are built using data constructors. the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters.40 CHAPTER 4. to the variable a. or newtype T .). and so on. and treated as types with kind .. . The kind of T is determined by kind inference. For example: Char. Double and Bool are type constants with kind .5). it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . must have kind . and is a type of kind . and classes. Integer.
When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. A list type has the form [ ]. 3. and so on (see Sections 3.1)). ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions.7 and 6. “gtycon”. above. then the expressions (\ > ). Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). they cannot be qualiﬁed. which is equivalent to the type (. means . ) where . nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). [ ]. In a similar way.1. For example.. If is the type of expression or pattern . []. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs. A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. which is equivalent to the type [] . the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. however. there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. (Hence the special production.3. always denote the builtin type constructors. A class assertion has form . and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . For clarity.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax. . tuples.4. It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . . and indicates the membership of the type in the class .4). (. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . For example. respectively. regardless of what is in scope. the preﬁx type constructors (>). their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types. the second component of type . and ( ) have the types ( > ). and so on. [ ].1. .) where there are commas between the parenthesis. ().1.1. and ). ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . which is equivalent to the type (>) . 2.8 and 6. the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible.). the type expression a > a . for example. ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. and lists.3). 1. . A tuple type has the form ( . A context consists of zero or more class assertions.
) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder.16 and 4. In general. a type is of the form .4. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). we provide informal details of the type system.3. For example. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a.4).1. The outer parentheses may be omitted when .1). The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in . where is a set of type variables . (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. as described in Section 4. For example. Furthermore. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. or the application of type variable to one or more types. explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. in more detail. Therefore. respectively. § § § 4.3. may be instantiated at types holds. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers. Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4.1. the most general type. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. " t ¡§ is identical to . and each of the is either a type variable. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . In general. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). also holds. the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. In any such type. For convenience. any of that are free in must also be free in . Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below).4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. we write => even if the context is empty.42 CHAPTER 4. Show a. £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ .
we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section.2. 4. ! . in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. because Int is an instance of the class Num. These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module.4. ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: . USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . 4. renamed datatypes (newtype declarations).2. The user may choose to declare such an instance. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int).1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)). and type synonyms (type declarations). In this Report. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( . This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . since Num Int holds. double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. However.
The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever. to the components of a data object. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . For example. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. and is described in Section 4. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given.3.6. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns. A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor.. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . For example. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . }). the declaration data C = F { f1.3. the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a.e. using the record syntax (C { .. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor.f2 :: Int. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i.8.44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds.
it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.2.6.2.2) if is of the form ! . The type is equivalent to the type . Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. . Translation: A declaration of the form 4. “!”. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form . For example. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or . denoted by an exclamation point. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in . Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over .4.15. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. and function $! (see Section 6. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. Lexically.
A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable.3. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. so that is the same as . unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. Unlike algebraic datatypes.17). newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type .3. unlike type synonyms. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ). mechanism to make type signatures more readable. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. The type ( ) renames the datatype .3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. but strictly syntactic. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. Type synonyms are a convenient. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments. this is not so for type synonyms. the newtype constructor is unlifted. E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. For example.invalid . except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object. New instances (see Section 4. Similarly.46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. 4. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed. Also. A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection.2).2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym.2.
whereas ( n ). and newtype (renaming types.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). ( n ( N ) ). . ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to .3 Type Classes and Overloading 4. The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. type (type synonyms). ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3. In particular. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { . ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © .3.4.3. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42.3. see Section 4. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). .
it must form a directed acyclic graph. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . op2 :: a > a (op1. is not permitted. i. the may not constrain . Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. For example: class (Read a. a ﬁeld name. whose scope extends outside the class declaration. or another class method.e. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . outside the class declaration. the only type variable that may be referred to in is .. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition. However. no other declarations are permitted in . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones.2). it may mention type variables other than . For example: class Foo a where op1. since class methods declare toplevel values. the may contain a default class method for any of the . in particular. Lastly.48 CHAPTER 4. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level.. the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. op2) = . as described below. The may constrain only . That is. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values).3. they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. © The class declaration introduces new class methods .
) For example.. must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple . The type type variables distinct.2. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case. if a type is an instance of all superclasses... (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5... 4. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ . ] > . it is not automatically an instance of the subclass.. instance C [[a]] where . this is legal.range..4. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . .a) where . in particular. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . } . instance C (Int. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations.2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. must not be a type synonym. furthermore. module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .a) where ..3.Ix T where range = .3. It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. Let be a class declaration. even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix. it may be a qualiﬁed name.
instance Num a => Bar [a] where . contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ .. instance (Eq a. The class and type must have the same kind.. Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed.. In fact.. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . Under this assumption. A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results.3.. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1.1). must be an instance of each of .. instance (Eq a. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration.. This example is valid Haskell. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption.6. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. In other words..50 CHAPTER 4. Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context . If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where .. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition. then the program would be invalid. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. Show a) => Bar [a] where . The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed. Show a) => Foo [a] where . Since Foo is a superclass of Bar..
including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. For example.2. all mentioned in Figure 6. 4. Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. Show a).3. and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. page 83. Ord. 4. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( .4 Ambiguous Types.3. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype." in show x . omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. then the expression let x = read ". that is. . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a. For example. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10..3. But this does not hold. When deriving a class for a type . If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration.1. It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived.invalid is ambiguous.4. If the form is included.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. Show. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. For example. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. Bounded.1. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. instances for all superclasses of must exist for . and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type. and Read. because the types for show and read. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. Enum. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a.
Occasionally. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude. or Bool. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in .2–6. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user. .. one could write: let x = read ". the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. For example. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. ) where . an ambiguous type variable. If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable. page 83.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common. a static error.3.52 CHAPTER 4.4.16. Double) The empty default declaration. but and are forced to have the same type. It is a static error if no such type is found. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . and Figure 6. and its effect is limited to that module.1. where is a class. and each must be a type for which Num holds. turns off all defaults in a module. Only one default declaration is permitted per module.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of .. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class. § ¢ ." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. Such types are invalid. appears only in constraints of the form . . pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. Such expressions are considered illtyped. default (). (that is. Num or a subclass of Num). For example. § ¢ ¢ For example. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered.
As mentioned in Section 4. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature. Moreover. which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0.1 Type Signatures . it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. possibly with respect to a context. For example. to ensure that type inference is still possible. ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ . However. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4. . If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4. the deﬁning occurrence. including the top level of a module.invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. even if the signatures are identical. Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num . there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct.2). A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: .) If a given program includes a signature for a variable .5.1.5. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. as described in Section 4. i.4. these declarations contain a static error. Indeed. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ .5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it. For example.4. or principal type .e. then each use of is treated as having the declared type.4. 4. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable. this is explained in Section 4.4.2.1.
54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4. (Class methods are a minor exception. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. left. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name.4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0.and rightassociativity (infix.invalid are invalid. Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 . The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and. like a type signature.invalid . and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. 4. declares a property of a particular operator. their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. respectively). If the is omitted. and ten precedence levels. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . Also like a type signature. 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). level 9 is assumed. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. . and infixr. non. and level 9 binds most tightly). infixl. T a > a. Table 4. Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. just like its type. a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . The following deﬁnition is pathological.1 are invalid.
‘elem‘. $!. ++ ==. ‘Bar.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . >>= $. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. >=. <=. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. /=.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators . ‘rem‘. ˆˆ. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9. ‘div‘. ** :.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.op‘ is infixr 7. /.op‘ q) * 2 in ...4.4. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. <. ‘quot‘ +.) 4. Here.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . ‘mod‘.4.op‘ is infix 3. >. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. ˆ... ‘seq‘ Table 4. ‘Foo.
Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators.3. the binding is called a function binding. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a .1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. ¤ 4. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. namely: . The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set.56 CHAPTER 4. the latter. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct. . and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. For example. otherwise. these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where .4. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ . The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous.
A note about syntax. as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4.2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. See the translation in Section 3. . a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers.4. ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4.3. where a function bindings above.e.12. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. A simple pattern binding has form . A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . in other words. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i.4. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is .
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
¤
4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
¦
¡
¦
¡
¦
£
¦
£
¦
¡
¦
¢ £¡
)
4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
¢
¢
6
¢
¢
¢
¢ & ¢
¢
6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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Hence.()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. There is no danger of recomputation here. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded.g) = ((+). Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings.4.3. module M1(len1) where default( Int. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. in (f. len1 gets type Int. However. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. (If the above code is actually what is wanted. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. For example. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1).4.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. and not by any modules that import it. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational .5. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous.
in the deﬁnitions above. . the actual kinds for these two constructors are and . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. using the default binding . Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope.e.6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. synonym.64 CHAPTER 4. It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions. For example.5. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree. a default of is assumed. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. Instead. 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . For example. i. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. in such cases. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind . adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. for instance). for any kind . It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. 4. a synonym S and a class C. constructors. For example. respectively. For example. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. respectively. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a).
or perhaps exported from a module. datatypes.5) is affected by module boundaries. one of which. which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7).4). For example. 1 65 .3. must be called Main and must export the value main. by convention. making them available to other modules. Modules are used for namespace control. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. (see Chapter 4). A Haskell program is a collection of modules. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main..Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values. type. classes. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A. When the program is executed. Second. the computation main is performed.f module A where f = . It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. and are not ﬁrst class values. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name. or class deﬁned in..5. Modules may be mutually recursive. We use the term entity to refer to a value. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). First. module B where f = .. default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4.. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 .f >> B. It exports some of these resources. etc. and its result (of type ) is discarded. type synonyms. imported into.
. ¦ ¦ § 5. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. Prelude. If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. data types.e.1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. i. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. etc.. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. ( An abbreviated form of module. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( . There is one distinguished module. . plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). optionally restricting the imported bindings. is permitted. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 . (see Chapter 4).. the module name.2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( . consisting only of the module body. © 5. bf = . Chapter 4). If this is used.6). type synonyms. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5.66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = . . . . Section 5. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations . ).. CHAPTER 5.3) that specify modules to be imported. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. classes. MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ ..
. A type synonym is in scope. . A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names.) ( module .5. the following is legal module A( Mb. An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. ﬁeld name. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . which must be in scope. . Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. For example. The constructor In all cases. must be in scope. whether declared in the module body or imported. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration..Maybe( Nothing. types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported.8).2. ). EXPORT LISTS 67 . one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . If the export list is omitted. A value. .. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names. or class method.) ( (. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors.) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. all values. where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. The abbreviated form (. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. 3. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. ( . The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. or that it imports from some other module. but not those that are imported. may . the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.
The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M.1).68 CHAPTER 5. g. module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack.g) g = f True .).an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed). The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). item (2)). For example: module Mod1( module Mod1. ¡ £ . or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. 5. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. dequeue ) where import Stack . module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. C. In the second form. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. names the class and some or all of its methods..g. For example. MODULES The abbreviated form (. because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5.. For example: module Queue( module Stack. In all cases. This set may be empty. item (1) above).f. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . .. must be in scope.e”. enqueue. item (5)). but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( . A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f).. item(2)). For example module A ( C. ). It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported. or by exporting an entire module (module M. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list.5.
hiding ( . The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses. they may also be used as variables. the terminal symbols “as”. . the (. When the (. or ﬁeld names exported from the module...) ( (.5. in which case nothing except the instances is imported. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings.1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . The list may be empty. 5. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module.f and C.g and g are different entities – remember. except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.3.. The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . . modules can import each other recursively).. rather than Lexically. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration.) refers to all of the constructors.) ( . IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. § 5. . ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .g and g (assuming C. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant. methods. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported.3. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .) form of import is used for a type or class. and between module B and C.f (assuming B. ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 .f are different entities).3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a .
3) on the import statement.3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared.’. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. In contrast.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName.+ 1) . exported by the imported module.3. .This + differs from the one in the Prelude .3. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. Thus.All Prelude names must be qualified . For example.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. Section 5. © 5. in fact. This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3. Hence.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5. class. Finally.3. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . if ported. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. MODULES 2. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. or type named C is excluded. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list.5. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword.1.3. the toplevel environment is extended. ). Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . If the qualified keyword is omitted.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. using C in an import list names only a class or type.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module.
3. 5.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. y.x. A.x A.y (nothing) A. A.y In all cases. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module. B.f.x.x. B. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A.y x. A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .4). suppose the module A exports x and y. y. 5. y.y A. A. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5.x.5. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.4. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.x x.x B.y x. A. A. B.y y. B.x.y A.y (nothing) x.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists. A. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. A.x. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x.
1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. such as f or A.5.. Thus: module M where f x = .3)..5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.. An import declaration. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .f respectively. whether qualified or not. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: . . 5.y = x+1 in . there must be only one binding for f or A. MODULES module. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M..f x x is legal. Thus.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.. A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.f. but does bring in any instances visible in M.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. that is. g x = M. it is illegal to write module M where M. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration.4). This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.72 CHAPTER 5. therefore. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name..5. . For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5.f x = .ILLEGAL g x = let M. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to. For example.
