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Simon Peyton Jones (editor)
Copyright notice. The authors and publisher intend this Report to belong to the entire Haskell community, and grant permission to copy and distribute it for any purpose, provided that it is reproduced in its entirety, including this Notice. Modiﬁed versions of this Report may also be copied and distributed for any purpose, provided that the modiﬁed version is clearly presented as such, and that it does not claim to be a deﬁnition of the language Haskell 98.
Contents
I The Haskell 98 Language
1 Introduction 1.1 Program Structure . 1.2 The Haskell Kernel 1.3 Values and Types . 1.4 Namespaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 3 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 9 11 12 13 15 17 17 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29
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Lexical Structure 2.1 Notational Conventions . . . 2.2 Lexical Program Structure . 2.3 Comments . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators . . 2.5 Numeric Literals . . . . . . 2.6 Character and String Literals 2.7 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Expressions 3.1 Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Variables, Constructors, Operators, and Literals 3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions 3.4 Operator Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conditionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 List Comprehensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.12 Let Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13 Case Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.14 Do Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.1 Field Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15.2 Construction Using Field Labels . . . . 3.15.3 Updates Using Field Labels . . . . . . i
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ii 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures . . . . . . . . . . 3.17 Pattern Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.1 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching 3.17.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
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Declarations and Bindings 4.1 Overview of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Kinds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Syntax of Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Semantics of Types and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Type Synonym Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Datatype Renamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Type Classes and Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Class Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Instance Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Derived Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Ambiguous Types, and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations 4.4 Nested Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Type Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Fixity Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.1 Function bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3.2 Pattern bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Dependency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Monomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Kind Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modules 5.1 Module Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Export Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Import Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 What is imported . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Qualiﬁed import . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Local aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations 5.5 Name Clashes and Closure . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
5.5.1 Qualiﬁed names . . . . . 5.5.2 Name clashes . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Closure . . . . . . . . . . Standard Prelude . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Prelude Module . . 5.6.2 Shadowing Prelude Names Separate Compilation . . . . . . . Abstract Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii 72 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 79 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 97 98
5.6
5.7 5.8 6
Predeﬁned Types and Classes 6.1 Standard Haskell Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Booleans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Characters and Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Tuples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 The Unit Datatype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.7 The IO and IOError Types . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.8 Other Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Strict Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Standard Haskell Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 The Eq Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 The Ord Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 The Read and Show Classes . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 The Enum Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 The Functor Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 The Monad Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 The Bounded Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Numeric Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations 6.4.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms . . . . . . . 6.4.4 Magnitude and Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Coercions and Component Extraction . . . .
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7
Basic Input/Output 7.1 Standard I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Sequencing I/O Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Standard Prelude 101 8.1 Prelude PreludeList . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 8.2 Prelude PreludeText . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3 Prelude PreludeIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Indexing Operations 169 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 16 Arrays 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inlining . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11. 159 160 161 161 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iv 9 Syntax Reference 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Specialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Array Construction .1 Accumulated Arrays 16. . . .1 Deriving Instances of Ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Literate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 13 Complex Numbers 155 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived instances of Bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Compiler Pragmas 147 11. 9. . . .4 Library Numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Derived Arrays . . 173 174 174 175 176 176 .2 Lexical Syntax . .4 Derived instances of Read and Show 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Derived instances of Enum . . 16. . . . . . . . . . .2 Library Ix . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . 147 II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 12 Rational Numbers 151 12. . . . . . . .1 Showing functions 14. . . . . . . .1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Library Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ContextFree Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . 16. . . . CONTENTS 127 127 128 130 134 136 141 142 142 143 143 145 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reading functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Incremental Array Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notational Conventions 9. . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 14 Numeric 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . 170 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 An Example . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flushing Buffers . . . .8 Handle Properties . . . . . . . .3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The “generic” operations 17. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Character Utilities 195 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . .1 I/O Errors . . . . . . . . . 21. . . .5 Predicates . . . . . .4 unfoldr . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Reading Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Files and Handles . . . . . . . . .2 Class MonadPlus . . . . . . .4 Determining the Size of a File . . . . . v 179 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 . . . . . . . 18 Maybe Utilities 193 18. . . .9 Library List . . . . 21. . . . . 21.1 Library Maybe . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 Detecting the End of Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . .4 Reading The Entire Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 20 Monad Utilities 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 File locking . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repositioning Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . .2 Reading Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 17 List Utilities 17. . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Naming conventions 20. . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Seeking to a new Position 21. .2 SemiClosed Handles . . .3. . . . . . .1 Library Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . .3. . .1 Indexing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further “zip” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Closing Files . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .2 “Set” operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Opening and Closing Files . 21. . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . 17. . . . . . . . . .1 Checking for Input . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The “By” operations . . .1 Revisiting an I/O Position 21. . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . .9. . .9. . . . . . . 201 203 203 204 206 209 212 213 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 215 217 217 217 217 218 218 218 218 219 219 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Handles . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Buffering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 17. . . . . . .4 Library Monad . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Opening Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Input/Output 21. . . . .3 List transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . CONTENTS . . . . Index .1 Library Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 26 CPU Time 27 Random Numbers 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 25 Locale 239 25. . . . . . . .2 The Random class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Library Locale . . .1 The RandomGen class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the StdGen generator 27. . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 21.1 Summing Two Numbers 21. . . . . . . . . . References . . . . 22 Directory Functions 23 System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 243 245 247 248 249 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 220 221 223 229 24 Dates and Times 231 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The global random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Copying Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Library IO . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . .
Curry and Robert Feys in the Preface to Combinatory Logic [2]. Thus fullness of exposition is necessary for accuracy. 5. to discuss an unfortunate situation in the functional programming community: there had come into being more than a dozen nonstrict. and a vehicle through which others would be encouraged to use functional languages. It was decided that a committee should be formed to design such a language. Since some of our fellow sinners are among the most careful and competent logicians on the contemporary scene. even more than it is ordinarily.PREFACE vii Preface “Some half dozen persons have written technically on combinatory logic. 3. and most of these. Anyone should be permitted to implement the language and distribute it to whomever they please. including ourselves. providing faster communication of new ideas. There was a strong consensus at this meeting that more widespread use of this class of functional languages was being hampered by the lack of a common language. Goals The committee’s primary goal was to design a language that satisﬁed these constraints: 1. . and applications. Oregon. including building large systems. a stable foundation for real applications development. May 31. 4. 1956 In September of 1987 a meeting was held at the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87) in Portland. and excessive condensation would be false economy here. Curry whose work provides the logical basis for much of ours. It should be suitable for teaching. named after the logician Haskell B. 2. This document describes the result of that committee’s efforts: a purely functional programming language called Haskell. all similar in expressive power and semantic underpinnings. It should be completely described via the publication of a formal syntax and semantics. we regard this as evidence that the subject is refractory. research. It should be based on ideas that enjoy a wide consensus. It should reduce unnecessary diversity in functional programming languages. have published something erroneous.” Haskell B. purely functional programming languages. It should be freely available.
4). As Haskell becomes more widely used. If these program were to be portable. making some simpliﬁcations. together with a standard library called the Prelude. Haskell has indeed evolved continuously since its original publication.viii PREFACE Haskell 98: language and libraries The committee intended that Haskell would serve as a basis for future research in language design. there had been four iterations of the language design (the latest at that point being Haskell 1. The Haskell 98 Language and Library Reports were published in February 1999. Resolve ambiguities. this stable language is the subject of this Report. It is not a . Haskell 98 was conceived as a relatively minor tidyup of Haskell 1. By the middle of 1997. With reluctance. so every change was instead proposed to the entire Haskell mailing list.4. The original Haskell Report covered only the language. a set of libraries would have to be standardised too. the Report has been scrutinised by more and more people. Clarify obscure passages. it had become clear that many programs need access to a larger set of library functions (notably concerning input/output and simple interaction with the operating system). and constitutes the ofﬁcial speciﬁcation of both. I took on the role of gathering and acting on these corrections. At the 1997 Haskell Workshop in Amsterdam. By the time Haskell 98 was stabilised. and removing some pitfalls for the unwary. It includes both the Haskell 98 Language Report and the Libraries Report. and is called “Haskell 98”. It is intended to be a “stable” language in sense the implementors are committed to supporting Haskell 98 exactly as speciﬁed. The original committees ceased to exist when the original Haskell 98 Reports were published. Revising the Haskell 98 Reports After a year or two. This document is the outcome of this process of reﬁnement. for the foreseeable future. This task turned out to be much. much larger than I had anticipated. make small changes to make the overall language more consistent. it was decided that a stable variant of Haskell was needed. and hoped that extensions or variants of the language would appear. and I have adopted hundreds of (mostly small) changes as a result of their feedback. with the following goals: Correct typographical errors. incorporating experimental features. many typographical errors and infelicities had been spotted. A separate effort was therefore begun by a distinct (but overlapping) committee to ﬁx the Haskell 98 Libraries.
so that those who wish to write text books. at the time of writing there are Haskell implementations that support: Syntactic sugar. existential types. functional dependencies. For example. and some familiarity with functional languages is assumed. can do so in the knowledge that Haskell 98 will continue to exist.org gives access to many useful resources. including: pattern guards.PREFACE ix tutorial on programming in Haskell such as the ‘Gentle Introduction’ [6]. recursive donotation. There is more besides. metaprogramming facilities. The entire text of both Reports is available online (see “Haskell resources” below). Instead. concurrency. it provides a stable point of reference. Haskell 98 does not impede these developments. or use Haskell for teaching. local universal polymorphism and arbitrary ranktypes. Extensions to Haskell 98 Haskell continues to evolve. including: multiparameter type classes. going well beyond Haskell 98. Control extensions. Haskell Resources The Haskell web site http://haskell. including: monadic state. lexically scoped type variables. including: . exceptions. Type system innovations.
by an active community of researchers and application programmers. devoted a huge amount of time and energy to the language. including a complete list of all the differences between Haskell 98 as published in February 1999 and this revised version. Contributed Haskell tools and libraries. Implementations of Haskell. Chalmers University) Thomas Johnsson (Chalmers University) Mark Jones (Yale University. in particular. and criticise the language or its presentation in the report. Oregon Graduate Institute) Erik Meijer (Utrecht University) Rishiyur Nikhil (MIT) John Peterson (Yale University) Simon Peyton Jones [editor] (University of Glasgow. Here they are.x PREFACE Online versions of the language and library deﬁnitions. with their afﬁliation(s) for the relevant period: Arvind (MIT) Lennart Augustsson (Chalmers University) Dave Barton (Mitre Corp) Brian Boutel (Victoria University of Wellington) Warren Burton (Simon Fraser University) Jon Fairbairn (University of Cambridge) Joseph Fasel (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Andy Gordon (University of Cambridge) Maria Guzman (Yale University) Kevin Hammond (Uniiversity of Glasgow) Ralf Hinze (University of Bonn) Paul Hudak [editor] (Yale University) John Hughes [editor] (University of Glasgow. Oregon Graduate Institute) Dick Kieburtz (Oregon Graduate Institute) John Launchbury (University of Glasgow. Microsoft Research Ltd) . Building the language Haskell was created. suggest improvements to. Details of the Haskell mailing list. and continues to be sustained. via the Haskell mailing list. You are welcome to comment on. University of Nottingham. Applications of Haskell. Tutorial material on Haskell. Those who served on the Language and Library committees.
Kent Karlsson. Backus’s FP [1]. Østvold. Michael Fryers. David Tweed. Mark Lillibridge. Finally. Andreas Rossberg. Curry. Keith Wansbrough. Ian Lynagh. Matt Harden. Without these forerunners Haskell would not have been possible. Simon B. Alexander Jacobson. and others on the lambda calculus. Bob Hiromoto. Richard Kelsey. Fergus Henderson. Mark Hall. Nimish Shah. Josef Svenningsson. Jan Skibinski. Satish Thatte. Nic Holt. Hope and Hope . Craig Dickson. Richard Bird. Andy Gill. Tom Blenko. Franklin Chen. Paul Callaghan. Simon Thompson. Bjarte M. John Robson. Stef Joosten. Sergey Mechveliani. Tony Warnock. Stephen Price. Bjorn Lisper. Sisal. Gary Memovich. aside from the important foundational work laid by Church. . Orjan Johansen. Klemens Hemm. Ralf Hinze. Christian Maeder. Ross Paterson. Pablo Lopez. Dave Parrott. ML and Standard ML. Ketil Malde. Guy Cousineau. Chris Fasel. Sandra Loosemore. Pradeep Varma. Manuel Chakravarty. Mike Joy. They are as follows: Kris Aerts. Sven Panne. AnttiJuhani Kaijanaho. Clean. Hans Aberg. Arthur Norman.PREFACE Mike Reeve (Imperial College) Alastair Reid (University of Glasgow) Colin Runciman (University of York) Philip Wadler [editor] (University of Glasgow) David Wise (Indiana University) Jonathan Young (Yale University) xi Those marked [editor] served as the coordinating editor for one or more revisions of the language. Randy Hudson. Lauren Smith. Julian Seward. Stephen Blott. Andy Moran. John Meacham. Magnus Carlsson. Malcolm Wallace. Olaf Chitil. Sten Anderson. Thomas Hallgren. Henrik Nilsson. Rinus Plasmeijer. Patrick Sansom. Olaf Lubeck. Cordy Hall. Graeme Moss. APL. Chris Okasaki. Duke Briscoe. Chris Dornan. it is right to acknowledge the inﬂuence of many noteworthy programming languages developed over the years. Gofer. and Bonnie Yantis. Laura Dutton. Chris Clack. Tom Thomson. Id. Robert Jeschofnik. Although it is difﬁcult to pinpoint the origin of many ideas. George Russell. Jeff Lewis. Patrik Jansson. Mark Carroll. Randy Michelsen. Marcin Kowalczyk. Carl Witty. Jerzy Karczmarczuk. Larne Pekowsky. Paul Otto. Nick North. In addition. Pat Fasel. Jan Kort. Jose Labra. Michael Marte. some small but many substantial. Sigbjorn Finne. 1 Miranda is a trademark of Research Software Ltd. Ian Poole. Rosser. Landin’s ISWIM. Mike Thyer. Libor Skarvada. Jim Mattson. SiauCheng Khoo. Stuart Wray. Mike Gunter. Dylan Thurston. Christian Sievers. Stefan Kahrs. Tommy Thorn. Rick Mohr. the following languages were particularly inﬂuential: Lisp (and its modernday incarnations Common Lisp and Scheme). Ian Holyer. Amir Kishon. Jones. Michael Schneider. Mark Tullsen. Dean Herington. Tony Davie. Raman Sundaresh. dozens of other people made helpful contributions. Feliks Kluzniak. Wolfram Kahl. Ken Takusagawa. Simon Marlow. Michael Webber. Felix Schroeter. and Turner’s series of languages culminating in Miranda 1 .
xii Simon Peyton Jones Cambridge. September 2002 PREFACE .
Part I The Haskell 98 Language 1 .
.
This includes such issues as the nature of programming environments and the error messages returned for undeﬁned programs (i. 1. We leave as implementation dependent the ways in which Haskell programs are to be manipulated. compiled. all described in Chapter 4. 2. An expression denotes a value and has a static type. static polymorphic typing. Modules provide a way to control namespaces and to reuse software in large programs. The lexical structure captures the concrete representation of Haskell programs in text ﬁles. programs that formally evaluate to ).e. type classes.” 4. nonstrict semantics. At the next lower level are expressions. of which there are several kinds. described in Chapter 5. and ﬁxity information. as well as how it relates to the organization of the rest of the report. we describe the abstract syntactic and semantic structure of Haskell. Declarations deﬁne things such as ordinary values.Chapter 1 Introduction Haskell is a general purpose. etc. 3 . Haskell is both the culmination and solidiﬁcation of many years of research on nonstrict functional languages.1 Program Structure In this section. arrays. expressions are at the heart of Haskell programming “in the small. 1. a monadic I/O system. a module system. userdeﬁned algebraic datatypes. patternmatching. This report deﬁnes the syntax for Haskell programs and an informal abstract semantics for the meaning of such programs. datatypes. arbitrary and ﬁxed precision integers. and a rich set of primitive datatypes. Haskell provides higherorder functions. including lists. described in Chapter 3. interpreted. At the topmost level a Haskell program is a set of modules. list comprehensions. At the bottom level is Haskell’s lexical structure. 3. The top level of a module consists of a collection of declarations. deﬁned in Chapter 2. purely functional programming language incorporating many recent innovations in programming language design. and ﬂoatingpoint numbers.
4 CHAPTER 1. they are not distinguishable from nontermination. etc. Also. implementations will probably try to provide useful information about errors. However. Technically. for types. Errors in Haskell are semantically equivalent to . the meaning of such syntactic sugar is given by translation into simpler constructs. such as for expresin if sions.1. However. This modular design facilitates reasoning about Haskell programs and provides useful guidelines for implementors of the language. which describes the standard builtin datatypes and classes in Haskell. it is essentially a slightly sugared variant of the lambda calculus with a straightforward denotational semantics. the concrete syntax. as then else . so the language includes no mechanism for detecting or acting upon errors. 1. Examples of Haskell program fragments in running text are given in typewriter font: let x = 1 z = x+y in z+1 “Holes” in program fragments representing arbitrary pieces of Haskell code are written in italics. Generally the italicized names are mnemonic. INTRODUCTION This report proceeds bottomup with respect to Haskell’s syntactic structure. In this Report. ¥ ¢ § £ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¦ 1. or overloading (using type classes). the result is a program written in a small subset of Haskell that we call the Haskell kernel.3 Values and Types An expression evaluates to a value and has a static type. If these translations are applied exhaustively. literate programming. and Chapter 7. and pragmas supported by most Haskell compilers. there are several chapters describing the Prelude. for declarations. which discusses the I/O facility in Haskell (i. Values and types are not mixed in Haskell. and permits not only parametric polymorphism (using a traditional HindleyMilner type structure) but also ad hoc polymorphism. The translation of each syntactic structure into the kernel is given as the syntax is introduced.2 The Haskell Kernel Haskell has adopted many of the convenient syntactic structures that have become popular in functional programming. the speciﬁcation of derived instances. The chapters not mentioned above are Chapter 6. .e. how Haskell programs communicate with the outside world). the type system allows userdeﬁned datatypes of various sorts. See Section 3. Although the kernel is not formally speciﬁed.
1. class. and type classes refer to entities related to the type system. type constructors. for example. Int may simultaneously be the name of a module.4 Namespaces There are six kinds of names in Haskell: those for variables and constructors denote values. and constructor within a single scope.4. NAMESPACES 5 1. those for type variables. An identiﬁer must not be used as the name of a type constructor and a class in the same scope. and module names refer to modules. . Names for variables and type variables are identiﬁers beginning with lowercase letters or underscore. These are the only constraints. 2. There are two constraints on naming: 1. the other four kinds of names are identiﬁers beginning with uppercase letters.
6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .
there is no implicit space between juxtaposed symbols. BNFlike syntax is used throughout. source programs are currently biased toward the ASCII character set used in earlier versions of Haskell.. we describe the lowlevel lexical structure of Haskell. all whitespace is expressed explicitly. although usually the context makes the distinction clear. Haskell uses the Unicode [11] character set.]. with productions having the form: Care must be taken in distinguishing metalogical syntax such as and from concrete terminal syntax (given in typewriter font) such as  and [. This syntax depends on properties of the Unicode characters as deﬁned by the Unicode consortium. 2.Chapter 2 Lexical Structure In this chapter.. Most of the details may be skipped in a ﬁrst reading of the report. Haskell compilers are expected to make use of new versions of Unicode as they are made available. 7 § ¢ £¡ ¨ ¥¥8 8 8 1 &§ ¢ £¡ A !§ 7 3¢ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § )'% $ " 0(&§#!§ £§ ¢§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡§ 7 3¢ 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ . However.1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font Because the syntax in this section describes lexical syntax.
2 Lexical Program Structure 8 ( ) .{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 2. LEXICAL STRUCTURE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 2. [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ . . / < = > ? \ ˆ  .
then any occurrence of {. 2.g. “{” starts a nested comment despite the trailing dashes. a sequence of dashes has no special signiﬁcance. each “{” is matched by a corresponding occurrence of “}”. The sequence of dashes must not form part of a legal lexeme. cases is not. the character sequences “{” and “}” have no special signiﬁcance. No legal lexeme starts with “{”. although case is a reserved word. however “foo” does start a comment. Within a nested comment. © § ¥ § ¨¦£ Any kind of is also a proper delimiter for lexemes. For example. Similarly. Instead. == and ˜= are not. A nested comment begins with “{” and ends with “}”. An ordinary comment begins with a sequence of two or more consecutive dashes (e. So.or } within a string or within an endofline comment in that code will interfere with the nested comments.2.4 Identiﬁers and Operators ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ §§ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 § ¦ %¤ ¢7 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 77 !3¢ 4 §© 77 !3¢ ¢ ¤£¡ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 4 §© 4 ¢ ¥ S 7 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § ¦ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § ¤ 2 ¦ £$ ¢ © ¢ 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f ’ . If some code is commented out using a nested comment. COMMENTS 9 Lexical analysis should use the “maximal munch” rule: at each point. “>” or “” do not begin a comment. although = is reserved. because both of these are legal lexemes. the longest possible lexeme satisfying the production is read. Nested comments are also used for compiler pragmas. as explained in Chapter 11. The comment itself is not lexically analysed. ) and extends to the following newline. the ﬁrst unmatched occurrence of the string “}” terminates the nested comment.3. hence. terminated by “}”.3 Comments Comments are valid whitespace. for example. in a nested comment. and. are not valid in Haskell programs and should result in a lexing G E HTC Characters not in the category error. 2. In an ordinary comment. Nested comments may be nested to any depth: any occurrence of the string “{” within the nested comment starts a new nested comment.
and single quotes.10 CHAPTER 2. Identiﬁers are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. Underscore. All of the standard inﬁx operators are just predeﬁned symbols and may be rebound. In the remainder of the report six different kinds of names will be used: variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ ¥ h " 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 §§ ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡§ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' § @ ¦ %¤ 7 2 ¢7 ' 77 !3¢ 4 §© ¦ ¤ § ¦32 ¦ ¦32 ¦ 32 ¦ ¦ 2¤ § § § ¢ ¢7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ § ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¦ © § § § ¢¦ 2 ¤ ¦ 2 2 4 %§ ¢ %§ ¤ .> @ ˜ => Operator symbols are formed from one or more symbol characters. and can occur wherever a lowercase letter can. Identiﬁers are case sensitive: name. as deﬁned above. This allows programmers to use “_foo” for a parameter that they expect to be unused. LEXICAL STRUCTURE ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ An identiﬁer consists of a letter followed by zero or more letters. underscores. : :: = \  <.b]”. all operators are inﬁx.. However. Compilers that offer warnings for unused identiﬁers are encouraged to suppress such warnings for identiﬁers beginning with underscore. naMe. Notice that a colon by itself. and are lexically distinguished into two namespaces (Section 1. is treated as a lowercase letter.4): An operator symbol starting with a colon is a constructor.5). used as wild card in patterns. “_” all by itself is a reserved identiﬁer. An operator symbol starting with any other character is an ordinary identiﬁer. Other than the special syntax for preﬁx negation. such as “[]” and “[a. is reserved solely for use as the Haskell list constructor. and Name are three distinct identiﬁers (the ﬁrst two are variable identiﬁers. : : : . “:”. although each inﬁx operator can be used in a section to yield partially applied operators (see Section 3. digits. the last is a constructor identiﬁer). “_”. this makes its treatment uniform with other parts of list syntax.4): those that begin with a lowercase letter (variable identiﬁers) and those that begin with an uppercase letter (constructor identiﬁers).
constructor.g F.5. This applies to variable. . (two tokens) F. NUMERIC LITERALS 11 Variables and type variables are represented by identiﬁers beginning with small letters.2.4.2). (qualiﬁed ‘.g (qualiﬁed ‘g’) f . . also. Prelude.. Sample lexical analyses are shown below..5 Numeric Literals §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ 6 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 4§ ¨ e E +  ¨ § 32 ¦ ¦ ¢ ¡ . type constructor and type class names.’) F . F. 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0X 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ 7 3¢ 3¢ 7 § ¦ 32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4§ ¦ 7 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ § 7 ¢2 ¦ 4§ ¢ ¡ ¥ 0o 0x 0O 7 3¢ 43332 ¨ © ¦ 4 © 3¤ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ © § ¦ 32 ¨ ¢ %§ ¨ § § S ¢ . F. ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § § § ¡ ¥ ¢ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 § ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 4 4 © 3¤ ¤ § ¦ § © ¦ 32 ¦ ¤ ¦ 37 2 © ¦ § § § ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ %§ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ S ¥ %§ ¢ ¡ ¦ ! . . ¦ ¤ § `¨ Since a qualiﬁed name is a lexeme. variables and constructors have inﬁx forms.+ is an inﬁx operator with the same ﬁxity as the deﬁnition of + in the Prelude (Section 4.g f. . for example.4.. but not type variables or module names. This f. 2. . Qualiﬁed names are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. the other four do not. and the other four by identiﬁers beginning with capitals. (two tokens) The qualiﬁer does not change the syntactic treatment of a name. g (three tokens) F. Lexes as this f .. no spaces are allowed between the qualiﬁer and the name. Namespaces are also discussed in Section 1. A name may optionally be qualiﬁed in certain circumstances by prepending them with a module identiﬁer.
including control characters such as \ˆX. Further equivalences of characters are deﬁned in Section 6. The escape character \& is provided as a “null character” to allow strings such as "\137\&9" and "\SO\&H" to be constructed (both of length two). Numeric escapes such as \137 are used to designate the character with decimal representation 137. Thus "\&" is equivalent to "" and the character ’\&’ is disallowed. and strings between double quotes. LEXICAL STRUCTURE There are two distinct kinds of numeric literals: integer and ﬂoating. The typing of numeric literals is discussed in Section 6. For example. This allows one to write long strings on more than one line by writing a backslant at the end of one line and at the start of the next. as in "Hello". Escape codes may be used in characters and strings to represent special characters. Similarly. 2. Integer literals may be given in decimal (the default). octal (preﬁxed by 0o or 0O) or hexadecimal notation (preﬁxed by 0x or 0X).12 CHAPTER 2.g. but must be escaped in a character.g. “backspace” (\b). but must be escaped in a string. Floating literals are always decimal. “new line” (\n). is parsed as a string of length 1. © 7 3¢ 4§ ¤ ¥ ¢ 4§ ¢¡ ¥ § 2 ¦ ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 ¢ © © ¡5¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ ) © © ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ © © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡§¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 7 ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 § @§ © ¢ © ¤ ¥ ¢ © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © 7 ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¥ . this ensures that a decimal point cannot be mistaken for another use of the dot character. “form feed” (\f). “horizontal tab” (\t).4. similarly. the one ambiguous ASCII escape code. Consistent with the “maximal munch” rule. \ must always be escaped. and “vertical tab” (\v). as in ’a’. Escape characters for the Unicode character set. A string may include a “gap”—two backslants enclosing white characters—which is ignored. octal (e. Negative numeric literals are discussed in Section 3.4.1. \o137) and hexadecimal (e. "\SOH".1. The category also includes portable representations for the characters “alert” (\a). a double quote " may be used in a character. \x37) representations are also allowed. Note that a single quote ’ may be used in a string. numeric escape characters in strings consist of all consecutive digits and may be of arbitrary length.2.6 Character and String Literals ’ ’ \ \& ’ " " " \ \ o x a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ ) h ) h §§ Character literals are written between single quotes. A ﬂoating literal must contain digits both before and after the decimal point. are also provided. “carriage return” (\r).
The effect of layout on the meaning of a Haskell program can be completely speciﬁed by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. or of. the braces and semicolons are inserted as follows. do or of is less than or equal to the current indentation level. Given these rules. Also. Because layout is not required. by using layout to convey the same information.7 Layout Haskell permits the omission of the braces and semicolons used in several grammar productions.7).pop. do. A close brace is also inserted whenever the syntactic category containing the layout list ends. then instead of starting a layout.7. Informally stated. that is. then a new item begins (a semicolon is inserted). Section 9. an explicit open brace must be matched by an explicit close brace. If the indentation of the nonbrace lexeme immediately following a where. b = 2 g y = exp2 in exp1 making a. if it contains only whitespace or is indented more.2 shows the result of applying the layout rule to it. The layout rule matches only those open braces that it has inserted.2.e. As an example. LAYOUT 13 "Here is a backslant \\ as well as \137. a close brace is inserted. which can be freely mixed within one program. Note in particular: (a) the line beginning }}. insert a semicolon or close brace). The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. then the layout list ends (a close brace is inserted). the indentation of the next lexeme (whether or not on a new line) is remembered and the omitted open brace is inserted (the whitespace preceding the lexeme may include comments). and \ˆX. For each subsequent line. these rules permit: f x = let a = 1. no layout processing is performed for constructs outside the braces. 2. a control character. if it is indented the same amount. Figure 2.3 gives a more precise deﬁnition of the layout rules. and if it is indented less.1 shows a (somewhat contrived) module and Figure 2. and layout processing occurs for the current level (i. let. When this happens. This allows both layoutsensitive and layoutinsensitive styles of coding. even if a line is indented to the left of an earlier implicit open brace. Within these explicit open braces. an empty list “{}” is inserted. Haskell programs can be straightforwardly produced by other programs. \ \a numeric escape character. a single newline may actually terminate several layout lists. The layout (or “offside”) rule takes effect whenever the open brace is omitted after the keyword where. then the previous item is continued (nothing is inserted). where the . b and g all part of the same layout list. if an illegal lexeme is encountered at a point where a close brace would be legal. let." String literals are actually abbreviations for lists of characters (see Section 3.
size :: Stack a > Int . and (c) the close brace at the very end. pop.pop (MkStack x s) = (x.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2. pop.(pop Empty) is an error . LEXICAL STRUCTURE module AStack( Stack.2: Sample program with layout expanded termination of the previous line invokes three applications of the layout rule.push x s = MkStack x s . inserted because of the column 0 indentation of the endofﬁle token. push. (b) the close braces in the where clause nested within the tuple and case expression. . case s of r > i r where i x = x) .14 CHAPTER 2.pop :: Stack a > (a. top.(pop Empty) is an error top :: Stack a > a top (MkStack x s) = x . Stack a) .top (MkStack x s) = x } . push. Stack a) pop (MkStack x s) = (x. inserted because the end of the tuple was detected. case s of {r > i r where {i x = x}}) . size ) where data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) push :: a > Stack a > Stack a push x s = MkStack x s size :: Stack a > Int size s = length (stkToLst s) where stkToLst Empty = [] stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where xs = stkToLst s pop :: Stack a > (a.stkToLst (MkStack x s) = x:xs where {xs = stkToLst s }}.size s = length (stkToLst s) where {stkToLst Empty = [] .top :: Stack a > a . top.(top Empty) is an error Figure 2.1: A sample program module AStack( Stack. size ) where {data Stack a = Empty  MkStack a (Stack a) .push :: a > Stack a > Stack a . corresponding to the depth (3) of the nested where clauses.
11) means the concatMap deﬁned by the Prelude. where appropriate.Chapter 3 Expressions In this chapter. For example. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. “concatMap” used in the translation of list comprehensions (Section 3. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude. . For example actually stands for 30 productions. ::  15 ¢ ¡ else } ¦ ¡ ¢ ¡ © @§ \ let in if then case of { ¢ S > lambda abstraction let expression conditional case expression ¡ ¡ v v ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¨ ¡ %§ => expression type signature ¢ § ¡ p v §e ¢© v ¨ v 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ © ¦ A!¡ § 8¥8¥8 7 ¡ § ¢ £¡5¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢¡ ¤ 2 ¡ £v §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ p v §e ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¥¡ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ s § S § ¢ p v ¨§e ¢ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 v 2 ¡ ¡ V 2 ¢ S ¡ v v v ¤ ¥¡ ¤ v ¡ 7 ¢ S ¤ ¡ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ ©32 ¡7 ¡ 2¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¦ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 ¤ 7 § 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¤ v ¡ v ¡ v ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 7 . including their translations into the Haskell kernel. we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell expressions. there are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels . an associativity variable varies over . or for left. Except in the case of let expressions. these translations preserve both the static and dynamic semantics. and (if it is in scope) what it is bound to. regardless of whether or not the identiﬁer “concatMap” is in scope where the list comprehension is used. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . index: a letter . In the syntax that follows.or nonassociativity and a precedence level. right. the nonterminals . Similarly. and may have a double (written as a superscript).
} ¦ ..  parenthesized expression tuple list arithmetic sequence list comprehension left section left section right section variable general constructor function application 0 ¡ ¦§ 0 ) A 9 g © ¡ ¨ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ¦¡ 2 ¢ A ¦ § 0 8¥¥8 ' ¡ ¦ § 0 8 ¦ ¦ ' ' ¢ S ¤ ) 2 v ¡ p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ¢ S ) 2 ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ $0e ¡ 2 ¢ S v p v ¢ 5e A 2 ¡ ¡ v ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ p v £!e ¡ ¢ $ ¡ ¡ $ $ ¢ A ¥8¥8 8 ¡ 7 3¢ ¨ ¥ ¢¡ ¢ ¡¢ ¨ £ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¢S ¥8¥8 ¡¢ ¡ ¡ 8 ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¤ 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¡ ¢ S 4§ ¢ © do { } do expression ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¢ S¢0 ¢ ¢ S¢0 ' ¢ 6 6 ' ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¡ 0 ¢ ¢ .4.2).(f x)) + y let { ..1). the expression p ¢ 8 @e § 2 ¡ ¦ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ 2 ¢ %e p 8 Q¢ ¡ 2 p v £!e ¢ $ A ¦ ¡ § { . . ) ] ¤ ¥ £ ¢ Q¢ ( ( [ [ [ ( ( ( ) . The grammar is ambiguous regarding the extent of lambda abstractions. ] .16 © @§ CHAPTER 3. let expressions.. Given an unparenthesized expression “ ”. Expressions that involve the interaction of ﬁxities with the let/lambda metarule may be hard to parse. } in (x + y)) (f x y) :: Int \ x > ((a+b) :: Int) + g y x + y { . it has the same precedence as the inﬁx . . Consecutive unparenthesized operators with the same precedence must both be either left or right associative to avoid a syntax error. Negation is the only preﬁx operator in Haskell..4.f let z + f x \ x Parses as (f x) + (g y) (. Figure 4.. ¦ 2 ' . EXPRESSIONS Expressions involving inﬁx operators are disambiguated by the operator’s ﬁxity (see Section 4. The ambiguity is resolved by the metarule that each of these constructs extends as far to the right as possible. Sample parses are shown below..operator deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 4. ] ¢ £ . and conditionals. This f x ..2.. .. parentheses must be added around either “ ” or “ ” when unless or . } ¦ § { ( )  right section labeled construction labeled update ) ) ) ¦ . } in x + y let { . For example. . . } in (x + y) z + (let { . } in x + y y :: Int > a+b :: Int A note about parsing.
3. Translations of Haskell expressions use error and undefined to explicitly indicate where execution time errors may occur. and Literals ¤ ¢ ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ variable general constructor . implementations may choose to display more or less information when an error occurs. For the sake of clarity.3. That is.1. denoted by . results in an error. When evaluated. a value of any type may be bound to a computation that. Programmers are advised to avoid constructs whose parsing involves an interaction of (lack of) associativity with the let/lambda metarule.2 Variables. Operators. ERRORS let x = True in x == x == True cannot possibly mean let x = True in (x == x == True) because (==) is a nonassociative operator. The messages passed to the error function in these translations are only suggestions. when demanded. all Haskell types include . The Prelude provides two functions to directly cause such errors: error :: String > a undefined :: a A call to error terminates execution of the program and returns an appropriate error indication to the operating system. Constructors. the rest of this section shows the syntax of expressions without their precedences. errors cause immediate program termination and cannot be caught by the user. When undefined is used. so they may well incorrectly deliver the former parse. It should also display the string in some systemdependent manner. implementations may well use a postparsing pass to deal with ﬁxities. are indistinguishable by a Haskell program from nontermination. so the expression must parse thus: (let x = True in (x == x)) == True 17 However. 3. the error message is created by the compiler. The actual program behavior when an error occurs is up to the implementation. Since Haskell is a nonstrict language.1 Errors Errors during expression evaluation.
4. such as ` `. Ratio Integer). where fromRational is a method in class Fractional and Ratio. .1. For example. An operator is a function that can be applied using inﬁx syntax (Section 3. an operator symbol can be converted to an ordinary identiﬁer by enclosing it in parentheses. or is an ordinary identiﬁer enclosed in grave accents (backquotes).1). The integers and are chosen so that . (+) x y is equivalent to x + y.% ). The ﬂoating point literal is equivalent to fromRational ( Ratio. Dually. where fromInteger is a method in class Num (see Section 6. as found in the and . Similarly. For example. such as + or $$. and foldr (*) 1 xs is equivalent to foldr (\x y > x*y) 1 xs. ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ` ` ` ` ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ) 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 ¦ § 3 2 43¤ § ¦ ¤ © ¦ 4 © 3¢S¤ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ § 7 3¢ 0 ¤ § § 7 ¦ 2 ¦ 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ ¤ ¦ 32 ¡¦ ¤¢ ¢ variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator .2). Translation: The integer literal is equivalent to fromInteger .4.18 CHAPTER 3. Special syntax is used to name some constructors for some of the builtin types. ) : Haskell provides special syntax to support inﬁx notation. one can write the inﬁx application x `op y.% constructs a rational from two integers. An operator is either an operator symbol. These are described in Section 6. EXPRESSIONS () [] (. If no ﬁxity declaration is given for `op ` ` then it defaults to highest precedence and left associativity (see Section 4. production for An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer. or partially applied using a section (Section 3. instead of writing the preﬁx application op op x y.5). a ﬂoating point literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is.4). as deﬁned in the Ratio library.
17.4 Operator Applications £ The special form . unary . v Translation: The following identity holds: Given this translation combined with the semantics of case expressions and pattern matching described in Section 3. and does not denote (\ x > x)—one must use negate for that.3.3. An expression such Lambda abstractions are written \ as \x:xs>x is syntactically incorrect.in the Prelude. The binary . the only preﬁx operator in Haskell. Because e1e2 parses as an inﬁx application of the binary operator .operator does not necessarily refer to the deﬁnition of . Because tors are allowed. one must write e1(e2) for the alternative parsing. The set of patterns must be linear—no variable may appear more than once in the set. it may be rebound by the module system. . () is syntax for (\ x y > xy). Application associates to the left. then the result is . so the parentheses may be could be a data constructor.1. There is no link between the local meaning of the . £ ¤ ¡ 2 £ ¤ 2 3 ¡ ¢ The form is the inﬁx application of binary operator to expressions and ¡ ¡  2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 6 6 where the are new identiﬁers. if the pattern fails to match. as with any inﬁx operator. page 55). Similarly. Preﬁx negation has the same precedence as the inﬁx operator . and is syntax for negate . However. preﬁx negation qualiﬁed operator .deﬁned in the Prelude (see Table 4.denotes preﬁx negation. where the are patterns.3.3 Curried Applications and Lambda Abstractions > . ) > ¦ ¢ ¡ A !§ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § \ > ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¡ ¢ S ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ ¨ £§S¢0 ¡ 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ function application lambda abstraction ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 0 . ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ ¡ ¨ £££ ¡ ¦¥ ¨ £££ ¡ ©§¦¥¤¢ \ > \ > case ( . partial applications of data construc ) of ( .operator and unary negation. it may legally be written as \(x:xs)>x. 3. . CURRIED APPLICATIONS AND LAMBDA ABSTRACTIONS 19 3. .will always refer to the negate function deﬁned in the Prelude. ¡ A ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ £ ¡ Function application is written omitted in (f x) y.