. The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D. x) module B( d. y = .5. The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B. c. . or x declared in C. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope.. so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. There is no reference to y.x or C. and can be referred to in A by the names d. y ) where import D x = . x.. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4.4. module D( d ) where d = . y ) where import D x = . b = . NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B... y = . An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. c. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C).. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B..sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal. b.. For example.. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b. d.. c = .d.d.. provided that the program does not mention those names. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.2). Consider the deﬁnition of tup. and C. and c declared in C respectively..x. module C( d.. B..5. x.sin (F.
5. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. 5. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. However. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. the Prelude is contained in the . For example. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. That is.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes.sin and F. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. MODULES The references to Prelude. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int.5. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. That is. Whether or not T is explicitly exported.74 CHAPTER 5. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported. and functions. However.” In Haskell. That is. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. classes.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. called the “Standard Prelude.
and so on. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. For example. arrays. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. For example: module A( null. just like those from any other module. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. PreludeIO. 5. but the implementation only gives a scheme. not part of the language deﬁnition. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. which provide less frequently used functions and types. for example. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes.5. given in Chapter 8.6. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. and they cannot be imported separately.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. 5. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation.6. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. however. they should be considered part of its implementation. complex numberss. This means. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList.
and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. however. For example. It is not possible. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.76 CHAPTER 5.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude.x) and (. the use of ++ is not special syntax. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk . for example. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. 5. The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude. 5. For example. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. in terms of a different implementation of lists. For example.x) g x = (. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. pop. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. push. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. On the other hand. MODULES import Prelude statement.
It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type.8. Instead. pop. and empty to construct such values.5. For example. push. they must use push. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] . pop.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
6. When appropriate. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Eq.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. and 79 . Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. Numeric types are described in Section 6. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. Show. The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable. In this chapter. Show. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read.4. Eq.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read. and not.1. types. complex numbers. Enum. Enum. Ord. Ord.6. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration.1.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. 6. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude.  (or). The basic boolean functions are && (and). 6.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude.
standard functions from class Enum. and the \ˆ notation.4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. \t and \HT. Each tuple type has a single constructor. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples.) x y produce the same value. and \n and \LF. as deﬁned in Section 3.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. Ord. ’i’. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). Lists are an instance of classes Read. that all their component types are).’ ’. 6.7. \f and \FF.10 and 3. Bounded. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. \b and \BS. ASCII mnemonic escapes. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15.1. (Int. Read.1. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2. Monad. Show.’t’. The toEnum and fromEnum functions.. and uncurry.Int) and (. For example. of course. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. The same holds for tuple type constructors. respectively.8. curry. thus (x. Functor.6. map characters to and from the Int type. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list.11. snd. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. Eq. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. However. as described in Section 3.’s’. written ‘[]’ (“nil”). All tuples are instances of Eq. thus.Bool. \r and \CR. and Show. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL. together with the instances for Eq. are described in Sections 3. Ord. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq. Bounded. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists.’n’. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions.’r’. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst. and MonadPlus. although with special syntax. . \v and \VT. and Show (provided.80 CHAPTER 6. Ord. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors.y) and (.’g’] 6. In addition. Read.
5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq.1. Enum. and Part II contains many more. See also Section 3. ($). It is an instance of Show and Eq. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude.1. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations. 6. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6. (.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. Bounded. and MonadPlus. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. 6. a function argument is evaluated only when required. The unit datatype () has one non 6. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq. Ord. Bounded. Read. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b . Read. Ord.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. Ord. the nullary constructor ().3). The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user.1.2. that is. const. Monad. Enum. 6.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict.1. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. flip. Read.9.). Ord. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations. Show) member. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world.6. Read. and until.
(/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . Strict datatypes (see Section 4.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. together with the default declarations. $! ($). 6. If there is no such comment. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). $ has low.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6. such as map ($ 0) xs. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. and is deﬁned in terms of seq.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. infixr 0 $. because it is available at every type. rightassociative binding precedence. since seq can be used to distinguish them. for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. However. or zipWith ($) fs xs. 6.2. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. As a consequence. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. Default class method declarations (Section 4. . A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x).3. However. For the same reason.82 CHAPTER 6. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application.
Float. Float. Bool. Integer. Float.6.1: Standard Haskell Classes . STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Ordering. tuples Enum ().3. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Double Bounded Int. Double RealFloat Float. []. Maybe Functor IO. (>) Read All except IO. []. Maybe Figure 6. Double Fractional Float. Integer RealFrac Float. Integer. IOError Num Int. Char. Double Real Int. Int. Bool. () Ordering. Integer. Double Floating Float. Double Monad IO. Char. Double Integral Int. (>) Show All except IO.
= = = = max x y) = (x.84 CHAPTER 6.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. (<=).2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). IO. All basic datatypes except for functions. (>=). and IOError. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. then both will loop. If both are deﬁned. . If one is deﬁned. 6. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class.Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. each being deﬁned in terms of the other. neither default method is used. are instances of this class. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.3.y) or (y.
. which uses precedence context zero.. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. by providing an instance declaration.) For convenience. except function types and IO types. Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes.read: ambiguous parse" . is also provided. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] . Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec.reads s..3. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. show. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .3. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function. rather than between square brackets.3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a.. and returns an ordinary String. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. are instances of Show and Read. This is particularly useful for the Char type.4). a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. (If desired. (""..read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. All Prelude types.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText.t) <..6. A specialised variant."") <.
. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. returns []). The read function reads input from a string. used by read.] [n..3. If the input string contains only white space. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: .] [n. (Thus lex "" = [("". It reads a single lexeme from the input..86 CHAPTER 6. methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. see Chapter 10. 6.. of a value. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error. which must be completely consumed by the input process. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. lex fails (i. respectively. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). For example.n’.m] . pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. The function lex :: ReadS String.e.m] [n."")].4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. is also part of the Prelude.10). The enumFrom. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.n’.. discarding initial white space..
is . the list is empty if . For example. . . For all four numeric types. ¤ . and Ordering. and Maybe are in this class. If the increment is positive or zero. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. If the increment is zero. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ .. Integer. and pred subtracts 1. IO. the list is empty if negative.3. Lists. ]. the list terminates when . . Float. ].3. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. For all four of these Prelude numeric types. where the increment. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . where the increment. all the list elements are the same. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. The semantics of these instances is given next. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. . Bool.EQ. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . the list terminates when the next element would be less than . except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . Double.GT]. succ adds 1. empty if is the list [ . . For the types Int and Integer.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. .6. In the case of Float and Double. . enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order. The increment may be zero or negative. .] is the list [LT. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). [LT. ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . 6. or when they become less than for negative . based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. For example. ]. . is . Numeric types: Int. £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ]. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . If the increment is the next element would be greater than . the digits after the decimal point may be lost.
and IO are all instances of Monad.6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h . and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. 6. “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . lists. g) id fmap f . for Maybe returns Nothing. Maybe. The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. In the Prelude. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression.3).3.14).88 CHAPTER 6. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return .
Some. an implementation may choose error ( . aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat.2–6. (). Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. single precision ﬂoating (Float). using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. page 83. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. The types Int. both real and complex. and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned.1. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. etc. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds. and all tuples are instances of Bounded.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers. 6. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. In particular.1. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. as deﬁned in the Ratio library. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries.3.3. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). since all numbers may be compared for equality. Similarly.6. Float is implementationdeﬁned.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. semantically). the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. but not all. Bool. indeﬁnite. or a special value such as inﬁnity. Figure 6. its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. and double precision ﬂoating (Double).4. NUMBERS 89 6. Char. Ordering. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type. a truncated value. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library).
4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. respectively. div. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. (). and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. rem. even . div. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. 6. and mod apply only to integral numbers. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity.4. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. See Section 4. rem. The quot.4. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6.3.5. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.4) apply to all numbers.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. remainder) pair. Similarly. The class methods quot. Ratio Integer). see section 3. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero.90 CHAPTER 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. (*). while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones.
Enum a) quot. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. Part 1 Finally. rem. tan :: a > a asin. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . gcd 0 4 = 4. acosh. (*) negate abs.4. cos. div. log. including zero. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . acos. gcd (3) (6) = 3. mod quotRem. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. tanh :: a > a asinh. logBase :: a > a > a sin. logBase returns the logarithm of in base .2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments. 0** is undeﬁned. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. atan :: a > a sinh.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base . divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a.4. Show (+). cosh. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. 6. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. (). sqrt :: a > a (**).a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.6. NUMBERS class (Eq a.
92 CHAPTER 6. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.4. Part 2 6. isDenormalized. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations.a) b b class (Real a. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. isInfinite. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. isNegativeZero.
with in a type that is RealFloat.4. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. For real ﬂoating and . round returns the nearest integer to .5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that .4. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand. respectively. and: is an integral number with the same sign as . the greatest integer not greater than . **. Default implementations of tan. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . and floor . either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x.6. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . pi]. and with absolute value less than 1. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. See these references for discussions of branch cuts. discontinuities. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. ceiling returns the least integer not less than . Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. truncate. should return the same value as atan . floatDigits. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. note that is the simplest rational of all. and implementation. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). where is the ﬂoatingpoint . but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. ¢ ¢ 6. logBase. where is the value radix. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. then x is equal in value to . floor. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. and furthermore. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. ). cosine. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. inclusive. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. truncate.4. and sqrt are provided. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ .6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. in particular. floor. The functions floatRadix. The ceiling. NUMBERS 93 6. atan2 1. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. If decodeFloat x yields ( . truncate yields the integer nearest between and . and tangent functions and their inverses. approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. tanh.
94 CHAPTER 6. isNegativeZero. significand x yields a value of the same type as x. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. scaled to lie in the open interval . scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. The functions isNaN. but rather than an Integer. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. isInfinite. isDenormalized. these may all return false. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. Fractional b) => a > b . exponent 0 is zero. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers.
see Section 6. In the following. may read as a single newline character.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. and which are described in this section. Some operations are primitive actions. return and linefeed. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. To achieve this. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7.3. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . For example. the abstract values are the mentioned above. Actions. In the case of the I/O monad. as deﬁned in the IO library. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful.2). The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. however. Special operations (methods in the class Monad. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. however.6) sequentially compose actions. two characters of input. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer.1.
The readLn function combines getLine and readIO.3) on endofﬁle. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. (The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value. For example. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () . BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine. 2ˆn)  n <. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. Typically. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string.. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. which is read lazily as it is needed.96 CHAPTER 7. deﬁned the IO library. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device.[0. The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n.19]]) Input Functions terminal). The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument.) main = interact (filter isAscii) .
The ﬁle is read lazily. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . methods in the Monad class. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting.x*x)  x <. To write a value of any printable type. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style.2. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. are used to compose a series of I/O operations.[0.2]]) 7. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile".2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. their ﬁrst argument.7. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. for example when it is (). The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle. as with print. The two monadic binding functions. on demand. to the ﬁle. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string. as with getContents.1.0. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x.. use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. their second argument.
Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. User error values include a string describing the error. . The isEOFError function is part of IO library. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. otherwise. in f = catch g (\e > if IO.getLine s <. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. For example. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. For example.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <.getLine return (c:s) 7.98 CHAPTER 7. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.
thus: instance Monad IO where . (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21. (>>=). the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.7.. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6.6) raises a userError.3. ..3. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program.bindings for return.
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
and to improve efﬁciency. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted. of course. such as Integral a or Num a. PreludeList. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. These functions are: take. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. nor are these three modules available for import separately.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. IO. as it pleases. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. Prelude. That is. Monad. 101 . Declarations for special types such as Integer. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. These imports are not. This structure is purely presentational. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. PreludeText. and PreludeIO. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. of the Library modules. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude. and Numeric. Some of these modules import Library modules. an implementation is free to import more. length. These modules are described fully in Part II. indicated by names starting with “prim”. To take one particular example. and three submodules. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module.. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. !!.. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. An ellipsis “.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. The default method deﬁnitions. drop. given with class declarations. such as Char. or less. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell.
and replicate. for example genericLength. The more general versions are given in the List library. with the preﬁx “generic”. . STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.102 CHAPTER 8.
curry.Contains all ‘prim’ values . sequence. fromIntegral. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). log. significand. flip. (ˆ). and cannot legally appear in an export list.). negate. isIEEE. floatDigits. Ord(compare. toEnum. Double. Integral(quot. (). Ordering(LT. Maybe(Nothing. Floating(pi. but are denoted by builtin syntax. tan. (<). (=<<). (ˆˆ). signum. (**). Fractional((/). rem. fail). gcd. even. sin. cos. These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. Bounded(minBound. tanh. otherwise. GT). floatRange. pred. isNaN. recip. (*). (.. exp. asTypeOf. undefined.)). enumFrom. decodeFloat. uncurry. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . (>>). enumFromTo. acosh. Rational. atan2). scaleFloat.Unicode primitives . enumFromThenTo). RealFrac(properFraction. mapM_. until. asin. Float. id. seq. divMod. enumFromThen. (). (&&). Int. return.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList. max. isInfinite. []) Tuple types: (. List type: []((:). Bool(False. realToFrac. Right). mapM. subtract. fst. (<=). ($). not. mod. acos. True). abs. lcm. cosh. atanh). odd. EQ. encodeFloat. maybe. Char. (/=)). fromEnum. Functor(fmap). maxBound). (>=). exponent. quotRem. toInteger).)((. logBase. module PreludeIO. isDenormalized. floor). sinh. either. Monad((>>=). IO. Real(toRational). div. Num((+). atan.. error. fromInteger). Just). asinh. sequence_. String. (>).)). fromRational). isNegativeZero. ceiling. (. Enum(succ. round. sqrt. module PreludeText. Either(Left. min). Integer.)((. etc. const. RealFloat(floatRadix. truncate. snd.
(/=) :: a > a > Bool . and cannot legally be given . ‘quot‘. $!.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. classes. min :: a > a > a .104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . /=. ‘rem‘. ˆ.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT . <=. (<=). (>) :: a > a > Bool max. >=. ˆˆ. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. ** *. max x y) = (x. <. ‘mod‘ +. (>=). STANDARD PRELUDE . > &&  >>.Standard types.Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). /.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<).  . >>= =<< $. ‘div‘.note that (min x y.a fixity declaration. ‘seq‘ .y) or (y. instances and related functions .
(+1) .m] [n.. fromEnum y .105 .Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x. fromEnum pred = toEnum .n’.NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum. signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a . Show a) => Num a where (+).Minimal complete All.] [n..Numeric classes class (Eq a. fromEnum . fromEnum y . pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.] [n. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational ..] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.. ().. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . except x .. succ = toEnum . fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a ...] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .n’.Minimal complete definition: toEnum. (subtract 1) .m] .
acosh. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. log. acos. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . exp. mod quotRem. sqrt :: a > a (**).Minimal complete definition: pi.Minimal complete definition: quotRem. sin. sinh. STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q. cos.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. rem div. atan asinh.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. atan :: a > a sinh. Enum quot. log. tan :: a > a asin. cosh. toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q. cos. tanh :: a > a asinh. atanh :: a > a .a) a > Integer . acos.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. logBase :: a > a > a sin. cosh asin.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x .106 class (Real a. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. acosh.
1 else n where (n.5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n . Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .107 class (Real a. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .a) b b .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.0.
scaleFloat. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a .must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y . isInfinite. STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .108 CHAPTER 8.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. return a NaN (via +) .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m.x or y is a NaN.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi . isDenormalized. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude.floatDigits x) where (m.Numeric functions subtract subtract even. odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not .must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y . significand. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isNegativeZero._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.
return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) .ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a.list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . toRational . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger . toInteger :: (Real a.109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a. Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational . but lift the function or .Minimal complete definition: (>>=). Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a.The xxxM functions take list arguments.
Ord... STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq.. ’a’  ’b’ .function composition (. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .identity function id :: a > a id x = x . for illustration only .constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x ..Character type data Char = . Enum. Read.Function type .Boolean functions (&&).rightassociating infix application operators .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.(useful in continuationpassing style) ($).) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f ..Primitive . Bounded) .Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ . Enum.110 . .flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . Show..Not legal Haskell. . g = \ x > f (g x) .Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. Bounded) . True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True . Ord.
Read... Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y . f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . fail s = ioError (userError s) .IO type data IO a = ...abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return ..Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c...Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing .. Read.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Ord. return = . fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] . fromEnum c’ . Ord.
..... . The data declarations for these types cannot .Ordering type data CHAPTER 8...... instance Enum Integer where . . ... .. . instance Eq Integer where ..... . Read. data Integer = ...Standard numeric types.. . . ..... ... . .112 . .. ... data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where ..... instance Ord Integer where ... ... 1  0  1 . Ord. Show. where where where where where where where where ...... . .. Bounded) .... .... STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.. instance Integral Integer where .. ... 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . Enum.. maxBound .. data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound .... instance Num Integer where ......be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be ... ..far too large.. instance Real Integer where .
may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger . roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int. Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) . Ord) . Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . 0. However.113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual.may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a.1 . depending on how 0. The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] .95].1 is represented.0.Not legal Haskell. truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo ..Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.
(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. quadruples. etc.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.c) = (a.messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined .) fst :: (a. . asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const . b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . and its typing forces its first argument .appears. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.114 .undefined" .b) > a fst (x. Bounded) . Bounded) (a.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.c) deriving (Eq. curry :: ((a.b.b) > b = y . for illustration only .curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function. until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .(NB: not provided for triples.component projections for pairs: .Misc functions .b) deriving (Eq. Ord.as an infix operator. It is usually used .until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds. Ord. STANDARD PRELUDE (a. y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.y) :: (a.b.y) = x snd snd (x.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.Not legal Haskell.b) = (a.
cycle. words. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. scanr. lookup. last. zip3. of a list. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. scanr1. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements. splitAt.1 Prelude PreludeList . or. dropWhile. any.1. last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] .Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. head. maximum. and. respectively. unwords. iterate. length. null. concatMap. zipWith3. foldr. zip. repeat. reverse. tail. replicate. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘. scanl1. minimum. zipWith. rather than the beginning. takeWhile. which must be nonempty. take. unlines. foldl. product. span. sum. foldl1. init. all. drop.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude. (!!). elem. concat. ‘notElem‘ . filter. foldr1. unzip.8. scanl. notElem.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . break. lines. (++).
.!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. . (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2.] == [x1..last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude.. x1 ‘f‘ x2.) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument..116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8... .. . scanl1 is similar... but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1. and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. reduces the list using the binary operator.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] ... applied to a binary operator.. x2..] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1.List index (subscript) operator. xn] == (. x2.] == [z.] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘. x2. length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l . scanl is similar to foldl. z ‘f‘ x1.. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude. ..length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude..!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl. from left to right: foldl f z [x1.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False . a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator). and a list.
iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: .foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .iterate f x == [x. or equivalently. scanr.1. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .. repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . returns the prefix of xs of length n. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs. f x. f (f x). and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . or [] if n > length xs. It is the identity .8. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. drop n xs).repeat x is an infinite list.the infinite repetition of the original list.cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. .foldr.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) .. Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . foldr1.] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) .above functions. or xs itself if n > length xs. with x the value of every element. applied to a list xs.on infinite lists.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. .
isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w. and unwords joins words with separating spaces. words breaks a string up into a list of words.[a]) span p [] = ([]. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8.[a]) = (take n xs. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. drop n xs) takeWhile. applied to a predicate p and a list xs. while break p uses the negation of p. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines.zs)  otherwise = ([].[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.xs) where (ys. dropWhile p xs). p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. which were delimited by white space.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not .isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. s’’) = break Char. Similary.
maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list. however.disjunctive dual of and. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 .which must be nonempty..Applied to a predicate and a list. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. map p . False. . finite. notElem is the negation. sum. the list must be finite.True.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x. and of an ordered type. results from a False . for all. minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude. any. x ‘elem‘ xs. .g. maximum. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .8.minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .of the list satisfies the predicate. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude.1. elem.y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys .and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list.elem is the list membership predicate. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . Similarly.e.reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. For the result to be . or is the .lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. .value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. and. map p all p = and . reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. any determines if any element . or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False . usually written in infix form.
c) ˜(as.unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.[].b.c:cs)) ([].) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.[]) :: [(a.c)] = zipWith3 (.[b]) = foldr (\(a. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.bs) > (a:as. If one input list is short. instead of a tupling function.b)] = zipWith (.[]) .bs.b.b:bs)) ([].) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. For example.120  CHAPTER 8.cs) > (a:as.b:bs.b. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.[c]) = foldr (\(a. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a.b) ˜(as.b)] > ([a].c)] > ([a].. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .[b]. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a.
showChar.u) (xs.u) readl’ s = [([]. showFloat. showString. Show(showsPrec. show. showLitChar.t)  ("]". lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. isDigit. Maybe. readDec.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . reads.v)  (".u)  (x.8. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. isAlphaNum.t)  ("]".s) pr where readl s = [([]. lex. Ordering .2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList .The instances of Read and Show for Bool. shows x . Either.t) [(x:xs. shows x . shows. ShowS. readLitChar. readFloat.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s.t) (x.t) [(x:xs.hs import Char(isSpace. showInt. showParen ) where .". showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’. readList). readl’ u] . isAlpha.t) (xs.2. showList). readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s.’ . reads t. lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. showl xs . Read(readsPrec. read.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". readParen. readSigned.
p . <. STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x."")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’".s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.optional s.lex t ] . . u)  (ch. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. t)  (str. t)  (ch.s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&".lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <.lexLitChar s.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8.s) (x.lex r. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.lexStrItem s."") <.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude.Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("".lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"". (str.u) <.t) <.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax. <.t) <. ("".reads s.t) <.t) (")".read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .u)  ("(".lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .’\’’:t) <.
lexDigits (c:cs). toInteger .readsPrec p r] .[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.bad character lexFracExp (’.u)  (c:t) [(e:ds.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".s) <.u)  (ds.lexFracExp s ] .t) <.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .u) <.t) [(c:ds++fe.s)] [(c:sym.t) <. (fe.[span isSym s]]  (nam.lexDigits t] ++  (ds. (e.Converting to Integer avoids .Reading at the Integer type avoids .lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].t) <.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.t) lexExp s = [("".t) <.u) <.t) <. c ‘elem‘ "+"./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.2.[span isDigit s].[s]. (ds.s)] <.t) [(c:nam. t)  (i.8.t) <..’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.’:ds++e.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .
showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ .s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs. (c.t) <.t)<.y) = showChar ’(’ . showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .lex r._) <.t) (". showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.t)  (’"’:s.s) <. (l. lex v ] ) .readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". t) <.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x. (")". shows y .b) where showsPrec p (x.t)  ("(".lex r. showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c.Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.s) (x.124 CHAPTER 8. Show b) => Show (a.’ . showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c .w) . w)  ("(".u)  (c .v) (")". showLitChar c .u) (y.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .lex r. showChar ’. (cs.u) <."\’") <.".t)  (’\’’:s. Read b) => Read (a. lex t.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .y).readLitChar s.Tuples instance (Show a. shows x .t) <. STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). reads s. reads u.
8.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents .. catch.The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . getChar. getLine. print. interact. readFile. putChar.. readIO. putStrLn. IOError.. ioError..getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. appendFile. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String . putStr. getContents. writeFile. userError.3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. Eq IOError where .3. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8.
"") <.lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude.readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude. ("".getLine r <.raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.126 CHAPTER 8. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () .getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .reads s.t) <.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.readIO l return r .The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.
or nonassociativity and a precedence level. an associativity variable varies over . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. letexpressions. or for left. the nonterminals . there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. . with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . In the contextfree syntax. for example actually stands for 30 productions. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. . and may have a double index: a letter . right. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . this means that conditionals. this is the “maximal munch” rule. In the lexical syntax. Thus. Similarly. resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting).
˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9. / < = > ? \ ˆ  . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 . SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9. .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) .
0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . : :: = \  <. . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : . . .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9.2.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .. .
The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. If the innermost context is 0. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module.e. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme.130 CHAPTER 9.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. nor before the . then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed.6. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. the token is inserted after the keyword. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. the programmer supplied the opening brace. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill. where. because it is not preceded only by white space. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i.) A stack of “layout contexts”. in which each element is either: – Zero. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. – A positive integer. provided that . or if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout.3 Layout Section 2.. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. do. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context. (NB: a string literal it is not.
. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. to avoid visual confusion. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . all start a new line. For the purposes of the layout rule. To determine the column number. width as an ASCII character. The deﬁnition of is as follows. Tab stops are 8 characters apart. ﬁxed.3. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ .9. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. and “ ” for the empty stream. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme. . not 0. However. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above.
¤ ¥ Note 6. If not. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. ). Note 2. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. since the close brace is missing. and a nonlayout context is active. At the end of the input.4. any pending closebraces are inserted. If none of the rules given above matches.132 CHAPTER 9. Note 4. Note 5. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. Note 3. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace.15). then the block must be empty. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. then parseerror is true. checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). then the algorithm fails. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. For example. because it translates to let { x = e. For example let x = e.e. so empty braces are inserted. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . although they could be: for example let }. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. y = x in e’ is valid. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. The token is replaced by . because doing so involves ﬁxities. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar.
LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse. .9. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative.3.
only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. 8 8 ¥¥8 . For example.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. all other lines are comment. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <. of course). Using this style. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. By convention. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. with “.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line.134 CHAPTER 9. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace. all other lines are comment. In this convention. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. though it may be stylistically desirable. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”.
It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.9.n])  n <. .20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.[1..4.. product [1.
SYNTAX REFERENCE .) ( module .. 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . . ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. hiding ( . as . . ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . .) ( . . . . .) ( (.) ( (. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9. ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (. 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9. ... } } © 2§ . } . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . .. = => => => => . . .
} empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ] ) .5. . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( . . ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. . . . . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . . } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { .
. ] > . { :: } :: ! deriving ( . ) © S¤ %§ ) and £ ¤ B%§ ¡ ¤ %§ = ( = ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡  :: where where ) => %§ ¨ § S § ¢ \ let in if then case of { ¢ ¡ © ¡ v ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥¡ v ¢ S v v v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ 7 ¡ ¤ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¥¡ ¢ ¡  > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¦ else } ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 7 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ 6 6 6 © ¥ ¤ ¦ © ¥ ¤ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ 0 distinct 6 § ¦ § © 6 6 6 6 6 6 #¦ § § © © ¢ 7¥ ¤ ¦ £ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¦ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © 2 . SYNTAX REFERENCE ) ¦ A© §S© 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ © ¤S© © S© 7 ¥ %§ ¢ 7¥ 3 ¦ ¡ %§ ¢ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¡ %§ ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ( ( [ ( ) distinct distinct © S¤ ¢ %§ . ! } . CHAPTER 9. ¡ ¡ v v ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ v ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ v A!¡ § 8 8 ¥¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ p v §e ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s ¡ p v §e ¢© ¨ ¡ expression type signature ¡ ¡ V ¤ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ © ¥ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 9§ § ¢ §¢ ¤ £5¢ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e § 2 ¡ v ¢£¡ p v ¢ 0e $ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¤ ¡7 v § ¢ 2¢ &¤ § £¡ ¡ ¢ v £ 7¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ v§ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 8 8 ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 © ¦ § ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ arity inﬁx 138   ¦ § £ ¢ ¢ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦ 3 %§ 7 7 %§ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ' %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥¡8 © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¡ ¢ 32 ¦ %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ! ! 7¥ ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ ¢ ¢ %§ ¡ { ! .
} ¦ { . . ¦ ¨ ¡ ¢ S 7 ¦ § ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ A § 8 8 !§ 4 ¤© ¥¥8 ¡ § ¡ 4 § © . ] .  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section ¤ ¥ £ ¢ . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX do { } do expression function application variable general constructor ¤ ¢ ¡ © @§ ¢ S ¢ 4§ © ¨ ¡ ¢ S¢0 139 ¡ ¢ S¢0 ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) .. ¨ © ¦ ¨5© 7 7 ¥ ¦ A§ > where where . > . ] ¦ ) ) )  ( ) right section labeled construction labeled update { ¦ § . . } ¦ <let generator local declaration guard ¢ ¡ 7 . <let . ) ] ¢ £ . . . . ¢ ¡ ¨ § .5. = ¢ ¡ + successor pattern ¤ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ ¤ ¢ 6 ¦ ¦§ ' 0 6 6 6 § § © @§ © © 4§ 4§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¦ 6 § © @§ ¦§ 6 6 7 3¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ § ¢ £¡ 7 3¢ $ 6 ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ 0 . . ¡ § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © ¦ § ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ § 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 8 7 3¢ © A ¦§ ¦ ' ¡ 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ ¦ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 ¦¡ 2 ¢ 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 v S ¢ p v ¢ 5e ¡ A ¡ ¡ 7 2 ¢ ¡ v ¡ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ A ¥8¥8 $ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ 8 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡¢ ¢S ¡ ¡ 8 ¥8¥8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 9.
SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . . ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . . . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9.
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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is Enum, the type must be an enumeration.
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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142
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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instance (
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where {
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
t) <.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 .w) <.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r.s) <.lex s.t) <.Precedence of :ˆ: . (v.s) <. (m.t)  ("Leaf".146 CHAPTER 10. (":ˆ:".Application has precedence one more than .readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m.lex r.1: Example of Derived Instances . SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10. . showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .w)  (u.
which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler.2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © . . in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas. 11. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. pragmas appear as comments. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. For example. 11. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. Lexically. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma.1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites.
COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. .148 CHAPTER 11. factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
RealFrac (Ratio a) where . numerator. and Show.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Enum (Ratio a) where . Rational... the results may be unpredictable. Real.. If is a bounded type.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq. RealFrac. For each Integral type . denominator. The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a... Enum.. these are in reduced form with a positive denominator. for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size. Read. Num... Num (Ratio a) where ... (%). a) => Read (Ratio a) where . Fractional (Ratio a) where ..Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = . The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. In each case. Show (Ratio a) where . approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. Fractional. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over ..... Real (Ratio a) where . The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers.. Ord. For example... Ratio is an abstract type.. Ord (Ratio a) where . Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where . there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type .
returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and .152 CHAPTER 12. applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.
Rational. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12.1 Library Ratio . approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module.g. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio..12.1.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y . E.Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. denominator. (%). numerator.
r) = quotRem n d (q’.t) <.lex s. (y. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .u)  (x. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r.154 CHAPTER 12.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q.s) <.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise . Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x . ("%". r:%y) where (q.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q. showString " % " .u) <.
. and the phase. mkPolar. then so is the phase. (RealFloat a) realPart. if the magnitude is zero. The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .. imagPart. .. realPart. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo )... conjugate.. Put another way. imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. magnitude... The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude.a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . the entire number is .... polar. . cis. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type.. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. . . 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § . This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is .. in the range .Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+)).
but oriented in the positive real direction.a) = (magnitude z.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). magnitude. abs is a number with the magnitude of .Show) (RealFloat a) realPart.Read. but unit magnitude. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. 13. realPart. polar.k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . cis. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. mkPolar. conjugate. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . imagPart. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number.156 CHAPTER 13. whereas signum has the phase of . The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way.
13. LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .1.max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .
u’) else (u’.158 CHAPTER 13. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (.z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .v) = if x < 0 then (v’.z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .
readInt. readOct.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. floatToDigits. showFloat. showSigned. readSigned. showInt. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . showIntAtBase. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. showEFloat. readHex. showHex. showGFloat. readFloat. readDec. showOct. showFFloat.
45e2. showOct. if is Just . floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. 245000. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. and is a function that can show unsigned values. In what follows. showInt. plus an exponent. showFFloat. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a.String)] 14. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument.5e3). then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. More speciﬁcally. if is Nothing.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits. 0. is the precedence of the enclosing context. 2.g. In the call showSigned . Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. 1.999. is the value to show. showEFloat. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) .0015).160 CHAPTER 14. .1 and 9. if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ]. many of which are used in the standard Prelude.g. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. and 16 respectively.999. 8. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e.
showSigned.) 14. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' .2. ( ( isDigit. isOctDigit. and converts a valid digit character to an Int. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. showEFloat. showHex. given a reader for an unsigned value.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readOct. readDec. floatToDigits. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( . both upper or lower case letters are allowed. readFloat. showOct. In the call readInt . showInt. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. octal. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. numerator.14. readInt. 14. showGFloat. showIntAtBase. Array. readOct. denominator ) (!). showFloat. and hexadecimal notation respectively. isHexDigit digitToInt. in decimal. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. readSigned. In the hexadecimal case. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base.2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. readHex. is the base. readDec. intToDigit ) (%). showFFloat. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value.
it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). .Fractional instances of Float and Double. . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax. minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .162 CHAPTER 14.Conversion process: . . or p (the exponent) <= minExp. This should be used in the .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) .that we got from the scaling.Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent . p) . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ .p .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’.first.Handle exceptional cases . NUMERIC . p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 . scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.This converts a rational to a floating.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers.Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .a first guess of the exponent.To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .
showInt.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .s) (x.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’. showOct. integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a . showOct.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever.maxExpt) [(n. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions.s) (n.2ˆn)  n <.14.Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric. maxExpt]] 163 .d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x. read’’ s] lex r.digit to char > a .Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b..s)  (str. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.[minExpt .base > (Int > Char) .t) read’’ r = [(n."") <<<< lex r. .t)  ("". .4. readPos str] .
. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported. readOct.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere. data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.nonnull isDig s ] .r) <.164 CHAPTER 14. digToInt) ds).These are the format types. r)  (ds. NUMERIC . readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . .
4. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.0e0" [d] > d : ".’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei. is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .14.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) . e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is.
K. In general. b.34. is) > (0..’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. not .. if floatToDigits r = ([a.G.’ : s .when the format specifies no . is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls.This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0.34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" .and an exponent.ab.then r = 0. NUMERIC ++ ’. . 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0.. is) (1. e) . Int) .Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei.base1]) ." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .166 CHAPTER 14. The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator.digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. 0:ds) else (0. []) f d (i:is) = let (c. z]. It should be improved. . Burger and R.Print 34. .Print 0. Dybvig. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. not 34. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0. in PLDI 96.. is) > (1.
s.the following will err on the low side. 1. e0+n) else (f0. mUp. . e) = let n = minExp .p 167 . f :: Integer e :: Int (f. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([].Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers .the fraction will make it err even more. bˆ(e+1)*2.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n . mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p.will have an impossibly low exponent.the real minimum exponent .logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so . b) else (f*be*2. (p . 1) else (f*2. bˆ(e)*2. e0) (r.4. b. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . be*b. 2*b. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then . Adjust for this. Ignoring .14. 2. be.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).
s) <.readFix r. (ds’.t)  (k. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)).d. The ‘.’ is optional. NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’.t)  (cs@(_:_).s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.t)  (n. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False.t) <.d) <.readExp s] ++ [ (0/0. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.t) <.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("". (k. k) in .lexDigits r.t) <.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating .point than the Haskell lexer.t) <.t) <.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’). rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True. False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds). t)  ("Infinity".readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs. False) > dn : ds (False.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0.[span p s]] .t) <. t)  ("NaN". length ds’.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. True) > dn+1 : ds (True.168 CHAPTER 14. t)  (ds.
instance instance instance instance (Ix a.u) i == i . The index operation maps a bounding pair. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16). The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers.u) map index (range (l. and a subscript.when i is in range inRange (l. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.. index..a) > (a...et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where ... . Ix b) . where . The Ix class contains the methods range. An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l. and inRange. .. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair.u)) == [0.rangeSize (l.. inRange...b) where where where where . which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.u)] 169 . index.. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.a) > (a.a) > (a.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range..u) !! index (l. ..a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a. to an integer.
given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4.e. datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. whose constituent types are instances of Ix.170 CHAPTER 15.1. For example. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i.3.Blue) index (Yellow.3).Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow. For an enumeration.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow.Green.Blue] 1 False .1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.
.ik) = index (lk.u)...i’) = index (l. && inRange (lk.uk) * ( index (lk1.l’)...u1) i1 && inRange (l2.u’)) (i.i2.l2...u2... i’ <.ik)  i1 <.i’)  i <... Ix b) => Ix (a.l’)..(u1..(u.u’) i’ inRange ((l.ak) where range ((l1.1..u’) + index (l’..Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: ..range (l1..range (l’. i2 <..a2..range (l..(u1.ik) = inRange (l1.. .u2.range (lk..u’)) = [(i.(u.u2) i2 && ..i’) = inRange (l...u’)) (i.u’)] index ((l.b) where range ((l.l2.l’)..uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1....uk1) * ( .u) i && inRange (l’.u2.range (l2..u) i * rangeSize (l’. Ix ak) => Ix (a1.1: Derivation of Ix instances ...i2...uk)) = [(i1.i2.u1). .u2).u1))) inRange ((l1.lk).(u1..uk)) (i1.15.u’) i’ ... ..uk) ik Figure 15...instance (Ix a1.. index (l1..(u. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a. Ix a2.lk)....uk) ik + rangeSize (lk...l2. ik <.lk).uk)] index ((l1.uk)) (i1.
a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.n) = [m.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .1) .as derived Ix () .n] index b@(m.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .172 CHAPTER 15.index: Index out of range.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .n) = [m. for all tuples Ix Bool ." inRange (c.index: Index out of range.c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.(2. (1.2) <= (2.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m.a) > [a] index :: (a. b) . For example.as derived.n) i = [m.fails if the bounds are tuples..as derived Ix Ordering .. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m.a) > a > Int inRange :: (a.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.Ix b) => Ix (a.n] = = = i .index: Index out of range.n] index b@(c..as derived . index. inRange.2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.m error "Ix.m)  otherwise = error "Ix.n) index b@(m." inRange (m.2).NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.
. (//). a.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a. accumArray. // => Array a b = .a) > [(a...a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.. indices. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a.. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where . . :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .. assocs. elems. listArray.export all of Ix for convenience Array. .b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a. Show b) Read a..a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. .. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !. 173 .b)] > Array a b (a. bounds.Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a.a) > [(a. .. a.. array... . accum. a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix. Ix b) => (a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. (!).