EXPRESSIONS 3. there is a subtract function deﬁned in the Prelude such that (subtract ) is equivalent to the disallowed section. but an application of preﬁx negation. as described in the preceding section. and similarly for ( ).5 Sections ¢ S ¤ v ¡ ¢ S ¡ v ¡ p v ¢ A5e ¡ 2  Syntactic precedence rules apply to sections as follows. The expression (+ ()) can serve the same purpose. where is a binary operator and Sections are a convenient syntax for partial application of binary operators. ( )  right section ) ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ 2 ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ( ( ) ) left section left section right section is an expression. but (+a+b) is not. ¢ S ¡ 2 Sections are written as ( ) or ( ).is treated specially in the grammar. by the let/lambda metarule (Section 3).20 Translation: The following identities hold: CHAPTER 3. () is not a section. but (+a*b) and (*(a+b)) are valid. (a+b+) is syntactically correct.  £ ¡ ¤ ¢ ( ) negate ¡ 2 £ ¤ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ ¡ ¡ 2 ) 2 p v ¢ ¡e ¡ ) 2 p v ¢ 0e ¡ $ 2 v S ¢ ¡ ¡ 7 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ 2 v 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . the expression (let n = 10 in n +) is invalid because. As another example. Because (+) is left associative. However. For example. the latter may legally be written as (+(a+b)). (*a+b) is synparses in the same way as (x tactically invalid. the expression (let n = 10 in n + x) parses as (let n = 10 in (n + x)) rather than ((let n = 10 in n) + x) Because . ( ) is legal if and only if (x ) ( )).
] ¢ ¡¡ £ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡¡ £ ¤ if then else case of { True > . and otherwise.6 Conditionals ¥ ¢ ¡ Translation: ¡ ¢ The following identity holds: ¥ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ ¤ where True and False are the two nullary constructors from the type Bool. is an expression.1.6. which is also the Prelude. and must have the same type. Standard operations on lists are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.3. if is False. The list constructor is :. and the empty list is Lists are written [ . ¢ ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 4 © 3¦ 2 2 ©¦ 2 4 © ¦ 3¡ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ [ . and Chapter 8 notably Section 8. . £ ¡ £ ¢ S ¡ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ if then else ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 2 where . ]. is a binary operator. and is a variable that does not occur free in ¢ ¡2 2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ 2 2 ( ( ) ) \ \ > > ¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ © ¦ 32 2 ¦ ©32 ¦ 32 ¦ 3¡2 ¡ ¢ S ¡ ¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ and returns the value of if the ¢ . CONDITIONALS Translation: The following identities hold: 21 3. denoted [].3. False > } £ ¥ A conditional expression has the form if then else value of is True.7 Lists [] ( ) : . as deﬁned in the must be Bool. ¥ £ ¡ 3. The type of type of the entire conditional expression. where .1).
3). ) for is an instance of a tuple as deﬁned in the Prelude.c) and (. 3.1. ) Tuples are written ( .1. .) a b c tuple is denoted by (.1.4. and may be of arbitrary length .. and requires no translation. It is a rightassociative operator. with precedence level 5 (Section 4. where there are denote the same value. ). and can be thought of as the “nullary tuple” (see Section 6. . as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Section 6. ¢ ¡ ( () ) ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡¦ § § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¢ ¡§ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ ( .1.2). . ] : ( : ( ( : []))) ¡ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 ¡ ¦ 32 ¦ 32 ¡ ¡ § ¢ S ¢ S ¢ ¢ . . respectively. and the type of the overall expression is [ ] (see Section 4. . Translation: ( . . § 3.5).2). and is equivalent to .b. it is considered part of the language syntax. EXPRESSIONS where : and [] are constructors for lists. If through are the types of through .1. The constructor “:” is reserved solely for list construction. The unit expression () has type () (see Section 4.2).9 Unit Expressions and Parenthesized Expressions ¡¦ 2 The form ( ) is simply a parenthesized expression. Thus (a. like []. .1. Translation: ( ) is equivalent to . It is the only member of that type apart from .. and cannot be hidden or redeﬁned.4 and Chapter 8).). ) ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 £ ¡ ¢ ¡¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¤ [ . ) (see Section 4. The types of through must all be the same (call it ). . The constructor for an commas.2). Standard operations on tuples are given in the Prelude (see Section 6.22 Translation: The following identity holds: CHAPTER 3. .8 Tuples ¢ S (. then the type of the resulting tuple is ( .
11 List Comprehensions ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ guards. . and enumFromThenTo are class methods in the class Enum as deﬁned in the Prelude (see Figure 6. . ] .3. ] denotes a list of values of type . where is a pattern (see Section 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences ¨ ¥ ¡ $ ¢ ¡ Translation: Arithmetic sequences satisfy these identities: ¡ where enumFrom. ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES 23 3.4 for more details of which Prelude types are in Enum and their semantics.1. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 7 ¢ 3¢ S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ S $ ¢ ] ... which are arbitrary expressions of type Bool local bindings that provide new deﬁnitions for use in the generated expression or subsequent guards and generators..17) of type v ¦ A ¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A list comprehension has the form [  . § ¥ ¢ £ ¤ ¡ § § ¨ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ [ . . . Such a list comprehension returns the list of elements produced by evaluating in the successive environments created by the nested..3. enumFromThen. ] list comprehension generator local declaration guard ¥¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¢ ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¥ ¢ 7 ¢ ¥ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¤ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ [ [ [ [ . § 3. ] . page 83).. . ] where the qualiﬁers are either and is an ¡ ¡ $ © ¢ ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ [  <let § . enumFromTo. where each of the has type . ] . and is an instance of class Enum..10. depthﬁrst evaluation of the generators in the qualiﬁer list. See Section 6.. The semantics of arithmetic sequences therefore depends entirely on the instance declaration for the type . ] enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo v The arithmetic sequence [ . . § generators of the form expression of type [ ] § <.
4)]. Pattern bindings are matched lazily. an implicit ˜ makes these patterns irrefutable.[ [(1.y) = undefined in does not cause an executiontime error until x or y is evaluated. are deﬁned in the Prelude.17). [(5.y] ] else [] ] ] 6 ¡ ¢ ¡ .5.. 3. expressions. The scope of the declarations is the expression and the right hand side of the declarations.x. Thus: [ x  xs <.12 Let Expressions ¢ ¡ © Let expressions have the general form let { . . over listvalued expressions.2)] ].24 CHAPTER 3. As usual. let (x.4).(3. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. mutuallyrecursive list of declarations (let is often called letrec in other languages). and if a match fails then that element of the list is simply skipped over. and introduce a nested.4). for example: Translation: List comprehensions satisfy these identities.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic (see Section 4. As indicated by the translation of list comprehensions.xs ] yields the list [4. EXPRESSIONS Binding of variables occurs according to the normal pattern matching rules (see Section 3. (3. True ] if then [  let ok = [  ok _ = [] in concatMap ok let in [  [ x  x <. } in . over qualiﬁers. it must evaluate to True for the previous pattern match to succeed.2). over patterns. x <.2]. ok is a fresh variable. and over sequences of qualiﬁers. Declarations are described in Chapter 4. ]  <. ] = 7 ] ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ' 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ' ¡ [ [ [ [  True ]  ]  .x) <. = = = = [ ] [  . bindings in list comprehensions can shadow those in outer scopes. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: where ranges over expressions. If a qualiﬁer is a guard. A ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ let in ' © 7 ¡ ¡ © 7 ¦ © 7 ¥ ¦ [  let . For example. The function concatMap.x.(3. lexicallyscoped. over boolean over declaration lists.x ] [ z  y <. and boolean value True. z <.
4. . CASE EXPRESSIONS Translation: The dynamic semantics of the expression let { 25 . these identities hold.˜ ) = ( . using the translation in Section 4. in = } in = = let (˜ .. Note the use of the irrefutable patterns ˜ . .4. each declaration is translated into an equation of the form = . The static semantics of the bindings in a let expression are described in Section 4.3. ..) Each alternative consists of a pattern and its matches. where where ¡ £ ¡ 7 3¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 let = in = ¨ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¡ ¢ ¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¥ ¢ let { = let = . followed by optional bindings ( ) that scope over all of the guards and expressions of the alternative. not the syntactic metasymbol for alternation. An alternative of the form > where ¢ ¡  True > where © ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¢ ¡ is treated as shorthand for: v ¨¥ § ¢ 4 v v ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ v ¦7 v v © 7 ¥ ¦  > where ¤ ¥7 v ¡ v ¡ ¡v ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 v ¨¥ § § ¢ ¢ £¡ 4 ¦ v ¡ v © 7 ¦ 4 where each is of the general form  > A 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¥ § 4 ¡ case v ¥ § of { . . 3. .13 Case Expressions A case expression has the general form (Notice that in the syntax rule for . Once done. This translation does not preserve the static semantics because the use of case precludes a fully polymorphic typing of the bound variables. .. ¥ § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡  ¨ § ¢ ¡ > ¤ } 3 § § ¢ ¦¤ 5 § 7 3¢ %§ ¡ 4 ¦ ¨ © ¨ 5© 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ A§ 7 3¢ £¡ ¦ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¥8¥8 ¢ £¡ ¡§ 8 7 3¢ § ¢ S case . } in are captured by this translation: After removing all type signatures.3. which may be used as a translation into the kernel: ¡ where fix is the least ﬁxpoint operator.13. > ¦§ of { } .. . .. .3. where and are patterns and expressions respectively. the “” is a terminal symbol. Each match in turn consists of a sequence of pairs of guards and bodies (expressions).. ) in case of ˜ > where no variable in appears free in let = fix ( \ ˜ > ) in ¡ ¢ ¨ ££ ¦¥£ ¡ § ¢ £¡ ¦ © @§ ¡ § 7 3¢ 7¡ 3 ¢ ¢ ¦ .
. A note about parsing. If all the guards evaluate to False._)  (let b = not a in b :: Bool) > a } However.getLine return (words l) § § § ¦ 4 ¢ © %§ ¡ 4 ¥ © . If one of the pattern. Pattern matching is described in Section 3.17.17. the phrase Bool > a is syntactically valid as a type. the result is . namely case x of { (a. from top to bottom. ¦ ¨ .26 CHAPTER 3. and parsers with limited lookahead may incorrectly commit to this choice. Programmers are advised.3. matching continues with the next alternative._)  let b = not a in b :: Bool > a } is tricky to parse correctly. with the formal semantics of case expressions in Section 3. and the type of the whole expression is that type. The alternatives are tried sequentially. If matches the pattern in the alternative. It has a single unambiguous parse. The expression case x of { (a. It allows an expression such as putStr "x: " >> getLine >>= \l > return (words l) to be written in a more traditional way as: do putStr "x: " l <. A case expression is evaluated by pattern matching the expression against the individual alternatives. therefore. Each body must have the same type. the guards for that alternative are tried sequentially from top to bottom. and hence reject the program.14 Do Expressions A do expression provides a more conventional syntax for monadic programming. in the environment of the case expression extended ﬁrst by the bindings created during the matching of the in the where clause associated with that alternative. <let . If no match succeeds. to avoid guards that end with a type signature — indeed that is why a contains an not an . EXPRESSIONS A case expression must have at least one alternative and each alternative must have at least one body. the corresponding righthand side is evaluated in the same environment as the guard. . ¦ 3. ¦ § ¡ 7 ¦ ¢ ¡ § ¡ ¢¡ £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢S A § 4 §¤© 8¥8¥8 ¡ § 4 § © 4§ © © @§ do { } do expression v © 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ S 6 6 6 ¤ ¥¡ © @§ ¢ ¡ § ¡ 4§ 4§ © © ¢ ¡ . and then by the guards evaluates to True.
a ﬁeld label can be used in more than one constructor provided the ﬁeld has the same typing in all constructors. Selectors are top level bindings and so they may be shadowed by local variables but cannot conﬂict with other top level bindings of the same name. 3. the functions >>." >>= ok in do { } { ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ S ¢ .1 Field Selection ¤ ¢ Field labels are used as selector functions. a ﬁeld label serves as a function that extracts the ﬁeld from an object.2. as deﬁned in the Prelude.OK . because y is given inconsistent typings in the latter.BAD Here S is legal but T is not.3.." stands for a compilergenerated error message. in record construction (Section 3. © The ellipsis ". passed to fail. however. When used as a variable. >>=.15. preferably giving some indication of the location of the patternmatch failure.15.15. } = © @§ 4 ¤© § } © @§ 4 ¤© ¡ § >> do let ok ok in let 7 ¥ ¦ © @§ 4§ 7 © @§ do { } do { . consider: data S = S1 { x :: Int }  S2 { x :: Int } data T = T1 { y :: Int }  T2 { y :: Bool } . and ok is a fresh identiﬁer.are lambda bound and are thus monomorphic. Different datatypes cannot share common ﬁeld labels in the same scope. 3.15 Datatypes with Field Labels A datatype declaration may optionally deﬁne ﬁeld labels (see Section 4. which may be used as a translation into the kernel. after eliminating empty : } . ﬁeld labels cannot be confused with ordinary variables.2) and update (Section 3.. To illustrate the last point. do { < © @§ 4 ¤© § = = = ¦ 4 ¤© § } = do { } _ = fail ".15. variables bound by let have fully polymorphic types while those deﬁned by <. As indicated by the translation of do.. These ﬁeld labels can be used to construct.1). DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 27 Translation: Do expressions satisfy these identities. A ﬁeld label can be used at most once in a constructor. © @§ 4§ © © © @§ 4§ © © do {let . select from.3). This shadowing only affects selector functions. Within a datatype. and fail are operations in the class Monad. and update ﬁelds in a manner that is independent of the overall structure of the datatype..
0 ¦ © ' ¡ ¢ v 0 § ¡ ¦ If the th component of a constructor in the binding list . is y when labels the th component of or _ otherwise. Unlike the braces used in declaration lists. .28 Translation: x 0 CHAPTER 3. the ﬁeld labels . A ¥¥8 ¡ A A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ > } ¦ ' ¤ ¦ ¢2 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 0 ¦ 6 6 0 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦§ ¢ S ' ¢ 0 . } labeled construction .2 Construction Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ 0 A constructor with labeled ﬁelds may be used to construct a value in which the components are speciﬁed by name rather than by position. and if appears is . these are not subject to layout. (This is also true of ﬁeld updates and ﬁeld patterns. Otherwise. undefined A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¡§ ¢ ¡ 0 { = . where is the arity of F. Fields not mentioned are initialized to A compiletime error occurs when any strict ﬁelds (ﬁelds whose declared types are preﬁxed by !) are omitted during construction. Strict ﬁelds are discussed in Section 4. EXPRESSIONS A ﬁeld label 0 ' introduces a selector function deﬁned as: 3. ¦ § v ¦ v where are all the constructors of the datatype containing a ﬁeld labeled with . the { and } characters must be explicit.15. where F is a data constructor. . is legal whether or not F was declared with record syntax (provided F has no strict ﬁelds — see the third bullet above). then value .1. is the default © § 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ § © { } = undefined ' ¡ £¢ ¡ 0 ' ¡ ¢¢ 0 Translation: ' In the binding = . it denotes F . © ' ¡ ¢ v § ¡ ¦ © ¡ ¢ v © ' § ¡ where is the arity of The auxiliary function § .2. is deﬁned as follows: has the ﬁeld label . 0 v v P ¡ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¦ ¡ ' 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ = case x of { > . A ﬁeld label may not be mentioned more than once. and is y when some ﬁeld in has a label of or undefined otherwise.) Construction using ﬁeld labels is subject to the following constraints: Only ﬁeld labels declared with the speciﬁed constructor may be mentioned. The expression F {}.
At least one constructor must deﬁne all of the labels mentioned in the update. An execution error occurs when the value being updated does not contain all of the speciﬁed labels. DATATYPES WITH FIELD LABELS 29 3. A compiletime error will result if no single constructor deﬁnes the set of ﬁeld labels used in an update. This creates a new value in which the speciﬁed ﬁeld values replace those in the existing value. Translation: © Using the prior deﬁnition of Here are some examples using labeled ﬁelds: data T = C1 {f1. v © ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 where . No label may be mentioned more than once.. } labeled update . Updates are restricted in the following ways: All labels must be taken from the same datatype. f3. . T© § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ T© ¡ ¡ § § ¡ > ¢ ' ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ¡ ¢ { } ¡ ¡ = case of ¢ £ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¦§ 0 { .15. v is the set of constructors containing all labels in .3 Updates Using Field Labels ¦ A ¦§ ¡ 0 § Values belonging to a datatype with ﬁeld labels may be nondestructively updated. and is the arity of £ F© £ ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ > _ > error "Update error" T© ' £ ¡ ¢ ¡ ' ' £ ¡ ¢ . f3 = ’B’} x {f1 = 1} The ﬁeld f1 is common to both constructors in T. such as x {f2 = 1.f4 :: Char} Translation C1 3 undefined C2 1 ’B’ ’A’ case x of C1 _ f2 > C1 1 f2 C2 _ f3 f4 > C2 1 f3 f4 Expression C1 {f1 = 3} C2 {f1 = 1. f3 = ’x’}. ¦ ' ¦ ' ) A9g© ¨ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 6 ' ¡ ¢ S ¢ . f4 = ’A’.15. This example translates expressions using constructors in ﬁeldlabel notation into equivalent expressions using the same constructors without ﬁeld labels..3.f2 :: Int}  C2 {f1 :: Int.
the principal type.17. where is an expression and is a type (Section 4. so deﬁning the semantics of pattern matching for case expressions is sufﬁcient. the declared type may be more speciﬁc than the . The value of the expression is just that of . pattern bindings. or not principal type derivable from comparable to.30 CHAPTER 3.4.17 Pattern Matching Patterns appear in lambda abstractions. they are used to type an expression explicitly and may be used to resolve ambiguous typings due to overloading (see Section 4. 3.16 Expression TypeSignatures %§ 0 Expression typesignatures have the form :: .1 Patterns Patterns have this syntax: § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 { . do expressions. EXPRESSIONS 3. list comprehensions.3. function deﬁnitions. . = } in successor pattern ¡ ¢ ¡ § § ¨ § S § ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 :: => ¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ V y ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¤ ¦ 2 ¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 v ¤ v § § ¡ £¡ ¢ ¤ § ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § ¢ ¡ £§¢ § § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ .1.2). } ¦§ ¢ ¦ as pattern arity labeled pattern ¦ 32 ¦ 32 arity ¢ ¢  negative literal £¡ ¢ ¤ ¥ § ¦ § + § ¦ 2 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£§¢ § ¡ ¢§ ¡ § 2 ©¦32 ¡ v £§¢ § ¤ ¡ v ¢ ¡ v £¡ p v §e ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ § 2 ¡ ¥ § ¦ § £¡ ¤ ! § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢§e ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ v £¡ ¢ § v ¢ ¨ ¡ v§ 2©32 ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ ¢£¡ p v ¨§e ¡ ¢ £¡ § ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¨§ § :: = let { :: . As with normal type signatures (see Section 4.1). and case expressions. but it is an error to give a type that is more general than. However. the ﬁrst ﬁve of these ultimately translate into case expressions. Translation: 3.4).
Pattern matching proceeds from left to right. ¢ § .2 Informal Semantics of Pattern Matching Patterns are matched against values._] is equivalent to: case e of { [x. return ). returning a binding for each variable in the pattern. it may succeed. It is as if an identiﬁer not used elsewhere were put in its place.17. value being matched by § § ¢ ¢ § = as a name for the to . For example. All patterns must be linear —no variable may appear more than once. Matching the pattern against a value always succeeds and binds ¤ ¢ Patterns of the form @ are called aspatterns.x) = x . x used twice in pattern case e of { xs@(x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } is equivalent to: let { xs = e } in case xs of { (x:rest) > if x==0 then rest else xs } Patterns of the form _ are wildcards and are useful when some part of a pattern is not referenced on the righthandside. this deﬁnition is illegal: f (x.ILLEGAL. ) ] ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 ) . case e of { [x. one cannot match against a partiallyapplied constructor. and allow one to use . or it may diverge (i. ¢ ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ £¡ ¤ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ¢ ¤ ¢ 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 . according to the following rules: ¤ ¤ 1.3. .z] > if x==0 then True else False } > if x==0 then True else False } 3. .y. For example._. PATTERN MATCHING 31 The arity of a constructor must match the number of subpatterns associated with it. For example.17. Attempting to match a pattern can have one of three results: it may fail. and outside to inside.e.
. The interpretation of numeric literals is exactly as described in Section 3. is the same as in numeric literal patterns. where == is overloaded based on the type of the pattern. constructors associated with newtype serve only to change the type of a value.are overloaded. The match diverges if the comparison diverges. Matching the pattern against a value. respectively. The interpretation of the literal integer literals are allowed.32 CHAPTER 3. then is matched against . resulting in the binding of to . the functions >= and .. depends on the value: against a value. ¦ 32 4. subpatterns are matched lefttoright against the components of the data value. 7. where newtype. 8. At that point the entire pattern is matched against the value. . depends on the value: is a constructor deﬁned by is a constructor deﬁned ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ £¡ § ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ § ¦ 2 ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¡ £§¢ .2. (Binding does not imply evaluation. All ﬁelds listed must be declared by the constructor. except that only ¢ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢ If the value is . § ¦ Q32 If the value is of the form . and fails otherwise. Matching a numeric. and to if matching against fails or diverges. depending on the type of the pattern. Matching an + pattern (where is a variable and is a positive integer literal) against a value succeeds if >= . Matching the wildcard pattern _ against any value always succeeds. The match diverges if this test diverges. The free variables in are bound to the appropriate values if matching against would otherwise succeed. 1 ¦ 2 ¦ 32 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ r1 32 If the value is of the form the match fails. where is a different constructor to ¦ 32 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ A !§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § 5. Again. 6. the ﬁrst to fail or diverge causes the overall match to fail or diverge. this means that no matching is done on a ˜ pattern until one of the variables in is used. ﬁelds may not be named more than once. so does the overall computation. Matching against a constructor using labeled ﬁelds is the same as matching ordinary constructor patterns except that the ﬁelds are matched in the order they are named in the ﬁeld list. and if the match fails or diverges. Matching the pattern ˜ against a value always succeeds. Matching the pattern by data. then is matched against . and no binding is done. § § § That is. the overloaded function fromInteger or fromRational is applied to an Integer or Rational literal (resp) to convert it to the appropriate type. the match diverges. if all matches succeed. 3. where ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 § ¢ £¡ ¦ 32 If the value is . character. EXPRESSIONS 2.) Operationally. or string literal pattern against a value succeeds if == . If the value is of the form . Fields not named by the pattern are ignored (matched against _). the overall match succeeds. that is.
y) > 0) (\ (x.2. is irrefutable). Consider the following declarations: newtype N = N Bool data D = D !Bool (\ (x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜(x:xs) > x:x:xs) (\ ˜[x. It is sometimes helpful to distinguish two kinds of patterns.’b’] is matched against [’x’.17. attempting to match ’a’ against causes the match to 2. These patterns may be removed or changed in future versions of Haskell. A ﬂoating literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Fractional. then ’a’ to match against ’x’.y) > 0) (\ ˜[x] > 0) [] (\ ˜[x] > x) [] 0 0 : : 3. Many people feel that + patterns should not be used. the following static class constraints hold: An integer literal pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Num.1) § ¢ ¡ £5¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ © § 7 ¢ 0 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ %¥ § ¤ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¦ § ¤ ¢ ¡ £§¢ § ¢ @ 9. But if [’a’. Matching a refutable pattern is strict: if the value to be matched is the match diverges.˜(a. or of the form ˜ (whether or not (see Section 4. All other patterns are refutable. then Aside from the obvious static type constraints (for example.b)] > x) [(0. Here are some examples: 1.b)] > x) [(0. (a. PATTERN MATCHING § 33 against a value is the result of matching against .1). where is a constructor deﬁned by newtype and is irrefutable @ where is irrefutable. These examples demonstrate refutable vs. Matching an irrefutable pattern is nonstrict: the pattern matches even if the value to be matched is . and the result is a failed match. Matching an aspattern augmented with the binding of so does the overall match. ]. it is a static error to match a character against a boolean).’x’]. ] (\ ˜[x.3).’b’] is matched against [ . then .3. An + pattern can only be matched against a value in the class Integral. If the match of against fails or diverges. The irrefutable patterns are as follows: a variable. ] (0. If the pattern [’a’. ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ E ¤ ¢ § ¢§ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¢ ¦ ¤ ¢E ¢ ¦ . a wildcard.1). irrefutable matching: (\ ˜(x. to .
and are variables. it is not expected that it will use them directly. . Rules (d).Int. and are booleanvalued expressions. it is this rule that deﬁnes the meaning of pattern matching against overloaded constants. regardless of whether it actually includes guards—if no guards are written. (j). Any implementation should behave so that these identities hold.4). function deﬁnition. The guard semantics have an obvious inﬂuence on the strictness characteristics of a function or case expression. and are expressions. v ¥ § Rule (b) matches a general sourcelanguage case expression. since that would generate rather inefﬁcient code. A guard is a boolean expression that is evaluated only after all of the arguments have been successfully matched. In particular. In Figures 3.2: .y. or pattern binding to which it is attached.z) [a]  (a == y) = 1 both a and y will be evaluated by == in the guard.3 Formal Semantics of Pattern Matching The semantics of all pattern matching constructs other than case expressions are deﬁned by giving identities that relate those constructs to case expressions. . and it must be true for the overall pattern match to succeed. in f :: (Int.1–3. this indicates that variables bound by case are monomorphically typed (Section 4.34 CHAPTER 3. and is a newtype constructor. an otherwise irrefutable pattern may be evaluated because of a guard. 3.2.1–3.Int) > [Int] > Int f ˜(x. For example. Top level patterns in case expressions and the set of top level patterns in function or pattern bindings may have zero or more associated guards. The environment of the guard is the same as the righthandside of the caseexpression alternative. (q). (e). Subsequent identities manipulate the resulting case expression into simpler and simpler forms. The semantics of case expressions themselves are in turn given as a series of identities. and are algebraic datatype (data) constructors (including tuple constructors). and (s) use a lambda rather than a let. then True is substituted for the guards in the forms.1. and are patterns.2.3. EXPRESSIONS These examples illustrate the difference in pattern matching between types deﬁned by data and newtype: Additional examples may be found in Section 4. These identities all preserve the static semantics.17. Rule (h) in Figure 3.2 involves the overloaded operator ==. in Figures 3. ¢ ¡ 4 v ¢ 3 v ¤ 1 (\ (N True) > True) (\ (D True) > True) (\ ˜(D True) > True) True E v v ¤¢ 1 ¢ v ¡ .
_ > } > ) (case of { > are all the variables in }) (case of { > A % ££ ¦¥£ case of { > (where is a new variable) case of { > let { } in if then _ > }} © ¥ ¢ 2 10 © % A B ¨ @ § A @ 6 _ else if ¥ ¢ 98 70 ££ ¥¦£ 6 © 4 © 1% 5% ¨ § (c) case of {   > > > .3. .17. PATTERN MATCHING 35 . . _ > } $C ¨ § ££ ¦¥£ © DC ¨ ¨ @ § ¨ $C¦E£¥¥¦FC ££E © ££ © ¥¦£ C C $3 § (d) case (\ where of { ˜ > . _ > } @ § @ C ¨ ¨ C § § (e) case of { @ > . }) ¡ "£ § § £ ¡ (a) case of { } where is a new variable case of { case of { _ § (\ > case of { ¥ £ ¦¤¢ ¥ £ ¦¤¢ }) . Figure 3. _ > } case of { > ( \ > ) . Part 1 G @ § (f) case of { _ > . where { } } then 10 > where { # ¥ ¢ 32 ( & )' ¤# ( & )' ¤# % ££ ¦¥£ © & ¤# ¡ ! where each  > © & ¤# % has the form: . } } .  } else ££ ¥¦£ _ £ ¡ ! § ¨ ££ ¥¥£ > case of { .1: Semantics of Case Expressions. > error "No match" } ¡ ! ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © £ ¡ © ¨ © ¡ © ¨ # $£ § § (b) .
_ > } @ @ © $C ££ ¥¦£ © C ££ ¦¥£ @ © 4 @ (p) @ @ ' ££ ¥¥£ § § (o) > . _ > } where and are distinct data constructors of arity and . or string literal. _ > } case of { > . = . _ > } case of { _ _ > . _ > case of { > case of { { = } > case of { { = . _ > } if >= then (\ > ) ( . are new variables else } } }. _ otherwise case of { {} > .2: Semantics of Case Expressions. } > . _ > } if ( == ) then is a numeric. _ > } of { > . _ > } where is if labels the th component of . ££ ¥¦£ @ ¨ C ££ ¦¥£ @ © C > case © ¨ of { > case _ > } @ ¨ ££ ¥¦£ © ¨ ¦ C ££ ¦¥£ © C § ¨ § (g) case of { case of { > . ¦" C E £££ ¥¦¥E © C 28 ¨ E £££ ¥¦¥E @ © ¨ _ > at least one of } is not a variable. _ > } A @ ££ ¥¥£ ££ ¦¥£ ¥ ¥ §¨ ¨ A ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ © ¨ © ¤ A § © ¨ © 5¤ ££ ¥¥£ ¥ ¤ § @ § (m) case of { { = . . respectively @ @ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ££ ¥¦£ § ¨ © ¨ § (n) case of { case of { # { = } > . _ > } . _ > } case of { > } > @ F ¡ § @ F ¡ § (h) ¡ case where of { > . _ > is a newtype constructor @ @ ¨ ¨ ¢ § § ¢ (k) case of { > . are ﬁelds of constructor . character. _ > _ > }} where . _ > is a data constructor of arity } @ C ££ ¥¦£ © © C ££ ¥¦£ © ££ ¥¦£ C © ££ ¦¥£ (q) case ( ) of { (\ > ) where is a data constructor of arity © C > . EXPRESSIONS Figure 3.) else where is a numeric literal ¡ £ @ © C ££ ¥¦£ © C £ (r) case where of { > . } > . _ > } where is a newtype constructor ¢ } case § C C § (j) case of { > } ( \ > ) of { C § @ C § (i) case of { > . is a new variable © 7¤ A ¨ £ @ ¨ ¢ £ (l) ¢ case where of { > . Part 2 @ ¡ § @ C ¡ C ¡ § § (s) case of { + > .36 CHAPTER 3. _ > } case ( ) of { > .
type data newtype class instance default ( . } ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . . we describe the syntax and informal semantics of Haskell declarations.¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © © ¥ ¤ § ¦ ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ § ) 7 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ 8 8 A %§ ¥¥8 ¡ %§ ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 7 ¦ ¨ 5© ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ V ¨ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ Declarations and Bindings Chapter 4 In this chapter. . } } ¦ ¡ 7 $ ¥ ¦£0 7 ¦ ¦ { . ¦ { . . . = => => => => . } = = where where empty A § ¦ 37 6 6 © ¥ § ¦ § © 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 6 6 2 ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 . module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . } } © 2§ .
Haskell has several primitive datatypes that are “hardwired” (such as integers and ﬂoatingpoint numbers). DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The declarations in the syntactic category are only allowed at the top level of a Haskell module (see Chapter 5).” We may then declare Int and Float to be instances of this class: . . We introduce a new type class called Num: class Num a where (+) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a . and data declarations (Section 4. those within a let or where construct). .3.2). and default declarations (Section 4.1.3). consisting of type. consisting of class. For exposition. These “builtin” datatypes are described in detail in Section 6. suppose we wish to overload the operations (+) and negate on types Int and Float. we divide the declarations into three groups: userdeﬁned datatypes.simplified class declaration for Num .1) introduces a new type class and the overloaded operations that must be supported by any type that is an instance of that class. . of the given types. 5].1 Overview of Types and Classes Haskell uses a traditional HindleyMilner polymorphic type system to provide a static type semantics [3. newtype.(Num is defined in the Prelude) This declaration may be read “a type a is an instance of the class Num if there are class methods (+) and negate.3. type classes and overloading. type signatures. A class declaration (Section 4. and ﬁxity declarations (Section 4.e. whereas may be used either at the top level or in nested scopes (i. using normal type and data declarations. consisting of value bindings. and nested declarations.2) declares that a type is an instance of a class and includes the deﬁnitions of the overloaded operations—called class methods—instantiated on the named type. An instance declaration (Section 4.38 %§ CHAPTER 4. but the type system has been extended with type classes (or just classes) that provide a structured way to introduce overloaded functions.4). infixl infixr infix ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ ¨ :: => © ¡ © 7 ¥ ¦ A¤ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ § ¢ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¢ 2 ¡ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ © type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¢ 2 ¡ . but most “builtin” datatypes are deﬁned with normal Haskell code. © 4. For example. deﬁned on it. instance.
e.1 Kinds To ensure that they are valid. ] ) . but in general could be any userdeﬁned function. is the kind of types that take a type of kind and return ¤ ¥¡ 6 6 6 ¢ £¡ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ¡ %§ ' ¢ . ) tuple type list type parenthesised constructor ¤ type application ¢ ©¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¨§6 ¦¡ ¢ ¡ If and are kinds. ¡ ¡ ¢ ¨ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ ' ' The symbol represents the kind of all nullary type constructors.0 type system.” More examples of type classes can be found in the papers by Jones [7] or Wadler and Blott [12]. type expressions are classiﬁed into different kinds. unlike types. and negateFloat are assumed in this case to be primitive functions. 4.4. The ﬁrst declaration above may be read “Int is an instance of the class Num as witnessed by these deﬁnitions (i.6.1. 4. addFloat. OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES 39 instance Num Int where . However. then a type of kind . ‘constructor class’ was used to describe an extension to the original type classes. which take one of two possible forms: Kind inference checks the validity of type expressions in a similar way that type inference checks the validity of value expressions.2 Syntax of Types ¨ %§ > %§ function type %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ( [ ( . ‘type class’ includes both the original Haskell type classes and the constructor classes introduced by Jones.1. There is no longer any reason to use two different terms: in this report.simplified instance of Num Int x + y = addInt x y negate x = negateInt x instance Num Float where .1. Kind inference is discussed in Section 4. The term ‘type class’ was used to describe the original Haskell 1. negateInt. kinds are entirely implicit and are not a visible part of the language.simplified instance of Num Float x + y = addFloat x y negate x = negateFloat x where addInt. class methods) for (+) and negate.
Since the IO type constructor has kind . The main forms of type expression are as follows: 1.5). Maybe and IO are unary type constructors.. Float. The tuple types are written as (. The list type is written as [] and has kind . Most type constructors are written as an identiﬁer beginning with an uppercase letter.6) is needed to determine appropriate kinds for userdeﬁned datatypes. and classes. then is a 6 6 6 6 6 () [] (>) (. Integer. IO. Int.1. and has exactly one value. The kind of a variable is determined implicitly by the context in which it appears. A parenthesized type. Special syntax is provided to allow certain type expressions to be written in a more traditional style: § § ¤ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ 6 ¤ ¡ 6 ¢ ¡ 3. and so on.. Type constructors. having form ( ). (. written as identiﬁers beginning with a lowercase letter. also written () (see Sections 3. In general. Type variables. a process of kind inference (see Section 4. must have kind . ) 6 2§ $ § © ¦ ¤ ¤32 ¡ %§ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 6 %§ 6 6 6 ¦ 32 %§ unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors .). Unlike data constructors. . Use of the (>) and [] constants is described in more detail below. type values are built from . the names of type constructors start with uppercase letters. add the type constructor T to the type vocabulary. If is a type of kind type expression of kind . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS The syntax for Haskell type expressions is given above. 4. Double and Bool are type constants with kind .. inﬁx type constructors are not allowed (other than (>)). is identical to the type . and treated as types with kind . and is a type of kind . IO a. it follows that both the variable a and the whole expression. The kind of T is determined by kind inference. or newtype T . The declarations data T . 2. As with data constructors. type synonyms. to the variable a.9 and 6. Their kinds are . It denotes the “nullary tuple” type. the type expression IO a can be understood as the application of a constant. For example: Char. Type application. .). and so on. The function type is written as (>) and has kind . Just as data values are built using data constructors. For example..40 CHAPTER 4.. © S¤ Special syntax is provided for certain builtin type constructors: The trivial type is written as () and has kind .