Thus. If any two associations in the list have the same index.(10. relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. ). the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.10). To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. in particular.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. in that order. or associations.1). Because the indices must be checked for these errors. The functions indices. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed. The array is undeﬁned (i. .100) ((1. but empty. Since most array functions involve the class Ix.1. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds.e. 16. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. elems.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list.1) : [(i. then the array is legal. accumArray. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. in index order. each of the index type of the array. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. and assocs. i * a!(i1))  i <. arrays are treated as data. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds.[2. when applied to an array. ). array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list. Typically. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. respectively. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. ). These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. elements. An array may be created by the function array. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. Figure 16. in any dimension.. The (!) operator denotes array subscripting.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type.e. return lists of the indices. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. 16. but nonstrict in the values. not as general functions.10)).e. For example. An association (i.174 CHAPTER 16. If. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function.
a!i * x)  i <. then m//[((i.[1. as well as the indices.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. unlike ordinary arrays. i)  i <.range b]) 0 0 . inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. except with the diagonal zeroed. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list.2. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.n]] is the same matrix.16.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. as for the array function. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned. n by n matrix.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function .Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. 0)  i <. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.) For example. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES . the second is an initial value. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i.a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i. given a list of values of some index type. (As with the array function. then accumArray is strict in the values. 16. 1)  i<is.Scaling an array scale :: (Num a.range b] where b = bounds a . Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. in the association list. Thus. For example.1: Array examples function. if m is a 1origin.. z)  i <.range b] = bounds a 175 .i). Num b) => (a.
accumArray. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. (!). // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a. respectively.i)) x where ((l.a) (a > b) deriving () .2: Derived array examples 16.(u. ARRAYS .a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l. Ix b) => a > Array (a. listArray. accum.Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a.2 shows some examples.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x. with the mapping that the original array embodies.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’.j)) x where ((_.(_. 16. array. ._)) = bounds x .l’)._). bounds. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right.176 CHAPTER 16.u’)) = bounds x .4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices.A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a.u) (\i>(i. indices. assocs. Figure 16.y)>x) Figure 16.u’) (\j>(i.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) . elems. (//).export all of Ix Array.
a) > [(a.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a.v) <. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.a!i)  i <.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a. i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.4. Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where ._) <.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.ivs. a!i)  i <._) <. f) instance (Ix a.16.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range . a ! f i)  i <.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. Ix b) => (a.a) > [(a.v) > a // [(i.range b]) :: (Ix a.z)  i <.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.b)] = [(i.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.indices a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn .f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.
Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16. Read a. showChar ’ ’ .readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. Show a. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a.t) <. ARRAYS instance (Ix a. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as.s) <.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .u) <. u)  ("array". (as.lex r.Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . (b.178 instance (Ix a.
179 .
tails. partition. minimum. unlines. drop. foldl. delete. transpose. elem. insertBy. splitAt. scanl1. sort. unwords. []). words. zip6. foldl1. takeWhile. insert. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex. .and what the Prelude exports .180 CHAPTER 17. unzip7. span. zipWith7. zip. unfoldr. isPrefixOf. groupBy. all. maximumBy. group.. repeat. zipWith3. init. dropWhile. lookup. zipWith6. length. mapAccumR. maximum. findIndices. unionBy. filter. find. iterate. unzip5. foldr1. scanl. nubBy. take. (\\). zip4.[]((:). zipWith5. zip3. (!!). null. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . lines. intersperse. zipWith4. reverse. intersect. replicate.This is builtin syntax map. sortBy. . concatMap. minimumBy. genericTake. mapAccumL. genericLength. break. product. genericSplitAt. unzip. elemIndices. notElem. or. unzip4. cycle. zip5. sum. zipWith. concat. intersectBy. findIndex. isSuffixOf. unzip6. foldr. nub. and. genericDrop. genericIndex. head.. tail. inits. union.. deleteFirstsBy. genericReplicate. zip7. deleteBy. any. scanr. (++). scanr1. last.
f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.e.c.d)] > ([a].d.c.b.b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].e.e.[e].b.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.[b].c.d.[c].d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a].[e].b.g)] > ([a].[f]) :: [(a.b. .d.c.[e]) :: [(a.[d].[b].b. c)) > a > [b] > (a.[d].c.e. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b.c.[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.f.b.d.[c].e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.e)] > ([a]. [c]) (a > b > (a. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.b.c.[b].d.d.[d].f)] > ([a].[c].[f].[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.[b].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[c].f.[d]) :: [(a.
. e. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate.1. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.2. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). e. the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs.4. giving the occurrences of val in list. (\\).1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence. LIST UTILITIES 17.g.4. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list). findIndices returns a list of all such indices. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. if there is no such element.3.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type.182 CHAPTER 17. For example: nub [1. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection.. e.3. findIndex returns the corresponding index.3. Thus.. 17. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.4] ‘intersect‘ [2. delete. if any. union is list union. [1. of val in list as Just index. union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. In the result of xs \\ ys.8] == [2.g.3.g.4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument.3] = [1.6.4] . elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list. or Nothing.
"i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. shortest ﬁrst. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value.4].3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.5. e.3.17. filter (not .5]. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm."ss". For example: .""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright. 17. adjacent elements.6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate."pp". inits "abc" == [""."ab".[2.. transpose [[1."ss".[3. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value. intersperse ’.6]] == [[1. tails "abc" == ["abc".b. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". i.’ "abcde" == "a.2.g.[4. partition p xs == (filter p xs.e. "bc". LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17.3]. "c".g. respectively.c."i"."i". longest ﬁrst.. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function.d."a".."i". e.
y) f’ z = Nothing 17. minimumBy. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. maximumBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. deleteBy. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. f x)) In some cases. .184 CHAPTER 17. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would. 17. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate. elemIndices. For example. The library does not provide elemBy. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex.6 The “By” operations By convention. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. unionBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. isPrefixOf. intersectBy.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. sortBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. groupBy. sufﬁx) of the second argument. insertBy.
and zipWith3. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength. genericTake.17. For example. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. genericSplitAt.7. genericLength is a generalised version of length. unzip. genericReplicate. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. zip3. and 7 arguments. genericDrop. zipWith. unzip3. 5. . 6.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function.
and what the Prelude exports . deleteFirstsBy. scanl1. zip3. unzip5. mapAccumR. lines. intersectBy. (!!). filter.. elemIndices. minimum. reverse. scanr. unwords. findIndices. []). foldl1.. replicate. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. elem. drop. mapAccumL. union. minimumBy. lookup. product. find. scanl. zip. sort. zip4.This is builtin syntax map. takeWhile.i) <. genericLength. foldl. genericIndex. concatMap. unionBy. head. and. isSuffixOf. zip7. . maximum. (\\). words. zipWith3. all. splitAt. partition. unlines. zipWith4. genericSplitAt. init. LIST UTILITIES 17. transpose. genericDrop. (++). cycle. unzip4. foldr1. groupBy. deleteBy.. zipWith7.186 CHAPTER 17. zip5. delete. concat. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe .9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. . zipWith5. notElem. tails. break. length. maximumBy. null. iterate. zip6. scanr1. inits. foldr. insert. zipWith6.]. unzip6. span. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) . intersperse. intersect. zipWith. last. any. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . unzip.[]((:). isPrefixOf. findIndex. dropWhile.zip xs [0. tail. group. repeat. take. nubBy. or. unzip7. nub. genericReplicate. insertBy. unfoldr. sortBy.. sum. genericTake.
[2.g."pp". . and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ ."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) .2]."ss".elements. adjacent . any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs .[a]) = (filter p xs."ss". LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <.4. e.5].group "Mississippi" == ["M".xs. transpose [[1.17.4]."i". p) xs) .xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.9.[]] = [[1.[5]] .3]."i".Note that [h  (h:t) <..xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. filter (not .For example.transpose is lazy in both rows and columns."i".[3.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal.
LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a. y ) = f s x (s’’."a". ["". longest first.. []) = (s’’.inits xs returns the .ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a. inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) .y:ys) where (s’. "c"."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs.e.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .e. tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17.y ) = f s’ x (s’..b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. c)) > a > [b] > (a.g.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert .tails xs returns the ."ab".zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs. y:ys) where (s’’. ["abc". c)) > a > [b] > (a. [c]) = (s. shortest first.g.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. []) = (s’’. [c]) = (s. "bc".
17.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b]. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs) = ([].xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.[b]) = ([].xs’’) error "List.maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.[]) = = = (x:xs’.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .9.
b.e)] = zipWith5 (.e.f)] = zipWith6 (.bs.genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.d) ˜(as.d:ds)) ([]...[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .c.ds) > (a:as..c.d.c.c...d)] = zipWith4 (.cs.[c].b:bs.e.[].b...b..[b].... LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.c.d)] > ([a].b.c.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.[d]) = foldr (\(a...b.b.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17..f.c:cs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.g)] = zipWith7 (.d.[].d.
d.[c].e.c:cs.f) ˜(as.cs.b.[].[e].d:ds.b.b.g:gs)) ([].c.f)] > ([a].[].b:bs.[e].fs.[c].e:es.[].d.[c].c.d:ds.ds.bs.e.[].fs) > (a:as.d.e)] > ([a].[].g)] > ([a].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .c.c.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.e:es)) ([].[].c.9.[].d.[f]) = foldr (\(a.b.[e]) = foldr (\(a.[g]) = foldr (\(a.c:cs.f.cs.[f].[b].bs.es) > (a:as.b:bs.[].cs.e) ˜(as.es.g) ˜(as.d.[].[].c.[d].f:fs.b.gs) > (a:as.c:cs.f.[d].e.[].ds.e.[d].17.e:es.b:bs.d:ds.ds.[b].f:fs)) ([].b.es.[]. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.bs.[b].d.[]) :: [(a.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
isNothing. isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. maybe ) where isJust. fromJust. and without using IOError from the IO monad. as would happen if error were used. mapMaybe.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. Just). 193 . catMaybes. which would cause the expression to become monadic... an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. fromMaybe. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. maybeToList.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just. . listToMaybe..
. mapMaybe.. maybeToList. listToMaybe. .194 CHAPTER 18.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . fromJust. fromMaybe.fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <. MAYBE UTILITIES 18.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. isNothing.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. map f . catMaybes. Just). maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not .
isOctDigit. isDigit. ord. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isAlpha. . isPrint. isAlphaNum. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. digitToInt. intToDigit. isControl.. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. isDigit. isLower. isPrint. chr. isSpace. numeric digits. isAlpha. isLatin1.and what the Prelude exports Char. isLatin1. and other printable characters. isHexDigit. showLitChar. isControl. readLitChar. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isSpace. any 195 . This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. lexLitChar. lower case alphabetic. String ) where isAscii. toUpper. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. isUpper.. For the purposes of Haskell. isUpper. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. isOctDigit. other alphabetic. isLower. toLower. isHexDigit..
The function readLitChar does the same. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. "Hello")] [(’\n’.. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. The function lexLitChar does the reverse.. isOctDigit. returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. ’A’. ’0’.’f’.e. leaving any other character unchanged.15. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. lower. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n". CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. . For each sort of Unicode character.196 CHAPTER 19. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit.’F’). The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range.’9’.. ’a’. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters. leaving any other character unchanged. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. Similarly. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. and title). "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions.
. digitToInt.1.. isLower.fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . isUpper. isDigit.Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum . String ) where import Array . isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" . isLatin1. .19. isDigit. toLower. isHexDigit.’a’. lexDigits. isSpace. isPrint. lexLitChar. isOctDigit. isHexDigit. readOct.Used for character name table. isLatin1.digitToInt: not a digit" . showLitChar. isControl. chr. readLitChar. isAlpha..fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . isSpace. readHex) import UnicodePrims . import Numeric (readDec. .’Z’ .Source of primitive Unicode functions. isAlpha.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. intToDigit.and what the Prelude exports Char.Charactertesting operations isAscii. isControl.. isPrint.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c .’A’.fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19. isLower. isOctDigit.. isAlphaNum. ord. toUpper. isUpper.
s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.ord ’@’).s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’. t)  (n.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c. t)  (n. mne) <.t) <.s’) <.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.t) <.s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum .intToDigit: not a digit" .10) error "Char.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.table.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower .t) <.s’)  (c. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n. t)  (n. ([].ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19.[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.
199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. "US". "BEL".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "EM". "DC3". "DC4". "DC1". "FS". s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c].s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. "LF". "RS". "SO".s) = (c:t. "ETX". "SOH". lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "FF". ’ ’) ["NUL". "SYN". "SUB". "STX". "ENQ".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f .s)] [] . LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "DC2". "DLE". "CR". cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "NAK". "BS". "SI".c]. "CAN". "HT". "VT".1.s)] .19. "ETB". "GS". "ESC". "ACK".
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
sequence. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . liftM4. foldM.. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b.202 CHAPTER 20. mapM. . liftM3. zipWithM..and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). liftM5. return. msum. zipWithM_. mplus). mapAndUnzipM. ap. unless. (>>). mapM_. filterM. guard. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. fail). sequence_.. when. liftM. liftM2.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. Functor(fmap). join. (=<<).
Thus. 20.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. So. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad. and provides some useful operations on monads.20.1. for example. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where . Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form.
Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments.2. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure. foldM f a1 [x1. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. For example..204 CHAPTER 20. . the input list should be reversed. except that its result is encapsulated in a monad..1] [0.. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads.] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. and otherwise do nothing. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <.f a2 x2 .1. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). returning the result as a pair of lists. MONAD UTILITIES 20. liftM2 (+) [0.2] = [0. The function arguments are scanned left to right. . The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative. putStr ": "...f a1 x1 a3 <.. putStrLn line) [1. For example. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required. projecting its bound argument into the outer level.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. x2. preﬁxing each line with its line number. xm ] == do a2 <. which promotes function application.
3. ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 . xn 205 ...20. FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ ...
. mapM_. liftM5. foldM. Functor(fmap). unzip . sequence.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . (=<<). liftM4. guard.c)) > [a] > m ([b].. mapM. liftM. filterM. unless. mplus). fail).The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . MONAD UTILITIES 20. when.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). return. liftM3.4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. . mapAndUnzipM. (>>). ) where . zipWithM_. liftM2. zipWithM.206 CHAPTER 20. join.. sequence_. [c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . msum. ap.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b.
c.a.20.4.d. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.a. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <.c. c’ <. b’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .a.a. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.d. d’ <. b’ <. ys <. b’ <.b.e.a.c.b. e’ <. c’ <. d’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <.p x. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. c’ <.b.b.filterM p xs.
MONAD UTILITIES .208 CHAPTER 20.
209 .
getLine. . hClose. readFile. instance Eq Handle where .. userError. hPutStr. Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. hIsOpen. instance Eq HandlePosn where . bracket. putStr. Enum. Read. Bounded. Ix. isPermissionError. readIO. stderr. isIllegalOperation.. ioError.LineBuffering. isFullError. hPrint. hFlush. instance Show Handle where . ioeGetFileName.implementationdependent . hIsWritable.BlockBuffering). Ix. putStrLn.ReadWriteMode). hIsSeekable.. Read. hGetBuffering.. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. hIsReadable. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () . interact. catch. Ord. appendFile. Show) stdin.AppendMode.. INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. stdin. try. getChar.SeekFromEnd). stdout. putChar.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. hLookAhead. hGetLine. ioeGetErrorString. writeFile. isAlreadyInUseError. hReady.implementationdependent . Bounded.. hGetPosn. stdout. hPutChar. hPutStrLn.. hSetPosn. Ord. isUserError. hGetContents. hWaitForInput.. FilePath. Enum.implementationdependent . IOMode(ReadMode.and what the Prelude exports IO. hFileSize. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = .. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek. hIsClosed.. hIsEOF. IOError. bracket_.RelativeSeek.. getContents. Ord. Read. isAlreadyExistsError. ioeGetHandle. openFile. hSeek.210 CHAPTER 21. print. BufferMode(NoBuffering. isDoesNotExistError. isEOF.WriteMode. HandlePosn. hGetChar. isEOFError. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . hSetBuffering. data HandlePosn = ..
211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Some related operations on ﬁle systems . This library contain more advanced I/O features. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported.
and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. This is an abstract type. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. CHAPTER 21. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. All these functions return a Bool. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. compute. isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. which is already being used (for example. and False otherwise. the string is implementationdependent. The bracket function captures a common allocate.212 are contained in the Directory library. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . and Nothing otherwise. for all other errors. opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. In some cases. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ .
represented by values of type Handle. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). These handles are initially open. whether it is open. although it could in fact be a communication channel.21. ordered ﬁles.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both. In some implementations. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent. For simplicity. and normally reside on disk. whether the object is seekable. Files can be opened. Physical ﬁles are persistent. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes.2. or any other object recognised by the operating system. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle. whether buffering is disabled. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. 21. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects. a buffer (whose length may be zero).2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. closed or semiclosed. The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. . it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging.2. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. File and directory names are values of type String. A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. likewise. or enabled on a line or block basis. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle. A handle is equal according to == only to itself. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
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21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
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21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
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Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
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If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
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Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.9.10.9. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. 21.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion . ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.9. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar. 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § .1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. which is made semiclosed. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. EXAMPLES 219 21.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . 21.21. 21. 21. blocking until a character is available.10.
hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <.openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.10.getArgs h1 <.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.Providing a type signature avoids reliance on .220 import IO CHAPTER 21.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle. Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.f2] <. using string I/O is: .x2 readNum = readLn 21.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <. This version uses characterlevel I/O. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer . This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.
try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.f return (Right r)) (return .21.11.actions that IO exports.f2] <. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e . Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <.11 Library IO module IO {.before rs <.export list omitted } where .getArgs s <.before rs <.readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21.variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . doesFileExist..224 CHAPTER 22. createDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. .. removeFile. renameDirectory. setPermissions. getDirectoryContents. readable.. getPermissions. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime . renameFile.. writable.. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. writable. doesDirectoryExist. getCurrentDirectory. .. . searchable ). executable.. executable.. removeDirectory. setCurrentDirectory.
it is atomically replaced by the directory. all other permissible errors are described below. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. in particular. the directory has to be empty.. but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. it is atomically replaced by the object. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. as described in Section 21. The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . however. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. “. If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. A directory contains a series of entries. inaccessible. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . Entries in subdirectories are not. Error reporting. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows. All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. In some operating systems. directory etc. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance. If the object already exists. Some entries may be hidden. Note that. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to . removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. or may not be in use by other processes). or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. considered to form part of the directory contents. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. but the constraints must be documented.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. If the directory already exists. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. Error reporting. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. or across different physical devices). removal of the root directory).” under POSIX). renaming to an existing directory. Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. removes an existing directory . or have some administrative function (for instance.” or “. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty.).1. the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes).
Error reporting. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. get(set)Permissions. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. a construct on the following lines must be used. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. Each entry in the changes . The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. doesFile(Directory)Exist. Error reporting. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . ¦ ¦ . if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. and False otherwise. respectively. but the constraints must be documented.226 CHAPTER 22. and False otherwise. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. Note that to change some. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. makeReadable f = do p <. not as an absolute path. Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. the executable ﬁeld will be False. setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. renaming across different physical devices). getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. but not to examine the directory contents. Error reporting. but not all permissions. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. For directories. Error reporting. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process.
. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist.227 does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.
228 CHAPTER 22. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .
Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. exitWith. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return. as described in Section 21. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). all other permissible errors are described below.1. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. system. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. Read. If variable is undeﬁned. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. In particular. in particular. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq. getEnv. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . Note that. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. Ord. getArgs. getProgName. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised.ExitFailure). Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable .
If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. Before the program terminates. Otherwise. could not recover.230 CHAPTER 23. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. returning to the program’s caller. any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion.
231 .
Ord. Ix.February. Int. Read.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctDay.Saturday). ctIsDST). tdMin. Read. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. Read. July.Tuesday. Show) . tdHour.232 CHAPTER 24. tdSec.May. tdSec :: Int.March.October. ctMonth. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. tdPicosec).. Enum. Ix. ctSec.. toCalendarTime. calendarTimeToString.April. instance Eq ClockTime where .August. diffClockTimes. tdHour.September. Int. Bounded. tdMonth. String. instance Ord ClockTime where .Thursday. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.. ctYear. ctMin. ctYDay. Ord. tdMin.Monday. Enum. tdYear.Wednesday. ctHour..November. tdDay. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime..Friday. Day. Integer. ctTZ. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. toUTCTime. Day(Sunday. Month(January.. tdDay. . Ord.December). Ord. ctMin. toClockTime. addToClockTime. ctPicosec. getClockTime. tdMonth.June. ctWDay. Bounded. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . ctHour. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. ctTZName. Month. Read. Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Int.
Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion.233 . Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations. Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. Because of this dependence on the local environment. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. used for the system’s internal clock time. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. and False otherwise. ClockTime is an abstract type. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. including timezone information.
toClockTime. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the .December)..Tuesday.Thursday.October. instance Ord ClockTime where . ctTZ. ctDay. ctPicosec.August. ctTZName.Wednesday.February. Enum.. Ord. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § . Read. ctHour.). formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. and ﬁelds. .Monday.May. Ix. ctYear. Month(January. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. t © S§ 24. tdSec. calendarTimeToString. ctSec. toUTCTime. diffClockTimes. ctWDay.March. Enum. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. tdHour. Bounded. Ix. toCalendarTime. Bounded. ctMin.Saturday).1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. . tdYear.September.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. ctIsDST). tdMin. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. Read. Ord.. . tdDay. ctYDay.November..June.April. Day(Sunday. instance Eq ClockTime where . getClockTime.234 § CHAPTER 24. July.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . tdMonth..Friday... addToClockTime. tdPicosec). ctMonth.
. .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" ..24. Int. :: ClockTime = . Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = . tdMin.. Integer..Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff .. Read. .. String. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. :: ClockTime = ... Int. Ord. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Day. Ord. :: ClockTime = . ctHour. Int. tdDay. tdHour. ctMin. Month.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime .. > ClockTime > ClockTime .Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = .Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime . Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. tdMonth. Read... tdSec :: Int.. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq.1.
DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec .236 CHAPTER 24.1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then . days) = (yday + 7 .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 ..fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week. ..if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .
LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 . intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 . show2’. intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.24. show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10).1.if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday .1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.. 239 . dateTimeFmt. String)]. At present. dateFmt. amPm :: (String. months :: [(String. defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. Ord.). String)]. timeFmt. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. String).
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. – genRange – If genRange . ¦ ¡ ¡ . the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators.27. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. or by supplying a seed from some other source.1. and a new generator. g) split :: g > (g. then . For example.Int) next :: g > (Int. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators. class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS.Default method genRange g = (minBound. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. .4] are the only examples we know of). but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results. g) . by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen.1 The RandomGen class. and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators. without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next. 27. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range.
.. variantOf g) Here. Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. instance Show StdGen where .3].. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation... all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. In addition. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string.Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. by mapping an Int into a generator. Until more is known about implementations of split.246 CHAPTER 27. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen.. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. instance Read StdGen where . . of course.. supply their own instances of RandomGen. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = .. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . then g1 and g2 should be independent. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits.. Implementation warning. Programmers may. split g = (g. Again. In general. . It is required that read (show g) == g..
randomRs and randoms. ... such as Char). but they may be. .similar.. . – For fractional types.. randomR takes a range and a random number generator . and do not return a new generator. together with a new generator. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. .a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a . the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int. a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced. random does the same as randomR... . and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval .2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand.2. g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a.... randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .g’) = random g randomRs = .... a) > g > (a. ..Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. It is unspeciﬁed what happens if . the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 . The plural versions.. but does not take a range. – For Integer.27. THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. depending on the implementation and the interval.. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded. the range is normally the whole type. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a..
RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. July 1998. pp11921201. 27.248 CHAPTER 27. To get deterministic behaviour. 2(2):203212. [3] DG Carta. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. updates it with one of the results. and returns the other. Comm ACM 31(10). .3). Jan 1990. [4] P Hellekalek. setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. for example. global random number generator of type StdGen. Journal of Functional Programming. For example. implicit. or Linux’s kernel random number generator.6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. The Web site http://random.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. Comm ACM.mat. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. respectively. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. 33(1). “Distributed random number generation”.at/ is a great source of information. “Random number generators . “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”. by using the time of day. April 1992. pp8788. [2] SK Park. pp8289.ac. and KW Miller. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. randomRIO and randomIO. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”.sbg.3 The global random number generator There is a single. use setStdGen. Oct 1988.
August 1978.R. 5(1). Reading. Haskell Workshop. Wadler and S. Jr. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. Co. San Francisco. [11] Unicode Consortium. 1987. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. [6] P. 21(8):613–641. January 1989. pages 248–256. Addison Wesley. CACM. May 1996.B. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. January 1995. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. Version 3. e [5] J. Fasel. [7] Mark P. Austin. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. [12] P. Texas. October 1999. NorthHolland Pub. Jones. [9] P. Curry and R. [2] H. Jones. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. Amsterdam. Combinatory Logic.. Albuquerque. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Englewood Cliffs.. pages 207–212. Peterson. Journal of Functional Programming. Damas and R. [8] Mark P. Milner. Feys.L. PrenticeHall International. [10] S. Yale University. Backus. [4] KF.0. 2000. The Unicode Standard. Hindley. 2002. and J. New Jersey. December 1969. Hudak. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. J. 1958. Principal type schemes for functional programs. Blott.M. 249 . N. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Paris. [3] L. 146:29–60. MA.Bibliography [1] J. January 1982. pages 60–76. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. September 1981. Peyton Jones. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Penﬁeld. Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.