A class identiﬁer begins with an uppercase letter. For example. For example. . there is no explicit syntax for universal quantiﬁcation [3]. the preﬁx type constructors (>). above. and lists. they cannot be qualiﬁed. we often write quantiﬁcation explicitly when denotes the type discussing the types of Haskell programs.3 Syntax of Class Assertions and Contexts . (Hence the special production. 2.4).) where there are commas between the parenthesis. which is equivalent to the type (. tuples.3). ) where . It denotes the type of tuples with the ﬁrst component of type . Notice that expressions and types have a consistent syntax. their semantics is the same as the equivalent userdeﬁned algebraic data types.4. the type variables in a Haskell type expression are all assumed to be universally quantiﬁed. ( With one exception (that of the distinguished type variable in a class declaration (Section 4. . regardless of what is in scope.7 and 6.8 and 6. If is the type of expression or pattern . and so on (see Sections 3.1. and has the general form A $ A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¡ ( ) ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ ( ) ¦ A © © ( . It denotes the type of lists with elements of type (see Sections 3. A context consists of zero or more class assertions. nor mentioned in import or export lists (Chapter 5). ) £§ ¢ 6 ¢ & 8 ¢ ¥ ¦ § § ¢ 6 ¤ ¢ 8 ¢ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¡ § ¡ ¢ § ¤ ¦ ¦¢ § 32 ¦ © %§ ¨ § 2 4 A 5 %§ 8¥8¥8 ¢ %§ 7¥ ¤ B%§ ¦ © ¦ %§ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 7 © 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ S© ¥ ¢ ¥ 7 £ ¤ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢7 ¤ ¡§ ¢ £ ¤ %§ © § 7 ¥ ¡ %§ ¢ § 6 ¡ ¡ © S© ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ ¡ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¡ § ¢ £§ © © ¤ 7 7 © © © ¥ ¢ 7 ¥ %§ ¡§ ¦ 2 %§ %§ ¢ ¥ 7 v %§ . 1.. Int > Int > Float means Int > (Int > Float). means . These special syntactic forms always denote the builtin type constructors for functions. then the expressions (\ > ). []. which is equivalent to the type [] . and ( ) have the types ( > ). (.) Although the list and tuple types have special syntax.1)).1. . A class assertion has form . For clarity. . respectively. and so on. . ¡§ £§ ¡§ v § 4. and indicates the membership of the type in the class . the scope of the extends as far to the right as possible. for example.1. A list type has the form [ ]. however. “gtycon”. [ ]. the type expression a > a . OVERVIEW OF TYPES AND CLASSES £§ ¡§ 41 £§ ¡§ > . 3. When we write an explicitly quantiﬁed type. always denote the builtin type constructors. which is equivalent to the type (>) . A function type has the form Function arrows associate to the right. and ).3.1. (). In a similar way. [ ]. A tuple type has the form ( . the second component of type .).
and a class environment that declares which types are instances of which classes (a type becomes an instance of a class only via the presence of an instance declaration or a deriving clause). any of that are free in must also be free in . (Wadler and Blott [12] and Jones [7] discuss type and constructor classes. Types are related by a generalization preorder (speciﬁed below). £ ¢ 8 £ ¥ $ ¡§ t $ ¡ ¢ 8 t $ The type substitution ¥ is more general than the type whose domain is such that: if and only if there is a § A $ A ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ ¡ $ ¢ ¢ v r$ $ § ¢ ¢ § ¢ A ¢ 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¥ ¡ £§ ¦ . although in this case the concrete syntax contains no =>. The type of an expression depends on a type environment that gives types for the free variables in .3. we use to denote a context and we write => to indicate the type restricted by the context . the constraint Eq (f a) cannot be made simpler because f is universally quantiﬁed. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS where are class identiﬁers.4 Semantics of Types and Classes In this section. In general. and each of the is either a type variable. respectively. may be instantiated at types holds. In any such type. as described in Section 4.1. that can be assigned to a particular expression (in a given environment) is called its principal type. Eq b) => [a] > [b] > String (Eq (f a). the universallyquantiﬁed type variables the context must be of the form given above in Section 4. including the proper use of overloaded class methods (although certain ambiguous overloadings could arise. The context must only contain type variables referenced in . explicit typings (called type signatures) are usually optional (see Sections 3. where is a set of type variables . For convenience. Functor f) => (a > b) > f a > f b > Bool In the third type. Therefore. For example. in more detail.16 and 4. the most general type.4).42 CHAPTER 4. consider the function double: § if and only if the context ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 £ ¢ Whenever ¥ holds in the class environment. " t ¡§ is identical to . or the application of type variable to one or more types. also holds.1). Haskell’s extended HindleyMilner type system can infer the principal type of all expressions. £§ ¨ $ © ¢ © A value of type . here are some valid types: Eq a => a > a (Eq a.1. a type is of the form . For example.3. The outer parentheses may be omitted when . Furthermore. we write => even if the context is empty. up to the equivalence induced by the generalization preorder.) The Haskell type system attributes a type to each expression in the program. Show a. In general.4. § § § 4. we provide informal details of the type system.
we describe algebraic datatypes (data declarations). } 3 %§ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ! ! ¡ ¢ 7 ¦ ¦ 7 %§ ¡ %§ ¡ ¡ 7 ¥ %§ ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ ! ! arity inﬁx ¦§ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ 3 %§ 8¡ 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 2 ¦ ©32 ' ¡ ¡ %§ ¨ 8 8 ¥¥8 A¢ § © ¦ §¤ ¤32 8 8 ¥¥¡8   ¦ ¦ § 2©¦ 2 ¡ ¦32 ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¥ © © ¦ ¤ § 332 %§ ¤ ¢ 4§ © ¨ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ § S § ¢ ¢ ¦ 32 data => = ¦ ¢ 6 ¢ ¢ ¡ 7 ©¡ 8 ¢ ¥ %§ © ¤ ¦ 3¢ 2 %§ ¨ ¡ 32¡ ¦ ' ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¢ V ¤ § 332 © ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 %§ %§ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ 7 § %¢ #¦ § § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © © ¤ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ 2 © © © 7 ©¡ ¢ 7¥ ¦ ¤ 4§ 2 2§ ¦ © . These declarations may only appear at the top level of a module.2 UserDeﬁned Datatypes In this section. . renamed datatypes (newtype declarations). USERDEFINED DATATYPES double x = x + x 43 The most general type of double is Num . double may not normally be applied to values of type Char. In this Report.4. However. in which case double may indeed be applied to a Char. since Num Int holds. and type synonyms (type declarations). because Int is an instance of the class Num. The user may choose to declare such an instance. because Char is not normally an instance of class Num. 4.2. 4. An algebraic datatype declaration has the form: where is a context. The types of the data constructors are given by: A § ¥¥8 ¡ !§ A A 8 8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 6 ¡ ¡ ¢¢¡ ¤ v§ 6 ¢¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ § ¡ 6 ¡ @§ v A v ¢ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 8 ¡ $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ Q¥ §¦v ¥¥ ¢ data ¢ => =   £ ¤ A © S© ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¡ S© © S© deriving © ( .1 Algebraic Datatype Declarations ¨ #¦ § § The precedence for is the same as that for expressions—normal constructor application has higher precedence than inﬁx constructor application (thus a : Foo a parses as a : (Foo a)).2. double may be applied to values of type Int (instantiating to Int). This declaration introduces a new type constructor with one or more constituent data constructors . the unqualiﬁed term “constructor” always means “data constructor”. ! . ) ¦ § ¦ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 A ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 { :: .
3. For example.. the declaration data Eq a => Set a = NilSet  ConsSet a (Set a) In the example given. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in or on the righthandside. The context in the data declaration has no other effect whatsoever.e. A constructor deﬁnition in a data declaration may assign labels to the ﬁelds of the constructor. The new type constant has a kind of the form where the kinds of the argument variables are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. the “abstractness” of the datatype) outside of the module in which the datatype is deﬁned is controlled by the form of the datatype’s name in the export list as described in Section 5. These components are normally accessed positionally as arguments to the constructor in expressions or patterns.6. the declaration data C = F { f1. The visibility of a datatype’s constructors (i. and constructors NilSet and ConsSet with v § ¢ v I¡ ¢ ¢ 6 ¡ ¦ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¢ 6 $ 7 ¦7 ¢ 6 ¢ ¡ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ ¡ $ ¤ v§ v $ where 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ @§ v . For example: f (ConsSet a s) = a the function f has inferred type Eq a => Set a > a. The type variables through must be distinct and may appear in and the . A constructor with associated ﬁeld labels may still be used as an ordinary constructor. }). The arguments to the positional constructor occur in the same order as the labeled ﬁelds..44 ¢ v ¢ CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS is the largest subset of that constrains only those type variables free in the types . This means that may be used in type expressions with anywhere between and arguments. Pattern matching against ConsSet also gives rise to an Eq a constraint. and is described in Section 4. Constructors using ﬁeld labels may be freely mixed with constructors without them.f2 :: Int.8. to the components of a data object. This allows For large datatypes it is useful to assign a speciﬁc ﬁeld to be referenced independently of its location within the constructor. The optional deriving part of a data declaration has to do with derived instances. Labelled Fields A data constructor of arity creates an object with components. features using labels are simply a shorthand for operations using an underlying positional constructor. using the record syntax (C { . the overloaded type for ConsSet ensures that ConsSet can only be applied to values whose type is an instance of the class Eq. f3 :: Bool } deﬁnes a type and constructor identical to the one produced by © ¢ 6 Set Set ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ 7 ' ¨¢ ¢ introduces a type constructor Set of kind types NilSet Set ConsSet Eq . For example.3.
6. Lexically. Field names share the top level namespace with ordinary variables and class methods and must not conﬂict with other top level names in scope.2. Translation: A declaration of the form 4. The type is equivalent to the type . A label cannot be shared by more than one type in scope. . denoted by an exclamation point. A data declaration may use the same ﬁeld label in multiple constructors as long as the typing of the ﬁeld is the same in all cases after type synonym expansion. and function $! (see Section 6. each argument to the constructor is evaluated if and only if the corresponding type in the algebraic datatype declaration has a strictness ﬂag. The pattern F {} matches any value built with constructor F. it has special signiﬁcance only in the context of the argument types of a data declaration.15. whether or not F was declared with record syntax. replaces every occurrence of 8 8 ¥¥8 A 8 8 §© ¥¥8 ¡ © 8 8 ¥¥8 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ ¢ data => =   in an expression is the strict apply is not affected by 2 ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 6 6 8 8 ¥¥8 %¢ § 4§ © 7 ©¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¡ 2 ¡ $ ¡ # ¡ § § § . The type variables through must be distinct and are scoped only over . For example. Pattern matching on strictness ﬂags. USERDEFINED DATATYPES data C = F Int Int Bool 45 Operations using ﬁeld labels are described in Section 3. “!”. “!” is an ordinary varsym not a . v 2§ v © v © v ¢ £ 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¤ %§ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ 32 8 8 ¦ ¢%§ %¢ ¢ 4 § © § ¡ ¡ ©¡ 7 A 8 8 3¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 6 ¡ ¢ (\ > 2 v %§ ¡ 3¢ A 2 ¥¥8 £ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ v @§ & v 2§ 6 ¥¥8 8 8 ¨ $ # § 6 ¢ ¡ v © where each by is either of the form ! or .2) if is of the form ! . Strictness Flags Whenever a data constructor is applied.2. It has the form § $ which introduces a new type constructor. The kind of the new type constructor is of the form where the kinds of the arguments and of the right hand side are determined by kind inference as described in Section 4. the following deﬁnition can be used to provide an alternative way of writing the list type constructor: § ¡ v $ § ¥¥8 ¡ § 8 8 § v I¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ type = ¦ § ¢ ¡ $ type %§ = v where is the nonstrict apply function $ if is of the form .4.2 Type Synonym Declarations A type synonym declaration introduces a new type that is equivalent to an old type. it is a static error for any other type variable to appear in .
A type created by newtype differs from an algebraic datatype in that the representation of an algebraic datatype has an extra level of indirection. but strictly syntactic. it is a static error to use without the full number of arguments.2. the newtype constructor is unlifted. newtype may be used to deﬁne recursive types. mechanism to make type signatures more readable. The constructor in an expression coerces a value from type to type ( ).3. Type synonyms are a convenient. These coercions may be implemented without execution time overhead. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Type constructor symbols introduced by type synonym declarations cannot be partially applied. New instances (see Section 4. A synonym and its deﬁnition are completely interchangeable. newtype does not change the underlying representation of an object.3. The difference is reﬂected in different rules for pattern matching (see Section 3. type Rec a = [Rec a] is not allowed.3 Datatype Renamings ¨ ¦§ § introduces a new type whose representation is the same as an existing type. Although recursive and mutually recursive datatypes are allowed. except in the instance type of an instance declaration (Section 4. this is not so for type synonyms. This difference may make access to the representation less efﬁcient. Unlike algebraic datatypes. unless an algebraic datatype intervenes. Using in a pattern coerces a value from type ( ) to type . Also. For example.invalid = = [Circ a] Tag [Rec a] is not. It differs from a type synonym in that it creates a distinct type that must be explicitly coerced to or from the original type. whereas type Rec a type Circ a = = [Circ a] [Rec a] . unlike type synonyms. Similarly.17). E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ § § $ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ § E $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ E ¢ newtype => A declaration of the form = ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¢¤ %§ { :: } ¤ ¤ § 332 © ¦ £ ¦ § %¢ 4 § x¨ © § ¡ § ¢ ¡ ¦ 32 newtype => = ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ V ¢ ¡ %§ E ¢ ¦ 32 § ¦32 ¦ 32 %§ E 6 6 6 $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¤32 § © ¦ ¡ § %¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©¡ $ £ 4§ © 2§ ¦ . so that is the same as .2) can be deﬁned for a type deﬁned by newtype but may not be deﬁned for a type synonym. The type ( ) renames the datatype .invalid .46 type List = [] CHAPTER 4. 4. type Rec a data Circ a is allowed.2).
4. © ¥ } ¦ § ¦ A© §S© 4§ © 7 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ ( . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 47 The following examples clarify the differences between data (algebraic datatypes). ( n ( N ) ). though of course there may only be one ﬁeld.) Given the declarations data D1 = D1 Int data D2 = D2 !Int type S = Int newtype N = N Int d1 (D1 i) = 42 d2 (D2 i) = 42 s i = 42 n (N i) = 42 the expressions ( d1 ). type (type synonyms). A newtype declaration may use ﬁeldnaming syntax.3. see Section 4. . In particular.3 Type Classes and Overloading 4.3.1 Class Declarations ¨ 5© A class declaration introduces a new class and the operations (class methods) on it. ( d1 ( D1 ) ) and ( s ) are all equivalent to 42. ( N ) is equivalent to while ( D1 ) is not equivalent to . . ( d2 ) and (d2 (D2 ) ) are all equivalent to . The optional deriving part of a newtype declaration is treated in the same way as the deriving component of a data declaration. whereas ( n ). and newtype (renaming types. ) ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © 7 ©¡ %§ ¨ § S § ¢ class => where 7 ¥ ¦ ¢ 7 ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ ¢ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¡ 8¥¥8 8 7 ¦ ¤ %§ ¥ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 ¡ S© © ¢ ¥ © ¡ 4 § © 7 7 © S© 7 ¦ 32 © ¢ ¥ 7 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 © © 7 ¥ © 7 ¥ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ 32 4§ ¦ ¦ 2§ © © .3. Thus: newtype Age = Age { unAge :: Int } brings into scope both a constructor and a deconstructor: Age :: Int > Age unAge :: Age > Int 4. A class declaration has the general form: © $ ¢ class => where ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ A { .3.
Show a) => Textual a Other than these cases. it may mention type variables other than . The default method declaration is a normal value deﬁnition.. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS $ This introduces a new class name . they must not conﬂict with other top level bindings in scope. a class method can not have the same name as a top level deﬁnition. except that the left hand side may only be a variable or function deﬁnition. For example: class (Read a.48 CHAPTER 4. For example: class Foo a where op1. the may not constrain . . © v © A class declaration with no where part may be useful for combining a collection of classes into a larger one that inherits all of the class methods in the original ones. Class methods share the top level namespace with variable bindings and ﬁeld names. op2) = .e.3. For example: class Foo a where op :: Num b => a > b > a v #¢ £ $ £ v ¨¢ £ $ $ $ v§ v The may also contain a ﬁxity declaration for any of the class methods (but for no other values). whose scope extends outside the class declaration. That is. © The class declaration introduces new class methods . The class methods of a class declaration are precisely the for which there is an explicit type signature :: => in . because the left hand side of the default declaration is a pattern.. the ﬁxity declaration for a class method may alternatively appear at top level. outside the class declaration. 6 7 ¥ ¦ 6 Foo Num 8 ¥ Here the type of op is © ¢ ' ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¡ ¤¥ §¥ ¢ 8 ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ' ¢ ' ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ v 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ The part of a class declaration contains three kinds of declarations: is: $ ¢ ¢ 7 ¦ . The may constrain only . in particular. it must form a directed acyclic graph. since class methods declare toplevel values.2). the type variable is scoped only over the class method signatures in the class body. The context speciﬁes the superclasses of . is not permitted. v B v # v v @§ v ¢ v © The type of the toplevel class method The must mention . The default class method for is used if no binding for it is given in a particular instance declaration (see Section 4. no other declarations are permitted in . the may contain a default class method for any of the . op2 :: a > a (op1. The superclass relation must not be cyclic. i. in which case the type of is polymorphic in both and . However. or another class method. Lastly. as described below. the only type variable that may be referred to in is . a ﬁeld name.
must take the form of a type constructor applied to simple .) For example. even though the subclass has no immediate class methods. ) ) & & ( ( [ ( { ) ¦ ¦£©¨¦§¥££ ¤ B%§ £¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ © §¢ ¦¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ %§ ¤ ¢ ¢ © ¦ ¢ ¢ © ¥©¨§¦¥¤£¡S¤ ¢¢ %§ § ¢¢ ¦ ¦ ' © ¥ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ A § ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 8 8 7 ¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ £ ¤ %§ ¡ ¤ %§ ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ ¢ ¤ %§ ¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ %§ ¦ 2 ¢ %§ 8 8 ¢ ¢ ¨ § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 2 © instance => where 7 § ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 32 8 8 ¥¥8 %§ ¦ ¡ $ 6 6 6 6 ¦ § ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ © 7 7 § ¦ § © 2§ § ¦ § ¦ . It is illegal to give a binding for a class method that is not in scope. if a type is an instance of all superclasses.3.a) where . . even though range is in scope only with the qualiﬁed name Ix.a) where . instance C (Int.Ix T where range = . TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 49 In such a case.range.. it may be a qualiﬁed name.. Let be a class declaration. and the must all be $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ 1 ¢ instance => where { ¦ 2 ¢ class => where { } £%§ ¡ 4 ¦ .2 Instance Declarations ¨ © } § ¦ § © © %§ $ An instance declaration introduces an instance of a class. } . The declarations may contain bindings only for the class methods of .. but the name under which it is in scope is immaterial. this is legal. it is not automatically an instance of the subclass. The declarations may not contain any type signatures or ﬁxity declarations.2. ] > .. 4. (This rule is identical to that used for subordinate names in export lists — Section 5.. The type type variables distinct.. The general form of the corresponding instance declaration is: This prohibits instance declarations such as: instance C (a. in particular. The instance declaration must be given explicitly with no where part. furthermore. must not be a type synonym..4. since these have already v x$ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ $ $ where . module A where import qualified Ix instance Ix. instance C [[a]] where ..3.
. then the program would be invalid.3.. must be an instance of each of . Any constraints on the type variables in the instance type that are required for the class method declarations in to be welltyped must also be satisﬁed. The following example illustrates the restrictions imposed by superclass instances: class Foo a => Bar a where . Assume that the type variables in the instance type satisfy the constraints in the instance context ... instance (Eq a. This example is valid Haskell. the method declarations must take the form of a variable or function deﬁnition.. Show a) => Foo [a] where . If the two instance declarations instead read like this: instance Num a => Foo [a] where . instance (Eq a.6. contexts of all superclass instances must be implied by $ of must ’s superclasses and the ¢ An instance declaration that makes the type to be an instance of class instance declaration and is subject to these static restrictions: is called a CT $ 1 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ $ 1 ¢ ¦ 1 ¢ . A type may not be declared as an instance of a particular class more than once in the program. The constraints expressed by the superclass context be satisﬁed.50 CHAPTER 4. The class and type must have the same kind. the following two conditions must also be satisﬁed: 2. the second instance declaration is only valid if [a] is an instance of Foo under the assumption Num a. because Eq and Show are superclasses of Num. Show a) => Bar [a] where . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS been given in the class declaration. except in pathological cases it is possible to infer from the instance declaration the most general instance context satisfying the above two constraints.1). In fact. In other words... if such a default does not exist then the class method of this instance is bound to undefined and no compiletime error results. As in the case of default class methods (Section 4. Under this assumption. If no binding is given for some class method then the corresponding default class method in the class declaration is used (if present). Since Foo is a superclass of Bar. but it is nevertheless mandatory to write an explicit instance context. The ﬁrst instance declaration does indeed say that [a] is an instance of Foo under this assumption.. The second instance declaration is valid only if [a] is an ¨ $ # $ 8 8 ¥¥8 1. this can be determined using kind inference as described in Section 4.. instance Num a => Bar [a] where ..
For example. and Read. For example.3. A static error results if it is not possible to derive an instance declaration over a class named in a deriving form. instances for all superclasses of must exist for .2. then derived instance declarations are automatically generated for the datatype in each of the named classes. But this does not hold. If the form is included. Further examples of instance declarations may be found in Chapter 8." in show x .1.4. Bounded. page 83.3 Derived Instances As mentioned in Section 4. ) ¦ § ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2§ . because the types for show and read. that is.. Classes deﬁned by the standard libraries may also be derivable. .invalid is ambiguous. all mentioned in Figure 6. The precise details of how the derived instances are generated for each of these classes are provided in Chapter 10. then the expression let x = read ".4 Ambiguous Types. then no instance declarations are derived for that datatype. including a speciﬁcation of when such derived instances are possible. freeing the programmer from the need to deﬁne them. omitting a deriving form is equivalent to including an empty deriving form: deriving (). and supposing that just Int and Bool are members of Read and Show. data and newtype declarations contain an optional deriving form. using the read and show functions deﬁned in Chapter 10. Show. When deriving a class for a type . For example. 4. ¢ 6 6 ¢ 8 ¢ 8 ¥ §¥ ¥ ¥ §¥ ¥ show read Show Read String String ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ¢ %§ default ( . Derived instances provide convenient commonlyused operations for userdeﬁned datatypes. The only classes in the Prelude for which derived instances are allowed are Eq. Ord. If the deriving form is omitted from a data or newtype declaration.3. either via an explicit instance declaration or by including the superclass in the deriving clause.3. These instances are subject to the same restrictions as userdeﬁned instances. TYPE CLASSES AND OVERLOADING 51 instance of Foo under the assumptions (Eq a.. since [a] is only an instance of Foo under the stronger assumption Num a. not all datatypes can properly support class methods in Enum. Enum. 4. derived instances for datatypes in the class Eq deﬁne the operations == and /=. Show a). It is also a static error to give an explicit instance declaration for a class that is also derived. and Defaults for Overloaded Numeric Operations ¦ A %§ A problem inherent with Haskellstyle overloading is the possibility of an ambiguous type.1.
page 83. It is a static error if no such type is found.6 for a description of encodeFloat and exponent. is Ambiguous types can only be circumvented by input from the user.. Double) The empty default declaration. and all of these classes are deﬁned in the Prelude or a standard library (Figures 6. § ¢ . Such types are invalid. For example..2–6. the earlier expression involving show and read has an ambiguous type since its type Show Read String. . This is the purpose of the function asTypeOf (Chapter 8): ‘asTypeOf‘ has the value of ." in show (x::Bool) which disambiguates the type. for the ambiguous expression given earlier. where is a class. there is a type A !§ v § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ ¢ v 2§ ¢ $ ¦ $ ¦ 8 ¢ ¥ . ) where . Occasionally. one could write: let x = read ". appears only in constraints of the form .16. For example. approxSqrt x = encodeFloat 1 (exponent x ‘div‘ 2) ‘asTypeOf‘ x (See Section 6. One way is through the use of expression typesignatures as described in Section 3. is defaultable if: ¢ ¢ at least one of these classes is a numeric class.1. an otherwise ambiguous expression needs to be made the same type as some variable.) Each defaultable variable is replaced by the ﬁrst type in the default list that is an instance of all the ambiguous variable’s classes. In situations where an ambiguous type is discovered. and each must be a type for which Num holds. a static error. Such expressions are considered illtyped. Num or a subclass of Num). If no default declaration is given in a module then it assumed to be: default (Integer. rather than being given a ﬁxed type with an expression typesignature. in its type variable in that occurs in but not in . § ¢ ¢ For example. and 8 $ ¥ We say that an expression e has an ambiguous type if. an ambiguous type variable. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS could be satisﬁed by instantiating a as either Int in both cases.4. . Only one default declaration is permitted per module.) Ambiguities in the class Num are most common.3. turns off all defaults in a module. default (). pages 91– 92 show the numeric classes. but and are forced to have the same type. so Haskell provides another way to resolve them— with a default declaration: default ( . or Bool. (that is. shows the classes deﬁned in the Prelude.52 CHAPTER 4. and its effect is limited to that module. and Figure 6.
5. It is also valid to declare a more speciﬁc type. these declarations contain a static error.4.4. It is a static error if the same type cannot also be inferred for the deﬁning occurrence of . it is invalid to give a type signature for a variable bound in an outer scope.4. if we deﬁne sqr x = x*x 0 0 0 0 0 0 then the principal type is sqr Num .1. 4. NESTED DECLARATIONS 53 4.2). ¡ => ¡ V © ¤ ¤ ¢ ¢ 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © S¤ ¦ ¥ ¢ .1. including the top level of a module. For example.4. even if the signatures are identical. Moreover. i. and hence the scope of a type variable is limited to the type signature that contains it.4 Nested Declarations The following declarations may be used in any declaration list. %§ ¨ § S § ¢ ¢ 8 ¦ 32 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¥ :: .1 Type Signatures . A type signature has the form: :: => which is equivalent to asserting :: => for each from to . Indeed. the deﬁning occurrence. If a variable is deﬁned without providing a corresponding type signature declaration. However. in the following declarations f :: a > a f x = x :: a v B the a’s in the two type signatures are quite distinct. such as ¦ ¦ § ¢ § 6 ¢ ¢ A ¢ § 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ 8 ¡ ¢ ¥ §¥ ¥ A §¤ v ¢ . which allows applications such as sqr 5 or sqr 0. every type variable appearing in a signature is universally quantiﬁed over that signature.2.5) is treated as having the corresponding inferred. this is explained in Section 4. there is currently since x does not have type no way in Haskell to specify a signature for a variable with a dependent type. and all uses of within its declaration group must have the same monomorphic type (from which the principal type is obtained by generalization. .invalid A type signature speciﬁes types for variables. then each use of outside its own declaration group (see Section 4.) If a given program includes a signature for a variable . Each must have a value binding in the same declaration list that contains the type signature. to ensure that type inference is still possible. For example. or principal type . (The type of x is dependent on the type of f. possibly with respect to a context. then each use of is treated as having the declared type. as described in Section 4.5. As mentioned in Section 4.e. it is invalid to give more than one type signature for one variable.
a ﬁxity declaration can only occur in the same sequence of declarations as the declaration of the operator itself. and ten precedence levels.and rightassociativity (infix.1 lists the ﬁxities and precedences of the operators deﬁned in the Prelude. Num b) => a > b sqr :: a > a . T a > a. the type of f will be inferred as T Int > Int due to the ﬁrst recursive call for which the argument to f is T Int. ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 &¤ 2 A 2 ¡ ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¢ 2 8 8 ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § %§ § ¢ ¤ 6 6 6 6 7 ¥ ¦ © %§ § ¢ ¦ ¥ ¡ ¡2 2 .54 sqr :: Int > Int CHAPTER 4.2 Fixity Declarations © A ﬁxity declaration gives the ﬁxity and binding precedence of one or more operators. For example: §§ § ¦ ¤ § ¦ § ¦ infixl infixr infix . their ﬁxity declarations can occur either in the class declaration itself or at top level. Table 4. left. as they are more general than the principal type of sqr. The in a ﬁxity declaration must be in the range to . Type signatures can also be used to support polymorphic recursion. . 0 to 9 inclusive (level 0 binds least tightly.invalid are invalid. but illustrates how a type signature can be used to specify a type more general than the one that would be inferred: data T a = K (T Int) (T a) f :: T a > a f (K x y) = if f x == 1 then f y else undefined If we remove the signature declaration.invalid . Type signatures such as sqr :: (Num a. Any operator lacking a ﬁxity declaration is assumed to be infixl 9 (See Section 3 for more on the use of ﬁxities). and at most one ﬁxity declaration may be given for any operator. and infixr. and level 9 binds most tightly). 4. non.) There are three kinds of ﬁxity. respectively). Fixity is a property of a particular entity (constructor or variable). A ﬁxity declaration may appear anywhere that a type signature appears and.1 are invalid. If the is omitted. declares a property of a particular operator. ﬁxity is not a property of that entity’s name. infixl. (Class methods are a minor exception. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS but now applications such as sqr 0. just like its type. level 9 is assumed. Polymorphic recursion allows the user to supply the more general type signature. like a type signature. Also like a type signature.4. The following deﬁnition is pathological.
‘elem‘. ** :. ˆ.op‘ is infixr 7.op‘ q) * 2 in .. >.. ‘Foo.4.. /=. ‘Bar. ‘mod‘. /.) 4. ++ ==. and the nested deﬁnition of op in f’s righthand side has the default ﬁxity of infixl 9.3 Function and Pattern Bindings © ¥ § ¤ 2 v ¢£¡ § p v ¢ §e ¡ ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e 2 § ¡ v £¡ p v ¢ 0e $ ¢ § ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ ¤ § ¤ ¢ £¡ ¤ ¡ v ¢ 2¢ &¤ v § £¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ v § £ 7¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¡ ¢ § ¢ ¡ £5¢ © ¥ 7 ¦ $ £0 § 6 6 © ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ $ 0 . ‘quot‘ +.1: Precedences and ﬁxities of prelude operators module Bar( op ) where infixr 7 ‘op‘ op = . >=. NESTED DECLARATIONS 55 Precedence 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Left associative operators !! *. (It would also be possible to give a ﬁxity to the nested deﬁnition of ‘op‘ with a nested ﬁxity declaration. module Foo where import qualified Bar infix 3 ‘op‘ a ‘op‘ b = (a ‘Bar. <=. Here. ‘notElem‘ &&  >>. >>= $.4.  Nonassociative operators Right associative operators .op‘ is infix 3.op‘ b) + 1 f x = let p ‘op‘ q = (p ‘Foo.. <. ˆˆ.4. $!. ‘seq‘ Table 4. ‘div‘. ‘rem‘.
namely: . For example. Either binding may appear at the toplevel of a module or within a where or let construct.3. ¤ 4. and the number of patterns in each clause must be the same. Alternative syntax is provided for binding functional values to inﬁx operators. The general form of a function binding for variable is: ¡ ¥ § ¥ § or ¡ v ¡v   = Note that all clauses deﬁning a function must be contiguous. the binding is called a function binding.4. The set of patterns corresponding to each match must be linear—no variable is allowed to appear more than once in the entire set. and where each is of the general form: } } A ¢ ¢ 4 4 v ¥ § 4 ¢ A ¥¥8 ¡ A 8 8 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡  ¨ © ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ = ¦ ¦ ¡ ¤ © ¥ ¡ ¢ ¡ = ¦ where where 9§ ¨© ¨ 7 © ¥ 7 ¥ ¦ § © ¥ ¡ ¦ $ £0 ¤ ( ) ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £5¢ 7 ¦ 6 6 ¡ ¦ ¢ 6 © ¥ ¤ § © ¥ ¦ ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ .56 CHAPTER 4. otherwise. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS We distinguish two cases within this syntax: a pattern binding occurs when the left hand side is a . these three function deﬁnitions are all equivalent: plus x y z = x+y+z x `plus y = \ z > x+y+z ` (x ` plus y) z = x+y+z ` v © v  True = where { 7 ¥ ¦ v 4 ¦ and where . .1 Function bindings A function binding binds a variable to a function value. The former is treated as shorthand for a particular case of } v © 7 ¦ = where { ¤ ¥7 v v © ¤ ¦7 v v = where { 7 ¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¡ v where each is a pattern. the latter.
2 Pattern bindings A pattern binding binds variables to values. A note about syntax.4.3. NESTED DECLARATIONS Translation: The general binding form for functions is semantically equivalent to the equation (i. A simple pattern binding has form . ) of ( ) ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .4. See the translation in Section 3. .12. It is usually straightforward to tell whether a binding is a pattern binding or a function binding. Here are four examples: 7 7 if then £ ¤ ¡ ¢ © £ ¡ = let if if in then then 7 ¦ Translation: ing: The pattern binding above is semantically equivalent to this simple pattern bind else else else error "Unmatched pattern" © 7 ¥ ¦ 7  = where { 7 £ ¡ ¢ £ ¡   = = } 4 The general form of a pattern binding is . a pattern binding is: is the same structure as for ¡ ¥ § ¢ ¥ § ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 4 ¡ ¡ 888 v ¢ where the are new identiﬁers. where a function bindings above. The pattern is matched “lazily” as an irrefutable pattern. but the existence of n+k patterns sometimes confuses the issue.4. simple pattern binding): ¡ ¥ § 57 4. A 4 ¡ A ( ) ¥ § ¢ 4 A 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¡ 8 8 ¥¡ ¥8 ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ = \ ¢ > case ( . as if there were an implicit ˜ in front of it. in other words.e.
58 x + 1 = ... (x + 1) = ... (x + 1) * y = ... (x + 1) y = ...
CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
 Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 = ...  Pattern binding, defines x  Function binding, defines (*)  Equivalent to (*) (x+1) y = ...  Function binding, defines (+)  Equivalent to (+) x 1 y = ...
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4.5 Static Semantics of Function and Pattern Bindings
The static semantics of the function and pattern bindings of a let expression or where clause are discussed in this section.
4.5.1 Dependency Analysis
In general the static semantics are given by the normal HindleyMilner inference rules. A dependency analysis transformation is ﬁrst performed to increase polymorphism. Two variables bound by value declarations are in the same declaration group if either 1. they are bound by the same pattern binding, or 2. their bindings are mutually recursive (perhaps via some other declarations that are also part of the group). Application of the following rules causes each let or where construct (including the where deﬁning the top level bindings in a module) to bind only the variables of a single declaration group, thus capturing the required dependency analysis: 1 1. The order of declarations in where/let constructs is irrelevant.
£
} in = let { } in (let { 2. let { ; (when no identiﬁer bound in appears free in )
1
} in
A similar transformation is described in Peyton Jones’ book [10].
§
The ﬁrst two can be distinguished because a pattern binding has a — the former cannot be an unparenthesised n+k pattern.
§
¢ £¡
on the left hand side, not a
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£
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4.5. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS
59
4.5.2 Generalization
The HindleyMilner type system assigns types to a letexpression in two stages. First, the righthand side of the declaration is typed, giving a type with no universal quantiﬁcation. Second, all type variables that occur in this type are universally quantiﬁed unless they are associated with bound variables in the type environment; this is called generalization. Finally, the body of the letexpression is typed. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y = (y,y) in ...
The type of g’s deﬁnition is . The generalization step attributes to g the polymorphic type , after which the typing of the “...” part can proceed. When typing overloaded deﬁnitions, all the overloading constraints from a single declaration group are collected together, to form the context for the type of each variable declared in the group. For example, in the deﬁnition: f x = let g1 x y = if x>y then show x else g2 y x g2 p q = g1 q p in ... String, and the accumulated The types of the deﬁnitions of g1 and g2 are both constraints are Ord (arising from the use of >), and Show (arising from the use of show). The type variables appearing in this collection of constraints are called the constrained type variables. The generalization step attributes to both g1 and g2 the type
Notice that g2 is overloaded in the same way as g1 even though the occurrences of > and show are in the deﬁnition of g1. If the programmer supplies explicit type signatures for more than one variable in a declaration group, the contexts of these signatures must be identical up to renaming of the type variables.
4.5.3 Context Reduction Errors
As mentioned in Section 4.1.4, the context of a type may constrain only a type variable, or the application of a type variable to one or more types. Hence, types produced by generalization must be expressed in a form in which all context constraints have be reduced to this “head normal form”. Consider, for example, the deﬁnition: f xs y = xs == [y]
6
6
Ord
Show
6 ¢
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6
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
f :: Eq a => [a] > a > Bool and not f :: Eq [a] => [a] > a > Bool Even though the equality is taken at the list type, the context must be simpliﬁed, using the instance declaration for Eq on lists, before generalization. If no such instance is in scope, a static error occurs. Here is an example that shows the need for a constraint of the form where m is one of the type variables being generalized; that is, where the class applies to a type expression that is not a type variable or a type constructor. Consider: f :: (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool f x y = return x == y The type of return is Monad m => a > m a; the type of (==) is Eq a => a > a > Bool. The type of f should be therefore (Monad m, Eq (m a)) => a > m a > Bool, and the context cannot be simpliﬁed further. The instance declaration derived from a data type deriving clause (see Section 4.3.3) must, like , any instance declaration, have a simple context; that is, all the constraints must be of the form where is a type variable. For example, in the type data Apply a b = App (a b) deriving Show
the derived Show instance will produce a context Show (a b), which cannot be reduced and is not simple; thus a static error results.
4.5.4 Monomorphism
Sometimes it is not possible to generalize over all the type variables used in the type of the deﬁnition. For example, consider the declaration f x = let g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... In an environment where x has type , the type of g’s deﬁnition is ([ ] ). The ([ ] ); only can be universally generalization step attributes to g the type quantiﬁed because occurs in the type environment. We say that the type of g is monomorphic in the type variable . The effect of such monomorphism is that the ﬁrst argument of all applications of g must be of a single type. For example, it would be valid for the “...” to be
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It is worth noting that the explicit type signatures provided by Haskell are not powerful enough to express types that include monomorphic type variables. For example, we cannot write f x = let g :: a > b > ([a],b) g y z = ([x,y], z) in ... because that would claim that g was polymorphic in both a and b (Section 4.4.1). In this program, g can only be given a type signature if its ﬁrst argument is restricted to a type not involving type variables; for example g :: Int > b > ([Int],b) This signature would also cause x to have type Int.
4.5.5 The Monomorphism Restriction
Haskell places certain extra restrictions on the generalization step, beyond the standard HindleyMilner restriction described above, which further reduces polymorphism in particular cases. The monomorphism restriction depends on the binding syntax of a variable. Recall that a variable is bound by either a function binding or a pattern binding, and that a simple pattern binding is a pattern binding in which the pattern consists of only a single variable (Section 4.4.3). The following two rules deﬁne the monomorphism restriction:
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CHAPTER 4. DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS
Rule 1. We say that a given declaration group is unrestricted if and only if: (a): every variable in the group is bound by a function binding or a simple pattern binding (Section 4.4.3.2), and (b): an explicit type signature is given for every variable in the group that is bound by simple pattern binding. The usual HindleyMilner restriction on polymorphism is that only type variables that do not occur free in the environment may be generalized. In addition, the constrained type variables of a restricted declaration group may not be generalized in the generalization step for that group. (Recall that a type variable is constrained if it must belong to some type class; see Section 4.5.2.) Rule 2. Any monomorphic type variables that remain when type inference for an entire module is complete, are considered ambiguous, and are resolved to particular types using the defaulting rules (Section 4.3.4).
Motivation
Rule 1 is required for two reasons, both of which are fairly subtle.
Rule 1 prevents computations from being unexpectedly repeated. For example, genericLength is a standard function (in library List) whose type is given by genericLength :: Num a => [b] > a Now consider the following expression: let { len = genericLength xs } in (len, len) It looks as if len should be computed only once, but without Rule 1 it might be computed twice, once at each of two different overloadings. If the programmer does actually wish the computation to be repeated, an explicit type signature may be added: let { len :: Num a => a; len = genericLength xs } in (len, len)
Rule 1 prevents ambiguity. For example, consider the declaration group
[(n,s)] = reads t Recall that reads is a standard function whose type is given by the signature reads :: (Read a) => String > [(a,String)] Without Rule 1, n would be assigned the type Read and s the type Read String. The latter is an invalid type, because it is inherently ambiguous. It is not possible to determine at what overloading to use s, nor can this be solved by adding a type signature for s. Hence, when nonsimple pattern bindings are used (Section 4.4.3.2), the types inferred are always monomorphic in their constrained type variables, irrespective of whether a type signature is provided. In this case, both n and s are monomorphic in .
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Many functions are most naturally deﬁned using simple pattern bindings. Consequences The monomorphism rule has a number of consequences for the programmer. Thus in f x y = x+y the function f may be used at any overloading in class Num. Rule 2 now states that the monomorphic type variable a is ambiguous. 63 Rule 2 is required because there is no way to enforce monomorphic use of an exported binding. and not by any modules that import it. The standard prelude contains many examples of this: sum sum :: (Num a) => [a] > a = foldl (+) 0 Rule 1 applies to both toplevel and nested deﬁnitions. the same function deﬁned with pattern syntax: f = \x > \y > x+y requires a type signature if f is to be fully overloaded. module M1(len1) where default( Int. However. len1 has the monomorphic type Num a => a (by Rule 1). Consider module M where len1 = genericLength "Hello" len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational .()) both f and g are monomorphic regardless of any type signatures supplied for f or g. Rule 2 states that the exact types of all the variables bound in a module must be determined by that module alone. Anything deﬁned with function syntax usually generalizes as a function is expected to.4.g) = ((+). len1 gets type Int.3. Double ) len1 = genericLength "Hello" module M2 where import M1(len1) len2 = (2*len1) :: Rational When type inference on module M1 is complete. (If the above code is actually what is wanted.5. in (f. the user must be careful to afﬁx these with type signatures to retain full overloading. except by performing type inference on modules outside the current module. a type signature on len1 would solve the problem. and its use in len2 is typeincorrect.4.) This issue does not arise for nested bindings. and must be resolved using the defaulting rules of Section 4. because their entire scope is visible to the compiler. STATIC SEMANTICS OF FUNCTION AND PATTERN BINDINGS The same constraint applies to patternbound functions. Hence. For example. There is no danger of recomputation here.
It follows that both D and S must have kind and that every instance of class C must have kind . for any kind . does not match the kind that is expected for an argument of Tree: type FunnyTree = Tree [] . DECLARATIONS AND BINDINGS Here. synonym. respectively. . 6 6 6 6 9 6 6 ¡ 6 6 6 ¡ 6 9 6 6 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . for instance). It is possible that some parts of an inferred kind may not be fully determined by the corresponding deﬁnitions.64 CHAPTER 4. respectively. the actual kinds for these two constructors are and .6 Kind Inference This section describes the rules that are used to perform kind inference. type inference ﬁnds that len1 has the monomorphic type (Num a => a). For example. i. and the type variable a is resolved to Rational when performing type inference on len2. to calculate a suitable kind for each type constructor and class appearing in a given program. and would require an extension to allow polymorphic kinds. the following program fragment includes the deﬁnition of a datatype constructor D.invalid This is important because it ensures that each constructor and class are used consistently with the same kind whenever they are in scope. all of which would be included in the same dependency group: data C a => D a = Foo (S a) type S a = [D a] class C a where bar :: a > D a > Bool The kinds of variables. in such cases. For example. Defaults are applied to each dependency group without consideration of the ways in which particular type constructor constants or classes are used in later dependency groups or elsewhere in the program. and class deﬁnitions into dependency groups. a synonym S and a class C. in the deﬁnitions above. the parameter a appears as an argument of the function constructor (>) in the type of bar and hence must have kind .5. The ﬁrst step in the kind inference process is to arrange the set of datatype. This can be achieved in much the same way as the dependency analysis for value declarations that was described in Section 4. adding the following deﬁnition to those above does not inﬂuence the kind inferred for Tree (by changing it to . constructors. we could assume an arbitrary kind for the a parameter in each of the following examples: data App f a = A (f a) data Tree a = Leaf  Fork (Tree a) (Tree a) This would give kinds and for App and Tree.e. For example. Instead. and classes within each group are determined using standard techniques of type inference and kindpreserving uniﬁcation [7]. a default of is assumed. using the default binding . and instead generates a static error because the kind of []. 4. For example.
datatypes. First. and then concatenating all the module bodies1 . etc. changing all occurrences to refer to the appropriate unique name. making them available to other modules. A Haskell program is a collection of modules.Chapter 5 Modules A module deﬁnes a collection of values.3. each giving the name of a module to be imported and specifying its entities to be imported. Rule 2 of the monomorphism restriction (Section 4. module B where f = . which must be a computation of type IO for some type (see Chapter 7). default declarations scope over a single module (Section 4.. imported into. type synonyms. Modules are used for namespace control. or perhaps exported from a module..4).5. 1 65 . (see Chapter 4). and are not ﬁrst class values. The value of the program is the value of the identiﬁer main in module Main.f module A where f = . one of which.5) is affected by module boundaries. classes. A multimodule Haskell program can be converted into a singlemodule program by giving each entity a unique name..f >> B. by convention. type. For example. It is equivalent to the following singlemodule program: There are two minor exceptions to this statement. here is a threemodule program: module Main where import A import B main = A.. or class deﬁned in. It exports some of these resources. and its result (of type ) is discarded. the computation main is performed. must be called Main and must export the value main. We use the term entity to refer to a value. Modules may reference other modules via explicit import declarations. Modules may be mutually recursive. in an environment created by a set of imports (resources brought into scope from other modules). When the program is executed. Second.
. the header is assumed to be ‘module Main(main) where’. the module name. and a list of entities (enclosed in round parentheses) to be exported. CHAPTER 5. A module begins with a header: the keyword module. } } } 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 7 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¡ § 2 4 module ¦ where 2 4 ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ © 7¥ 7 ¥ ¡ ¦ ¡ ¦ ' 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © ¦ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ©§ ¤ @¤32 $ 7 ¦ ¦ ' ¡ 2 4 2§ 2 ¢ ¡ .2 Export Lists ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ ¢ ¡ ( .. If this is used. Chapter 4). consisting only of the module body. . If the ﬁrst lexeme in the abbreviated module is not a {. optionally restricting the imported bindings. © 5.. plus a set of standard library modules that may be imported as required (see Part II). There is one distinguished module. ) ¦ § ¦ ¦ A 2§ 7 A ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 .66 module Main where main = af >> bf af = .. etc. . The header is followed by a possiblyempty list of import declarations ( .. with each module being associated with a unique module name (which are Haskell identiﬁers beginning with a capital letter. Section 5. This is followed by a possiblyempty list of toplevel declarations .1 Module Structure A module deﬁnes a mutually recursive scope containing declarations for value bindings. then the layout rule applies for the top level of the module. which is imported into all modules by default (see Section 5. 7 ¦ © ¡ 2§ © © 4§ ¡ 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ § ¡ 32 ¦ 2§ ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ¡ 4§ { { { . i. ( An abbreviated form of module. modules allow a program to be partitioned freely without regard to dependencies. (see Chapter 4). data types.e. The namespace for modules themselves is ﬂat. is permitted. . . classes.6). MODULES Because they are allowed to be mutually recursive. bf = . ). Prelude.3) that specify modules to be imported. ¦ ¦ § 5. type synonyms.
3. A class with operations of three ways: 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ The form names. but not those that are imported. Entities in an export list may be named as follows: 1. Operators be named by giving the name of the value as a s. A value. The constructor In all cases. A type synonym is in scope.. . may . An algebraic datatype of three ways: declared by a data or newtype declaration may be named in one The form names the type but not the constructors or ﬁeld names. or that it imports from some other module. EXPORT LISTS 67 . types and classes deﬁned in the module are exported. If the export list is omitted. names the type and some or all of its constructors and ﬁeld declared in a class declaration may be named in one . The ability to export a type without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (see Section 5. all values. ( . ﬁeld name.Maybe( Nothing. which must be in scope. whether declared in the module body or imported.. one of these subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a constructor or ﬁeld of . and (b) the constructor or ﬁeld is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. The abbreviated form (.) ( module . the following is legal module A( Mb.8).) names the type and all its constructors and ﬁeld names that are currently in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not). ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¨ ¦ ¦ § 2 4 ¦ 2 ¤ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ . or class method.5. because they cannot otherwise be distinguished from type constructors. . . where ¨ ¦ § ¨ A ¤ ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 8 8 ¢ ¥¥8 ¢ A 5 4 ¦ ¡ ¢ 4 ¦ 8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ ¦ § (. should be enclosed in parentheses to turn them into 2. A module implementation may only export an entity that it declares. Just ) ) where import qualified Maybe as Mb Data constructors cannot be named in export lists except as subordinate names.2. must be in scope. ) An export list identiﬁes the entities to be exported by a module declaration. ). the (possiblyqualiﬁed) type constructor and ﬁeld names in the second form are unqualiﬁed.. ¦ declared by a type declaration may be named by the form ¡ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ 4. For example.) ( (.
5. In all cases.f.. The unqualiﬁed names of the entities exported by a module must all be distinct (within their respective namespace). A module can name its own local deﬁnitions in its export list using its own name in the “module M” syntax. item (1) above).68 CHAPTER 5. g. ¡ ¦ The form names the class but not the class methods. module Mod2 ) where import Mod2 import Mod3 Here module Mod1 exports all local deﬁnitions as well as those imported from Mod2 but not those imported from Mod3. C. It makes no difference to an importing module how an entity was exported.). It is an error to use module M in an export list unless M is the module bearing the export list. Here the module Queue uses the module name Stack in its export list to abbreviate all the entities imported from Stack... ). or as an implicitlynamed member (T(. item (5)).g. item (2)). and (b) the class method is in scope in the module body regardless of whether it is in scope under a qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed name. This set may be empty. For example. or M is imported by at least one import declaration (qualiﬁed or unqualiﬁed).. Exports lists are cumulative: the set of entities exported by an export list is the union of the entities exported by the individual items of the list. or by exporting an entire module (module M.1).g) g = f True .5.an invalid module There are no name clashes within module A itself. The form “module M” names the set of all entities that are in scope with both an unqualiﬁed name “e” and a qualiﬁed name “M. For example module A ( C. but there are name clashes in the export list ¦ £ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ £ The form ( .e”. dequeue ) where import Stack . names the class and some or all of its methods. a ﬁeld name f from data type T may be exported individually (f. one of the (unqualiﬁed) subordinate names is legal if and only if (a) it names a class method of . MODULES The abbreviated form (. For example: module Queue( module Stack. must be in scope. In the second form. enqueue. ¡ £ . or as an explicitlynamed member of its data type (T(f). because a local declaration brings into scope both a qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name (Section 5. item(2)). module B ) where import B(f) import qualified C(f. . For example: module Mod1( module Mod1.) names the class and all its methods that are in scope (whether qualiﬁed or not).
f are different entities). ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¤ ¢ A¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 . except qualiﬁers are not permitted and the ‘module ’ entity is not permitted.g and g are different entities – remember.. 2 4 ¨ import qualified as .. they may also be used as variables. hiding ( . Imported names serve as top level declarations: they scope over the entire body of the module but may be shadowed by local nontoplevel bindings. Items in the list have the same form as those in export lists.. modules can import each other recursively). ) ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¢ 2 4§ . The list must name only entities exported by the imported module. ) ¦ ¨ A !§ ¤ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ 2 § § ¤ %§ 4 ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦ 7 ¨¡ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ . . When the (. ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A§ ¤ 2 4§ ¢ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § 8 8¡ ¥¥8 ¡§ ¤ 2 ( .3. A single module may be imported by more than one import declaration. IMPORT DECLARATIONS 69 between C. The effect of multiple import declarations is strictly cumulative: an entity is in scope if it is imported by any of the import declarations in a module. The import declaration names the module to be imported and optionally speciﬁes the entities to be imported. § 5. ) ¦ ¦ ¡ ¦ 2 ¤ 37 2 ¦ ¡ © 4§ ¤ ¢ ¢ %§ %§ 2 4 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ § ¤ © 7 § © ¤ 32 ¡ ¡ 4 ¦ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¦ ¡ 4§ 4§ 4§ . methods.) ( (. the (.f (assuming B.) refers to all of the constructors. and between module B and C.5. the terminal symbols “as”. The ordering of import declarations is irrelevant.. or ﬁeld names exported from the module. The imported entities can be speciﬁed explicitly by listing them in parentheses.3 Import Declarations § The entities exported by a module may be brought into scope in another module with an import declaration at the beginning of the module.f and C. in which case nothing except the instances is imported.) ( . .1 What is imported Exactly which entities are to be imported can be speciﬁed in one of the following three ways: 1. rather than Lexically.g and g (assuming C. They have special signiﬁcance only in the context of an import declaration. The list may be empty. “qualified” and “hiding” are each a a . 5. .) form of import is used for a type or class. ) ¨ ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ (.3.
the toplevel environment is extended. Section 5. the qualiﬁer is not necessarily the name of the module in which the entity was originally declared.’ as a qualiﬁer instead of ‘VeryLongModuleName.1 describes qualiﬁed names in more detail. in import qualified VeryLongModuleName as C entities must be referenced using ‘C. using C in an import list names only a class or type. in import M hiding (C) any constructor. which speciﬁes that all entities exported by the named module should be imported except for those named in the list. if ported.This * differs from the one in the Prelude 5.This + differs from the one in the Prelude . For example. The ability to exclude the unqualiﬁed names allows full programmer control of the unqualiﬁed namespace: a locally deﬁned entity can share the same name as a qualiﬁed import: module Ring where import qualified Prelude import List( nub ) l1 + l2 = l1 Prelude. If the qualified keyword is omitted.All Prelude names must be qualified .3 Local aliases Imported modules may be assigned a local alias in the importing module using the as clause. Thus.+ 1) .3.3. or type named C is excluded.++ l2 l1 * l2 = nub (l1 + l2) succ = (Prelude. exported by the imported module. If the import declaration used the qualified keyword. Entities can be excluded by using the form hiding( . . class. Hence.70 ¡ ¤32 § ¤ CHAPTER 5. In contrast. ).5. then both the qualiﬁed and unqualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. in fact. or the local alias given in the as clause (Section 5. Finally. MODULES 2. only the qualiﬁed name of the entity is brought into scope. It is an error to hide an entity that is not. Data constructors may be named directly in hiding lists without being preﬁxed by the associated type. © 5.2 Qualiﬁed import For each entity imported under the rules of Section 5. The qualiﬁer on the imported name is either the name of the imported module. is omitted then all the entities exported by the speciﬁed module are im A !§ ¤ 2 ¡ 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 4§ ¡ ¡ . This also allows a different module to be substituted for VeryLongModuleName without changing the 4§ 3.3.1.3) on the import statement.3.’.
y A. 5. An as clause may also be used on an unqualified import statement: import Foo as A(f) This declaration brings into scope f and A. suppose the module A exports x and y. y. A.f. IMPORTING AND EXPORTING INSTANCE DECLARATIONS 71 qualiﬁers used for the imported module.y (nothing) x.x B. A. For example: module M where import qualified Foo as A import qualified Baz as A x = A.x. B.x.x.4.4 Importing and Exporting Instance Declarations Instance declarations cannot be explicitly named on import or export lists.x. It is legal for more than one module in scope to use the same qualiﬁer. all instance declarations in scope in module A are imported (Section 5.3. y. Then this table shows what names are brought into scope by the speciﬁed import statement: Import declaration import A import A() import A(x) import qualified A import qualified A() import qualified A(x) import A hiding () import A hiding (x) import qualified A hiding () import qualified A hiding (x) import A as B import A as B(x) import qualified A as B Names brought into scope x. A. All instances in scope within a module are always exported and any import brings all instances in from the imported .x.y x. B.y A.y y.x.y In all cases.y x. A.y (nothing) A. A.4). A. provided that all names can still be resolved unambiguously.4 Examples To clarify the above import rules. B. A.x A.5.f This module is legal provided only that Foo and Baz do not both export f. y. A. B.x x. 5.
An import declaration. .f x = . Thus. it is illegal to write module M where M.ILLEGAL g x = let M. but does bring in any instances visible in M. such as f or A. For example module MyInstances() where instance Show (a > b) where show fn = "<<function>>" instance Show (IO a) where show io = "<<IO action>>" 5. . A module whose only purpose is to provide instance declarations can have an empty export list..y = x+1 in .72 CHAPTER 5. an instance declaration is in scope if and only if a chain of import declarations leads to the module containing the instance declaration. 2 4 A qualiﬁed name is written as .. A qualiﬁed name is brought into scope: .1 Qualiﬁed names § By a top level declaration. A toplevel declaration brings into scope both the unqualiﬁed and the qualiﬁed name of the entity being deﬁned. therefore. For example. This allows a qualiﬁed import to be replaced with an unqualiﬁed one without forcing changes in the references to the imported names.3). g x = M.4). whether qualified or not.f.2 Name clashes If a module contains a bound occurrence of a name. The deﬁning occurrence must mention the unqualiﬁed name.5 Name Clashes and Closure 5.ILLEGAL By an import declaration. that is. it must be possible unambiguously to resolve which entity is thereby referred to..f respectively..f x x is legal. Thus: module M where f x = . there must be only one binding for f or A.5.5. import M() does not bring any new names in scope from module M. MODULES module. 5.. 4 ¦ ¢ ¦ ¦ (Section 2.. always brings into scope the qualiﬁed name of the imported entity (Section 5.
and can be referred to in A by the names d. provided that the program does not mention those names.sin (F.x or C.5.d. c. even though the Prelude function sin is implicitly in scope. y = . . so it is not erroneous that distinct entities called y are exported by both B and C. d. An error is only reported if y is actually mentioned. For example.5. In this case the same entity is brought into scope by two routes (the import of B and the import of C)... and C. The ambiguity could be ﬁxed by replacing the reference to x by B.. module D( d ) where d = . The reference to d is unambiguously resolved to d declared in D.sin x) The local declaration for sin is legal.. module C( d.. Consider the deﬁnition of tup. x. y = . b = .. There is no reference to y. or x declared in C.x. c = . NAME CLASHES AND CLOSURE 73 It is not an error for there to exist names that cannot be so resolved.... x.. x) module B( d. y ) where import D x = ..2). b. the following module is legal: module F where sin :: Float > Float sin x = (x::Float) f x = Prelude.d.. The references to b and c can be unambiguously resolved to b declared in B.. The reference to x is ambiguous: it could mean x declared in B. B. c. y ) where import D x = . The name occurring in a type signature or ﬁxity declarations is always unqualiﬁed. and c declared in C respectively. and unambiguously refers to another declaration in the same declaration list (except that the ﬁxity declaration for a class method can occur at top level — Section 4. For example: module A where import B import C tup = (b.4..
5. classes. the import of a variable x does not require that the datatypes and classes in the signature of x be brought into the module along with x unless these entities are referenced by name in the user program.sin must both be qualiﬁed to make it unambiguous which sin is meant. there is no way to supply an explicit type signature for y since T is not in scope.5. Whether or not T is explicitly exported. The only reason to export T is to allow other modules to refer it by name. these are interchangeable even when T is not in scope. and functions. That is. the Prelude is contained in the . For example. the deﬁnition of T is available to any module that encounters it whether or not the name T is in scope. Such entities need not even be explicitly exported: the following program is valid even though T does not escape M1: module M1(x) where data T = T x = T module M2 where import M1(x) y = x In this example.” In Haskell. entities that the compiler requires for type checking or other compile time analysis need not be imported if they are not mentioned by name. in module M(x) where type T = Int x :: T x = 1 the type of x is both T and Int. every name explicitly mentioned by the source code must be either deﬁned locally or imported from another module. called the “Standard Prelude. MODULES The references to Prelude. The Haskell system silently imports any information that must accompany an entity for type checking or any other purposes. That is.74 CHAPTER 5. However.3 Closure Every module in a Haskell program must be closed. However. The type of an exported entity is unaffected by nonexported type synonyms. module M2 knows enough about T to correctly type check the program. the unqualiﬁed name sin in the type signature in the ﬁrst line of F unambiguously refers to the local declaration for sin. 5. The Haskell compilation system is responsible for ﬁnding any information needed for compilation without the help of the programmer. That is. the type checker ﬁnds the deﬁnition of T if needed whether or not it is exported.6 Standard Prelude Many of the features of Haskell are deﬁned in Haskell itself as a library of standard datatypes.sin and F.
5. The semantics of the entities in Prelude is speciﬁed by a reference implementation of Prelude written in Haskell. 5.6. STANDARD PRELUDE 75 module Prelude. just like those from any other module.6. These modules are not part of Haskell 98. they should be considered part of its implementation. and increasing the space of useful names available to the programmer. There are also many predeﬁned library modules. They are simply there to help explain the structure of the Prelude module.6. This means. PreludeIO. given in Chapter 8. For example. and contains an unqualiﬁed reference to null on the right hand side of nonNull. nonNull ) where import Prelude hiding( null ) null.1 The Prelude Module The Prelude module is imported automatically into all modules as if by the statement ‘import Prelude’. allowing it to be more easily assimilated. for example. every module that does so must have an import declaration that makes this nonstandard usage explicit. and so on. Prelude and library modules differ from other modules in that their semantics (but not their implementation) are a ﬁxed part of the Haskell language deﬁnition. however. 5.2 Shadowing Prelude Names The rules about the Prelude have been cast so that it is possible to use Prelude names for nonstandard purposes. The latter would be ambiguous without the hiding(null) on the . This provision for explicit import allows entities deﬁned in the Prelude to be selectively imported. that a compiler may optimize calls to functions in the Prelude without consulting the source code of the Prelude. These are deﬁned in Part II Separating libraries from the Prelude has the advantage of reducing the size and complexity of the Prelude. and they cannot be imported separately. and most of the input/output are all part of the standard libraries. but the implementation only gives a scheme. which provide less frequently used functions and types. not part of the language deﬁnition. For example: module A( null. nonNull :: Int > Bool null x = x == 0 nonNull x = not (null x) Module A redeﬁnes null. Since the treatment of such entities depends on the implementation. complex numberss. if and only if it is not imported with an explicit import declaration. Chapter 8 deﬁnes the module Prelude using several other modules: PreludeList. they are not formally deﬁned in Chapter 8. The implementation of Prelude is also incomplete in its treatment of tuples: there should be an inﬁnite family of tuples and their instance declarations. Some datatypes (such as Int) and functions (such as Int addition) cannot be speciﬁed directly in Haskell. arrays.
MODULES import Prelude statement. so it refers to ++ imported from MyPrelude.x) g x = (. It is not possible. an ADT for stacks could be deﬁned as: module Stack( StkType. The special syntax for tuples (such as (x. Every module that imports A unqualiﬁed.8 Abstract Datatypes The ability to export a datatype without its constructors allows the construction of abstract datatypes (ADTs). The precise details of separate compilation are not deﬁned by this report. Redeﬁning names used by the Prelude does not affect the meaning of these special constructs. For example.x) and (.)) and lists (such as [x] and []) continues to refer to the tuples and lists deﬁned by the standard Prelude. For example. the use of ++ is not special syntax.7 Separate Compilation Depending on the Haskell implementation used. for example. and then makes an unqualiﬁed reference to null must also resolve the ambiguous use of null just as A does. 5. while the declaration import MyPrelude brings the nonstandard prelude into scope. separate compilation of mutually recursive modules may require that imported modules contain additional information so that they may be referenced before they are compiled. in terms of a different implementation of lists. For example. there is no way to redeﬁne the meaning of [x]. Thus there is little danger of accidentally shadowing Prelude names. the Prelude is an ordinary Haskell module. It is possible to construct and use a different module to serve in place of the Prelude. On the other hand. 5. push.) x x h x = [x] ++ [] the explicit import Prelude() declaration prevents the automatic import of Prelude. pop. one cannot deﬁne a new instance for Show Char. to hide instance declarations in the Prelude. it is special only in that some objects in the Prelude are referenced by special syntactic constructs. however. in module B where import Prelude() import MyPrelude f x = (x. Other than the fact that it is implicitly imported. Explicit type signatures for all exported values may be necessary to deal with mutual recursion.76 CHAPTER 5. empty ) where data StkType a = EmptyStk  Stk a (StkType a) push x s = Stk x s pop (Stk _ s) = s empty = EmptyStk .
For example. stacks can be deﬁned with lists: module Stack( StkType. Instead. push. ABSTRACT DATATYPES 77 Modules importing Stack cannot construct values of type StkType because they do not have access to the constructors of the type. pop. pop.5. they must use push. It is also possible to build an ADT on top of an existing type by using a newtype declaration. empty ) where newtype StkType a = Stk [a] push x (Stk s) = Stk (x:s) pop (Stk (_:s)) = Stk s empty = Stk [] .8. and empty to construct such values.
MODULES .78 CHAPTER 5.
The name otherwise is deﬁned as True to make guarded expressions more readable.1 Booleans data Bool = False  True deriving (Read.2 Characters and Strings The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode characters [11]. The lexical syntax for characters is deﬁned in Section 2. and not. Type Char is an instance of the classes Read. In this chapter. Numeric types are described in Section 6. and functions that are implicitly imported into every Haskell program. Other predeﬁned types such as arrays. complex numbers. Ord. Some deﬁnitions may not be completely valid on syntactic grounds but they faithfully convey the meaning of the underlying type.4.1. Enum. 6. types.1 Standard Haskell Types These types are deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude. Bounded) The boolean type Bool is an enumeration. When appropriate. we describe the types and classes found in the Prelude. and 79 .1. Show. Most functions are not described in detail here as they can easily be understood from their deﬁnitions as given in Chapter 8. 6. Show. Eq.Chapter 6 Predeﬁned Types and Classes The Haskell Prelude contains predeﬁned classes.6. Enum. and rationals are deﬁned in Part II. Eq. character literals are nullary constructors in the datatype Char. Ord. The basic boolean functions are && (and).  (or). 6. the Haskell deﬁnition of the type is given.
and Show (provided. The toEnum and fromEnum functions. and \n and \LF. Read. together with the instances for Eq. \v and \VT. as described in Section 3. curry. of course.1.1) deﬁnes many standard list functions. snd. The following functions are deﬁned for pairs (2tuples): fst.’r’.Bool. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Bounded. In addition.’ ’.y) and (. Each tuple type has a single constructor.’s’. Eq. Similar functions are not predeﬁned for larger tuples. \b and \BS.1. written ‘[]’ (“nil”).80 CHAPTER 6. There is no upper bound on the size of a tuple. map characters to and from the Int type.’n’. Functor. The Prelude and libraries deﬁne tuple functions such as zip for tuples up to a size of 7. The same holds for tuple type constructors.’t’. \t and \HT. Arithmetic sequences and list comprehensions. respectively. standard functions from class Enum. For example.7. thus (x. and Show. thus. Show.11. although with special syntax. as deﬁned in Section 3. that all their component types are). Read.’g’] 6. Ord. and limit the instances associated with larger tuples. Ord. .Int) and (. Lists are an instance of classes Read.) x y produce the same value. every Haskell implementation must support tuples up to size 15. Ord) Lists are an algebraic datatype of two constructors. and the second is ‘:’ (“cons”). All tuples are instances of Eq.10 and 3.6. 6.) Int Bool Int denote the same type. Bounded. ASCII mnemonic escapes. (Int. and uncurry. Monad. two convenient syntaxes for special kinds of lists. \f and \FF. However..4 Tuples Tuples are algebraic datatypes with special syntax. are described in Sections 3. Bounded. The ﬁrst constructor is the null list. The constructor for a tuple is written by omitting the expressions surrounding the commas. Ord. and MonadPlus. A string is a list of characters: type String = [Char] Strings may be abbreviated using the lexical syntax described in Section 2.3 Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.8. and the \ˆ notation. ’i’. The module PreludeList (see Section 8. "A string" abbreviates [ ’A’. Note that ASCII control characters each have several representations in character literals: numeric escapes. \r and \CR. but some Haskell implementations may restrict the size of tuples. there are the following equivalences: \a and \BEL.
($). and Part II contains many more. Enum. Read. and until. The Prelude contains a few I/O functions (deﬁned in Section 8. flip. IO is an instance of the Monad and Functor classes. Ord. It is an instance of Show and Eq.1. See also Section 3.8 Other Types data data data Maybe a Either a b Ordering = = = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq. using the seq function: seq :: a > b > b .9.2. Chapter 7 describes I/O operations.). Ord.1. a function argument is evaluated only when required. and MonadPlus. Show) LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.6 Function Types Functions are an abstract type: no constructors directly create functional values. const. IOError is an abstract type representing errors raised by I/O operations.1. The functions maybe and either are found in the Prelude. Values of this type are constructed by the various I/O functions and are not presented in any further detail in this report. Show) The Maybe type is an instance of classes Functor. Sometimes it is desirable to force the evaluation of a value. Ord.1. Read. The following simple functions are found in the Prelude: id. 6. that is. Read.7 The IO and IOError Types The IO type serves as a tag for operations (actions) that interact with the outside world. Show) Left a  Right b deriving (Eq. (. The unit datatype () has one non 6. 6. The IO type is abstract: no constructors are visible to the user.3). Show) member. Bounded. 6. Ord. Read. The Ordering type is used by compare in the class Ord. Bounded.5 The Unit Datatype data () = () deriving (Eq. STRICT EVALUATION 81 6.2 Strict Evaluation Function application in Haskell is nonstrict. the nullary constructor ().6. Enum. Monad.
As a consequence. . for example: f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x)) It is also useful in higherorder situations. the not the same as \x > existence of seq weakens Haskell’s parametricity properties. rightassociative binding precedence. Strict datatypes (see Section 4. $! ($). or zipWith ($) fs xs.2.1) are deﬁned in terms of the $! operator. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x The nonstrict application operator $ may appear redundant. 6. infixr 0 $. since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). For the same reason. 6.1 shows the hierarchy of Haskell classes deﬁned in the Prelude and the Prelude types that are instances of these classes. then all class methods must be given to fully specify an instance.3. together with the default declarations. and is deﬁned in terms of seq. so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted. the provision of seq has is important semantic consequences.3) are provided for many of the methods in standard classes. However. $ has low.3 Standard Haskell Classes Figure 6.82 CHAPTER 6. The operator $! is strict (callbyvalue) application. because it is available at every type. such as map ($ 0) xs. The Prelude also deﬁnes the $ operator to perform nonstrict application. If there is no such comment.1 The Eq Class class Eq a where (==). (/=) :: x /= y x == y a > a > Bool = not (x == y) = not (x /= y) ¡¢ 0§ ' ' ¢ seq seq ' . Default class method declarations (Section 4. A comment with each class declaration in Chapter 8 speciﬁes the smallest collection of method deﬁnitions that. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The function seq is deﬁned by the equations: seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness. since seq can be used to distinguish them. However. provide a reasonable deﬁnition for all the class methods.
Double Monad IO. Double Bounded Int. []. Integer RealFrac Float. Char. Integer. Char. Bool. Bool. Int. (>) Read All except IO. Integer. Float. Double Floating Float. []. Float. tuples Enum (). (>) Show All except IO. Double Integral Int.1: Standard Haskell Classes . Double RealFloat Float. Double Real Int. () Ordering.6. IOError Num Int. Float. (>) Ord All except (>) IO. Integer. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 83 Eq All except IO. Maybe Figure 6. Double Fractional Float. Maybe Functor IO. Ordering.3.
PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES The Eq class provides equality (==) and inequality (/=) methods.3. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects. are instances of this class. then both will loop. The default declarations allow a user to create an Ord instance either with a typespeciﬁc compare function or with typespeciﬁc == and <= functions. and IOError. each being deﬁned in terms of the other.x) y x x y The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes. This declaration gives default method declarations for both /= and ==. the default method for the other will make use of the one that is deﬁned. = = = = max x y) = (x. If both are deﬁned. neither default method is used. All basic datatypes except for functions and IO are instances of this class.y) or (y. (<=).84 CHAPTER 6. . 6. Instances of Ord can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. (>) :: a > a > Bool max. If one is deﬁned. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. All basic datatypes except for functions. IO.2 The Ord Class class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). Instances of Eq can be derived for any userdeﬁned datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq. min :: a > a > a compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .Note that (min x max x y  x <= y  otherwise min x y  x <= y  otherwise y. If an instance declaration for Eq deﬁnes neither == nor /=. (>=).
. which uses precedence context zero. The Int argument to showsPrec and readsPrec gives the operator precedence of the enclosing context (see Section 10. ("". Strings produced by showsPrec are usually readable by readsPrec.read: no parse" _ > error "PreludeText. This is particularly useful for the Char type. except function types and IO types. is also provided. The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values.. show. default decl for readList given in Prelude class Show a where showsPrec :: Int > a > ShowS show :: a > String showList :: [a] > ShowS showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x = showsPrec 0 x "" .3.. by providing an instance declaration. All Prelude types.reads s."") <. where values of type String should be shown in double quotes.lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "PreludeText. and returns an ordinary String. the Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. default decl for showList given in Prelude The Read and Show classes are used to convert values to or from strings. A specialised variant. rather than between square brackets.. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 85 6.t) <. a programmer can easily make functions and IO types into (vacuous) instances of Show.) For convenience. to allow constanttime concatenation of its results using function composition. (If desired. are instances of Show and Read.. showsPrec and showList return a StringtoString function.4)..3.String)] ShowS = String > String class Read a where readsPrec :: Int > ReadS a readList :: ReadS [a] .3 The Read and Show Classes type type ReadS a = String > [(a.read: ambiguous parse" . Derived instances of Read and Show replicate the style in which a constructor is declared: inﬁx constructors and ﬁeld names are used on input and output.6.
of a value. see Chapter 10. The enumFrom.] [n. which must be completely consumed by the input process. The read function reads input from a string.m] . methods are used when translating arithmetic sequences (Section 3. enumFrom and enumFromThen should be deﬁned with an implicit bound. pred :: toEnum :: fromEnum :: enumFrom :: enumFromThen :: enumFromTo :: enumFromThenTo :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n.m] [n.86 CHAPTER 6. The functions succ and pred return the successor and predecessor.e.4 The Enum Class class Enum a where succ. The functions fromEnum and toEnum map values from a type in Enum to and from Int. thus: enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound  otherwise = minBound The following Prelude types are instances of Enum: . It reads a single lexeme from the input. 6. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES shows and reads use a default precedence of 0. fromEnum and toEnum should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no ﬁelds). and returning the characters that constitute the lexeme. lex returns a single successful “lexeme” consisting of the empty string. discarding initial white space. (Thus lex "" = [("". used by read... returns []).] [n. If the input string contains only white space.Default declarations given in Prelude Class Enum deﬁnes operations on sequentially ordered types. respectively.3.10). For example.n’. For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum.. the following should hold: The calls succ maxBound and pred minBound should result in a runtime error..."")]. is also part of the Prelude. toEnum 7 :: Bool is an error..n’. lex fails (i. The function lex :: ReadS String.) If there is no legal lexeme at the beginning of the input string.
Numeric types: Int. ]. based on the primitive functions that convert between a Char and an Int. the enumeration functions have the following meaning: The sequence enumFromThen is the list [ . . The increment may be zero or negative. or when they become less than for negative . ]. and pred subtracts 1. If the increment is the next element would be greater than . . ¥ ¢ The sequence enumFromThenTo is the list [ . enumFromTo ’a’ ’z’ denotes the list of lowercase letters in alphabetical order.6. . the list is empty if . 6. where the increment. The list is ¥ § ¦ § . . [LT. except that the list terminates when the elements become greater than for positive increment . Bool. Double. For all four numeric types. Lists. and Maybe are in this class. Float.. ¥ ¢ For Float and Double. all the list elements are the same. ¤ . is . If the increment is positive or zero. 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 § ¢¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¡ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ The sequence enumFrom is the list [ . In the case of Float and Double. the list terminates when the next element would be less than . The semantics of these instances is given next. empty if is the list [ . the digits after the decimal point may be lost. Char: the instance is given in Chapter 8.] is the list [LT. For example. and Ordering.GT]. all of the enumFrom family of functions are strict in all their arguments. the list is empty if negative. . If the increment is zero. ]. The conversions fromEnum and toEnum convert between the type and Int. STANDARD HASKELL CLASSES 87 Enumeration types: (). £ ¡ ¥ ¤ § £ £ ¤¡ § ].EQ. . 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ § § ¢¥ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢¢ £ ¥¡ § ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡¢ § ¡ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ ¢ ¤ § ¥ ¤ £ ¡ ¥ ¡¥ ¥ ¤ ¡ The sequence enumFromTo . For example.5 The Functor Class class Functor f where fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over.3. . IO. . The semantics of these instances is given by Chapter 10. succ adds 1.3. . Integer. is . where the increment. the semantics of the enumFrom family is given by the rules for Int above. For the types Int and Integer. It is implementationdependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to ﬁt in an Int. the list terminates when . For all four of these Prelude numeric types.
The fail method for lists returns the empty list []. fmap g k a m (m >>= k) >>= h .3. The fail method is invoked on patternmatch failure in a do expression. 6. lists. and IO are all instances of Monad. and for IO raises a user exception in the IO monad (see Section 7. Maybe. f return a >>= k m >>= return m >>= (\x > k x >>= h) fmap id fmap (f . for Maybe returns Nothing.14). PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws: All instances of Functor deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws. The Prelude provides the following auxiliary functions: sequence sequence_ mapM mapM_ (=<<) :: :: :: :: :: Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => [m [m (a (a (a a] a] > > > > m > m m b) m b) m b) [a] () > [a] > m [b] > [a] > m () > m a > m b fmap f xs xs >>= return .6 The Monad Class class Monad m (>>=) :: (>>) :: return :: fail :: m >> k fail s where m a > m a > a > m String (a > m b) > m b m b > m b a > m a = m >>= \_ > k = error s The Monad class deﬁnes the basic operations over a monad. In the Prelude. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: Instances of both Monad and Functor should additionally satisfy the law: All instances of Monad deﬁned in the Prelude satisfy these laws.88 CHAPTER 6.3). See Chapter 7 for more information about monads. g) id fmap f . “do” expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions (see Section 3.
its subclass Real is also a subclass of Ord. Similarly. The class Num of numeric types is a subclass of Eq. Other numeric types such as rationals and complex numbers are deﬁned in libraries. but not all.1. using several type classes with an inclusion relation shown in Figure 6. Some. The standard numeric classes and other numeric functions deﬁned in the Prelude are shown in Figures 6. Ordering.4. Numeric function names and operators are usually overloaded. since all numbers may be compared for equality. Figure 6. etc. semantically).6. The Prelude deﬁnes only the most basic numeric types: ﬁxed sized integers (Int). The types Int. The standard numeric types are listed in Table 6. These standards require considerably more complexity in the numeric structure and have thus been relegated to a library. page 83. as deﬁned in the Ratio library.1 shows the class dependencies and builtin types that are instances of the numeric classes. it is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE singleprecision type. the class Fractional contains all nonintegral types. Bool.2–6. single precision ﬂoating (Float). Char. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds.3.4 Numbers Haskell provides several kinds of numbers.3. 6. (). since the other comparison operations apply to all but complex numbers (deﬁned in the Complex library). and the class Floating contains all ﬂoatingpoint types. a truncated value. arbitrary precision integers (Integer). both real and complex. The results of exceptional conditions (such as overﬂow or underﬂow) on the ﬁxedprecision numeric types are undeﬁned.7 The Bounded Class class Bounded a where minBound. As Int is an instance of the Bounded class. NUMBERS 89 6. maxBound and least the range minBound can be used to determine the exact Int range deﬁned by an implementation. Double should cover IEEE doubleprecision. aspects of the IEEE ﬂoating point standard have been accounted for in Prelude class RealFloat. Bounded may also be derived for singleconstructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded. or a special value such as inﬁnity.1. minBound is the ﬁrst constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. and all tuples are instances of Bounded. Float is implementationdeﬁned. In particular. an implementation may choose error ( . maxBound :: a The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. The default ﬂoating point operations deﬁned by the Haskell Prelude do not conform to current language independent arithmetic (LIA) standards. and double precision ﬂoating (Double). the numeric types and the operations upon them have been heavily inﬂuenced by Common Lisp and Scheme. The class Integral contains integers of both limited and unlimited range. the type Rational is a ratio of two Integer values. The ﬁniteprecision integer type Int covers at . ¨ ¡£ ¤ ¡£ ¤ . indeﬁnite. The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type.