250 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
80 :+. see function application operator. 142 <=. 104. 91. 106 addToClockTime. 55. 175. 110 %. see also negation . 92. 182 \a. 55. see also + pattern ++. 20–23. 12 \t. 91. 140 appendFile.. 177 !!. 106 //. 139 alts. 177 accumArray.). 84. 55. 91. see operator application approxRational. 104. 17. 142 =<<. 153 &&. 55. 139 ambiguous type. 106 acosh. 91. 110 $!. 12 \\. 104. 9. 90. 80 \\. 109 >>=. 110 /. 82. !. see aspattern [] (nil). 92. 55. 55. 104. 91. 173. 105. 104.). 55. 80 (). 55. 142 >>. 55. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 151. 82. 12 \r. 104. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 81. 176. 129 any. 55. 126 AppendMode. 110 ˜. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 142 :. 174. 9. 110 (. 202. 173. 105. 109 ˆˆ. 12 \v. 25. 91. 97. 104. 44. 104. 115 . 104. 84. 43. 91. 81. 84. 9. 104. 217 abstract datatype. 155. 55.Index font. 106 +. 55. 116 $. 55.. 109 _. 156 ::. 62 and. 104. 142 >=. 45. 104. 104. 105 **. 104. 129 any. 186. 12 \b. 55. 55. 90. 90. 206 apat. 104. 91. 88. 97. 12 \f. 115. 55. 104. see lambda abstraction \&. 66 abs. 129 ap. see trivial type and unit expression *. 139 algebraic datatype. 187 \. 174. 214 application. 76 accum. 79. 104. 55. 142 >. 180. 80 (. 109 ==. 51. 67. 104. 233. see wildcard pattern . 16. 109 @. 141 all. 119 ANYseq. 93. 19 function. 12 \n. 55. 88. 92. 104. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 104. 91. 151. 81. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 119 alt. 79. 90. 177 acos. 30 <. 91. 230 ˆ. 104. 55. 55. 88. 12 . 92. 175–177 /=. 84. 31. 55. 173. 235 aexp. 55. 173. 97. 119 ANY. 25.
235 case expression. 47. 38. 12. 92. 41 class declaration. 18. 92. 90 arithmetic sequence. 39. 9. 93 comment. see ASCII character set transparent. 234 char. 161. 125. 129 asin. 173. 110 boolean. 174 derived. 10. 48. 89. 79. see function binding pattern. 9 comment. 21 conid. 156 class. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 40. 91. 93. 215 closure. 129 closing a ﬁle. 197 array. 47. 110 Char (module). 129 ascii. 47 class. 137 basic input/output. 12. 129 compare. 40. 67 with an empty where part. 130 character. 104. 233. 93. 197. 108 atanh. 173. 174. 155. 137 class assertion. 177 asTypeOf. 41. 9. 235 calendarTimeToString. see simple pattern binding body. 12 character set ASCII. 105 derived instance. 23. 140 . 177 aspattern (@). 155. 232. 66. 230 catMaybes. 31. 9. 11. 161. 106 atan2. 174. 136 Bool (datatype). 95 binding. 79. 198 cis. 176. 234 closecom. 195. 106 asinh. 9 nested.252 arithmetic operator. 80 Array (datatype). 129 ascSmall. 79 literal syntax. 137 cdecls. 121. 37 function. 221 bracket_. 226 Char (datatype). 106 atype. 155. 142 Complex (module). 17. 12. 91. see pattern binding simple pattern. 111 bounds. 130 conjugate. 9. 69. 130 coercion. 177 bracket. 98. 114 atan. 38. 79 Bounded (class). 194 cdecl. 193. 156 conop. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 211. 51. 9 endofline. 211. 118 btype. 140 concat. 173 accumulated. 173. 49 clock time. 38. 137 ceiling. 130 chr. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 42 class method. 173. 176 array. 232. 9. 115 conditional expression. 18. 115 concatMap. 91. 107 changing the directory. 47. 156 con. 221 break. 136 cntrl. 33 ascDigit. 7 ascLarge. 91. 48 class environment. 25 INDEX catch. 174 Array (module). 129 ascSymbol. 174. 195. 38. 12. 9. 74 cname. 17. 106 assocs. 130 ASCII character set. 143 instance for Char. see transparent character set charesc. 84.
106 divMod. 197 directories. 81. 167 Either (datatype). 90. 138 decimal. 91. 80. 11. 55. 81. 59 cos. 137 decodeFloat. 38 constructor expression. 56. 241 CPUTime (module). 187 deleting directories. 186 elems. 173. 118 e. 240 Day (datatype). 235 digit. 92. 137 context reduction. see ﬁxity declaration import. 111 either. see recursive datatype renaming. 138 constrs. 232. 225 creating a ﬁle. 58 decls. 43 data declaration. 232. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 174. 111 elem. 235 current directory. 225 deleting ﬁles. 106 cosine. 180. 43 abstract. see abstract datatype algebraic. 195. 92. 186 elemIndices. see also instance declaration deriving. 89. 92. 49 declaration group. 106 cosh. 91. 184. 180. see class declaration datatype. 224 Double (datatype). 224 doesFileExist. 26. 40 consym. 48. 214 ctDay. 145 default declaration. 118 dropWhile. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 93. 51. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 234 dclass. 47 within a let expression. 81. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 55.INDEX const. 50. 108 default class method. 117 dashes. 38. 213. 104. 43. 180. 137 declaration. 9. 112 drop. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 110 constr. 141. 43. 38. 184.. 43. 97 doDiv. 9. see data declaration recursive. 240 dateTimeFmt. Haskell B. vii cycle. 27. 226 curry. 129 digitToInt. 130 context. 114 Curry. 108 . 239. 106 do expression. 182. 130 decl. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 153 dependency analysis. 93 CPU time. 182. 177 encodeFloat. 37 class. 224. 182. 224 div. 91. 119 elemIndex. 58 derived instance. 115. 233. 43. 138 diffClockTimes. see algebraic datatype declaration. 235 ctIsDST. 235 ctMin. 239. 224 Directory (module). 43 datatype. 180. 180. 235 ctHour. 232. 10. 225 denominator. 24 within an instance declaration. 138 constructor class. 241 createDirectory. 91. 232. 129 data constructor. see data declaration default. 232. 240 delete. 239. 93. see import declaration instance. 187 deleteBy. 41. 41 context. 151. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity.
89. 99. 142 instance for Array. 38. 105 enumFromThen. 111 instance for Double. 21. 48. 4. 67. see type environment environment variables. 215 entity. 125 filter. 82. 16. 108 exception handling. 16. see type expression unit. 86. see label. 19. 108 floatToDigits. 86. 51. 230 escape. 28. 98 executable. 91 export. 182. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 105 derived instance. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 104 error. 93. 115 filterM. 108 exponentiation. 65 Enum (class). 44 construction. 29 ﬁelddecl. 49. 12. 81 Eq (class). 163 f. 136 export list. 94. 104 derived instance. 89. 162 expts. 213 ﬁle buffering. 52 expt. 112 ﬂoat. 108 floatRange. 28 selection. 24–26. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 139 exp. 170 enumFrom. see conditional expression let. 17 error. 186 ﬁxity. 16. 229 ExitFailure. 51. 154 superclass of Integral. 138 ﬁle. 229 exitFailure. 43. 106 instance for Complex. 4. 159. 105 environment class. see unit expression expression typesignature. 207 find. 110 Float (datatype).254 end of ﬁle. 105 superclass of Ord. 106 exponent. 180. 86. 91. 110 superclass of Num. 177 instance for Char. 105 enumFromTo. 229 EQ. 105 enumFromThenTo. 17. 92. 106 enumeration. 30. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 229 exitWith. 93. 202. 139 fexp. 18 ﬁxity. see let expression simple case. 97. 109. 130 even. 113 instance for Ratio. 136 v INDEX expression. 15 case. 91. 186 findIndices. 88. see simple case expression type. 92. 86. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 142 instance for Char. 167 fail. see class environment type. 12 floatDigits. see case expression conditional. 108 Floating (class). 89. 93. 30. 66 exports. 215 ﬁle system. 79 fbind. 81. 19. 113 instance for Float. 54. 92. 224 execution time. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 229 ExitSuccess. 27 update. 114. 180. 33 floatRadix. 180. 229 . 139 exp. 51. 91. 212 False. 186 findIndex. 164 ﬁeld label. 54 flip. 92. 67. 86. 92.
219 getArgs. 87 funlhs. 140 Fractional (class). 92. 106 instance for Complex. 42 generator. 138 gdpat. 248 getStdRandom. 202. 189 genericTake. 190 genericLength. 130 hexit. 229 getLine. 193. 107 fromEnum. 139 gdrhs. 116 foldM. 92. 31. 111 instance for Maybe. 59 generalization preorder. 94. 138 gendecl. 233. 153 superclass of Floating. 176 foldl. 11. 193. 177 instance for IO. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 194 fromMaybe. 181. 81 gtycon. 138 gap. 31. 236 formatRealFloat. 125 getModificationTime. 244. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 181. 38. 137 guard. 129 255 . 235 getContents. 87. 187 groupBy. 23. 81 function binding. 217 fmap. 105 fromInteger. 129 group. 184. 225 getDirectoryContents. 130 gcd. 54. 106 fst. 157 instance for Ratio. 140 fpats. 244. 18. 125 getClockTime. 114 function. 109 instance for []. 9. 181. 34 guard. 181. 25. vii Functor (class).INDEX floor. 206 Handle (datatype). 93. 91. 207 foldr. 117 foldr1. 80. 91. 210. 105 fromIntegral. vii. 210 handles. 40. 18. 224. 129 fpat. 183. 194 fromRat. 18 gd. 229 getStdGen. 116 foldl1. 109. 111 functor. 165 formfeed. 40. 55. 3 Haskell kernel. 181. 87. 233. 213 Haskell. 18. 224 getPermissions. 96. 23 genericDrop. 225 getEnv. 3 formatCalendarTime. 92. 96. 109 fromJust. 90. 188 GT. 181. 140 gconsym. 47. 113 instance for Array. 91. 224. 90. 125 getCPUTime. 9. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 89. 137 generalization. 12. 91. 215 head. 181. 224 getProgName. 189 genericReplicate. 86. 25. 56. 189 genericIndex. 49. 117 formal semantics. 9. 244. 189 genRange. 162 fromRat’. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 115 hexadecimal. 41 functional language. 202. 162 fromRational. 56 function type. 96. 181. 229 getChar. 25. 248 graphic. 190 genericSplitAt. 159. 108 gcon. 56. 4 hClose. 18.
4. 174. 89. 195. 211. 193. 112 integer. 211. 211. 195. 218 hIsEOF. 177 init. 38. 49. 112 Integer (datatype). 197 isDoesNotExistError. 110 idecl. 219 inRange. 211. 188 inlining. 89. 24. 195. 169. 218 I/O. 136 import. 211. 210 I/O errors. 218 hSeek. 184. 182. 211. 49. 211. 212 isFullError. 138 instance declaration. 212 ioeGetFileName. 211. 125. 155. 81. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 33. 197 isAlphaNum. 211. 197 isControl. 137 idecls. 81. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 137 identiﬁer. 211. 69. 211. 96. 187 intersperse. 181. 9 ifthenelse expression. 215 isAscii. 212 id. 211. 215 isEOF.256 hFileSize. 197 isAlreadyExistsError. 66. 211. 218 hIsReadable. 163 Integral (class). 211. 198 IO. 188 insertBy. 211. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 194 . 210. 81. 211. 211 hReady. 126 intersect. 211. 49. 210. 92. 211. 212 ioeGetHandle. see conditional expression imagPart. 57 isAlpha. 214. 211. 98. 211. 211. 172 insert. 211. 169. 184. 156 impdecl. 183. 212 ioError. 214 irrefutable pattern. 217 hGetBuffering. 217 hGetChar. 215 hFlush. 217 hiding. 38. 69 impspec. 50. 111 IO (module). 217 hSetBuffering. 212. 171. 181. 49 Int (datatype). 106 interact. 171. 195. 211. 195. 116 inits. 212. 58 hIsClosed. 189 inst. 210 input/output examples. 216. 33 integerLogBase. 215 isEOFError. 219 hPutStr. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 34. 219 hPutChar. 215 hIsOpen. 69. 197 isDigit. 216 hSetPosn. 218 hLookAhead. 195. 187 intToDigit. 211. 210 IO (datatype). 211. 38. 218 hIsSeekable. 71 with an empty where part. 211. 211. 181. 219 hPutStrLn. 187 intersectBy. 219 hGetLine. 69. 181. 197 isIllegalOperation. 181. 212 isJust. 211. 219 hPrint. 125 IOMode (datatype). 136 import declaration. 218 hIsWritable. 218 hGetContents. 136 index. 211. 211. 92. 211. 183. 136 impdecls. 217 hWaitForInput. 183. 91. 173. 212 isHexDigit. 212 IOError (datatype). 181. 172 indices. 12 integer literal pattern. 49. 147 INDEX input/output. 211. 218 hGetPosn. 195.