Ratio Integer). div. Given the typings: fromInteger :: (Num a) => Integer > a fromRational :: (Fractional a) => Rational > a integer and ﬂoating literals have the typings (Num a) => a and (Fractional a) => a. double precision Complex ﬂoatingpoint Table 6. even .4.5. and mod apply only to integral numbers. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES Type Integer Int (Integral a) => Ratio a Float Double (RealFloat a) => Complex a Class Integral Integral RealFrac RealFloat RealFloat Floating Description Arbitraryprecision integers Fixedprecision integers Rational numbers Real ﬂoatingpoint. See Section 4. The class methods quot.3. while the class method (/) applies only to fractional ones. while the result of ‘div‘ is truncated toward negative inﬁnity. rem. and mod class methods satisfy these laws if y is nonzero: (x ` quot y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x ` rem (x ` ` y)*y + (x ` ` y) == x div mod ‘quot‘ is integer division truncated toward zero.1 Numeric Literals The syntax of numeric literals is given in Section 2. divMod is deﬁned similarly: quotRem x y divMod x y = = (x `quot y. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer.2 Arithmetic and NumberTheoretic Operations The inﬁx class methods (+).4 for a discussion of overloading ambiguity.1: Standard Numeric Types 6. Numeric literals are deﬁned in this indirect way so that they may be interpreted as values of any appropriate numeric type. (*).90 CHAPTER 6. a ﬂoating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational (that is. x `mod y) ` ` Also available on integral numbers are the even and odd predicates: even x = odd = x ` ` 2 == 0 rem not . The quot. remainder) pair. The quotRem class method takes a dividend and a divisor as arguments and returns a (quotient. Similarly. (). div.4) apply to all numbers. and the unary function negate (which can also be written as a preﬁx minus sign. 6. x ` ` y) ` rem (x `div y. single precision Real ﬂoatingpoint. respectively. see section 3.4. rem.
Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational class (Real a. atanh :: a > a Figure 6. for example gcd (3) 6 = 3. (*) negate abs. div. divMod toInteger => :: :: :: Integral a where a > a > a a > a > (a. ¢ )¢ lcm is the smallest positive integer that both and divide. including zero. rem.4. There are three twoargument exponentiation operations: (ˆ) raises any number to a nonnegative integer power. log. gcd (3) (6) = 3. mod quotRem. signum fromInteger a) :: :: :: :: => Num a where a > a > a a > a a > a Integer > a 91 class (Num a. gcd 0 0 raises a runtime error. gcd is the greatest (positive) integer that divides both and . acosh. logBase :: a > a > a sin. tan :: a > a asin. sqrt :: a > a (**). Enum a) quot. Part 1 Finally. there are the greatest common divisor and least common multiple functions. and (**) takes two ﬂoatingpoint arguments.a) a > Integer class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp. 6. (). 0** is undeﬁned. logBase returns the logarithm of in base . atan :: a > a sinh. tanh :: a > a asinh. gcd 0 4 = 4. (ˆˆ) raises a fractional number to any integer power. NUMBERS class (Eq a. sqrt returns the principal square root of a ﬂoatingpoint number.3 Exponentiation and Logarithms The oneargument exponential function exp and the logarithm function log act on ﬂoatingpoint numbers and use base .6. cos. cosh.2: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations.4. The value of ˆ0 or ˆˆ0 is 1 for any . Show (+). acos. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ .
Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. The functions abs and signum apply to any number and satisfy the law: abs x * signum x == x For real numbers.4 Magnitude and Sign A number has a magnitude and a sign. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES a > > > where (b. lcm :: (Integral a) => a > a> a (ˆ) :: (Num a.4.92 CHAPTER 6. these functions are deﬁned by: abs x  x >= 0  x < 0 = x = x = 1 = 0 = 1 signum x  x > 0  x == 0  x < 0 . Part 2 6.Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN. Fractional b) => a > b Figure 6. floor :: (Integral b) => a class (RealFrac a. Integral b) => a > b > a fromIntegral :: (Integral a. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a gcd.3: Standard Numeric Classes and Related Operations. isNegativeZero. isInfinite. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.a) b b class (Real a. Integral b) => a > b > a (ˆˆ) :: (Fractional a. isDenormalized.
6. respectively. pi]. and tangent functions and their inverses. the greatest integer not greater than . The function properFraction takes a real fractional number and returns a pair such that . ). approxRational takes two real fractional arguments and and returns the simplest rational number within of . tanh. The class methods of class RealFloat allow efﬁcient. NUMBERS 93 6. ceiling returns the least integer not less than .4. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. cosine. but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation. atan2 returns a value in the range [pi. and the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume. and: is an integral number with the same sign as .4.4. where is the value radix. The functions floatRadix. For real ﬂoating and . and furthermore. inclusive. where a rational in reduced form is simpler than another if and . either and are both zero or else of floatDigits x. floor.6 Coercions and Component Extraction The ceiling. Default implementations of tan. and is a fraction with the same type and sign as . and round functions can be deﬁned in terms of properFraction. but implementors are free to provide more accurate implementations. where is the ﬂoatingpoint . See these references for discussions of branch cuts. Every real interval contains a unique simplest rational. encodeFloat performs the inverse of this transformation. ¢ ¢ 6. and floatRange give the parameters of a ﬂoatingpoint type: the radix of the representation. then x is equal in value to . and sqrt are provided. The function decodeFloat applied to a real ﬂoatingpoint number returns the signiﬁcand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). The functions ¦ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0 ¦ ¦ 0 ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¢ ' 0 ¦ ¢ 4 A ¢ ' ¢ 4 ¡ ¦¥ ' ¥ ¢ ¢ 1 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ ¦ ¢ ¦ £ ¡ ¤ 4 4 1 £ 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ 0 ¢ ¦ ¢ . in particular. Class RealFloat provides a version of arctangent taking two real ﬂoatingpoint arguments. **. logBase. The precise deﬁnition of the above functions is as in Common Lisp. A default deﬁnition of atan2 is provided. Two functions convert numbers to type Rational: toRational returns the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision. machineindependent access to the components of a ﬂoatingpoint number. and floor . floor. and round functions each take a real fractional argument and return an integral result. and with absolute value less than 1. with in a type that is RealFloat. truncate yields the integer nearest between and . The ceiling. round returns the nearest integer to . atan2 1. truncate. truncate. discontinuities. If decodeFloat x yields ( . which in turn follows Penﬁeld’s proposal for APL [9]. atan2 computes the angle (from the positive xaxis) of the vector from the origin to the point . and implementation. the number of digits of this radix in the signiﬁcand.5 Trigonometric Functions Class Floating provides the circular and hyperbolic sine. floatDigits. the even integer if is equidistant between two integers. note that is the simplest rational of all. should return the same value as atan .
but rather than an Integer. PREDEFINED TYPES AND CLASSES significand and exponent together provide the same information as decodeFloat. and isIEEE all support numbers represented using the IEEE standard. exponent 0 is zero. isInfinite. isNegativeZero. For nonIEEE ﬂoating point numbers. Also available are the following coercion functions: fromIntegral :: (Integral a. scaleFloat multiplies a ﬂoatingpoint number by an integer power of the radix. these may all return false.94 CHAPTER 6. Num b) => a > b realToFrac :: (Real a. scaled to lie in the open interval . Fractional b) => a > b . significand x yields a value of the same type as x. The functions isNaN. isDenormalized.
2). corresponding to sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages. Haskell uses a to integrate I/O operations into a purely functional context. In the case of the I/O monad.1. corresponding to conventional I/O operations. To achieve this. see Section 6. an implementation has a great deal of freedom in choosing this order. All I/O functions deﬁned here are character oriented. may read as a single newline character. the abstract values are the mentioned above. must be ordered in a welldeﬁned manner for program execution – and I/O in particular – to be meaningful. In the following. return and linefeed.1 Standard I/O Functions Although Haskell provides fairly sophisticated I/O facilities. however. 95 ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ 32 4 © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ . The term comes from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. two characters of input. Haskell’s I/O monad provides the user with a way to specify the sequential chaining of actions. Special operations (methods in the class Monad.Chapter 7 Basic Input/Output The I/O system in Haskell is purely functional. it is possible to write many Haskell programs using only the few simple functions that are exported from the Prelude. yet has all of the expressive power found in conventional programming languages. Some operations are primitive actions. it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype. The treatment of the newline character will vary on different systems. and which are described in this section. as deﬁned in the IO library. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer. © ¦ 332 § § ¤¢ © $ 7. For example. Actions.6) sequentially compose actions.3. however. and an implementation is obliged to preserve this order. The order of evaluation of expressions in Haskell is constrained only by data dependencies. natural to a functional language and The I/O monad used by Haskell mediates between the the that characterize I/O operations and imperative programming in general. These functions cannot be used portably for binary I/O. recall that String is a synonym for [Char] (Section 6.
(The isAscii function is deﬁned in a library. For example. which is read lazily as it is needed. The entire input from the standard input device is passed to this function as its argument. The getContents operation returns all user input as a single string. The readLn function combines getLine and readIO. These functions read input from the standard input device (normally the user’s :: :: :: :: :: :: IO Char IO String IO String (String > String) > IO () Read a => String > IO a Read a => IO a getChar getLine getContents interact readIO readLn The getChar operation raises an exception (Section 7. putChar putStr putStrLn print :: :: :: :: Char > IO () String > IO () String > IO () .96 CHAPTER 7. a program to print the ﬁrst 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as: main = print ([(n. a predicate isEOFError that identiﬁes this exception is deﬁned in the IO library. and the resulting string is output on the standard output device. print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline. deﬁned the IO library.[0. 2ˆn)  n <.adds a newline Show a => a > IO () The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. The interact function takes a function of type String>String as its argument. The following program simply removes all nonASCII characters from its standard input and echoes the result on its standard output. The getLine operation raises an exception under the same circumstances as hGetLine.3) on endofﬁle. Typically. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show. the read operation from class Read is used to convert the string to a value.19]]) Input Functions terminal).) main = interact (filter isAscii) .. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT Output Functions These functions write to the standard output device (this is normally the user’s terminal). The readIO function is similar to read except that it signals parse failure to the I/O monad instead of terminating the program.
on demand. but takes its input from "inputfile" and writes its output to "outputfile". use the show function to convert the value to a string ﬁrst. A message is printed on the standard output before the program completes. to the ﬁle. as with getContents.2 Sequencing I/O Operations The type constructor IO is an instance of the Monad class. To write a value of any printable type.2.. The writeFile and appendFile functions write or append the string.x*x)  x <.1. The >>= operation passes the result of the ﬁrst operation as an argument to the second operation. The two monadic binding functions.0. The do notation allows programming in a more imperative syntactic style. SEQUENCING I/O OPERATIONS 97 Files These functions operate on ﬁles of characters.2]]) 7.7. methods in the Monad class. their ﬁrst argument. are used to compose a series of I/O operations. main = readFile "inputfile" writeFile "outputfile" (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" >>= \ s > >> is similar to the previous example using interact. The readFile function reads a ﬁle and returns the contents of the ﬁle as a string. (>>=) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO b (>>) :: IO a > IO b > IO b For example. A slightly more elaborate version of the previous example would be: . main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x. Files are named by strings using some implementationspeciﬁc method to resolve strings as ﬁle names. for example when it is (). as with print. The ﬁle is read lazily. The >> function is used where the result of the ﬁrst operation is uninteresting. their second argument.[0. type FilePath = String writeFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () readFile :: FilePath > IO String Note that writeFile and appendFile write a literal string to a ﬁle.
. Exception propagation must be explicitly provided in a handler by reraising any unwanted exceptions. Exceptions in the I/O monad are represented by values of type IOError. userError :: String > IOError Exceptions are raised and caught using the following functions: ioError :: IOError > IO a catch :: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a The ioError function raises an exception.getLine s <. Any I/O operation may raise an exception instead of returning a result. This is an abstract type: its constructors are hidden from the user. getLine is deﬁned in terms of getChar. using return to deﬁne the result: getLine :: IO String getLine = do c <. The IO library deﬁnes functions that construct and examine IOError values. User error values include a string describing the error. in f = catch g (\e > if IO. otherwise. the exception is propagated to the next outer handler.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <.3 Exception Handling in the I/O Monad The I/O monad includes a simple exception handling system. For example.98 CHAPTER 7. the catch function establishes a handler that receives any exception raised in the action protected by catch. The isEOFError function is part of IO library.getLine putStr "Output file: " ofile <. The only Prelude function that creates an IOError value is userError.getLine return (c:s) 7.readFile ifile writeFile ofile (filter isAscii s) putStr "Filtering successful\n" The return function is used to deﬁne the result of an I/O operation. These handlers are not selective: all exceptions are caught. BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT main = do putStr "Input file: " ifile <. An exception is caught by the most recent handler established by catch. For example.isEOFError e then return [] else ioError e) the function f returns [] when an endofﬁle exception occurs in g.
3.bindings for return. .. (>>=).7.. EXCEPTION HANDLING IN THE I/O MONAD 99 When an exception propagates outside the main program. The fail method of the IO instance of the Monad class (Section 6. (>>) fail s = ioError (userError s) The exceptions raised by the I/O functions in the Prelude are deﬁned in Chapter 21.6) raises a userError.3. thus: instance Monad IO where . the Haskell system prints the associated IOError value and exits the program.
BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT .100 CHAPTER 7.
These functions are: take. or () are included in the Prelude for completeness even though the declaration may be incomplete or syntactically invalid.Chapter 8 Standard Prelude In this chapter the entire Haskell Prelude is given. To reduce the occurrence of unexpected ambiguity errors. Monad. PreludeText. Declarations for special types such as Integer. Only the exports of module Prelude are signiﬁcant. This structure is purely presentational. IO. the default method for enumFrom in class Enum will not work properly for types whose range exceeds that of Int (because fromEnum cannot map all values in the type to distinct Int values). nor are these three modules available for import separately. such as Integral a or Num a.” is often used in places where the remainder of a deﬁnition cannot be given in Haskell. PreludeList. It constitutes a speciﬁcation for the Prelude. as it pleases. constitute a speciﬁcation only of the default method. drop. and it is not required that the speciﬁcation be implemented as shown here. are deﬁned in a system dependent manner in module PreludeBuiltin and are not shown here. !!. The default method deﬁnitions. and to improve efﬁciency. The Prelude shown here is organized into a root module. They do not constitute a speciﬁcation of the meaning of the method in all instances. An implementation is not required to use this organisation for the Prelude. given with class declarations. To take one particular example. These modules are described fully in Part II. Many of the deﬁnitions are written with clarity rather than efﬁciency in mind. length.. of course. a number of commonlyused functions over lists use the Int type rather than using a more general numeric type. Primitives that are not deﬁnable in Haskell. indicated by names starting with “prim”. or less. of the Library modules. and three submodules. Some of the more verbose instances with obvious functionality have been left out for the sake of brevity. 101 . and PreludeIO. That is. an implementation is free to import more. These imports are not. such as Char. Some of these modules import Library modules. part of the speciﬁcation of the Prelude.. An ellipsis “. Prelude. and Numeric. Instance declarations that simply bind primitives to class methods are omitted.
with the preﬁx “generic”. for example genericLength. STANDARD PRELUDE splitAt.102 CHAPTER 8. The more general versions are given in the List library. and replicate. .
. isInfinite. isIEEE. toInteger). Integer. seq. encodeFloat. and cannot legally appear in an export list. Functor(fmap). fst. (&&). (*).Unicode primitives . atan. subtract. Trivial type: ()(()) Functions: (>) Eq((==). snd. sinh. sqrt. EQ. Right). asinh. until. flip. isNegativeZero. tanh. Bool(False. (>>). error. Fractional((/). exp. div. divMod. fromIntegral. sequence. otherwise. sequence_. floatRange. RealFloat(floatRadix. toEnum. fromRational). isNaN. realToFrac. Float. curry. ($). atan2). const. (>). Integral(quot.)((. []) Tuple types: (. maxBound). max. enumFrom. Ord(compare. enumFromTo. enumFromThen. fromEnum. cosh. truncate. asin.)((. Bounded(minBound. exponent.)). atanh). List type: []((:). True). floatDigits. id. either. decodeFloat. etc. undefined. sin. significand. (. (. (<). Floating(pi. tan. acosh. round. isDenormalized. maybe. return. Real(toRational). pred. negate. (**). (). (ˆ). quotRem. (<=). floor). module PreludeText. fromInteger). (/=)). ceiling.103 module Prelude ( module PreludeList.. ($!) ) where import import import import import import PreludeBuiltin UnicodePrims( primUnicodeMaxChar ) PreludeList PreludeText PreludeIO Ratio( Rational ) . signum. GT).Contains all ‘prim’ values . module PreludeIO. gcd. not. Num((+). String. min). recip. acos. Ordering(LT. log. (). uncurry.). lcm. Enum(succ. Rational. (=<<). mapM. enumFromThenTo). These builtin types are defined in the Prelude. cos. asTypeOf. Monad((>>=). mod. Just). but are denoted by builtin syntax. mapM_.)). Double. Int. IO. rem. abs. (ˆˆ). fail). (>=). odd. Maybe(Nothing. logBase. Either(Left. scaleFloat. even. Char. RealFrac(properFraction.
Equality and Ordered classes class Eq a where (==). ‘mod‘ +.x) max x y  x <= y = y  otherwise = x min x y  x <= y = x  otherwise = y . ‘div‘.The (:) operator is builtin syntax. /. classes. (<=). (>) :: a > a > Bool max.  . (>=).Standard types. compare x y  x == y = EQ  x <= y = LT  otherwise = GT x x x x <= < >= > y y y y = = = = compare compare compare compare x x x x y y y y /= == /= == GT LT LT GT .Minimal complete definition: (==) or (/=) x /= y = not (x == y) x == y = not (x /= y) class (Eq a) => Ord a where compare :: a > a > Ordering (<). <. but its fixity is given by: infixr 5 : infix infixr infixr infixl infixr infixr 4 3 2 1 1 0 ==. /=. ‘quot‘.104 infixr infixr infixl infixl 9 8 7 6 CHAPTER 8.Using compare can be more efficient for complex types. min :: a > a > a . ** *. <=. ‘seq‘ . ˆˆ. (/=) :: a > a > Bool . and cannot legally be given . STANDARD PRELUDE .a fixity declaration.y) or (y. >>= =<< $.Minimal complete definition: (<=) or compare . instances and related functions . ˆ. $!. max x y) = (x. >=. ‘rem‘.note that (min x y. > &&  >>.
n’. fromEnum pred = toEnum ..NOTE: these default methods only make sense for types that map injectively into Int using fromEnum and toEnum.Enumeration and Bounded classes class Enum a where succ.. (*) :: a > a > a negate :: a > a abs.Minimal complete All.Minimal complete definition: toEnum.] enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x . signum :: a > a fromInteger :: Integer > a .] [n..Numeric classes class (Eq a. fromEnum enumFrom x = map toEnum [fromEnum x . (subtract 1) . Show a) => Num a where (+). succ = toEnum ..m] .] enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x.] [n. pred toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo :: :: :: :: :: :: :: a > a Int > a a > Int a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > [a] a > a > a > [a]  [n. fromEnum . ()..105 .. fromEnum y .. fromEnum y] enumFromThen x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x.n’. (+1) .. fromEnum y .y = x + negate x = 0 definition: negate or () negate y x class (Num a. fromEnum z] class Bounded a minBound maxBound where :: a :: a .m] [n. Ord a) => Real a where toRational :: a > Rational . except x .
Enum quot. mod quotRem.a) a > Integer . STANDARD PRELUDE => Integral a where a > a > a a > a > a a > a > (a.106 class (Real a. tanh :: a > a asinh. cos. atan asinh. atan :: a > a sinh. rem div. log. atanh x ** y = exp (log x * y) logBase x y = log y / log x sqrt x = x ** 0. acosh. logBase :: a > a > a sin.Minimal complete definition: fromRational and (recip or (/)) recip x = 1 / x x / y = x * recip y class (Fractional a) => Floating a where pi :: a exp.r) = n ‘div‘ d = q where (q. cos. sin.r) = divMod n d = if signum r == where qr@(q.r) = class (Num a) => Fractional a where (/) :: a > a > a recip :: a > a fromRational :: Rational > a quotRem n d quotRem n d divMod n d divMod n d signum d then (q1. sqrt :: a > a (**). sinh. exp.r) = n ‘rem‘ d = r where (q. atanh :: a > a . toInteger n ‘quot‘ d = q where (q.Minimal complete definition: pi. log. cosh asin. acos. divMod toInteger a) :: :: :: :: CHAPTER 8.Minimal complete definition: quotRem.5 tan x = sin x / cos x tanh x = sinh x / cosh x . acos.r) = n ‘mod‘ d = r where (q. acosh. r+d) else qr quotRem n d . tan :: a > a asin. cosh.
5) of 1 > n 0 > if even n then n else m 1 > m if r > 0 then n + 1 else n where (n.1 else n + 1 in case signum (abs r .1 else n where (n. Fractional a) => RealFrac properFraction :: (Integral b) => a truncate. floor :: (Integral b) => a a > > > where (b.r) = properFraction x if r < 0 then n . round :: (Integral b) => a ceiling.r) = properFraction x m = if r < 0 then n .107 class (Real a.0.r) = properFraction x ceiling x floor x = = .Minimal complete definition: properFraction truncate x = m where (m.a) b b ._) = properFraction x round x = let (n.
STANDARD PRELUDE class (RealFrac a.n) = decodeFloat x significand x scaleFloat k x = = encodeFloat m (.x or y is a NaN. atan2 exponent x = if m == 0 then 0 else n + floatDigits x where (m. scaleFloat.must be after the other double zero tests  otherwise = x + y .Int) encodeFloat :: Integer > Int > a exponent :: a > Int significand :: a > a scaleFloat :: Int > a > a isNaN.n) = decodeFloat x atan2 y x  x>0 = atan (y/x)  x==0 && y>0 = pi/2  x<0 && y>0 = pi + atan (y/x) (x<=0 && y<0)  (x<0 && isNegativeZero y)  (isNegativeZero x && isNegativeZero y) = atan2 (y) x  y==0 && (x<0  isNegativeZero x) = pi .Numeric functions subtract subtract even.108 CHAPTER 8. return a NaN (via +) . isDenormalized.floatDigits x) where (m. even :: (Integral a) => a > a > a = error "Prelude. isNegativeZero. isIEEE :: a > Bool atan2 :: a > a > a . odd even n odd gcd gcd 0 0 gcd x y :: (Num a) => a > a > a = flip () :: (Integral a) => a > Bool = n ‘rem‘ 2 == 0 = not .must be after the previous test on zero y  x==0 && y==0 = y ._) = decodeFloat x encodeFloat m (n+k) where (m.Int) decodeFloat :: a > (Integer. isInfinite. Floating a) => RealFloat a where floatRadix :: a > Integer floatDigits :: a > Int floatRange :: a > (Int. significand.gcd: gcd 0 0 is undefined" = gcd’ (abs x) (abs y) where gcd’ x 0 = x gcd’ x y = gcd’ y (x ‘rem‘ y) .Minimal complete definition: All except exponent.
109 lcm lcm _ 0 lcm 0 _ lcm x y (ˆ) x ˆ 0 x ˆ n  n > 0 :: = = = (Integral a) => a > a > a 0 0 abs ((x ‘quot‘ (gcd x y)) * y) _ ˆ _ (ˆˆ) x ˆˆ n fromIntegral fromIntegral realToFrac realToFrac :: (Num a.ˆ: negative exponent" :: (Fractional a. toRational .list element to a monad type mapM :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m [b] mapM f as = sequence (map f as) mapM_ mapM_ f as (=<<) f =<< x :: Monad m => (a > m b) > [a] > m () = sequence_ (map f as) :: Monad m => (a > m b) > m a > m b = x >>= f . return m >> k = m >>= \_ > k fail s = error s sequence sequence sequence_ sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] = foldr mcons (return []) where mcons p q = p >>= \x > q >>= \y > return (x:y) :: Monad m => [m a] > m () = foldr (>>) (return ()) . Fractional b) => a > b = fromRational .The xxxM functions take list arguments. but lift the function or . Integral b) => a > b > a = 1 = f x (n1) x where f _ 0 y = y f x n y = g x n where g x n  even n = g (x*x) (n ‘quot‘ 2)  otherwise = f x (n1) (x*y) = error "Prelude. Num b) => a > b = fromInteger .Monadic classes class Functor f fmap where :: (a > b) > f a > f b class Monad m where (>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (>>) :: m a > m b > m b return :: a > m a fail :: String > m a . Integral b) => a > b > a = if n >= 0 then xˆn else recip (xˆ(n)) :: (Integral a. toInteger :: (Real a.Minimal complete definition: (>>=).
.(useful in continuationpassing style) ($). Read.Trivial type data () CHAPTER 8. ($!) :: (a > b) > a > b f $ x = f x f $! x = x ‘seq‘ f x . ’a’  ’b’ . STANDARD PRELUDE = () deriving (Eq. Show.110 .Character type data Char = .Function type .identity function id :: a > a id x = x .Boolean type data Bool = False  True deriving (Eq.rightassociating infix application operators . Bounded) ... Ord.flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f.Unicode values instance Eq Char c == c’ where = fromEnum c == fromEnum c’ ..constant function const :: a > b > a const x _ = x . Enum. flip :: (a > b > c) > b > a > c flip f x y = f y x seq :: a > b > b seq = .) :: (b > c) > (a > b) > a > c f ... for illustration only . Bounded) . Ord.Not legal Haskell.. g = \ x > f (g x) . Enum. True False True False () && x && _  _  x :: = = = = Bool > Bool > Bool x False True x not not True not False otherwise otherwise :: Bool > Bool = False = True :: Bool = True . .Primitive .function composition (.Boolean functions (&&).
Ord. Show) maybe :: b > (a > b) > Maybe a > b maybe n f Nothing = n maybe n f (Just x) = f x instance Functor Maybe fmap f Nothing = fmap f (Just x) = where Nothing Just (f x) instance Monad Maybe where (Just x) >>= k = k x Nothing >>= k = Nothing return = Just fail s = Nothing . fromEnum (maxBound::Char)] enumFromThen c c’ = map toEnum [fromEnum c.... return = . fromEnum c’ . Read.111 instance Ord Char c <= c’ where = fromEnum c <= fromEnum c’ instance Enum Char where toEnum = primIntToChar fromEnum = primCharToInt enumFrom c = map toEnum [fromEnum c . Ord.IO type data IO a = .. fromEnum lastChar] where lastChar :: Char lastChar  c’ < c = minBound  otherwise = maxBound instance Bounded Char where minBound = ’\0’ maxBound = primUnicodeMaxChar type String = [Char] .. Show) either :: (a > c) > (b > c) > Either a b > c either f g (Left x) = f x either f g (Right y) = g y .Either type data Either a b = Left a  Right b deriving (Eq.Maybe type data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a deriving (Eq.abstract instance Functor IO where fmap f x = x >>= (return .. fail s = ioError (userError s) . Read... f) instance Monad IO where (>>=) = . .
... data Integer = . maxBound ..112 . . .. data Float instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat data Double instance Eq instance Ord instance Num instance Real instance Fractional instance Floating instance RealFrac instance RealFloat Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Float Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double where where where where where where where where .. STANDARD PRELUDE Ordering = LT  EQ  GT deriving (Eq.......be expressed directly in Haskell since the constructor lists would be . .. data Int instance instance instance instance instance instance instance = minBound . .. Bounded) ... ..... 1 Eq Int where Ord Int where Num Int where Real Int where Integral Int where Enum Int where Bounded Int where  0  1 . instance Real Integer where . .Ordering type data CHAPTER 8.. Enum..... .. 1  0  1 . Ord. instance Ord Integer where . . .... .. Show.... . instance Num Integer where ... instance Eq Integer where .... . The data declarations for these types cannot ..far too large. .... ..... ..Standard numeric types...... . .... where where where where where where where where . .. Read.. instance Integral Integer where ....... .. ... . instance Enum Integer where .
truncate enumFrom = numericEnumFrom enumFromThen = numericEnumFromThen enumFromTo = numericEnumFromTo enumFromThenTo = numericEnumFromThenTo numericEnumFrom :: numericEnumFromThen :: numericEnumFromTo :: numericEnumFromThenTo :: numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen n m = numericEnumFromTo n m = numericEnumFromThenTo n n’ . Ord a) => a > a > a > [a] iterate (+1) iterate (+(mn)) n takeWhile (<= m+1/2) (numericEnumFrom n) m = takeWhile p (numericEnumFromThen n n’) where p  n’ >= n = (<= m + (n’n)/2)  otherwise = (>= m + (n’n)/2) .1 is represented.. 0.may overflow instance Enum Double where succ x = x+1 pred x = x1 toEnum = fromIntegral fromEnum = fromInteger .may overflow (Fractional a) => a > [a] (Fractional a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. This example may have either 10 or 11 elements. where = x+1 = x1 = fromIntegral = fromInteger . for illustration only instance Functor [] where fmap = map instance Monad [] m >>= k return x fail s where = concat (map k m) = [x] = [] . However. depending on how 0. The ‘toEnum’ function truncates numbers to Int.Not legal Haskell. roundoff errors make these somewhat dubious.95].113 The Enum instances for Floats and Doubles are slightly unusual.1 .0. Ord) . The definitions of enumFrom and enumFromThen allow floats to be used in arithmetic series: [0. Ord a) => a > a > [a] (Fractional a. truncate = numericEnumFrom = numericEnumFromThen = numericEnumFromTo = numericEnumFromThenTo instance Enum Float succ x pred x toEnum fromEnum enumFrom enumFromThen enumFromTo enumFromThenTo .Lists data [a] = []  a : [a] deriving (Eq.
y) = x snd snd (x. b) > c) = f (fst p) (snd p) . and its typing forces its first argument . until :: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a until p f x  p x = x  otherwise = until p f (f x) .(which is usually overloaded) to have the same type as the second. Bounded) .uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.Misc functions .b) = (a. asTypeOf :: a > a > a asTypeOf = const .messages that are more appropriate to the context in which undefined . y) uncurry uncurry f p :: (a > b > c) > ((a.curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.b) > a fst (x.appears. . curry :: ((a. Ord. undefined undefined :: a = error "Prelude.c) deriving (Eq.until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.component projections for pairs: .b. STANDARD PRELUDE (a. It is usually used . quadruples.error stops execution and displays an error message error error :: String > a = primError .asTypeOf is a typerestricted version of const.Tuples data data CHAPTER 8.undefined" .b) deriving (Eq. for illustration only .) fst :: (a. Ord.c) = (a. etc.b) > b = y . Bounded) (a.It is expected that compilers will recognize this and insert error .Not legal Haskell.as an infix operator.114 .y) :: (a. b) > c) > a > b > c curry f x y = f (x.(NB: not provided for triples.b.
and. tail. unzip. all. foldr1. zip3. rather than the beginning.tail: empty list" head head (x:_) head [] tail tail (_:xs) tail [] . scanr. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 115 8. take. lines.Standard list functions module PreludeList ( map. reverse. span. elem. unlines. concatMap. filter. zip. unzip3) where import qualified Char(isSpace) infixl 9 infixr 5 infix 4 !! ++ ‘elem‘.Map and append map :: (a > b) > [a] > [b] map f [] = [] map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs (++) :: [a] > [a] > [a] [] ++ ys = ys (x:xs) ++ ys = x : (xs ++ ys) filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filter p [] = [] filter p (x:xs)  p x = x : filter p xs  otherwise = filter p xs concat :: [[a]] > [a] concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss concatMap :: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b] concatMap f = concat . last and init are the dual functions working from the end of a finite list. ‘notElem‘ . which must be nonempty. concat. zipWith. scanr1.1. takeWhile. drop. last. scanl. notElem. (!!). null. iterate. splitAt. (++). any. unwords. cycle. or. length. map f head and tail extract the first element and remaining elements.head: empty list" :: [a] > [a] = xs = error "Prelude.8. break. respectively.1 Prelude PreludeList . replicate. zipWith3. product. scanl1. lookup. sum. :: [a] > a = x = error "Prelude. words. foldr. minimum. maximum. foldl. dropWhile. foldl1. of a list. init. head. repeat.
. but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left: scanl f z [x1.last: empty list" [a] > [a] [] x : init xs error "Prelude. . xn] == (.. STANDARD PRELUDE [a] > a x last xs error "Prelude.. x2. z ‘f‘ x1.] == [z.length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. x2. from left to right: foldl f z [x1. . applied to a binary operator. . a starting value (typically the leftidentity of the operator)..!!: negative index" [] !! _ = error "Prelude. .116 last last [x] last (_:xs) last [] init init [x] init (x:xs) init [] null null [] null (_:_) :: = = = :: = = = CHAPTER 8. . and thus must be applied to nonempty lists. again without the starting element: scanl1 f [x1. reduces the list using the binary operator.init: empty list" :: [a] > Bool = True = False .!!: index too large" (x:_) !! 0 = x (_:xs) !! n = xs !! (n1) foldl.] == [x1..((z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2) ‘f‘..List index (subscript) operator... scanl1 is similar.] foldl :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a foldl f z [] = z foldl f z (x:xs) = foldl f (f z x) xs foldl1 foldl1 f (x:xs) foldl1 _ [] scanl scanl f q xs :: (a > a > a) > [a] > a = foldl f x xs = error "Prelude...) ‘f‘ xn foldl1 is a variant that has no starting value argument. and a list.foldl1: empty list" :: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > [a] = q : (case xs of [] > [] x:xs > scanl f (f q x) xs) :: (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] = scanl f x xs = [] scanl1 scanl1 f (x:xs) scanl1 _ [] . scanl is similar to foldl. x2. x1 ‘f‘ x2... length :: [a] > Int length [] = 0 length (_:l) = 1 + length l .] Note that last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs. 0origin (!!) :: [a] > Int > a xs !! n  n < 0 = error "Prelude. (z ‘f‘ x1) ‘f‘ x2....
iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x: . PRELUDE PRELUDELIST 117 .] iterate :: (a > a) > a > [a] iterate f x = x : iterate f (f x) . or equivalently.foldr1: empty list" scanr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > [b] scanr f q0 [] = [q0] scanr f q0 (x:xs) = f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr f q0 xs scanr1 scanr1 f [] scanr1 f [x] scanr1 f (x:xs) :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > [a] [] [x] f x q : qs where qs@(q:_) = scanr1 f xs .foldr. with x the value of every element.iterate f x == [x.. splitAt n xs is equivalent to (take n xs.replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element replicate :: Int > a > [a] replicate n x = take n (repeat x) . returns the prefix of xs of length n. f (f x). f x.on infinite lists. drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements. and scanr1 are the righttoleft duals of the . drop n xs). Int > [a] > [a] [] [] x : take (n1) xs take :: take n _  n <= 0 = take _ [] = take n (x:xs) = . repeat :: a > [a] repeat x = xs where xs = x:xs . scanr.1. .repeat x is an infinite list.cycle ties a finite list into a circular one. cycle cycle [] cycle xs :: [a] > [a] = error "Prelude. or xs itself if n > length xs.. .cycle: empty list" = xs’ where xs’ = xs ++ xs’ take n. or [] if n > length xs. foldr1. foldr :: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b foldr f z [] = z foldr f z (x:xs) = f x (foldr f z xs) foldr1 foldr1 f [x] foldr1 f (x:xs) foldr1 _ [] :: = = = (a > a > a) > [a] > a x f x (foldr1 f xs) error "Prelude. applied to a list xs. It is the identity .above functions.the infinite repetition of the original list.8.
The resulting strings do not contain newlines. words breaks a string up into a list of words.zs) = span p xs’ break p = span (not .zs)  otherwise = ([].[a]) = (take n xs. returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p.118 drop :: drop n xs  n <= 0 = drop _ [] = drop n (_:xs) = splitAt splitAt n xs  CHAPTER 8. break :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. drop n xs) takeWhile. Similary. p) lines breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline characters. span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs. :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = x : takeWhile p xs [] takeWhile takeWhile p [] takeWhile p (x:xs)  p x  otherwise dropWhile dropWhile p [] dropWhile p xs@(x:xs’)  p x  otherwise :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = = dropWhile p xs’ xs span.[]) span p xs@(x:xs’)  p x = (x:ys. while break p uses the negation of p. s’’) = break Char. dropWhile p xs). which were delimited by white space. applied to a predicate p and a list xs.isSpace s of "" > [] s’ > w : words s’’ where (w.isSpace s’ lines lines "" lines s words words s . STANDARD PRELUDE Int > [a] > [a] xs [] drop (n1) xs :: Int > [a] > ([a]. :: String > [String] = [] = let (l. unlines and unwords are the inverse operations. dropWhile p xs returns the remaining suffix. s’) = break (== ’\n’) s in l : case s’ of [] > [] (_:s’’) > lines s’’ :: String > [String] = case dropWhile Char. unlines joins lines with terminating newlines.xs) where (ys.[a]) span p [] = ([]. and unwords joins words with separating spaces.
and of an ordered type.e. .reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. or is the .Applied to a predicate and a list. x ‘elem‘ xs. .True. maximum. lookup :: (Eq a) => a > [(a. PRELUDE PRELUDELIST unlines unlines unwords unwords [] unwords ws :: [String] > String = concatMap (++ "\n") :: [String] > String = "" = foldr1 (\w s > w ++ ’ ’:s) ws 119 . however. the list must be finite.and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list.1. reverse :: [a] > [a] reverse = foldl (flip (:)) [] xs must be finite. any determines if any element . minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] > a maximum [] = error "Prelude.maximum: empty list" maximum xs = foldl1 max xs minimum [] minimum xs = = error "Prelude. elem. map p . sum. all :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool any p = or .disjunctive dual of and.sum and product compute the sum or product of a finite list of numbers. product :: (Num a) => [a] > a sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1 .of the list satisfies the predicate. notElem :: (Eq a) => a > [a] > Bool elem x = any (== x) notElem x = all (/= x) . Similarly.value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.. finite. or :: [Bool] > Bool and = foldr (&&) True or = foldr () False .lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. results from a False .minimum: empty list" foldl1 min xs .which must be nonempty.8. any. usually written in infix form. notElem is the negation. False.elem is the list membership predicate.maximum and minimum return the maximum or minimum value from a list.g.b)] > Maybe b lookup key [] = Nothing lookup key ((x. map p all p = and . and. For the result to be .y):xys)  key == x = Just y  otherwise = lookup key xys . . for all.
b)] = zipWith (.[b].c)] = zipWith3 (. STANDARD PRELUDE zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a.cs) > (a:as..c)] > ([a]. zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples.[]. unzip unzip unzip3 unzip3 :: [(a. instead of a tupling function.c:cs)) ([].bs.b. Zips for larger tuples are in the List library :: [a] > [b] > [(a. For example.120  CHAPTER 8.b.) zip zip zip3 zip3  The zipWith family generalises the zip family by zipping with the function given as the first argument.b.c) ˜(as. zipWith :: (a>b>c) > [a]>[b]>[c] zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs) = z a b : zipWith z as bs zipWith _ _ _ = [] zipWith3 :: (a>b>c>d) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d] zipWith3 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) = z a b c : zipWith3 z as bs cs zipWith3 _ _ _ _ = [] .b:bs.[c]) = foldr (\(a.b)] > ([a].[]) :: [(a.b) ˜(as. If one input list is short.[b]) = foldr (\(a. excess elements of the longer list are discarded.bs) > (a:as. zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.b:bs)) ([].[]) .unzip transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.
lex. shows. showString.hs import Char(isSpace. Read(readsPrec. readLitChar. Ordering . show.v) class Show a showsPrec show showList where :: Int > a > ShowS :: a > String :: [a] > ShowS <<<<<<<<< lex r. Show(showsPrec. lexLitChar) import Numeric(showSigned. readDec. reads t.Mimimal complete definition: show or showsPrec showsPrec _ x s = show x ++ s show x showList [] showList (x:xs) = showsPrec 0 x "" = showString "[]" = showChar ’[’ . lexDigits) type type ReadS a ShowS = String > [(a.2. readSigned.String)] = String > String where :: Int > ReadS a :: ReadS [a] class Read a readsPrec readList .s) pr where readl s = [([]. reads.The instances of Read and Show for Bool. readl’ t] lex s] ++ lex s. read.Minimal complete definition: readsPrec readList = readParen False (\r > [pr  ("[". readl s]) lex s] ++ reads s. readList). showInt. shows x . readParen. showChar.u)  (x. showl xs . showl xs where showl [] = showChar ’]’ showl (x:xs) = showChar ’.t)  ("]".".u) readl’ s = [([].t)  ("]".t) [(x:xs.8. readFloat.t) (x.are done via "deriving" clauses in Prelude. isAlpha.t) (xs. shows x . isDigit. isAlphaNum.2 Prelude PreludeText module PreludeText ( ReadS. showList). showLitChar. Either. Maybe. readl’ u] . PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT 121 8. showFloat.u) (xs.t) [(x:xs.v)  (". ShowS.’ . showParen ) where .
"")] = = = lex (dropWhile isSpace s) [(’\’’:ch++"’". u)  (ch. t)  (str. showChar ’)’ else p :: Bool > ReadS a > ReadS a = if b then mandatory else optional where optional r = g r ++ mandatory mandatory r = [(x. (str.This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax.t) (")".lex t] of [x] > x [] > error "Prelude.lexStrItem s.read: ambiguous parse" :: Char > ShowS = (:) :: String > ShowS = (++) :: Bool > ShowS > ShowS = if b then showChar ’(’ .u) <.lexLitChar s.optional s. p .Current limitations: Qualified names are not handled properly Octal and hexidecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token Comments are not treated properly lex lex "" lex (c:s)  isSpace c lex (’\’’:s) lex (’"’:s) :: ReadS String = [("". STANDARD PRELUDE :: (Read a) => String > a = case [x  (x. <.reads s.t) <."") <.s)] lexString s = [(ch++str.’\’’:t) <.lex t ] .t) <.122 reads reads shows shows read read s :: (Read a) => ReadS a = readsPrec 0 :: (Show a) => a > ShowS = showsPrec 0 CHAPTER 8. ch /= "’" ] [(’"’:str.read: no parse" _ > error "Prelude. . ("".t)  ’\\’:t <[dropWhile isSpace s]] lexStrItem s = lexLitChar s .t) <.u)  ("(".s) (x.lexString s] where lexString (’"’:s) = [("\"".s)] lexStrItem (’\\’:c:s)  isSpace c = [("\\&". t)  (ch.lexString t ] lexStrItem (’\\’:’&’:s) = [("\\&".u) showChar showChar showString showString showParen showParen b p readParen readParen b g r <. <.lex r.
t) <. (fe.t) <. t)  (i.Converting to Integer avoids .lexExp t] lexFracExp s = lexExp s lexExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = [(e:c:ds.possible difficulty with minInt instance Show Integer showsPrec instance Read Integer readsPrec p instance Show Float showsPrec p instance Read Float readsPrec p instance Show Double showsPrec p instance Read Double readsPrec p where = showSigned showInt where = readSigned readDec where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat where = showFloat where = readSigned readFloat instance Show () where showsPrec p () = showString "()" .’:ds++e. c ‘elem‘ "+".readsPrec p r] . (e.[s].u)  (c:t) [(e:ds. (ds.lexDigits s] instance Show Int where showsPrec n = showsPrec n .t) <.2.s) <.. toInteger .t) [(c:ds++fe.()[]{}_‘" isSym c = c ‘elem‘ "!@#$%&*+.bad character lexFracExp (’.u)  (ds.t) <.8. PRELUDE PRELUDETEXT lex (c:s)     isSingle c isSym c isAlpha c isDigit c = = = = [([c].t) [(c:nam.s)] <.lexFracExp s ] .Reading at the Integer type avoids .[span isSym s]]  (nam.lexDigits (c:cs).t) lexExp s = [("".[span isIdChar s]]  (ds.t) <.t) 123  otherwise = [] where isSingle c = c ‘elem‘ ".lexDigits t] ++  (ds.’:c:cs)  isDigit c = [(’.u) <.s)] [(c:sym./<=>?\\ˆ:˜" isIdChar c = isAlphaNum c  c ‘elem‘ "_’"  (sym.possible difficulty with minInt instance Read Int where readsPrec p r = [(fromInteger i.t) <.u) <.[span isDigit s].
lex v ] ) . (l. showChar ’\’’ showList cs = showChar ’"’ . (c.t)  (’"’:s.readl t ] instance (Show a) => Show [a] where showsPrec p = showList instance (Read a) => Read [a] where readsPrec p = readList .124 CHAPTER 8.v) (")". showl cs instance Read Char readsPrec p where = readParen False (\r > [(c. showl cs where showl "" = showChar ’"’ showl (’"’:cs) = showString "\\\"" .Other tuples have similar Read and Show instances <<<<< lex r.lex r. showl cs showl (c:cs) = showLitChar c ."\’") <.u)  (c . STANDARD PRELUDE instance Read () where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((). reads s.y). showChar ’. w)  ("(". Read b) => Read (a.w) .t) <.t) <._) <.’ . (")". showChar ’)’ instance (Read a.".b) where showsPrec p (x. Show b) => Show (a. reads u. lex t.readLitChar s.lex r.s) <.u) (y. showLitChar c .Tuples instance (Show a.b) where readsPrec p = readParen False (\r > [((x. t) <. (cs.t)  ("(". shows x .t) (".lex r.t)<.lex s ] ) instance Show Char where showsPrec p ’\’’ = showString "’\\’’" showsPrec p c = showChar ’\’’ .t)  (’\’’:s.s)] readl (’\\’:’&’:s) = readl s readl s = [(c:cs.u) <.readLitChar s]) readList = readParen False (\r > [(l.s) (x.readl s ]) where readl (’"’:s) = [("". shows y .y) = showChar ’(’ .
IOError. getContents.. PRELUDE PRELUDEIO 125 8. writeFile. Eq IOError where .3 Prelude PreludeIO module PreludeIO ( FilePath. putChar. appendFile. :: = :: = :: = IOError > IO a primIOError String > IOError primUserError IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a primCatch :: Char > IO () = primPutChar :: String > IO () = mapM_ putChar s putStrLn :: String > IO () putStrLn s = do putStr s putStr "\n" print print x getChar getChar getLine getLine :: Show a => a > IO () = putStrLn (show x) :: IO Char = primGetChar :: IO String = do c <. readLn ) where import PreludeBuiltin type FilePath = String .. catch.getChar if c == ’\n’ then return "" else do s <. readIO. getLine. getChar. putStrLn.getLine return (c:s) getContents :: IO String getContents = primGetContents ..The internals of this type are system dependent data IOError instance instance ioError ioError userError userError catch catch putChar putChar putStr putStr s Show IOError where . readFile. ioError. userError. interact. print.. putStr.3.8.
raises an exception instead of an error readIO :: Read a => String > IO a readIO s = case [x  (x.The hSetBuffering ensures the expected interactive behaviour interact f = do hSetBuffering stdin NoBuffering hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering s <.t) <.126 CHAPTER 8.readIO: ambiguous parse") readLn :: Read a => IO a readLn = do l <.getLine r <.readIO l return r . ("".readIO: no parse") _ > ioError (userError "Prelude.getContents putStr (f s) readFile readFile writeFile writeFile :: FilePath > IO String = primReadFile :: FilePath > String > IO () = primWriteFile appendFile :: FilePath > String > IO () appendFile = primAppendFile .lex t] of [x] > return x [] > ioError (userError "Prelude. STANDARD PRELUDE interact :: (String > String) > IO () ."") <.reads s.
In the lexical syntax.Chapter 9 Syntax Reference 9. there are some ambiguities that are to be resolved by making grammatical phrases as long as possible. this is the “maximal munch” rule. or for left. and lambda abstractions extend to the right as far as possible. A precedencelevel variable ranges from 0 to 9. 127 § ¢ 2 ¢ ¡ ( ) ¦ ¤ 7 § § ¢ £¡ 1§ ¢ £¡ ¦ ¡ 2 ©¦ 2 ¤ ¡7 A !§ 7 3¢ ¡ p v £!e ¢ $ 2 &¤ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 £ § ¢ )'% $ " 0(&§# § ¢§ £§ ¡ £¡ ¢ ¢ ¦ £¤ ¡ §¥ § § £¡ §¥ § § £ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ¨ ¦¤ ¢ ¡ ©§¥ § § £ ¢ £ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¡ 7 3¢ v ¡§ ¡ 7 3¢ 6 6 4¤ ¦ 2 5 § 3©¦ ¡ ¢ S ¢ . In both the lexical and the contextfree syntax. and may have a double index: a letter . for example actually stands for 30 productions. proceeding from left to right (in shiftreduce parsing. this means that conditionals. an associativity variable varies over .1 Notational Conventions These notational conventions are used for presenting syntax: optional zero or more repetitions grouping choice difference—elements generated by except those generated by fibonacci terminal syntax in typewriter font BNFlike syntax is used throughout. with productions having the form: There are some families of nonterminals indexed by precedence levels (written as a superscript). resolving shift/reduce conﬂicts by shifting). letexpressions. .or nonassociativity and a precedence level. with 10 substitutions for and 3 for . Similarly. . In the contextfree syntax. the nonterminals . Thus. right.
SYNTAX REFERENCE : " ’ 7 ¥ 4 §© § © § § § 2 43© 2¤ ¦ 7 ' 7 3¢ ¡ ¢ 7 § !3¢ ¤ 77 § © ¨¥ '¨ ¡ ¤ ¢ ¥ § ¨¢£¡ ¤ ¨¥ §¢ ¤ § ¥ ¨¦£ § ¢ ¡T ) cRasY`WXrpq7"9 g 24"9 A g hi7¡9 gA " 3¦db`XV GH§¢ C U f f 9 e c a Y W U E ¦ 2 ¡ ! # $ % & * + . / < = > ? \ ˆ  . .§§ § § ¦ £$ § § § © ¢ 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 §§ § t § 6 7 2 ' 4 3 ' ¦ £$ © ¦ ) 4 2 B2 © ¦§ 7 £ ¦ ¨ 3¦ ¢ )A 98 7 64 #"@¦"%5 3¦ ¢ ¦ 1§¤ 0 0 4 2 ¦ § ¨)§ § ¥ ( § ¦£$ ¦ ¥ 0% ¦ § §£%¢ ¤ % ¦ § 5¤ %§ ¤ ¦¤ $§ 0 ¦ $ ¦ 7 7 § © § ¤ ¤ ¦ § £ ¦ ¡ ' ¢ 7 4 '#4 ¢ 2 ¦ ¤§ ¢ 4 ¨32 ¤ ¦ 4 & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ © § ¥ %§ § ¨¦£ ¦ ¦ § #¦ § ¢ ¤ ¤ © 2 4 © ¦ 332 ¡ 9.{} a carriage return a line feed a vertical tab a form feed a space a horizontal tab any Unicode character deﬁned as whitespace CHAPTER 9.˜ any Unicode symbol or punctuation y B 2 4 3 t ¢ h h h h A v f 4 x"$ wg " 5 7 2 ' 4 3 t § ¦ £$ § 7 2 ' 4 3 t © ¢ A B Z any uppercase or titlecase Unicode letter _ : " ’ %¤ ¢ u 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ © 2 3© 4 7 ' § £$ 2¤ ¦ ¢u © %¤ ¢ ¢ u ¢7 %¤ S¢RQFP§ 4 32 ¦ © G E C ¦ 4 _ a b z any Unicode lowercase letter 77 !3¢ 4 t § 8 8 8 @¥¥9 ¦ £$ 4 © 77 03¢ ¢ t 4 § £$ ¦ 703¢ 7 4 t © 77 !3¢ §¢© t 4 77 !3¢ § #¥ ¡3 §¢ ¦ ¤ G E QFC © G E S¢RQFC ¢ © G E C 4 ¡ IHFD32 © ¥ © ¢ ¦ § ¦¥ 4 32 ¦ 4 4 2 B2 © 4 2 ¥ ¥2 ¦ 7 ¡ © ¥ © ¦ ¦ ¥ 4 4 ¢ 2 § § ¨)§ § ¥ ( ¦ £$ ' ¨¢ § © ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ ¢ & $ § © § ¥ %¤ § ¨¦£ ¢ ¤£¡ © § ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¤¢ ¡ 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 ¦ § ¥ ¤ ' #¢ ¢2 ¦ § 0 ¦ ¦¤ $§ §£%¢ ¤7 ¦§ £ ¦ 7 6 6 6 6 7 ¤ 3¢ ¥ § ¡ § 7 3¢ 7 © ¥ ¡ 4 ¢ 4 ¤ ¡&¤ 7 2 ¢ ¡ .2 Lexical Syntax 128 ( ) . [ ] ` { } ¤ ¤© ¤ ¥ § 2 " § ! ¢ §¢ © ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¦ 7 ¦ 43¤ 3§ ¢ 32 ¡ © ¢ § ¦ ¨¦¤ © § ¥ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¤¥ § ¦ § ¤ § § 7 3§ ¢ ¤ 7 4¦ ¢ ¡ ¢ 7 .
. . LEXICAL SYNTAX ’ ’ case class data default deriving do else if import in infix infixl infixr instance let module newtype of then type where _ ) ¥ v ¥ £ f ¦f ¤¢24 f ¡ § § § %¤ 4 §© 2¤ ¦ 77 4 4 § § § %¤ ¢ 7 !3¢ §© §© ¢ 7 ¦ ¢ 7 !3¢ 77 77 !3¢ : : .. .2. . ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 § ¦32 ¦ § ¦32 ¦ ¦ 32 § ¦ § ¤ ’ " \ 0o 0x e E +  .4§ §§ © § 2 7 ¢ 7 3¢ ¦ ¢ © © ) h ¡ 5)¢ ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ © © ) h ¡ 5¢ ¢ ¨£¡ o \& ¢ ¦ ¤ ¡ §¢ ¤ ¡ §¢ 4§ ¨ 7 3¢ § ¦ ¦ ¦32 ¢¡ 4 § 7 ¨ § ¦32 ¡ ¦ ¢ 4 § ¡ 3¢ 4 § ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 ¢ 4 § ¢¡ ¡ ¥ 73 ¢ 4 § 3¢ ¡ ¥ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ 7 ¢ ¦ ¢ § 2 § 2 7 ¢ 4§ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ § § S ¢ ¥ § § ¡ ¥ ¢ §§ § § 2 § § § 2 §§ § § § § § ¦ ¦ § 43¦ 2 ¨ © 4 S¤ `¨ © © ¢ %§ ¨ `¨ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ ¨ ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¨ ¢ ¦ ˜ => ¥ h 9 f £ f 4 f S¥ X¤¢%w5 4 ) " 9¡¦fX¤ f24w5¡ 2 3© ¥ £ f 4 ©7 ' 2 4 © 7 ' : ) 4 f ¡$ 4 ¡ " 9. : :: = \  <.> 0 1 9 any Unicode decimal digit 0 1 7 A F a f variables constructors type variables type constructors type classes modules y @ 7 2 ' 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8¥8¥8 § § § ¦ 8 8 8 @¥¥9 8 8 8 @¥¥9 . 0O ’ \ " \ 0X ’ 129 " x 7 3¢ 4§ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¥ © § ¨¥ § ¨¥ ¤ ¥ 6 6 6 6 6 6 § © ¡ §¢ #¦ § ¤ § © ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2 ¥ ¢ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¥ 32 § ! ¤ § ¦ § 6 4§ 7 6 3¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¢ § 2 73§ ¢ 4 ¢ S ¥ 7 ¢ 4 ¦ © ¦ 32 © 4 © 3¤ ¦ 37 2 § § § ¢ %§ ¦ 32 ¤ ¢ %§ 6 ¦ ¦ © 2 4 %§ %§ ¢ ¤ ¦ ¦ 72 3¥ %§ § ¢¦ 2 § ¦ ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 ¥¢ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¦ 43¦ 2 © 4 S¤ © ¢ ¦ ¦ § ¥¢ ¤ © ¦ ¦ § § ¦ 2 ¢ ¤ ¤ 6 6 6 6 §§ § §§ § § § S ¥ ¢ §§§ § 2 ¦ £$ © ¢ . .
because it is not preceded only by white space. or of keyword is not followed by the lexeme {.130 CHAPTER 9. The meaning of this augmented program is now layout insensitive. indicating that the enclosing context is explicit (i. where is the indentation of the next lexeme if there is one. The input to is: A stream of lexemes as speciﬁed by the lexical syntax in the Haskell report. then it is preceded by is the indentation of the lexeme. – A positive integer. as a consequence of the ﬁrst two rules. (NB: a string literal it is not. do. ¦ ¦ – If the ﬁrst lexeme of a module is not { or module. The speciﬁcation takes the form of a function that performs the translation.) A stack of “layout contexts”. The effect of layout is speciﬁed in this section by describing how to add braces and semicolons to a laidout program. with the following additional tokens: – If a let. in which each element is either: – Zero. where. where ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ § §#¥¦£ ¤ ¥ § ¨¦£ § ¥ © ¢ y ¢ 2¤ ¢ u ¢ ¤§ ¦ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ ¦ 7 ¦ 6 6 6 6 © 7 § @§ ¤ ¡ ¤ § 5¢¦ ¢ © ¥ a b f n r t v \ " ’ & ˆ NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US SP DEL [ \ ] ˆ _ \ \ ¢ . the programmer supplied the opening brace. The meaning of a Haskell program may depend on its layout. "Jake") There is no inserted before the \Bill.3 Layout Section 2. This section deﬁnes it more precisely. the token is inserted after the keyword. The effect of layout on its meaning can be completely described by adding braces and semicolons in places determined by the layout. If the innermost context is 0. this lexeme is preceded by where is the indentation of the lexeme. So in the fragment f = ("Hello \ \Bill". provided that . then no layout tokens will be inserted until either the enclosing context ends or a new context is pushed. or if the end of ﬁle has been reached.e. which is the indentation column of the enclosing layout context.7 gives an informal discussion of the layout rule. SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. because it is not the beginning of a complete lexeme. preceded by may span multiple lines – Section 2. nor before the . u u – Where the start of a lexeme is preceded only by white space on the same line..6.
programmers should avoid writing programs in which the meaning of implicit layout depends on the width of nonspace characters. For the purposes of the layout rule. all start a new line. the indentation of a line is the indentation of its leftmost lexeme.3.9. } ¡ if if ¥ © ¨ © ¦ ¥ ¢ 2§ ¨ § § ¥ £ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ ¢ © © ¦ ¥ © ¡ ¢ The application ¢2 0 § 2§ ¡ ¦§ ¦¤ $ §£%§ ¤ ¦ § § £ ¥ § © ¥ ¦ © The characters . To determine the column number. A tab character causes the insertion of enough spaces to align the current position with the next tab stop. § § ¥ © § © © © ¨© § § ¡ ¡ § § § ¥ ¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¡ . Tab stops are 8 characters apart. The deﬁnition of is as follows. and “ ” for the empty stream. not 0. to avoid visual confusion. width as an ASCII character. delivers a layoutinsensitive translation of . . and ¦ ¦ 7 7 . assume a ﬁxedwidth font with the following conventions: 1§3¥0 0 4 ¤ 2 © The ﬁrst column is designated column 1. Unicode characters in a source program are considered to be of the same. However. LAYOUT 131 The “indentation” of a lexeme is the column number of the ﬁrst character of that lexeme. where we use “ ” as a stream construction operator. u ¤ ¨ ¥ } ¡ if !£ ¡ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ © § § ¥ © § © ¡ ¥ } ¥ ¡ ¡ if and parseerror © & § © ¥ ¤ § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¨ § © ¥ § § © © © ¥ § § ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¥ { ¥ ¡ { £ £ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ § © § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¤ § § © © § § ¡ ¡ ¥ ¥ } } } parseerror £ ¡ ¡ ¥ £ § © § ¡ ¥ } £ £ £ ¡ ¡ £ £ ¤ £ ¡ ¡ ¥ § & § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ! ¨ ¥ § ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ { { { ¡ if if £ ¡ © © ¦ ¥ ¥ § § © & © § ¡ ¥ © ¥ £ ¥ ¥ ¦ § ¡ § © § ¥ ¥ . ﬁxed. . where is the result of lexically analysing a module and adding columnnumber indicators to it as described above.
checks that an implicitlyadded closing brace would match an implicit open 4 £ ¦ Note 1. By matching against 0 for the current layout context. y = x } in e’ The close brace is inserted due to the parse error rule above. Note 2. The token is replaced by . Note 3. Some error conditions are not detected by the algorithm. A nested context must be further indented than the enclosing context ( fails. If the ﬁrst token after a where (say) is not indented more than the enclosing layout context. and a nonlayout context is active. including labelled construction and update (Section 3. If none of the rules given above matches.132 CHAPTER 9. and the compiler should indicate a layout error. This is a difference between this formulation and Haskell 1. the expression ¦ 4 The test brace. At the end of the input. then parseerror is true. since the close brace is missing. ). to mimic the situation if the empty braces had been explicit. The parseerror rule is hard to implement in its full generality. It is an error at this point to be within a nonlayout context (i. because it translates to let { x = e. y = x in e’ is valid. then the algorithm fails.15). Note 5. although they could be: for example let }. and the tokens generated so far by followed by the token “}” represent a valid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar. the deﬁnition of p is indented less than the indentation of the enclosing context. For example let x = e.4. If not. which is set in this case by the deﬁnition of h. SYNTAX REFERENCE ). A parse error results if an explicit close brace matches an implicit open brace. because doing so involves ﬁxities. It can fail for instance when the end of the input is reached. The side condition parseerror is to be interpreted as follows: if the tokens generated so far by together with the next token represent an invalid preﬁx of the Haskell grammar.e. so empty braces are inserted. Note 4. then the block must be empty. we ensure that an explicit close brace can only match an explicit open brace. An example is: § § &§ u © u £ ¥ ¦ . For example. Note 1 implements the feature that layout processing can be stopped prematurely by a parse error. ¤ ¥ Note 6. This clause means that all brace pairs are treated as explicit layout contexts. u f x = let h y = let p z = z in p in h Here. any pending closebraces are inserted.
9.3. Programmers are therefore advised to avoid writing code that requires the parser to insert a closing brace in such situations. namely (do { a == b }) == c 133 because (==) is nonassociative. . LAYOUT do a == b == c has a single unambiguous (albeit probably typeincorrect) parse.
all other lines are comment. of course). Program code ends just before a subsequent line that begins \end{code} (ignoring string literals. and inspired in turn by Donald Knuth’s “literate programming”. More precisely: Program code begins on the ﬁrst line following a line that begins \begin{code}. By convention. Layout and comments apply exactly as described in Chapter 9 in the resulting text. It is not necessary to insert additional blank lines before or after these delimiters. For example. the style of comment is indicated by the ﬁle extension. and replacing the leading “>” with a space. is an alternative style for encoding Haskell source code. A line in which “>” is the ﬁrst character is treated as part of the program.readLine > putStr "n!= " > print (fact (read l)) This is the factorial function.hs” indicating a usual Haskell ﬁle and “. though it may be stylistically desirable. all other lines are comment. To capture some cases where one omits an “>” by mistake. a simple factorial program would be: This literate program prompts the user for a number and prints the factorial of that number: > main :: IO () > main = do putStr "Enter a number: " > l <.4 Literate comments The “literate comment” convention. The program text is recovered by taking only those lines beginning with “>”.134 CHAPTER 9. 8 8 ¥¥8 . SYNTAX REFERENCE 9. only those parts of the literate program that are entirely enclosed between \begin{code} \end{code} delimiters are treated as program text. In this convention. Using this style. it is an error for a program line to appear adjacent to a nonblank comment line. The literate style encourages comments by making them the default. > fact :: Integer > Integer > fact 0 = 1 > fact n = n * fact (n1) An alternative style of literate programming is particularly suitable for use with the LaTeX text processing system. where a line is taken as blank if it consists only of whitespace.lhs” indicating a literate Haskell ﬁle. with “. ﬁrst developed by Richard Bird and Philip Wadler for Orwell.
. \begin{code} main :: IO () main = print [ (n.[1.9.20]] \end{code} \end{document} This style uses the same ﬁle extension. LITERATE COMMENTS \documentstyle{article} \begin{document} \section{Introduction} 135 This is a trivial program that prints the first 20 factorials. product [1.4.n])  n <.. . It is not advisable to mix these two styles in the same ﬁle.
. 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¢ import qualified 2 4 ¨ ¦ ¦ § ¡ ¤ 4 ¢¦ 8 8 ¥¥8 ( . as . . 6 6 © ¦ § 7 ¦ ¦ 7 ¡ ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¦ A %§ ¡ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¦ § ¡ ¡ ¨ © § § ©¦ § © %§ ¨ § ¡ § ¦ 2 © ¢ 7 5© ¦ 7 ¨ ¤ ¥ %§ © %§ ¨ § S § 32 © ¢ ¦ 7§ © ¦ ¦ 7§ © ¨ ¦ § § ¤ ¥ 332 £ ¦ %¢§¢ 4 ¥ x¨ ¤ § ¡ § 32 ¢ ¦ V ¨ ¦ #¦ § § ¥ ©¤ § ©332 ¡ 7©¡ %§ 4 § © ¨ ¤ ¦ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¡ 7© ¡ %§ %¢ § 4 § V © A ¡ 2 § ¡ ¥¥8 ©¡ ¡ 2 § 8 8 7 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¦ § ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § empty declaration § ¡ ¨ © 4 § ¨ § 2 4 ¡ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦§ ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¢ ¢ ¦ § ¦ A ¡ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ ¡ © 2§ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § © 7¥ ¦ ¡ 4 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 2 © ¦ ' ¡ ¦ ¦ 9... ) ¦ ¨ A§ ¤ !¤32 ¢ S (. ¨ A 5 4 ¦ ¢¥¥8 8 8 ¡ ¢ . . . . . SYNTAX REFERENCE . } .5 ContextFree Syntax 136 module where 2 ¨ ©§ ¤ 5@¤32 ¢ ¡ § 2 4 ¦ ' { { { . ¨ §¤ A A 5 4 ¦ ¢ ) 8 8 ¥¥8 . . . ¦ ¦ 2 ¤ © 37 2 ¦ ¤ ¢ 4§ ¡ © %§ 3¥ %§ ¦ 72 ¤ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¤32 § ¤ { type data newtype class instance default ( . .) ( (. A §¤ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ 4 ¦ ¢ 2 4 . = => => => => .) ( module .) ( . } } © 2§ . . hiding ( .. .) ( (. } = ) = where where ) ) ) ¦ A 8 8 ¥¥8 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 6 6 © 2§ 7¥ ¦ ¡ 2 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ¢ %§ %§ 6 6 § 4 ¦ ¢ ¤ 32 ¡ © 4§ 4§ 4§ ¡ 6 ¡ ¡ 6 7 ¦ 6 6 § ¤ ¤32 ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ©§ ¤ @¤32 ¢ ¡ 4§ 6 6 6 © 7 ¦ ¡ 4§ ¦ ' 2 $ 7 ¦ 2 4 CHAPTER 9.. ) ¨¡ 8 8 ¥¥8 A !§ ¤ 2 . 4§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ ( . ) ¨ A§ ¤ 2 4§ 4§ ¡ §¤¤32 4 § ¡§ ¤ 2 8 8¡ ¥¥8 (.
. } ¦ ¡ 7 ¦ $ ¥ £0 7 ¦ ¦ { . %§ © S© ¤ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¡ B%§ ¦ 32 ¢ %§ ¡ ¡ 2 ¨ ¥ § ¦ § ¤ ¡ § S § 32 ¢ ¦ V © ¥ ¦ § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ © ¥ £0 ¦ $ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¢ ¡ 7 § 7 ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¢ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¤ © ¥ © ¦ § A 7 ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ © ¥ © ¥ ¤ § ¢ £¡ 7 ¦ $ £0 9. ] ) .5. } empty ¦ A § :: => type signature ﬁxity declaration empty declaration . ) tuple type list type parenthesized constructor %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 () [] (>) (. ) unit type list constructor function constructor tupling constructors ¦ 32 %§ ¡ ¡ %§ %§ %§ ¡ ¤ ( ( ) ) ) ¦ A © S© ¢ ¥ ©¡ 7 7 § S § ¢ 4§ © © ¦ 32 © © ¢ ¥ 7 ¦ 2 § ¡ § ¢ ¦ 32 %§ ¡ %§ ¢ ' %§ ' ¡ %§ 6 ¡ 6 6 6 6 6 6 © %§ § ¢ © S¤ © ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢ 7 ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ § ¦ § 7 ¦ 7 6 6 © 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ 137 . . CONTEXTFREE SYNTAX { . . . . . ¦ § ¢ ¤ ¢ %§ 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ ¤ ¢ %§ ¦ 32 %§ 6 ¡ § %¢ 7 ©¡ 4§ © 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 © © ¦ § ¦ ¦ ¦ § ¢7 ¤ %§ © %§ ¢ ¥ § © 74 4 § © ¥8¥8 8 ¡ ©S© ¢ 7 7©¡ ¢ ¥ ©¡ 4 § © 7 7 ©S© A 5 %§ 8¥¥8 ¡¢ %§ ¤ B%§ ¢ 7¥ 7 © ¡ %§ 8 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ %§ © ¥ %§ 7 A ©© 8¥¥8 ¢ ¡ ©S© 7¥ 8 ¢ ¥ 7 ¢ ¥ 7 ( . . . . infixl infixr infix ¦ A §¤ ¦ A¢ 2 ¡ 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 © ¨ > function type type application ¨ ¡ %§ %§ ¢ ¨ ¡ %§ ' %§ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ %§ § ¢ © ¤ ( [ ( .
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. } § 0 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡§ 0 ¤ § § 7 3¢ ¦ 2 7 ¦ 2 ¤ y _ ( ( [ ˜ wildcard parenthesized pattern tuple pattern list pattern irrefutable pattern ) . ¤ ¢ £¡ ¢ § £¡ ¢ . . ) ] ¢ § 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 = § () [] (. ) ) variable qualiﬁed variable constructor qualiﬁed constructor variable operator qualiﬁed variable operator constructor operator qualiﬁed constructor operator operator qualiﬁed operator ) ) ) ` ` ` ` 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ § ¢£§¢ ¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¡§ ¢£¡ ¢ £¡ § : 4 32 © ¦ 2 ¡ 2 2 ¦ ©32 ¡ ¡ ©¦ 2 2 ¡ &¤ 2 ¡ 2 ¤¢ ¡ ¦32 ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¤¢ ¢ ¦ 32 6 § ¢ £¡ 0 ¢ 6 § ¢ ¡ £§¢ 6 6 6 6 6 § ¢ ¤ ¤ ¡ £¡ § v ¢£¡ § ¢£ 7¡ ¢ £ 7¡ v § v § ¢ £¡ . SYNTAX REFERENCE negative literal arity as pattern arity labeled pattern £¡ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¨§ ¦ 32 { . . . 4 © ¦ 3332 2 ¦ ©32 2 ¤ ¡ ©¦ 2 ¡ &¤¢ 2 2 ¦ ¡ 4 ©¡ ¢ § 32 3¦ 2 ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ § 32 33 2 ¦ 4 S¤ © § ¤ ¦ ¢ 4 © 3¤¢ § ¤ ¦ 4 32 ¢ § ¦ 2 ¢ © ¦ ¦ ¦ 4 © ¦ 3332 § 3 2 ¦ 43¤ § ¤ © 4 © 3¢S¤ ¦ § ¤¢ ¦ ¢ ¢ ( ( ( ( ` ` ` ` ¢ £¡ ¦ § ¢ ¦ ¦ 32 ¢ ¢ ¢ £¡ ¡ 2©¦32 ¡ § ¦ 2 8 ¥8¥8 ¡ § ¢ §¢ ¡ ¢£¡§¢ § ¢ ¡ £§¢ ¡ v§ v§ ¤ v 2 ©¦32 § ¢ ¡ ¢£¡ p ¢ § §e 2 ¡ !¡ ¤¥ ¡ § ¦ v § £¡ ¢ § 2 ©¦32 s¢ ¡ v § § ¡ v © ¢ £¡ p v ¢ §e ¡ ¢ ¡ v £ 7¡ ¤ ¢ § v £¡ ¢ § v ¢£ 7¡ ¨ ¡ v§ § v ¢£¡ p v ¢ §e ¦ ¢ £¡ ¤ § 140  CHAPTER 9.
Chapter 10
Speciﬁcation of Derived Instances
A derived instance is an instance declaration that is generated automatically in conjunction with a data or newtype declaration. The body of a derived instance declaration is derived syntactically from the deﬁnition of the associated type. Derived instances are possible only for classes known to the compiler: those deﬁned in either the Prelude or a standard library. In this chapter, we describe the derivation of classes deﬁned by the Prelude.
If
is an algebraic datatype declared by:
3. If is Bounded, the type must be either an enumeration (all constructors must be nullary) or have only one constructor.
5. There must be no explicit instance declaration elsewhere in the program that makes an instance of . For the purposes of derived instances, a newtype declaration is treated as a data declaration with a single constructor. If the deriving form is present, an instance declaration is automatically generated for over each class . If the derived instance declaration is impossible for any of the
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4
(where and the parentheses may be omitted if possible for a class if these conditions hold:
) then a derived instance declaration is
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CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
then a static error results. If no derived instances are required, the deriving form may be omitted or the form deriving () may be used. Each derived instance declaration will have the form:
The context is the smallest context satisfying point (2) above. For mutually recusive data types, the compiler may need to perform a ﬁxpoint calculation to compute it. The remaining details of the derived instances for each of the derivable Prelude classes are now given. Free variables and constructors used in these translations always refer to entities deﬁned by the Prelude.
10.1 Derived instances of Eq and Ord
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Eq and Ord are (==), (/=), compare, (<), (<=), (>), (>=), max, and min. The latter seven operators are deﬁned so as to compare their arguments lexicographically with respect to the constructor set given, with earlier constructors in the datatype declaration counting as smaller than later ones. For example, for the Bool datatype, we have that (True > False) == True. Derived comparisons always traverse constructors from left to right. These examples illustrate this property:
(1,undefined) == (2,undefined) (undefined,1) == (undefined,2)
False
All derived operations of class Eq and Ord are strict in both arguments. For example, False <= is , even though False is the ﬁrst constructor of the Bool type.
10.2 Derived instances of Enum
Derived instance declarations for the class Enum are only possible for enumerations (data types with only nullary constructors). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices 0 through . The succ and pred operators give the successor and predecessor respectively of a value, under this numbering scheme. It is an error to apply succ to the maximum element, or pred to the minimum element.
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where is derived automatically depending on described in the remainder of this section).
and the data type declaration for
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10.3. DERIVED INSTANCES OF BOUNDED
143
The toEnum and fromEnum operators map enumerated values to and from the Int type; toEnum raises a runtime error if the Int argument is not the index of one of the constructors. The deﬁnitions of the remaining methods are
enumFrom x enumFromThen x y = enumFromTo x lastCon = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound  fromEnum y >= fromEnum x =  otherwise = enumFromTo x y = map toEnum [fromEnum x .. fromEnum enumFromThenTo x y z = map toEnum [fromEnum x, fromEnum y
lastCon firstCon y] .. fromEnum z]
where firstCon and lastCon are respectively the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration. For example, given the datatype: data we would have: [Orange ..] fromEnum Yellow == == [Orange, Yellow, Green] 2 Color = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green deriving (Enum)
10.3 Derived instances of Bounded
The Bounded class introduces the class methods minBound and maxBound, which deﬁne the minimal and maximal elements of the type. For an enumeration, the ﬁrst and last constructors listed in the data declaration are the bounds. For a type with a single constructor, the constructor is applied to the bounds for the constituent types. For example, the following datatype: data Pair a b = Pair a b deriving Bounded
would generate the following Bounded instance: instance (Bounded a,Bounded b) => Bounded (Pair a b) where minBound = Pair minBound minBound maxBound = Pair maxBound maxBound
10.4 Derived instances of Read and Show
The class methods automatically introduced by derived instances of Read and Show are showsPrec, readsPrec, showList, and readList. They are used to coerce values into strings and parse strings into values.
144
CHAPTER 10. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES
The function showsPrec d x r accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 11), a value x, and a string r. It returns a string representing x concatenated to r. showsPrec satisﬁes the law: showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s) The representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the toplevel constructor in x is less than d. Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression (recall that function application has precedence 10). The extra parameter r is essential if treelike structures are to be printed in linear time rather than time quadratic in the size of the tree. The function readsPrec d s accepts a precedence level d (a number from 0 to 10) and a string s, and attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty. Parsing of an unparenthesised inﬁx operator application succeeds only if the precedence of the operator is greater than or equal to d. It should be the case that (x,"") is an element of (readsPrec d (showsPrec d x "")) That is, readsPrec should be able to parse the string produced by showsPrec, and should deliver the value that showsPrec started with. showList and readList allow lists of objects to be represented using nonstandard denotations. This is especially useful for strings (lists of Char). readsPrec will parse any valid representation of the standard types apart from strings, for which only quoted strings are accepted, and other lists, for which only the bracketed form [. . . ] is accepted. See Chapter 8 for full details. The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the ﬁxity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names deﬁned in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor ﬁelds are used, braces, commas, ﬁeld names, and equal signs are also used. Parentheses are only added where needed, ignoring associativity. No line breaks are added. The result of show is readable by read if all component types are readable. (This is true for all instances deﬁned in the Prelude but may not be true for userdeﬁned instances.) Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey: If the constructor is deﬁned to be an inﬁx operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only inﬁx applications of the constructor (not the preﬁx form).
Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be. For example, given
10.5. AN EXAMPLE
infixr 4 :$ data T = Int :$ T then: – show (1 :$ 2 :$ NT) produces the string "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)". – read "1 :$ (2 :$ NT)" succeeds, with the obvious result. – read "1 :$ 2 :$ NT" fails.
145

NT
If the constructor is deﬁned using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the recordsyntax form, and furthermore, the ﬁelds must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.
The derived Read and Show instances may be unsuitable for some uses. Some problems include: Circular structures cannot be printed or read by these instances. The printer loses shared substructure; the printed representation of an object may be much larger than necessary. The parsing techniques used by the reader are very inefﬁcient; reading a large structure may be quite slow. There is no user control over the printing of types deﬁned in the Prelude. For example, there is no way to change the formatting of ﬂoating point numbers.
10.5 An Example
As a complete example, consider a tree datatype: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a deriving (Eq, Ord, Read, Show) Automatic derivation of instance declarations for Bounded and Enum are not possible, as Tree is not an enumeration or singleconstructor datatype. The complete instance declarations for Tree are shown in Figure 10.1, Note the implicit use of default class method deﬁnitions—for example, only <= is deﬁned for Ord, with the other class methods (<, >, >=, max, and min) being deﬁned by the defaults given in the class declaration shown in Figure 6.1 (page 83).
w)  (u.Application has precedence one more than .w) <.lex r. .s) <.readsPrec (up_prec+1) r. (":ˆ:".1: Example of Derived Instances .readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r > up_prec) showStr u .lex s.Note: rightassociativity instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where readsPrec d r = readParen (d > up_prec) (\r > [(u:ˆ:v. SPECIFICATION OF DERIVED INSTANCES infixr 5 :ˆ: data Tree a = Leaf a  Tree a :ˆ: Tree a instance (Eq a) => Eq (Tree a) where Leaf m == Leaf n = m==n u:ˆ:v == x:ˆ:y = u==x && v==y _ == _ = False instance (Ord a) => Ord (Tree a) where Leaf m <= Leaf n = m<=n Leaf m <= x:ˆ:y = True u:ˆ:v <= Leaf n = False u:ˆ:v <= x:ˆ:y = u<x  u==x && v<=y instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) showStr where showStr = showString "Leaf " .the most tightlybinding operator Figure 10.t) <.readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r up_prec = 5 app_prec = 10 . v of :ˆ: ignored ++ readParen (d > app_prec) (\r > [(Leaf m. (m.Precedence of :ˆ: .s) <.146 CHAPTER 10.t) <. (v.t)  ("Leaf". showsPrec (app_prec+1) m showsPrec d (u :ˆ: v) = showParen (d where showStr = showsPrec (up_prec+1) showString " :ˆ: " showsPrec (up_prec+1) .