239 log. 195. 31. 40. 119 . 19. 215 isPrefixOf. 74 liftM. 117 Ix (class). 129 lexical structure. 16. 64 kind inference. 91. 189 Maybe (datatype). 127 maximum. 212. 106 lookahead. 206 Just. 186 list. 168 lexeme. 65 making directories. 119 maximumBy. 116 layout. 176. 234. 64 label. 91. 56 lines. 104. 202. 172 instance for Int. 172 instance for Integer. 173. 109 Left. 194 literal. 202. 21. 91. 159. 41 listArray. 195. 188 isPrint. 173. 207 liftM3. 81 length. 171. 211. 84. 81 magnitude.INDEX isLatin1. 92. 40. 106 logarithm. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 118 List (module). 181. 219 lookup. 202. 12. 177 join. 195. 188 mapAccumR. 188 isUpper. 199 . 92 magnitude. 80 list type. 122 lexDigits. 170 instance for Char. 32 literate comments. 193. 109 mapMaybe. 44. 181. 225 map. 212 iterate. 169. 202. 197 isSpace. 184. 40. 169. 109 match. 210. 19. 23. 183. 207 liftM5. 143 maximal munch rule. 7 lexLitChar. 9. 181. 31. 172. 24 in do expressions. 176. 88. 197 isPermissionError. 65 main. 39. 142 maxBound. 176. 194 mapM_. 26 in list comprehensions. 195. 173. 207 linear pattern. 44. 129 literal pattern. 140 LT. 202. 19 large. 81 kind. 239. 134 Locale (module). 91 logBase. 197 isLower. 129 last. 207 v 257 liftM2. 172 Ix (module). 81. 197 isUserError. 240 locale. 88. 115 mapAccumL. 86. 13. 198 max. 50. 202. 174. 194 isOctDigit. 23 lex. 181. 50. 195. 177 listToMaybe. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 197 isSuffixOf. 45. 105. 9. 195. 45. 9. 197 isNothing. 172 derived instance. 155. 89. 156 Main (module). 56 linearity. 180. 31. 193. 130. 183. 202. 116 let expression. 211. 80 list comprehension. 9. 139 libraries. 27 lambda abstraction. 207 liftM4. 195. 193. 206 mapM. 234 ixmap. 232. see also offside rule lcm. 181.
46 INDEX next. 111 instance for Maybe. 119 Nothing. 9. 186 nubBy. 91. 18. 9. 11. 121. 84. 206 msum. 245 nonnull. 81. 104. 214 opening a ﬁle. 136 Monad (class). 178 instance for Char. 244. 202. 55. 65 module. 153 Numeric (module). 112 ¢ ¦ . 91. 151. see special name namespaces. 193. 66. 225 mplus. 116 Num (class). 129 negate. 84. 142 minBound. 129 newStdGen. 18 numerator. 89. 111 instance for Ratio. 105. 193. 137 or. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 13. 81 nub. 16. 136 module. 206 mzero. 33. 189 mkPolar. 26. 153 superclass of Fractional. 186. see class method min. 51. 232. 180. 54. 130 octit. 17. 32–34. 89 literal syntax. 143 minimum. 104 derived instance. 138 newline. 129 odd. 105 number. 9. 197 numeric type. 61 Month (datatype). 182. 184. 10 ncomment. 248 newtype declaration. 180. 195. 81. 95 MonadPlus (class). 202. 90. 194 maybe. 27. see qualiﬁed name special. 194 method. 79. 157 instance for Ratio. 5. 60. 198 Ordering (datatype). 142 instance for Array. 61 monomorphism restriction. 106 superclass of Real. 187 null. 113 numericEnumFromTo. 130. 156 mkStdGen. 55. 105 negation. 91. 52. 113 octal. 11 translation of literals. 206 instance for Maybe. 38. 210. 115. 161. 234 moving directories. 108 offside rule. 88. 202. 111 maybeToList. 113 instance for IO. 153 superclass of Real. 54. 19. 66. 184. 225 moving ﬁles. 206 + pattern. 32. 19 ops. 109 instance for []. 206 instance for []. 140 opencom. 89. 19 operator application. 206 monad. 10. 155. 119 Ord (class). 129 openFile. 106 modid. 246 mod. 46. 9. 20 newconstr. 34. 244. 168 not. 202. 11. 159. 110 notElem. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 104. 105 ord. 90. 230 operator. 105 instance for Complex. 90 numericEnumFrom. 57 name qualiﬁed. 119 minimumBy. 206 monomorphic type variable. 91. 88. 181. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 202. see also layout op. 9. 214 operating system commands. 244. 19. 206 Monad (module). 89.258 Maybe (module).
25. 121 principal type. 217 RandomGen. 75 Prelude (module). 244. 11. 43. 106 polar. 143 instance for [a]. 106 qvar. 245 randomIO. 51. 18. 91. see wildcard pattern constructed. 9. 38 overloaded pattern. 121 derived instance. 155. 140 qvarsym. 34 Permissions (datatype). 55. 31. 96. 156 polling a handle for input. 130 Random (class). 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 125 qcon. 155. 124 instance for Array. 229 program name. 18. 130 qvarop. 129 v 259 program arguments. 11. 247 randomR. 229 program structure. 79. 103. 18. 244. 96. 130 qop. 125 PreludeIO (module). 125 PreludeList (module). 92. 107 putChar. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 225 pattern. 23. 4 pragmas. 218 polymorphic recursion. 115 PreludeText (module). 140 qvarid. 96. 247 randomRs. 247 randomRIO. 103. 151 Ratio (module). 125 product. 244. 18. see patternmatching overloading. 70. 93. 47 defaults. 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 11. 31. 156 physical ﬁle. 72 qualiﬁer. 140 pat. 172 Ratio (datatype). 75. 11. 140 path. 244. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 85.INDEX otherwise. 125 putStrLn. 247 randoms. 151 Read (class). 3 properFraction. 213 pi. 23 quantiﬁcation. 30 overloaded constant. 91. 171. 183. 96. 130 qual. 244 random. 187 . 169. 224 phase. 110 overloaded functions. 244. 11. 91. 171. 172 rangeSize. 139 qualiﬁed name. 125 putStr. 153 rational numbers. see aspattern _. 161 Rational (type synonym). see irrefutable pattern linear. 90. 104. 41 quot. 151. 147 precedence. 140 qconsym. 103. 247 random access ﬁles. 30 @. 153. 103. 151. 130 qtycon. 181. 53 print. 18. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 57 patternmatching. 11. 244. 11. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. see linear pattern + . 247 range. 169. 130 qconop. 103. see + pattern refutable. 247 Random (module). 19. 51 partition. 140 qtycls. 106 quotRem. 42. see also ﬁxity pred. 140 qconid. 119 program. 54 polymorphism.
85. 85. 86. 109 recip. 210. 126 readList. 123 instance for Int. 104. 91. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 159. 225 renameFile. 163 readsPrec. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 138 Right. 122 readSigned. 226 Show (class). 85. 143 instance for [a]. 153 superclass of Integral. 93. 31. 225 removeFile. 92. 159. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 20. 88. 137 searchable. 96. 139 rhs. 130 reservedop. 104.260 instance for Char. 55. 92. 86. 117 scontext. 159. 108 scaleRat. 124 instance for Double. 116 scanl1. 107 RealFloat (class). 88. 88. 198 readFile. 225 repeat. 109 reverse. 244. 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 76 seq. 46 refutable pattern. 92. 166 . 94. 224 section. 123 instance for Integer. 130 return. 217 rem. see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 225 renaming ﬁles. 97. 225 removing ﬁles. 225 removing directories. 198 readLn. 105 instance for Ratio. 162 scanl. 123 instance for Float. 106 recursive datatype. 90. 33 RelativeSeek. 119 . 108 RealFrac (class). 155. 121 reads. 117 reservedid. 164 readEsc. 89. 10. 225 setPermissions. 85. 159. 224. 108 realPart. 109 sequence_. 110 sequence. 81. 107 roundTo. 51. 217 semantics formal. 159. 10. 85. 16. 224. 224. 218 readInt. 224. 106 removeDirectory. 156 realToFrac. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 10. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . 121. 224. 214 readOct. 214 Real (class). 121. 117 scanr1. 92. 224 readDec. 117 replicate. 164 readIO. 107 instance for Ratio. 143 readLitChar. 91. 85. 116 scanr. 56. 96. 121 derived instance. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 225 renaming directories. 195. 81 round. 224 setStdGen. 225 renameDirectory. 164 reading a directory. 92. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 248 setting the directory. 214 separate compilation. 154 read. 168 readHex. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 126. 164 readParen. 91. 122 readable. 126 ReadMode. 214 readFloat. 93. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 143 ReadWriteMode. 159. 123 instance for Ratio.
229 system. 130 synonym. 154 superclass of Num. 181. 213 stdout. 91. 121. 127 System (module). 159. 184. 115 tails. 188 take. 183. 123 instance for Float. 108 signum. 105 sum. 26. 244. 199 showOct. 235 tdMonth. 57. 105 simple pattern binding. 232. 82 String (type synonym). 159. 235 261 . 215 small. 159. 164 showHex. 9. 9. 106 tangent. 12. 163 showParen. 49 symbol. 80. 235 tdPicosec. 232. 122 sign. 85. 43. 92 signature. 91. 137 simpletype. 92. 237 show3. 74. 122 showEFloat. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 118 sqrt. 123 instance for Int. 139 strictness ﬂag. 213 standard prelude. 235 tdMin. 213 StdGen (datatype). 106 tdDay. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 129 snd. 9. 86. 79 literal syntax. 159. 53 significand. 235 tdHour. 124 instance for Double. 237 showChar. 119 superclass. 213 stmt. 232. 94. 106 standard handles. 123 instance for Ratio. 237 show2’. 121. 91. 210. 45 strictness ﬂags. 178 instance for Char. 85. see type synonym syntax. 163 showIntAtBase. 183. 114 sort. 118 tan. 106 sine. 163 showInt. 159.INDEX instance for Array. 138 sin. 85. 121 show2. 80. 164 showGFloat. 188 space. 129 tail. 45. 93 sinh. 117 takeWhile. 229 tab. 210. 210. 85. 245 splitAt. 91. 93 tanh. 46. see also Prelude stderr. 232. 129 span. 181. 41. 143 showString. 130 subtract. 164 showFFloat. 195. 9. see transparent string string. 232. 139 stmts. 164 showFloat. 159. 118 special. 129 split. 159. 62 simpleclass. 121 shows. 12 transparent. 163 showsPrec. 163 showList. 246 stdin. 143 showLitChar. 159. 26. see type signature signdecl. 159. 244. 129. 91. 86. 85. 106 size of ﬁle. 92. 9. 122 showSigned. 105 show. 188 sortBy. 181. 111 string. 210 instance for Integer. 48. 108 succ. 91.
182. 47 topdecl (data). 4. 17. 206 unlines. 130 uncurry. 129 uniSymbol. 86. 17. 232. 235 timeFmt. 40. 105 toInteger. 181. 235 transpose. 202. 197 uniDigit. see ambiguous type constructed. 41. 181. 40. 9. 42 ambiguous. 119 unzip. 41. 93. 17. 40 type renaming. 129 unit datatype. see also datatype recursive. 46 topdecl (type). 18. 49. 183. 120 unzip3. 22. 4 var. 11. 40. 181. 43 type environment. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). 9. 53 for an expression. see tuple type type. 224. 129 uniLarge. 38. 130 varop. 180. 41 tycls. 98. 119 until. 191 unzip6. 232 time12Fmt. 7. 181. 114 undefined. 233. 114 unfoldr. 181. 184. 185. 81 True. see function type list. 130 type. 49 topdecl (newtype). 221 tuple. 39. 187 trigonometric function. 103. see monomorphic type numeric. 211. see newtype declaration type signature. 235 toClockTime. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 195. 92. 187 uniSmall. 232. 49. see numeric type principal. 136 toRational. see constructed type function. 105 toUpper. 235 toEnum. 46 tyvar. 180. 4. 235 terminating a program. see list type monomorphic. 233. 236 toCalendarTime. 181. 239. 230 the ﬁle system. 42 type expression. see class type constructor. 45. 114 unwords. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 18. 67. 240 to12. 140 varid. 42. 198 toUTCTime. 129 unless. 22 uniWhite.262 tdYear. 93 trivial type. 125 valdefs. 11. 239. 9. 49 value. 11. 130 tycon. 43 topdecl (default). 191 userError. 224 Time (module). 79 truncate. 80 tuple type. 187 unionBy. 129 union. 66. 140 . see principal type INDEX trivial. 191 unzip7. 51 topdecl (instance). 195. see trivial type unit expression. 198 topdecl (class). 9. 232. 106 toLower. 233. 9. 10. 136 topdecls. 45 topdecl. 11. 137 type class. 80. 107 try. 190 unzip5. 234 time. 93. see expression typesignature type synonym. 81. 38. 91. 188 Unicode character set. see trivial type tuple. 120 unzip4. 232 time of day. 38. 22. 239.
190 zip6. 202. 181. 181. 80. 181. 10. 181. 9. 137 varsym. 120 zip4. 53. 129 whitestuff. 38. 190 zipWith6. 118 writable. 185. 9.INDEX vars. 120 zipWith3. 181. 130 vertab. 190 zip7. 207 263 . 214 zip. 181. 190 zipWith5. 190 zipWith. 9. 9. 206 whitechar. 214 WriteMode. 120 zipWith4. 31 words. 224 writeFile. 190 zip5. 207 zipWithM_. 190 zipWith7. 126. 181. 185. 202. 120 zip3. 181. 190 zipWithM. 129 whitespace. 202. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 129 when. 97.
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