2 Specialization © Specialization is used to avoid inefﬁciencies involved in dispatching overloaded functions. but the pragma should be ignored if an implementation is not prepared to handle it. An implementation is not required to respect any pragma. 11. but which do not form part of the Haskell language proper and do not change a program’s semantics. . Lexically. This may be prevented by the NOINLINE pragma. which are used to give additional instructions or hints to the compiler. except that the enclosing syntax is {# #}. 11. in 147 8 8 ¥¥8 ¡ {# SPECIALIZE . pragmas appear as comments. Compilers will often automatically inline simple expressions. #} ¢ ¡ © S¤ ¡ {# INLINE {# NOINLINE ¢ ¡ %§ ¥ §¥ © ¤ ¢ 6 6 6 6 7¥ ¦ 7 ¥ ¦ ¡ 7 ¥ ¦ #} #} © .1 Inlining ¢ ¤ © © The INLINE pragma instructs the compiler to inline the speciﬁed variables at their use sites. This chapter summarizes this existing practice. For example.Chapter 11 Compiler Pragmas Some compiler implementations support compiler pragmas.
factorial :: Integer > Integer #} calls to factorial in which the compiler can detect that the parameter is either Int or Integer will use specialized versions of factorial which do not involve overloaded numeric operations. COMPILER PRAGMAS factorial :: Num a => a > a factorial 0 = 0 factorial n = n * factorial (n1) {# SPECIALIZE factorial :: Int > Int. .148 CHAPTER 11.
Part II The Haskell 98 Libraries 149 .
.
numerator.Integral instance (Integral a) => Ratio a = .. Ratio Integer (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a (Integral a) => Ratio a > a (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational Eq (Ratio a) where .... Real (Ratio a) where . The type name Rational is a synonym for Ratio Integer. denominator.. Real.. a) => Read (Ratio a) where . Num (Ratio a) where .. Enum.Chapter 12 Rational Numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. Ord....... RealFrac.. and Show.. Rational. the instance for Ratio simply “lifts” the corresponding operations over . Num. Show (Ratio a) where . (%). In each case. RealFrac (Ratio a) where . If is a bounded type. The functions numerator and denominator extract the components of a ratio. the results may be unpredictable. For each Integral type . these are in reduced form with a positive denominator.. 151 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Ord (Ratio a) where .. Fractional. Fractional (Ratio a) where . Ratio is an abstract type. reducing the fraction to terms with no common factor and such that the denominator is positive. Enum (Ratio a) where . for example Ratio Int may give rise to integer overﬂow even for rational numbers of small absolute size.. 12 % 8 is reduced to 3/2 and 12 % (8) is reduced to (3)/2. there is a type Ratio of rational pairs with components of type . approxRational ) where infixl 7 % data (Integral a) => type Rational = (%) :: numerator. For example.. Ratio is an instance of classes Eq.. denominator :: approxRational :: instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Integral a) => instance (Read a. The operator (%) forms the ratio of two integral numbers. Read.
RATIONAL NUMBERS The approxRational function. Note that it can be proved that any real interval contains a unique simplest rational.152 CHAPTER 12. A rational number in reduced form is said to be simpler than another if and . 1 ¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ 1 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¡¦ . returns the simplest rational number within the open interval x epsilon x epsilon . applied to two real fractional numbers x and epsilon.
Rational. denominator.1..12. LIBRARY RATIO 153 12. (%).Standard functions on rational numbers module Ratio ( Ratio. numerator. 12 ‘reduce‘ 8 == 12 ‘reduce‘ (8) == = = = = = 3 :% 2 3 :% (2) reduce _ 0 reduce x y x % y numerator (x :% _) denominator (_ :% y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) <= (x’:%y’) (x:%y) < (x’:%y’) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) + (x’:%y’) (x:%y) * (x’:%y’) negate (x:%y) abs (x:%y) signum (x:%y) fromInteger x instance (Integral a) toRational (x:%y) instance (Integral a) (x:%y) / (x’:%y’) recip (x:%y) fromRational (x:%y) error "Ratio. denominator approxRational  :: (Integral a) => a > a > Ratio a :: (Integral a) => Ratio a > a :: (RealFrac a) => a > a > Rational "reduce" is a subsidiary function used only in this module. approxRational ) where infixl 7 % ratPrec = 7 :: Int data type (Integral a) Rational => Ratio a = !a :% !a = Ratio Integer deriving (Eq) (%) numerator.1 Library Ratio . E.g. It normalises a ratio by dividing both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor.% : zero denominator" (x ‘quot‘ d) :% (y ‘quot‘ d) where d = gcd x y reduce (x * signum y) (abs y) x y => Ord (Ratio a) where = x * y’ <= x’ * y = x * y’ < x’ * y => = = = = = = Num (Ratio a) where reduce (x*y’ + x’*y) (y*y’) reduce (x * x’) (y * y’) (x) :% y abs x :% y signum x :% 1 fromInteger x :% 1 => Real (Ratio a) where = toInteger x :% toInteger y => = = = Fractional (Ratio a) where (x*y’) % (y*x’) y % x fromInteger x :% fromInteger y .
readsPrec (ratPrec+1) t ]) instance (Integral a) showsPrec p (x:%y) => Show (Ratio a) where = showParen (p > ratPrec) (showsPrec (ratPrec+1) x .s) <.readsPrec (ratPrec+1) r. truncate numericEnumFrom numericEnumFromThen numericEnumFromTo numericEnumFromThenTo May overflow These numericEnumXXX functions are as defined in Prelude.hs but not exported from it! instance (Read a.r’) = quotRem n’ d’ (n’’:%d’’) = simplest’ d’ r’ d r . RATIONAL NUMBERS instance (Integral a) => RealFrac (Ratio a) where properFraction (x:%y) = (fromIntegral q.r) = quotRem n d (q’. ("%". showString " % " .154 CHAPTER 12.u) <.u)  (x. Integral a) => Read (Ratio a) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > ratPrec) (\r > [(x%y.assumes 0 < n%d < n’%d’ = q :% 1 = (q+1) :% 1 = (q*n’’+d’’) :% n’’ where (q. r:%y) where (q. showsPrec (ratPrec+1) y) approxRational x eps = simplest (xeps) (x+eps) where simplest x y  y < x = simplest y x  x == y = xr  x > 0 = simplest’ n d n’ d’  y < 0 = .t) <.simplest’ (n’) d’ (n) d  otherwise = 0 :% 1 where xr@(n:%d) = toRational x (n’:%d’) = toRational y simplest’ n    d n’ d’ r == 0 q /= q’ otherwise .r) = quotRem x y instance (Integral a) succ x = pred x = toEnum = fromEnum = enumFrom = enumFromThen = enumFromTo = enumFromThenTo = => Enum (Ratio a) where x+1 x1 fromIntegral fromInteger .lex s. (y.
conjugate.. A complex number may also be formed from polar components of magnitude and phase by the function mkPolar. cis is a complex value with magnitude and phase (modulo ). magnitude. cis. .. . phase instance instance instance instance instance instance (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex (Complex Complex numbers are an algebraic type. the entire number is . The function cis produces a complex number from an angle .. . . phase ) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a :: :: :: :: :: :: a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat Eq Read Show Num Fractional Floating a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => Complex a > a Complex a > Complex a a > a > Complex a a > Complex a Complex a > (a. phase) pair in canonical form: The magnitude is nonnegative. if the magnitude is zero. The constructor (:+) forms a complex number from its real and imaginary rectangular components. in the range . 155 § ¨ § ¡¤ § .a) Complex a > a a) a) a) a) a) a) where where where where where where . imagPart conjugate mkPolar cis polar magnitude. The function polar takes a complex number and returns a (magnitude..Chapter 13 Complex Numbers module Complex ( Complex((:+))... and the phase.. imagPart. This constructor is strict: if either the real part or the imaginary part of the number is .. polar... . then so is the phase. (RealFloat a) realPart... realPart. Put another way. mkPolar.
k phase :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a phase (0 :+ 0) = 0 phase (x :+ y) = atan2 y x . polar.Read. phase z) magnitude :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a magnitude (x:+y) = scaleFloat k (sqrt ((scaleFloat mk x)ˆ2 + (scaleFloat mk y)ˆ2)) where k = max (exponent x) (exponent y) mk = . whereas signum has the phase of . but oriented in the positive real direction. abs is a number with the magnitude of .156 CHAPTER 13. but unit magnitude.1 Library Complex module Complex(Complex((:+)). cis. phase) where infix data 6 :+ => Complex a = !a :+ !a deriving (Eq. imagPart :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > a realPart (x:+y) = x imagPart (x:+y) = y conjugate :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > Complex a conjugate (x:+y) = x :+ (y) mkPolar mkPolar r theta cis cis theta polar polar z :: (RealFloat a) => a > a > Complex a = r * cos theta :+ r * sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => a > Complex a = cos theta :+ sin theta :: (RealFloat a) => Complex a > (a. The magnitude and sign of a complex number are deﬁned as follows: abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) = = = magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z That is. COMPLEX NUMBERS The functions realPart and imagPart extract the rectangular components of a complex number and the functions magnitude and phase extract the polar components of a complex number. mkPolar.a) = (magnitude z. conjugate. The function conjugate computes the conjugate of a complex number in the usual way. imagPart. realPart.Show) (RealFloat a) realPart. 13. magnitude.
max (exponent x’) (exponent y’) d = x’*x’’ + y’*y’’ fromRational a = fromRational a :+ 0 .13.(x’:+y’) (x:+y) * (x’:+y’) negate (x:+y) abs z signum 0 signum z@(x:+y) fromInteger n => = = = = = = = = Num (Complex a) where (x+x’) :+ (y+y’) (xx’) :+ (yy’) (x*x’y*y’) :+ (x*y’+y*x’) negate x :+ negate y magnitude z :+ 0 0 x/r :+ y/r where r = magnitude z fromInteger n :+ 0 157 instance (RealFloat a) => Fractional (Complex a) where (x:+y) / (x’:+y’) = (x*x’’+y*y’’) / d :+ (y*x’’x*y’’) / d where x’’ = scaleFloat k x’ y’’ = scaleFloat k y’ k = .1. LIBRARY COMPLEX instance (RealFloat a) (x:+y) + (x’:+y’) (x:+y) .
158 CHAPTER 13.v’) v’ = abs y / (u’*2) u’ = sqrt ((magnitude z + abs x) / 2) sin x * cosh y :+ cos x * sinh y cos x * cosh y :+ (. COMPLEX NUMBERS instance (RealFloat a) => Floating (Complex a) where pi = pi :+ 0 exp (x:+y) = expx * cos y :+ expx * sin y where expx = exp x log z = log (magnitude z) :+ phase z sqrt 0 sqrt z@(x:+y) = = 0 u :+ (if y < 0 then v else v) where (u.sin x * sinh y) (sinx*coshy:+cosx*sinhy)/(cosx*coshy:+(sinx*sinhy)) where sinx = sin x cosx = cos x sinhy = sinh y coshy = cosh y cos y * sinh x :+ sin y * cosh x cos y * cosh x :+ sin y * sinh x (cosy*sinhx:+siny*coshx)/(cosy*coshx:+siny*sinhx) where siny = sin y cosy = cos y sinhx = sinh x coshx = cosh x y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((y):+x) + sqrt (1 .z*z) y’:+(x’) where (x’:+y’) = log (((1y):+x) / sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + sqrt (1+z*z)) log (z + (z+1) * sqrt ((z1)/(z+1))) log ((1+z) / sqrt (1z*z)) sin (x:+y) cos (x:+y) tan (x:+y) = = = sinh (x:+y) cosh (x:+y) tanh (x:+y) = = = asin z@(x:+y) acos z@(x:+y) = = atan z@(x:+y) asinh z acosh z atanh z = = = = .z*z)) y’’:+(x’’) where (x’’:+y’’) = log (z + ((y’):+x’)) (x’:+y’) = sqrt (1 .u’) else (u’.v) = if x < 0 then (v’.
readOct. readDec.Chapter 14 Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. showEFloat. floatToDigits. showFloat. readSigned. showFFloat. showSigned. Int) :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a :: ReadS String 159 . readFloat. lexDigits) where fromRat showSigned showIntAtBase showInt showOct showHex readSigned readInt readDec readOct readHex showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat floatToDigits readFloat lexDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a :: :: :: :: :: (Real a) Integral Integral Integral Integral => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS a => a > ShowS :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: (Integral a) => ReadS a :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. readInt. showInt. showGFloat. showHex. readHex. showOct. showIntAtBase.
floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int].g. NUMERIC This library contains assorted numeric functions. 2. showFFloat. many of which are used in the standard Prelude. showOct.1 Showing functions showSigned :: (Real a) => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS converts a possiblynegative Real value of type a to a string.g. – showEFloat uses scientiﬁc (exponential) notation (e. 0. In the call showSigned .1 and 9.String)] 14. and the character representation speciﬁed by the second. 245000. £ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¦ 7 3¢ ¦ 7 3¢ 7 3¢ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ £ 2 ¤ ¥ © ¡ © § ¦ ¡ £ ¦ 2 ¥ © © § ¦ ¡ ) . showGFloat :: (RealFloat a) => Maybe Int > a > ShowS These three functions all show signed RealFloat values: – showFFloat uses standard decimal notation (e. if is Just . is the value to show. the value is shown to full preciIn the call showEFloat sion. showEFloat. and scientiﬁc notation otherwise. then at most digits after the decimal point are shown. recall the following type deﬁnitions from the Prelude: type ShowS = String > String type ReadS = String > [(a. 8. Exactly the same applies to the argument of the other two functions. – showGFloat uses standard decimal notation for arguments whose absolute value lies between 0.999. More speciﬁcally. 1. plus an exponent. is the precedence of the enclosing context.45e2. if is Nothing. In what follows. and 16 respectively. showInt. showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a > (Int > Char) > a > ShowS shows a nonnegative Integral number using the base speciﬁed by the ﬁrst argument. showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS show nonnegative Integral numbers in base 10.0015). and is a function that can show unsigned values. .160 CHAPTER 14. Int) converts a base and a value to the representation of the value in digits.999.5e3). if © § then the following properties hold: £ £ ¤ – ¤ £ ¡ ¤ – (when ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨£ – £ 888 ¤ £ ¢ £8 ¤ – ¥ ) £888 ¤ £ ¢ £ floatToDigits ([ ].
Array.4 Library Numeric module Numeric(fromRat. in decimal. given a reader for an unsigned value. and hexadecimal notation respectively. both upper or lower case letters are allowed. READING FUNCTIONS 161 14. showEFloat. lexDigits :: ReadS String reads a nonempty string of decimal digits. readInt. readFloat. showGFloat. The inconsistent naming is a historical accident. showInt. readFloat :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a reads an unsigned RealFrac value. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a each read an unsigned number. numerator. readSigned. showIntAtBase. readOct.3 Miscellaneous fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a converts a Rational value into any type in class RealFloat. is a predicate distinguishing valid digits in this base. showFFloat. intToDigit ) (%). showOct. readDec. ( ( isDigit. In the hexadecimal case. octal. showHex. showSigned.14. floatToDigits. and readDec is the “dual” of showInt. In the call readInt . readHex. isHexDigit digitToInt. denominator ) (!).) 14. readOct. is the base. showFloat.2. expressed in decimal scientiﬁc notation. readDec. 14. array ) ¦ ©§ ¢© ¢ ' § ¤ ¦ § ¦ ©§ § ¤ ¦ ¢© ¢ ' . readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char>Bool) > (Char>Int) > ReadS a reads an unsigned Integral value in an arbitrary base. lexDigits) where import Char import Ratio import Array ( .2 Reading functions readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a reads a signed Real value. isOctDigit. § (NB: readInt is the “dual” of showIntAtBase. and converts a valid digit character to an Int.
Handle exceptional cases . This should be used in the .Scale x until xMin <= x < xMax. p) else if x >= xMax then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p+1) (x/b) else if x < xMin then scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax (p1) (x*b) else (x. fromRat’ :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat’ x = r where b = floatRadix r p = floatDigits r (minExp0.fromRat’ (x) else fromRat’ x .the real minimum exponent xMin = toRational (expt b (p1)) xMax = toRational (expt b p) p0 = (integerLogBase b (numerator x) integerLogBase b (denominator x) . .it lies in the range of the mantissa (as used by decodeFloat/encodeFloat). scaleRat :: Rational > Int > Rational > Rational > Int > Rational > (Rational.This converts a rational to a floating. _) = floatRange r minExp = minExp0 .that we got from the scaling. or p (the exponent) <= minExp. .Scale the rational number by the RealFloat base until . p’) = scaleRat (toRational b) minExp xMin xMax p0 (x / f) r = encodeFloat (round x’) p’ . .Conversion process: . minExpt = 0::Int maxExpt = 1100::Int expt :: Integer > Int > Integer expt base n = if base == 2 && n >= minExpt && n <= maxExpt then expts!n else baseˆn .To speed up the scaling process we compute the log2 of the number to get .p) ‘max‘ minExp f = if p0 < 0 then 1 % expt b (p0) else expt b p0 % 1 (x’. NUMERIC .p .a first guess of the exponent.first.162 CHAPTER 14. fromRat :: (RealFloat a) => Rational > a fromRat x = if x == 0 then encodeFloat 0 0 else if x < 0 then .Fractional instances of Float and Double.Then round the rational to an Integer and encode it with the exponent .Exponentiation with a cache for the most common numbers. p) . Int) scaleRat b minExp xMin xMax p x = if p <= minExp then (x.
showInt. showOct. showPos (x))  otherwise = showPos x . integerLogBase :: Integer > Integer > Int integerLogBase b i = if i < b then 0 else . ."") <<<< lex r. showOct. LIBRARY NUMERIC expts :: Array Int Integer expts = array (minExpt.s) (n.2ˆn)  n <.d) = quotRem n base rest’ = intToDig (fromIntegral d) : rest readSigned :: (Real a) => ReadS a > ReadS a readSigned readPos = readParen False read’ where read’ r = read’’ r ++ [(x.Simplest way would be just divide i by b until it’s smaller then b.but that would be very slow! We are just slightly more clever. .14.maxExpt) [(n.showIntAtBase: can’t show negative numbers"  n’ == 0 = rest’  otherwise = showIntAtBase base intToDig n’ rest’ where (n’. let l = 2 * integerLogBase (b*b) i doDiv :: Integer > Int > Int doDiv i l = if i < b then l else doDiv (i ‘div‘ b) (l+1) in doDiv (i ‘div‘ (bˆl)) l . readPos str] .t) read’’ r = [(n.Misc utilities to show integers and floats showSigned :: Real a => (a > ShowS) > Int > a > ShowS showSigned showPos p x  x < 0 = showParen (p > 6) (showChar ’’ .Compute the (floor of the) log of i in base b.s)  (str.t)  ("".number to show > ShowS showIntAtBase base intToDig n rest  n < 0 = error "Numeric..digit to char > a .[minExpt .Try squaring the base first to cut down the number of divisions. maxExpt]] 163 . showHex :: Integral a => a > ShowS showOct = showIntAtBase 8 intToDigit showInt = showIntAtBase 10 intToDigit showHex = showIntAtBase 16 intToDigit showIntAtBase :: Integral a => a . read’’ s] lex r.base > (Int > Char) . showHex are used for positive numbers only showInt.s) (x.4.
.These are the format types. NUMERIC .nonnull isDig s ] . data FFFormat = FFExponent  FFFixed  FFGeneric .Leading minus signs must be handled elsewhere.Unsigned readers for various bases readDec.r) <. readOct. digToInt) ds). readInt :: (Integral a) => a > (Char > Bool) > (Char > Int) > ReadS a readInt radix isDig digToInt s = [(foldl1 (\n d > n * radix + d) (map (fromIntegral . . r)  (ds. readHex :: (Integral a) => ReadS a readDec = readInt 10 isDigit digitToInt readOct = readInt 8 isOctDigit digitToInt readHex = readInt 16 isHexDigit digitToInt showEFloat showFFloat showGFloat showFloat :: :: :: :: (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat (RealFloat showString showString showString showGFloat a) a) a) a) => => => => Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS Maybe Int > a > ShowS a > ShowS showEFloat d x = showFFloat d x = showGFloat d x = showFloat = (formatRealFloat FFExponent d x) (formatRealFloat FFFixed d x) (formatRealFloat FFGeneric d x) Nothing This type is not exported.164 CHAPTER 14.readInt reads a string of digits using an arbitrary base.
is’) = roundTo base (dec’+1) is d:ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then init is’ else is’) in d:’. LIBRARY NUMERIC 165 formatRealFloat :: (RealFloat a) => FFFormat > Maybe Int > a > String formatRealFloat fmt decs x = s where base = 10 s = if isNaN x then "NaN" else if isInfinite x then if x < 0 then "Infinity" else "Infinity" else if x < 0  isNegativeZero x then ’’ : doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) (x)) else doFmt fmt (floatToDigits (toInteger base) x) doFmt fmt (is.’ : ds ++ ’e’:show (e1) Just dec > let dec’ = max dec 1 in case is of [] > ’0’:’.4.14. e) = let ds = map intToDigit is in case fmt of FFGeneric > doFmt (if e < 0  e > 7 then FFExponent else FFFixed) (is. e) FFExponent > case decs of Nothing > case ds of [] > "0.Always prints a decimal point  e > 0 > take e (ds ++ repeat ’0’) .’:ds ++ "e" ++ show (e1+ei) FFFixed > case decs of Nothing .0e0" [d] > d : ".0e" ++ show (e1) d:ds > d : ’.’:take dec’ (repeat ’0’) ++ "e0" _ > let (ei.
The version here uses a much slower logarithm estimator. Int) .ab. not .’ : mk0 (drop e ds)  otherwise > "0. It should be improved.. is’) = roundTo base (dec’ + e) is (ls. In general.166 CHAPTER 14. b. . NUMERIC ++ ’. is’) = roundTo base dec’ (replicate (e) 0 ++ is) d : ds = map intToDigit (if ei > 0 then is’ else 0:is’) in d : mkdot0 ds where mk0 "" = "0" . .Print 0. not 34. ds) = f (d1) is i’ = c + i in if i’ == base then (1.’ : s . is) > (1." ++ mk0 (replicate (e) ’0’ ++ ds) Just dec > .This function returns a nonempty list of digits (Ints in [0. in PLDI 96. 1 : is) where b2 = base ‘div‘ 2 f n [] = (0. z].base1]) .when the format specifies no .34 mk0 s = s mkdot0 "" = "" mkdot0 s = ’.z * baseˆe floatToDigits :: (RealFloat a) => Integer > a > ([Int]. Dybvig. i’:ds) Based on "Printing FloatingPoint Numbers Quickly and Accurately" by R. []) f d (i:is) = let (c.34. if floatToDigits r = ([a. 0:ds) else (0. is) (1.G. . K. replicate n 0) f 0 (i:_) = (if i >= b2 then 1 else 0. is) > (0.and an exponent.then r = 0.Print decimal point iff dec > 0 let dec’ = max dec 0 in if e >= 0 then let (ei.Print 34.. rs) = splitAt (e+ei) (map intToDigit is’) in mk0 ls ++ mkdot0 rs else let (ei. e) ..digits after the decimal point roundTo :: Int > Int > [Int] > (Int. [Int]) roundTo base d is = case f d is of (0.. Burger and R.
the following will err on the low side.1 + e0) * 3 ‘div‘ 10 else ceiling ((log (fromInteger (f+1)) + fromIntegral e * log (fromInteger b)) / log (fromInteger base)) fixup n = if n >= 0 then if r + mUp <= expt base n * s then n else fixup (n+1) else if expt base (n) * (r + mUp) <= s then n .Haskell requires that f be adjusted so denormalized numbers . be. e) = let n = minExp . bˆ(e+1)*2. . b) else (f*be*2.Haskell promises that p1 <= logBase b f < p. Ignoring .4. _) = floatRange x p = floatDigits x b = floatRadix x minExp = minExp0 . b. 2. 1) else (f*2. mUp. 2*b. (p . be*b. 1) k = let k0 = if b==2 && base==10 then .14. mDn) = if e >= 0 then let be = bˆe in if f == bˆ(p1) then (f*be*b*2.the fraction will make it err even more. 0) floatToDigits base x = let (f0. s. f :: Integer e :: Int (f. e0+n) else (f0. e0) (r.logBase 10 2 is slightly bigger than 3/10 so .the real minimum exponent .p 167 . Adjust for this. be) else if e > minExp && f == bˆ(p1) then (f*b*2. bˆ(e)*2. 1. LIBRARY NUMERIC floatToDigits _ 0 = ([]. e0) = decodeFloat x (minExp0.e0 in if n > 0 then (f0 ‘div‘ (bˆn).will have an impossibly low exponent.
readFix r.[span p s]] .lexFrac d ] lexFrac (’. rn’ + mUpN’ > sN) of (True.’:ds) = lexDigits ds lexFrac s = [("". True) > dn+1 : ds (True. True) > if rn’ * 2 < sN then dn : ds else dn+1 : ds (False. (k. The ‘.lexDigits r.s)] readExp (e:s)  e ‘elem‘ "eE" = readExp’ s readExp s = [(0. rn’) = (rn * base) ‘divMod‘ sN mUpN’ = mUpN * base mDnN’ = mDnN * base in case (rn’ < mDnN’.’ is optional. readFloat readFloat r :: (RealFrac a) => ReadS a = [(fromRational ((n%1)*10ˆˆ(kd)). t)  (ds. k) in .t)  (cs@(_:_).t) <.t) <. False) > dn : ds (False.t)  (k.d. t)  ("Infinity". NUMERIC else fixup (n+1) in fixup k0 gen ds rn sN mUpN mDnN = let (dn.168 CHAPTER 14. length ds’.s)] readExp’ (’’:s) = [(k.lex r] where readFix r = [(read (ds++ds’).readExp s] ++ [ (0/0.readDec s] readExp’ (’+’:s) = readDec s readExp’ s = readDec s lexDigits lexDigits nonnull nonnull p s :: ReadS String = nonnull isDigit :: (Char > Bool) > ReadS String = [(cs.This floating point reader uses a less restrictive syntax for floating . False) > gen (dn:ds) rn’ sN mUpN’ mDnN’ rds = if k >= 0 then gen [] r (s * expt base k) mUp mDn else let bk = expt base (k) in gen [] (r * bk) s (mUp * bk) (mDn * bk) (map fromIntegral (reverse rds).t) <.t) <.s) <.d) <. t)  ("NaN".t) <.t) <.point than the Haskell lexer.lex r] ++ [ (1/0. (ds’.t)  (n.
.Chapter 15 Indexing Operations module Ix ( Ix(range.a) > (a.a) > (a.b) where where where where . An implementation is entitled to assume the following laws about these operations: range (l.. where . The Ix class contains the methods range. . inRange..a) > [a] a > Int a > Bool Int Char Int Integer (a.u)) == [0... .. The range operation enumerates all subscripts.. It is used primarily for array indexing (see Chapter 16).. which deﬁnes the lower and upper bounds of the range.u) map index (range (l. the inRange operation tells whether a particular subscript lies in the range deﬁned by a bounding pair. instance instance instance instance (Ix a.u) !! index (l.u)] 169 . index..et cetera instance instance Ix Ix Ix => Ix Ix Bool Ix Ordering where . index.rangeSize (l. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => range index inRange rangeSize Ix :: :: :: :: a where (a.when i is in range inRange (l. and a subscript.. The index operation maps a bounding pair. Ix b) . The Ix class is used to map a contiguous subrange of values in a type onto integers. to an integer. and inRange.u) i == i ‘elem‘ range (l.u) i == i ...a) > (a...
1. whose constituent types are instances of Ix. For example.Blue] 1 False . INDEXING OPERATIONS 15. the derived instance declarations are as shown for tuples in Figure 15.Blue) index (Yellow.e.3. A Haskell implementation must provide Ix instances for tuples up to at least size 15. For an enumeration. This is the same numbering deﬁned by the Enum class. £ ¥ ¤ == == == [Yellow.1 Deriving Instances of Ix It is possible to derive an instance of Ix automatically.3). datatypes having only nullary constructors) and singleconstructor datatypes.170 CHAPTER 15.Blue) Green inRange (Yellow. using a deriving clause on a data declaration (Section 4. the nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered lefttoright with the indices being to inclusive. Such derived instance declarations for the class Ix are only possible for enumerations (i. given the datatype: data Colour = Red  Orange  Yellow  Green  Blue  Indigo  Violet we would have: range (Yellow.Green.Blue) Red For singleconstructor datatypes.
....1...u) i && inRange (l’.ik) = inRange (l1.u) i * rangeSize (l’.uk)) (i1.. index (l1.u2.(u.b) where range ((l.uk)) = [(i1.uk1) * ( . i’ <. .uk) * ( index (lk1..i2.u’) i’ inRange ((l....i’)  i <.i’) = inRange (l.. && inRange (lk.(u1.u1).u2.range (lk.(u...i2...Instances for other tuples are obtained from this scheme: ...instance (Ix a1.u1))) inRange ((l1. ik <.ik)  i1 <.l2..lk).i2..l’). Ix b) => Ix (a..u’)) = [(i..u2.range (l1.u’)] index ((l..l2..u’) + index (l’. i2 <.l’)...range (l’.u’) i’ .ak) where range ((l1.u2).uk)) (i1.u’)) (i...u).l2.lk)...l’).(u1.range (l2.u1) i1 && inRange (l2. Ix ak) => Ix (a1.(u...ik) = index (lk.(u1..i’) = index (l. DERIVING INSTANCES OF IX 171 instance (Ix a..15..uk)] index ((l1.uk1) ik1 + rangeSize (lk1...lk). .u’)) (i..range (l. Ix a2...a2......uk) ik + rangeSize (lk.1: Derivation of Ix instances .u2) i2 && . ...uk) ik Figure 15.
but the range is nevertheless empty range ((1.n) = [m. index. rangeSize) ) where class Ord a => Ix a where range :: (a.n) i = m <= i && i <= n instance instance instance instance (Ix a.a) > a > Bool rangeSize :: (a.172 CHAPTER 15.. b) .fails if the bounds are tuples.n) index b@(m.2).fromEnum c  otherwise = error "Ix.n) i  inRange b i  otherwise inRange (m. INDEXING OPERATIONS 15." inRange (c.m error "Ix..index: Index out of range. For example.as derived Ix Ordering .Ix b) => Ix (a. for all tuples Ix Bool .c’) i = c <= i && i <= c’ instance Ix Int where range (m.n) i = [m.h)  null (range b) = 0  otherwise = index b h + 1 .a) > a > Int inRange :: (a. (1.(2.1) .a) > Int rangeSize b@(l.n) i  inRange b i = fromInteger (i .n] index b@(m.as derived ." inRange (m.as derived.index: Index out of range.index: Index out of range.c’) ci  inRange b ci = fromEnum ci .n) = [m.as derived Ix () .n] = = = i .m)  otherwise = error "Ix.1)) = [] instance Ix Char where range (m.2) <= (2.NB: replacing "null (range b)" by "not (l <= h)" .2 Library Ix module Ix ( Ix(range.n] index b@(c.a) > [a] index :: (a.." m <= i && i <= n instance Ix Integer where range (m. inRange.
(!). Ix b) => (a.a) > [(a. Show b) Read a. accumArray. Read b) => => => => Functor (Array a) Eq (Array a b) Ord (Array a b) Show (Array a b) Read (Array a b) where where where where where .. ixmap ) where import Ix infixl 9 data !.b)] > Array a b (a..Abstract (Ix a) array listArray (!) bounds indices elems assocs accumArray (//) accum ixmap instance instance instance instance instance (a. indices.. (//). elems.a) > [(a.a) Array a b > [a] Array a b > [b] Array a b > [(a... a.c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a. a.a) > [b] > Array a b Array a b > a > b Array a b > (a.b)] (b > c > b) > b > (a. a. .. (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a.export all of Ix for convenience Array. array.b)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c Eq b) Ord b) Show a. listArray.Chapter 16 Arrays module Array ( module Ix.. bounds.. assocs.. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix (Ix a) a) a) a) a) a) a) a) => => => => => => => => .c)] > Array a b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a. . accum. // => Array a b = .. 173 .. . . ..
An array may be created by the function array. 16. ). . in any dimension. then the array is legal. Thus.1 Array Construction If a is an index type and b is any type. The ﬁrst argument of array is a pair of bounds. return lists of the indices. this The second argument of array is a list of associations of the form ( list will be expressed as a comprehension.1). relaxes the restriction that a given index may appear at most once in the association list. using an accumulating function which combines the values of associations with the same index. Since most array functions involve the class Ix.1 Accumulated Arrays Another array creation function. Because the indices must be checked for these errors. not as general functions. which may be thought of as functions whose domains are isomorphic to contiguous subsets of the integers. and a oneorigin 10 by 10 matrix has bounds ((1.10). in index order. The array is undeﬁned (i. when applied to an array. and assocs. accumArray.(10.1 shows some examples that use the array constructor. Typically. recurrences such as the following are possible: a = array (1. but bounds still yields the bounds with which the array was constructed.. elems. If any two associations in the list have the same index.1. a programmer may reasonably expect rapid access to the components. 16.e.174 CHAPTER 16. arrays are treated as data. The ﬁrst argument of accumArray is the accumulating £ £ ¤¢ £ ¡ £ £ ¥ . ). The (!) operator denotes array subscripting. the lower bound is greater than the upper bound. The bounds function applied to an array returns its bounds. in that order.100) ((1.[2. respectively. in particular. ARRAYS Haskell provides indexable arrays. To ensure the possibility of such an implementation. ).e. Functions restricted in this way can be implemented efﬁciently. elements. this module is exported from Array so that modules need not import both Array and Ix. Indexing an empty array always gives an arraybounds error. a oneorigin vector of length 10 has bounds (1. but empty. The functions indices. x) deﬁnes the value of the array at index i to be x.100]]) Not every index within the bounds of the array need appear in the association list. the value at that index is undeﬁned (i. each of the index type of the array. If. An association (i. For example. the type of arrays with indices in a and elements in b is written Array a b. ) if any index in the list is out of bounds. An array may be constructed from a pair of bounds and a list of values in index order using the function listArray. but nonstrict in the values. These bounds are the lowest and highest indices in the array.10)). i * a!(i1))  i <. array is strict in the bounds argument and in the indices of the association list.e. or associations.1) : [(i. Figure 16. but the values associated with indices that do not appear will be undeﬁned (i.
Thus. hist produces a histogram of the number of occurrences of each index within a speciﬁed range: hist :: (Ix a.2 Incremental Array Updates The operator (//) takes an array and a list of pairs and returns an array identical to the left argument except that it has been updated by the associations in the right argument. i)  i <.The inner product of two vectors inner :: (Ix a. 16.n]] is the same matrix. the remaining two arguments are a bounds pair and an association list. given a list of values of some index type.1: Array examples function.[1. the indices in the association list must be unique for the updated elements to be deﬁned.range b] where b = bounds a .a) > [a] > Array a b hist bnds is = accumArray (+) 0 bnds [(i.16. the second is an initial value. a!i * x)  i <.range b]) 0 0 .Scaling an array scale :: (Num a. accumulated arrays should not in general be recursive.. accum takes an array and an association list and accumulates pairs from the list into the array with the accumulating function . 1)  i<is. Thus accumArray can be deﬁned using accum: accumArray f z b = accum f (array b [(i. as for the array function. except with the diagonal zeroed.Inverting an array that holds a permutation of its indices invPerm :: (Ix a) => Array a a > Array a a invPerm a = array b [(a!i. inRange bnds i] If the accumulating function is strict. n by n matrix. Num b) => Array a b > Array a b > b inner v w = if b == bounds w then sum [v!i * w!i  i <. Ix scale x a = array b where b of numbers by a given number: b) => a > Array b a > Array b a [(i. then accumArray is strict in the values. (As with the array function. z)  i <. 0)  i <.i). unlike ordinary arrays. if m is a 1origin. in the association list.2.range b] else error "inconformable arrays for inner product" where b = bounds v Figure 16. then m//[((i. Num b) => (a.range b] = bounds a 175 .) For example. as well as the indices. For example. INCREMENTAL ARRAY UPDATES .
Diagonal of a matrix (assumed to be square) diag :: (Ix a) => Array (a. listArray.(u. (//).y)>x) Figure 16. accum.A rectangular subarray subArray :: (Ix a) => (a.(_. The fmap function transforms the array values while ixmap allows for transformations on array indices._)) = bounds x .l’). array. indices. ARRAYS .2 shows some examples. ixmap ) where import Ix import List( (\\) ) infixl 9 !. 16.export all of Ix Array.2: Derived array examples 16.b) c > Array b c row i x = ixmap (l’. // data (Ix a) => Array a b = MkArray (a.i)) x where ((l.Projection of first components of an array of pairs firstArray :: (Ix a) => Array a (b.4 Library Array module Array ( module Ix. accumArray.a) b > Array a b diag x = ixmap (l.176 CHAPTER 16.3 Derived Arrays The two functions fmap and ixmap derive new arrays from existing ones. Figure 16.a) (a > b) deriving () .j)) x where ((_.c) > Array a b firstArray = fmap (\(x.u) (\i>(i.u’) (\j>(i. elems. respectively. Ix b) => a > Array (a.a) > Array a b > Array a b subArray bnds = ixmap bnds (\i>i) .u’)) = bounds x . bounds. they may be thought of as providing function composition on the left and right. ._).A row of a matrix row :: (Ix a. (!). with the mapping that the original array embodies. assocs.
Eq b) => Eq (Array a b) a == a’ = assocs a == assocs a’ where .4.v) <.ivs. i ‘notElem‘ new_is] new_is = [i  (i.ivs] then MkArray b (\j > case [v  (i.v) > a // [(i.a) > [b] > Array a b = array b (zipWith (\ a b > (a.a) > [(a. a!i)  i <.c)] > Array a b = foldl (\a (i.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.a) > [(a.b)] > Array a b array b ivs = if and [inRange b i  (i.z)  i <.b)] > Array a b = array (bounds a) (old_ivs ++ new_ivs) where old_ivs = [(i. f) instance (Ix a.c)] > Array a b = accum f (array b [(i. Ix b) => (a._) <.!: \ \undefined array element" _ > error "Array.!: \ \multiply defined array element") else error "Array.a) = b :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [a] = range .16.range b]) :: (Ix a. bounds :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [b] = [a!i  i <.b)) (range b) vs) :: (Ix a) => Array a b > a > b = f :: (Ix a) => Array a b > (a.b)] = [(i.new_ivs] :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > Array a b > [(a.f (a!i) v)]) :: (Ix a) => (b > c > b) > b > (a.range b] accum accum f accumArray accumArray f z b ixmap ixmap b f a instance (Ix a) => Functor (Array a) where fmap fn (MkArray b f) = MkArray b (fn . i == j] of [v] > v [] > error "Array.a!i)  i <.a) > (a > b) > Array b c > Array a c = array b [(i.indices a. a ! f i)  i <.array: outofrange array association" listArray listArray b vs (!) (!) (MkArray _ f) bounds bounds (MkArray b _) indices indices elems elems a assocs assocs a (//) a // new_ivs :: (Ix a) => (a._) <. LIBRARY ARRAY 177 array :: (Ix a) => (a.indices a] :: (Ix a) => Array a b > [(a.
Ord b) => Ord (Array a b) a <= a’ = assocs a <= assocs a’ where CHAPTER 16. Read a.lex r.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) s. Read b) => Read (Array a b) where readsPrec p = readParen (p > arrPrec) (\r > [ (array b as.readsPrec (arrPrec+1) t ]) .s) <. (b. Show a.u) <. Show b) => Show (Array a b) where showsPrec p a = showParen (p > arrPrec) ( showString "array " . showChar ’ ’ . (as. showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (bounds a) . u)  ("array".Precedence of the ’array’ function is that of application itself arrPrec = 10 . showsPrec (arrPrec+1) (assocs a) ) instance (Ix a. ARRAYS instance (Ix a.t) <.178 instance (Ix a.
179 .
genericReplicate.. sum. unfoldr.[]((:). maximumBy. scanr. span. zipWith3. replicate. zip6. isSuffixOf. length. takeWhile. deleteFirstsBy. union. zipWith7. findIndex. zipWith5. intersect. unzip7. partition. repeat. minimum. break. zip3. mapAccumR. genericSplitAt. concat. nub. cycle. filter. group. scanl1. all. sortBy. last. genericTake. maximum. foldr1.. . any. insertBy. unzip6. (\\). scanl. and. groupBy. (++). intersectBy. unzip3 ) where infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndices find findIndex findIndices nub nubBy delete deleteBy (\\) deleteFirstsBy union unionBy :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq Eq (a (a (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a Eq (a a => a > [a] > Maybe Int a => a > [a] > [Int] > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int > Bool) > [a] > [Int] a => [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] a => a > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a => [a] > [a] > [a] > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] . inits. zip4.180 CHAPTER 17. unzip5. zipWith6. dropWhile. findIndices. tail. insert. words. deleteBy. minimumBy. notElem. zip7. reverse. unzip4. . transpose. lookup. product. nubBy. unwords. elemIndices. zip5. genericLength. iterate. zipWith4. head. delete. []). or. null. foldl1.This is builtin syntax map. unzip. concatMap. intersperse. (!!). mapAccumL. init.. genericIndex. splitAt. drop. isPrefixOf. zip. take. foldr. tails. unlines. zipWith. genericDrop. LIST UTILITIES Chapter 17 List Utilities module List ( elemIndex.and what the Prelude exports . elem. sort. scanr1. lines. unionBy. foldl. find.
b.d.[d].c.[c].[a]) Eq a => [a] > [[a]] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] [a] > [[a]] Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool (a > b > (a.d.[d]) :: [(a.g)] > ([a].f)] > ([a]. c)) > a > [b] > (a.b.[b].[b].[e].[e]) :: [(a.c.b.b.[b]) Integral a => [b] > a > b Integral a => a > b > [b] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c.[b].f.[e].b.181 intersect intersectBy intersperse transpose partition group groupBy inits tails isPrefixOf isSuffixOf mapAccumL mapAccumR unfoldr sort sortBy insert insertBy maximumBy minimumBy genericLength genericTake genericDrop genericSplitAt genericIndex genericReplicate zip4 zip5 zip6 zip7 zipWith4 zipWith5 zipWith6 zipWith7 unzip4 unzip5 unzip6 unzip7 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] a > [a] > [a] [[a]] > [[a]] (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. [c]) (b > Maybe (a.b.[c].f.e.e.c. c)) > a > [b] > (a. .c.e)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a.[c].d.[c].b)) > b > [a] Ord a => [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] Ord a => a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a Integral a => [b] > a Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > [b] Integral a => a > [b] > ([b].[d].g)] :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] :: [(a.[f]) :: [(a.d)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a.b.e)] > ([a].[d].d.b.c.[b].[g]) This library deﬁnes some lesserused operations over lists.e.[f].e.c.c.f)] :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.d. [c]) (a > b > (a.d.d)] > ([a].
the ﬁrst occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. "dog" ‘union‘ "cow" == "dogcw" intersect is list intersection. find returns the ﬁrst element of a list that satisﬁes a predicate. findIndices returns a list of all such indices. nub removes duplicate elements from a list.3.. e.3] = [1. (\\)..182 CHAPTER 17.g. delete. elemIndices val list returns an inorder list of indices. (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys. findIndex returns the corresponding index. LIST UTILITIES 17. For example: nub [1.3. delete ’a’ "banana" == "bnana" (\\) is list difference (nonassociative). [1. if any. Nothing is returned if not (val ‘elem‘ list).g.g. or Nothing.2. provided that their ﬁrst argument contains no duplicates.2 “Set” operations There are a number of “set” operations deﬁned over the List type.6. In the result of xs \\ ys.4] ‘intersect‘ [2.1 Indexing lists elemIndex val list returns the index of the ﬁrst occurrence.8] == [2. nub (meaning “essence”) removes duplicates elements from a list.4] . union and intersect (and their By variants) preserve the invariant that their result does not contain duplicates. Thus. e.3.4..4] delete x removes the ﬁrst occurrence of x from its list argument. e. giving the occurrences of val in list. if there is no such element. 17.3.1. of val in list as Just index. union is list union.4.
"a". tails "abc" == ["abc".3.4]. shortest ﬁrst. unfoldr builds a list from a seed value."ss".2. For example group "Mississippi" == ["M". respectively.[4. mapAccumR is similar to mapAccumL except that the list is processed from righttoleft rather than lefttoright.17."i"."i". e. here speciﬁed in terms of the insertBy function."ab". partition p xs == (filter p xs. "c".g. intersperse ’.b. For example: . 17. which inserts objects into a list according to the speciﬁed ordering relation. group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal... longest ﬁrst.e" transpose transposes the rows and columns of its argument. p) xs) sort implement a stable sorting algorithm."i"] inits returns the list of initial segments of its argument list. insert inserts a new element into an ordered list (arranged in increasing order). inits "abc" == ["". LIST TRANSFORMATIONS 183 17."abc"] tails returns the list of all ﬁnal segments of its argument list.[3..6]] partition takes a predicate and a list and returns a pair of lists: those elements of the argument list that do and do not satisfy the predicate.3]. filter (not ."i"."ss".d. e."pp".""] mapAccumL f s l applies f to an accumulating “state” parameter s and to each element of l in turn.6]] == [[1.4 unfoldr The unfoldr function is a “dual” to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value.c. transpose [[1.5. adjacent elements.[2.5].’ "abcde" == "a.g.e. "bc".3 List transformations intersperse sep inserts sep between the elements of its list argument. i.
minimumBy.184 CHAPTER 17. The library does not provide elemBy. when the “By” function replaces an Ord context by a binary predicate.y) f’ z = Nothing 17. The function: nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne a total ordering. maximumBy. LIST UTILITIES iterate f == unfoldr (\x > Just (x. because any (eq x) does the same job as elemBy eq x would.6 The “By” operations By convention. . isSuffixOf) were not considered important enough to have “By” variants. the function nub could be deﬁned as follows: nub nub [] nub (x:xs) :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] = [] = x : nub (filter (\y > not (x == y)) xs) However. the equality method may not be appropriate in all situations. groupBy. sufﬁx) of the second argument. deleteBy. the predicate is assumed to deﬁne an equivalence. The “By” variants are as follows: nubBy. overloaded functions have a nonoverloaded counterpart whose name is sufﬁxed with “By”. unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f’ (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f’ (f x y) = Just (x. For example. f x)) In some cases. unionBy. intersectBy. When the “By” function replaces an Eq context by a binary predicate. isPrefixOf. deleteFirstsBy (the By variant of \\). insertBy. sortBy. elemIndices.5 Predicates isPrefixOf and isSuffixOf check whether the ﬁrst argument is a preﬁx (resp. A handful of overloaded functions (elemIndex. 17.
7. genericReplicate. and 7 arguments. genericTake. zipWith. and zipWith3. THE “GENERIC” OPERATIONS 185 17. 6. genericDrop. . genericLength is a generalised version of length. For example.8 Further “zip” operations The Prelude provides zip. genericSplitAt. 5. The “generic” operations are as follows: genericLength.17. unzip3.7 The “generic” operations The preﬁx “generic” indicates an overloaded function that is a generalised version of a Prelude function. The List library provides these same three operations for 4. zip3. :: Integral a => [b] > a 17. genericIndex (the generic version of !!). unzip.
scanl. all. isPrefixOf. group. drop. LIST UTILITIES 17. tails. concat. maximumBy. filter p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe Int = listToMaybe . zipWith3. zip7. minimumBy. length. lookup. zipWith6. find. . genericIndex. findIndices p :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [Int] = [ i  (x. partition. lines. (!!).9 Library List module List ( elemIndex. or. zipWith4. and. intersect. dropWhile. inits.]. scanr1. . genericLength.. sort. unzip5. zip6. union. groupBy.and what the Prelude exports . (\\). zip4. insert. intersperse. sum. init. minimum. deleteFirstsBy. foldl. break. unfoldr. any. scanl1. intersectBy. findIndex. foldr1. mapAccumR. cycle. genericDrop. nub. unzip4. last. filter. tail. genericReplicate. product.zip xs [0. foldl1. foldr. insertBy. unzip3 ) where import Maybe( listToMaybe ) infix 5 \\ elemIndex elemIndex x elemIndices elemIndices x find find p findIndex findIndex p findIndices findIndices p xs nub nub :: Eq a => a > [a] > Maybe Int = findIndex (x ==) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [Int] = findIndices (x ==) :: (a > Bool) > [a] > Maybe a = listToMaybe . take.. unwords. span.. null. p x ] :: Eq a => [a] > [a] = nubBy (==) .[]((:). unzip6. concatMap. reverse. genericSplitAt. sortBy. head. splitAt. replicate. unzip7.186 CHAPTER 17. zip3. words. unlines. zipWith5. zip.This is builtin syntax map. mapAccumL. transpose. unionBy. findIndices. takeWhile. deleteBy. iterate. zipWith. isSuffixOf. repeat. nubBy. notElem. zip5. zipWith7.i) <. scanr. maximum. delete. (++). []). unzip. elemIndices. elem.. genericTake.
"ss".xss] is not the same as (map head xss) because the former discards empty sublists inside xss transpose :: [[a]] > [[a]] transpose [] = [] transpose ([] : xss) = transpose xss transpose ((x:xs) : xss) = (x : [h  (h:t) <.4]."i".xss]) partition partition p xs :: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a]. LIBRARY LIST nubBy nubBy eq [] nubBy eq (x:xs) delete delete deleteBy deleteBy eq x [] deleteBy eq x (y:ys) (\\) (\\) deleteFirstsBy deleteFirstsBy eq union union unionBy unionBy eq xs ys intersect intersect intersectBy intersectBy eq xs ys intersperse intersperse sep [] intersperse sep [x] intersperse sep (x:xs) 187 :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] = [] = x : nubBy eq (filter (\y > not (eq x y)) xs) :: Eq a => a > [a] > [a] = deleteBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > a > [a] > [a] = [] = if x ‘eq‘ y then ys else y : deleteBy eq x ys :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip delete) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = foldl (flip (deleteBy eq)) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = unionBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = xs ++ deleteFirstsBy eq (nubBy eq ys) xs :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > [a] = intersectBy (==) :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [a] > [a] = [x  x <.transpose is lazy in both rows and columns.2]. e."pp". adjacent .[5]] .[3.Note that [h  (h:t) <. any (eq x) ys] :: = = = a > [a] > [a] [] [x] x : sep : intersperse sep xs . p) xs) .[2.group splits its list argument into a list of lists of equal. filter (not .g.xs.[]] = [[1.[a]) = (filter p xs."i"] group :: Eq a => [a] > [[a]] group = groupBy (==) ."i"..elements. and works for nonrectangular ’matrices’ .9. .For example. transpose [[1.5].group "Mississippi" == ["M"."ss".4.17.xss]) : transpose (xs : [t  (h:t) <."i".3].
e."ab".e.tails xs returns the . inits "abc" == inits inits [] inits (x:xs) . shortest first. [c]) = (s.188 groupBy groupBy eq [] groupBy eq (x:xs) .zs) = span (eq x) xs list of initial segments of xs."abc"] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = [[]] ++ map (x:) (inits xs) list of all final segments of xs. y:ys) where (s’’. ["abc".. c)) > a > [b] > (a.g.ys) = mapAccumL f s’ xs :: (a > b > (a.b) > a : unfoldr f b :: (Ord a) => [a] > [a] = sortBy compare :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > [a] = foldr (insertBy cmp) [] :: (Ord a) => a > [a] > [a] = insertBy compare mapAccumR mapAccumR f s [] mapAccumR f s (x:xs) unfoldr unfoldr f b sort sort sortBy sortBy cmp insert insert . c)) > a > [b] > (a.""] :: [a] > [[a]] = [[]] = xxs : tails xs :: = = = Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool True False x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys isPrefixOf isPrefixOf [] _ isPrefixOf _ [] isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) isSuffixOf isSuffixOf x y mapAccumL mapAccumL f s [] mapAccumL f s (x:xs) :: Eq a => [a] > [a] > Bool = reverse x ‘isPrefixOf‘ reverse y :: (a > b > (a. longest first. y ) = f s x (s’’.inits xs returns the . []) = (s’’.. ["". tails "abc" == tails tails [] tails xxs@(_:xs) CHAPTER 17.g.b)) > b > [a] = case f b of Nothing > [] Just (a. "bc".y ) = f s’ x (s’. ys) = mapAccumR f s xs :: (b > Maybe (a.y:ys) where (s’. "c". []) = (s’’. LIST UTILITIES :: (a > a > Bool) > [a] > [[a]] = [] = (x:ys) : groupBy eq zs where (ys. [c]) = (s."a".
[]) = = = (x:xs’.minimumBy: empty list" = foldl1 min xs where min x y = case cmp x y of GT > y _ > x :: (Integral a) => [b] > a = 0 = 1 + genericLength xs :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = [] = [] = = x : genericTake (n1) xs error "List.genericSplitAt: negative argument" genericSplitAt (n1) xs .[b]) = ([].maximumBy: empty list" = foldl1 max xs where max x y = case cmp x y of GT > x _ > y :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.xs) = ([].17. LIBRARY LIST insertBy :: (a > a > insertBy cmp x [] = [x] insertBy cmp x ys@(y:ys’) = case cmp x GT > _ > maximumBy maximumBy cmp [] maximumBy cmp xs Ordering) > a > [a] > [a] 189 y of y : insertBy cmp x ys’ x : ys :: (a > a > Ordering) > [a] > a = error "List.9.genericDrop: negative argument" :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > ([b].xs’’) :: (Integral a) => a > [b] > [b] = xs = [] = = genericDrop (n1) xs error "List.xs’’) error "List.genericTake: negative argument" minimumBy minimumBy cmp [] minimumBy cmp xs genericLength genericLength [] genericLength (x:xs) genericTake genericTake _ [] genericTake 0 _ genericTake n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericDrop genericDrop 0 xs genericDrop _ [] genericDrop n (_:xs)  n > 0  otherwise genericSplitAt genericSplitAt 0 xs genericSplitAt _ [] genericSplitAt n (x:xs)  n > 0  otherwise where (xs’.
cs.190 genericIndex genericIndex (x:_) 0 genericIndex (_:xs) n  n > 0  otherwise genericIndex _ _ genericReplicate genericReplicate n x zip4 zip4 zip5 zip5 zip6 zip6 zip7 zip7 CHAPTER 17..b.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [g] > [(a.) zipWith4 :: (a>b>c>d>e) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e] zipWith4 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) = z a b c d : zipWith4 z as bs cs ds zipWith4 _ _ _ _ _ = [] zipWith5 :: (a>b>c>d>e>f) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f] zipWith5 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) = z a b c d e : zipWith5 z as bs cs ds es zipWith5 _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g] zipWith6 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) = z a b c d e f : zipWith6 z as bs cs ds es fs zipWith6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] :: (a>b>c>d>e>f>g>h) > [a]>[b]>[c]>[d]>[e]>[f]>[g]>[h] zipWith7 z (a:as) (b:bs) (c:cs) (d:ds) (e:es) (f:fs) (g:gs) = z a b c d e f g : zipWith7 z as bs cs ds es fs gs zipWith7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = [] unzip4 unzip4 :: [(a.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [f] > [(a... LIST UTILITIES :: (Integral a) => [b] > a > b = x = = = genericIndex xs (n1) error "List.d:ds)) ([].c.g)] = zipWith7 (..d.c..d) ˜(as.[d]) = foldr (\(a.d.ds) > (a:as..[]) zipWith7 zipWith6 .b...genericIndex: negative argument" error "List.d)] > ([a].d.d)] = zipWith4 (.f)] = zipWith6 (.[].b.) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [e] > [(a...b.c:cs.b.e.c.[b].[].bs.b:bs.genericIndex: index too large" :: (Integral a) => a > b > [b] = genericTake n (repeat x) :: [a] > [b] > [c] > [d] > [(a.c..[c].b..c.e)] = zipWith5 (..c..e.f.
es) > (a:as.d:ds.9.[].[].d.f.d.e) ˜(as.[].c.bs.[e].fs.e.[e].d:ds.[c].ds.bs.f:fs.cs.[f].fs) > (a:as.b.b.c.g) ˜(as.[].f) ˜(as.e)] > ([a].g)] > ([a].es.gs) > (a:as.[e]) = foldr (\(a.[].ds.b.[c].d.b:bs.ds.[d].17.[].[]) unzip7 unzip7 .f)] > ([a].cs.cs.c.b:bs. LIBRARY LIST unzip5 unzip5 :: [(a.[].[c].[d].[g]) = foldr (\(a.[]) 191 unzip6 unzip6 :: [(a.c.c:cs.[].e:es.e:es)) ([].[].[b].[].c.e.f.g:gs)) ([].b.[f]) = foldr (\(a.d.d:ds.b.f:fs)) ([].e:es.bs.es.e.[b].[].b.e.[b].c:cs.d.[]) :: [(a.[].b:bs.c:cs.c.[d].d.
LIST UTILITIES .192 CHAPTER 17.
193 . as would happen if error were used.Chapter 18 Maybe Utilities module Maybe( isJust. maybeToList.. Other operations on Maybe are provided as part of the monadic classes in the Prelude. fromJust. and without using IOError from the IO monad. isNothing. which would cause the expression to become monadic. listToMaybe. .. catMaybes. A correct result is encapsulated by wrapping it in Just.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing.. fromMaybe. an incorrect result is returned as Nothing. Just). isNothing fromJust fromMaybe listToMaybe maybeToList catMaybes mapMaybe :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Maybe a > Bool Maybe a > a a > Maybe a > a [a] > Maybe a Maybe a > [a] [Maybe a] > [a] (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] The type constructor Maybe is deﬁned in Prelude as data Maybe a = Nothing  Just a The purpose of the Maybe type is to provide a method of dealing with illegal or optional values without terminating the program. maybe ) where isJust. mapMaybe.
fromJust.. map f .. MAYBE UTILITIES 18. catMaybes. . isNothing. mapMaybe. isJust :: Maybe a > a = a = error "Maybe. fromMaybe.194 CHAPTER 18.1 Library Maybe module Maybe( isJust.and what the Prelude exports Maybe(Nothing. listToMaybe..fromJust: Nothing" :: a > Maybe a > a = d = a :: Maybe a > [a] = [] = [a] :: [a] > Maybe a = Nothing = Just a :: [Maybe a] > [a] = [ m  Just m <.ms ] :: (a > Maybe b) > [a] > [b] = catMaybes . maybeToList. maybe ) where isJust isJust (Just a) isJust Nothing isNothing isNothing fromJust fromJust (Just a) fromJust Nothing fromMaybe fromMaybe d Nothing fromMaybe d (Just a) maybeToList maybeToList Nothing maybeToList (Just a) listToMaybe listToMaybe [] listToMaybe (a:_) catMaybes catMaybes ms mapMaybe mapMaybe f :: Maybe a > Bool = True = False :: Maybe a > Bool = not . Just).
chr. with the next 128 entries comes the remainder of the Latin1 character set. toLower :: Char > Char digitToInt :: Char > Int intToDigit :: Int > Char ord chr :: Char > Int :: Int > Char lexLitChar :: ReadS String readLitChar :: ReadS Char showLitChar :: Char > ShowS This library provides a limited set of operations on the Unicode character set. . isPrint. Unicode characters may be divided into ﬁve general categories: nonprinting. isOctDigit.. any 195 . isAlpha. isControl.Chapter 19 Character Utilities module Char ( isAscii. intToDigit. lower case alphabetic. String ) where isAscii. ord. lexLitChar. isDigit. digitToInt. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool toUpper. readLitChar. isAlphaNum. isOctDigit. For the purposes of Haskell. isHexDigit. toLower. showLitChar. The ﬁrst 128 entries of this character set are identical to the ASCII set. isLatin1.and what the Prelude exports Char. toUpper. isLower. isLatin1. isLower. isUpper. isUpper. isControl. isDigit. the full set of Unicode character attributes is not accessible in this library.. isPrint. other alphabetic. This module offers only a limited view of the full Unicode character set. and other printable characters. isSpace. isSpace. isHexDigit. isAlpha. numeric digits..
returning the sequence of characters that encode the character. here are the predicates which return True: Character Type Lower Case Alphabetic Other Alphabetic Digits Other Printable Nonprinting Predicates isPrint isPrint isPrint isPrint isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlphaNum isAlpha isAlpha isLower isUpper The isDigit.196 CHAPTER 19. "Hello")] Function toUpper converts a letter to the corresponding uppercase letter.. . using Haskell sourcelanguage escape conventions. but in addition converts the to the character that it encodes. The isSpace function recognizes only white characters in the Latin1 range. Numeric digits may be part of identiﬁers but digits outside the ASCII range are not used by the reader to represent numbers. leaving any other character unchanged.’F’). Similarly.. The function lexLitChar does the reverse. CHARACTER UTILITIES alphabetic character which is not lower case is treated as upper case (Unicode actually has three cases: upper. and isHexDigit functions select only ASCII characters.’9’.. For example: showLitChar ’\n’ s lexLitChar "\\nHello" readLitChar "\\nHello" = = = "\\n" ++ s [("\\n".. intToDigit fails unless its argument is in the range 0. The function showLitChar converts a character to a string using only printable characters. Any Unicode letter which has an uppercase equivalent is transformed. isOctDigit.’f’. intToDigit and digitToInt convert between a single digit Char and the corresponding Int. ’0’. "Hello")] [(’\n’. For each sort of Unicode character. ’A’. lower. The ord and chr functions are fromEnum and toEnum restricted to the type Char.e. and title). leaving any other character unchanged. but recognises both upper and lowercase hexadecimal digits (i. ’a’. The function readLitChar does the same. digitToInt operates fails unless its argument satisﬁes isHexDigit. and generates lowercase hexadecimal digits. toLower converts a letter to the corresponding lowercase letter.15.
readHex) import UnicodePrims . isUpper. isPrint.fromEnum ’0’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ = fromEnum c . import Numeric (readDec.and what the Prelude exports Char.Digit conversion operations digitToInt :: Char > Int digitToInt c  isDigit c = fromEnum c . lexDigits. isLatin1. .’z’ isUpper c  isLower c c >= ’0’ && c <= ’9’ c >= ’0’ && c <= ’7’ isDigit c  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’  c >= ’a’ && c <= ’f’ primUnicodeIsAlphaNum .fromEnum ’A’ + 10  otherwise = error "Char. isAlphaNum :: Char > Bool isAscii c isLatin1 c isControl c isPrint = = = = c < ’\x80’ c <= ’\xff’ c < ’ ’  c >= ’\DEL’ && c <= ’\x9f’ primUnicodeIsPrint isSpace c = c ‘elem‘ " \t\n\r\f\v\xA0" .Only Latin1 spaces recognized isUpper isLower isAlpha c isDigit c isOctDigit c isHexDigit c isAlphaNum = = = = = = = primUnicodeIsUpper primUnicodeIsLower . isHexDigit. isLatin1. isOctDigit.’Z’ . isLower. String ) where import Array .fromEnum ’a’ + 10  c >= ’A’ && c <= ’F’ = fromEnum c . toUpper. isHexDigit.’A’.Charactertesting operations isAscii.. isOctDigit. isDigit. ord. chr..Used for character name table. isPrint. isSpace.digitToInt: not a digit" . isUpper. LIBRARY CHAR 197 19.1. isAlpha.. lexLitChar. isAlphaNum. isLower. isControl.1 Library Char module Char ( isAscii. readOct. intToDigit.. isAlpha. readLitChar. showLitChar. isControl. .Source of primitive Unicode functions. isDigit.19. toLower..’a’. isSpace. digitToInt.
readDec s] (’o’:s) = [(chr n.s)] (’f’:s) = [(’\f’. CHARACTER UTILITIES toEnum (fromEnum ’0’ + i) toEnum (fromEnum ’a’ + i .s)] (’b’:s) = [(’\b’.s)] (’v’:s) = [(’\v’.t) <.readHex s] s@(c:_)  isUpper c = let table = (’\DEL’. mne) <.s)] (’r’:s) = [(’\r’. t)  (n.Casechanging operations toUpper :: Char > Char toUpper = primUnicodeToUpper toLower :: Char > Char toLower = primUnicodeToLower . t)  (n.s)] readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc readEsc :: ReadS Char (’a’:s) = [(’\a’.intToDigit: not a digit" . ([].[match mne s]] of (pr:_) > [pr] [] > [] _ = [] :: (Eq a) => [a] > [a] > ([a].s)] (’n’:s) = [(’\n’.s)] (’\\’:s) = [(’\\’.s)] (’"’:s) = [(’"’.198 intToDigit :: Int > Char intToDigit i  i >= 0 && i <= 9 =  i >= 10 && i <= 15 =  otherwise = CHAPTER 19. s)] s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [(chr n.10) error "Char.table.s)] (’\’’:s) = [(’\’’.s’)  (c.ys) readEsc match match (x:xs) (y:ys)  x == y match xs ys .readOct s] (’x’:s) = [(chr n.s’) <.s)] (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [(chr (ord c .s)] (’t’:s) = [(’\t’.t) <.ord ’@’).t) <.[a]) = match xs ys = (xs. "DEL") : assocs asciiTab in case [(c.Character code functions ord :: Char > Int ord = fromEnum chr chr :: Int > Char = toEnum . t)  (n.Text functions readLitChar :: ReadS Char readLitChar (’\\’:s) = readEsc s readLitChar (c:s) = [(c.
"SOH". "DLE". ’ ’) ["NUL". "SUB". "DC4". "LF". "RS". "DC2". "DC3". "SI". "CAN". "CR".1. "FS".s)] lexEsc (’ˆ’:c:s)  c >= ’@’ && c <= ’_’ = [([’ˆ’. lexEsc s@(c:_)  isUpper c = [span isCharName s] lexEsc _ = [] isCharName c = isUpper c  isDigit c prefix c (t. protectEsc isDigit (shows (ord c)) showLitChar ’\DEL’ = showString "\\DEL" showLitChar ’\\’ = showString "\\\\" showLitChar c  c >= ’ ’ = showChar c showLitChar ’\a’ = showString "\\a" showLitChar ’\b’ = showString "\\b" showLitChar ’\f’ = showString "\\f" showLitChar ’\n’ = showString "\\n" showLitChar ’\r’ = showString "\\r" showLitChar ’\t’ = showString "\\t" showLitChar ’\v’ = showString "\\v" showLitChar ’\SO’ = protectEsc (== ’H’) (showString "\\SO") showLitChar c = showString (’\\’ : asciiTab!c) protectEsc p f = f . "VT". "ESC".Very crude approximation to \XYZ. 199 lexLitChar :: ReadS String lexLitChar (’\\’:s) = map (prefix ’\\’) (lexEsc s) where lexEsc (c:s)  c ‘elem‘ "abfnrtv\\\"’" = [([c]. cont where cont cont asciiTab = listArray (’\NUL’. "ENQ".Numeric escapes lexEsc (’o’:s) = [prefix ’o’ (span isOctDigit s)] lexEsc (’x’:s) = [prefix ’x’ (span isHexDigit s)] lexEsc s@(d:_)  isDigit d = [span isDigit s] . "BEL". "ETX". "EM". LIBRARY CHAR showLitChar :: Char > ShowS showLitChar c  c > ’\DEL’ = showChar ’\\’ . "NAK". "BS".19. "FF". "ACK". "ETB". "SYN".s) = (c:t. s) lexLitChar (c:s) lexLitChar "" = = [([c].s)] [] . "HT".s)] . "SP"] s@(c:_)  p c = "\\&" ++ s s = s "EOT". "US". "SO".c]. "GS". "STX". "DC1".
CHARACTER UTILITIES .200 CHAPTER 19.
201 .
liftM. > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m c) > [a] > [b] > > m a) > a > [b] > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] [c]) m [c] m () a :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a :: Monad m => (a > b) > (m a > m b) :: Monad m => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > :: Monad m => (a > b > c > d > e > f) (m a > m b > m c > m d > > m c) m e) > m e > m f) . mapM. MONAD UTILITIES Chapter 20 Monad Utilities module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero... . liftM3.and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). liftM5.c)) > [a] > m ([b]. zipWithM. mapM_. liftM4. return. ) where class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a join guard when unless ap mapAndUnzipM zipWithM zipWithM_ foldM filterM msum liftM liftM2 liftM3 liftM4 liftM5 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Monad m => m (m a) > m a MonadPlus m => Bool > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => Bool > m () > m () Monad m => m (a > b) > m a > m b Monad Monad Monad Monad Monad m m m m m => => => => => (a (a (a (a (a > > > > > m b b b m (b. sequence. msum.202 CHAPTER 20. when. zipWithM_. (=<<). Functor(fmap). join.. fail). mplus). sequence_. ap. filterM. unless. (>>). foldM. guard. mapAndUnzipM. liftM2.
filter :: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a] filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] A postﬁx “_” changes the result type from (m a) to (m ()). So. for example: sum :: Num a => [a] > a msum :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a 20. for example.20. 20. Thus (in the Prelude): sequence :: Monad m => [m a] > m [a] sequence_ :: Monad m => [m a] > m () A preﬁx “m” generalises an existing function to a monadic form. thus: instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys = ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys = xs instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) where .1. NAMING CONVENTIONS 203 The Monad library deﬁnes the MonadPlus class. Thus.2 Class MonadPlus The MonadPlus class is deﬁned as follows: class Monad m => MonadPlus m where mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a The class methods mzero and mplus are the zero and plus of the monad.1 Naming conventions The functions in this library use the following naming conventions: A postﬁx “M” always stands for a function in the Kleisli category: m is added to function results (modulo currying) and nowhere else. Lists and the Maybe type are instances of MonadPlus. and provides some useful operations on monads.
xm ] == do a2 <.1. Note that foldM works from lefttoright over the list arguments..2. . returning the result as a pair of lists.3 Functions The join function is the conventional monad join operator. .. The mapAndUnzipM function maps its ﬁrst argument over a list. The monadic lifting operators promote a function to a monad. This could be an issue where (>>) and the “folded function” are not commutative.readFile nm zipWithM_ (\i line > do putStr (show i). projecting its bound argument into the outer level. listFile :: String > IO () listFile nm = do cts <. preﬁxing each line with its line number. For instance the following function displays a ﬁle.204 CHAPTER 20.f a1 x1 a3 <. MONAD UTILITIES 20. x2.3] liftM2 (+) (Just 1) Nothing = Nothing In many situations. putStrLn line) [1. The function arguments are scanned left to right. This function is mainly used with complicated data structures or a statetransforming monad. The when and unless functions provide conditional execution of monadic expressions. putStr ": ".1] [0.. The zipWithM function generalises zipWith to arbitrary monads. the input list should be reversed. For example. foldM f a1 [x1. For example. f am xm If righttoleft evaluation is required..] (lines cts) The foldM function is analogous to foldl.. which promotes function application.. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure.f a2 x2 . except that its result is encapsulated in a monad. and otherwise do nothing.2] = [0. the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap. when debug (putStr "Debugging\n") will output the string "Debugging\n" if the Boolean value debug is True. liftM2 (+) [0.
.3..20... ‘ap‘ xn is equivalent to liftMn f x1 x2 . FUNCTIONS return f ‘ap‘ x1 ‘ap‘ . xn 205 .
[c]) mapAndUnzipM f xs = sequence (map f xs) >>= return . mapM. liftM5. liftM4. Functor(fmap). ) where . sequence. (=<<).4 Library Monad module Monad ( MonadPlus(mzero. liftM2. return. guard.. filterM. mplus). sequence_. liftM. mapAndUnzipM.The MonadPlus class definition class (Monad m) => MonadPlus m mzero :: m a mplus :: m a > m a > m a . .. (>>). fail). zipWithM. when. MONAD UTILITIES 20. ap. zipWithM_..and what the Prelude exports Monad((>>=). liftM3. foldM. mapM_.Instances of MonadPlus instance MonadPlus Maybe where mzero = Nothing Nothing ‘mplus‘ ys xs ‘mplus‘ ys instance MonadPlus [] mzero = [] mplus = (++) . join.Functions msum msum xs join join x when when p s unless unless p s ap ap guard guard p :: MonadPlus m => [m a] > m a = foldr mplus mzero xs :: (Monad m) => m (m a) > m a = x >>= id :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = if p then s else return () :: (Monad m) => Bool > m () > m () = when (not p) s :: (Monad m) => m (a > b) > m a > m b = liftM2 ($) :: MonadPlus m => Bool > m () = if p then return () else mzero = = ys xs where where mapAndUnzipM :: (Monad m) => (a > m (b. msum. unzip .206 CHAPTER 20. unless.c)) > [a] > m ([b].
c. return (f a’ b’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d) > (m a > m b > m c > m d) = \a b c > do { a’ <.b.d.20. b’ <.c.a. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e > f) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e > m f) = \a b c d e > do { a’ <. b’ <. b’ <.4.d. LIBRARY MONAD 207 zipWithM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m [c] zipWithM f xs ys = sequence (zipWith f xs ys) zipWithM_ :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m c) > [a] > [b] > m () zipWithM_ f xs ys = sequence_ (zipWith f xs ys) foldM :: (Monad m) => (a > b > m a) > a > [b] > m a foldM f a [] = return a foldM f a (x:xs) = f a x >>= \ y > foldM f y xs filterM :: Monad m => (a > m Bool) > [a] > m [a] filterM p [] = return [] filterM p (x:xs) = do { b <. b’ <.a. return (f a’ b’ c’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c > d > e) > (m a > m b > m c > m d > m e) = \a b c d > do { a’ <. return (if b then (x:ys) else ys) } liftM liftM f liftM2 liftM2 f liftM3 liftM3 f liftM4 liftM4 f liftM5 liftM5 f :: (Monad m) => (a > b) > (m a > m b) = \a > do { a’ <.filterM p xs.p x. d’ <. ys <.b.a.b.a.b.a. c’ <. d’ <. c’ <. e’ <. return (f a’ b’ c’ d’ e’) } .c. c’ <.e. return (f a’) } :: (Monad m) => (a > b > c) > (m a > m b > m c) = \a b > do { a’ <.
208 CHAPTER 20. MONAD UTILITIES .
209 .
Enum.210 CHAPTER 21. hIsClosed. isUserError. putChar. FilePath. Read. readIO. bracket. Bounded. hPutStrLn. instance Eq HandlePosn where . hFlush.and what the Prelude exports IO. Read. hSetBuffering. hGetPosn. Read. isFullError. isEOF. ioError. isEOFError.. hIsEOF. hClose.RelativeSeek. bracket_.. BufferMode(NoBuffering. isDoesNotExistError. putStr. ioeGetErrorString. hIsReadable. getContents. print. getChar. stdout. openFile. hReady. Ix. ioeGetHandle. ioeGetFileName. HandlePosn. try. isAlreadyInUseError. hIsWritable. IOMode(ReadMode. hFileSize. hIsSeekable.implementationdependent . readFile. stderr :: Handle openFile hClose :: FilePath > IOMode > IO Handle :: Handle > IO () .ReadWriteMode). data HandlePosn = . stdout.. hPutChar.WriteMode... Bounded. hSetPosn.. hPutStr.SeekFromEnd). INPUT/OUTPUT Chapter 21 Input/Output module IO ( Handle. Ord. instance Show Handle where . hGetContents. Ix.BlockBuffering). hGetLine. isAlreadyExistsError. hPrint. Ord. Enum. putStrLn.. SeekMode(AbsoluteSeek...implementationdependent . Show) AbsoluteSeek  RelativeSeek  SeekFromEnd deriving (Eq. stderr. readLn ) where import Ix(Ix) data Handle = . hGetChar. writeFile. instance Show HandlePosn where data IOMode data BufferMode = =  = . appendFile. catch. getLine. .AppendMode.implementationdependent . hGetBuffering. Ord.implementationdependent data SeekMode ReadMode  WriteMode  AppendMode  ReadWriteMode deriving (Eq. isPermissionError. stdin. interact..LineBuffering. Show) stdin. hLookAhead. userError.. hWaitForInput. hSeek. Show) NoBuffering  LineBuffering BlockBuffering (Maybe Int) deriving (Eq. isIllegalOperation. IOError. instance Eq Handle where .. hIsOpen.
This library contain more advanced I/O features.211 hFileSize hIsEOF isEOF isEOF hSetBuffering hGetBuffering hFlush hGetPosn hSetPosn hSeek hWaitForInput hReady hReady h hGetChar hGetLine hLookAhead hGetContents hPutChar hPutStr hPutStrLn hPrint hIsOpen hIsClosed hIsReadable hIsWritable hIsSeekable isAlreadyExistsError isDoesNotExistError isAlreadyInUseError isFullError isEOFError isIllegalOperation isPermissionError isUserError ioeGetErrorString ioeGetHandle ioeGetFileName try bracket bracket_ :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: = :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Handle > IO Integer Handle > IO Bool IO Bool hIsEOF stdin Handle > BufferMode > IO () Handle > IO BufferMode Handle > IO () Handle > IO HandlePosn HandlePosn > IO () Handle > SeekMode > Integer > IO () Handle > Int > IO Bool Handle > IO Bool hWaitForInput h 0 Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > IO Char Handle > IO String Handle > Char > IO () Handle > String > IO () Handle > String > IO () Show a => Handle > a > IO () Handle Handle Handle Handle Handle > > > > > IO IO IO IO IO Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError IOError > > > > > > > > Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool Bool :: IOError > String :: IOError > Maybe Handle :: IOError > Maybe FilePath :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c The monadic I/O system used in Haskell is described by the Haskell language report. Commonly used I/O functions such as print are part of the standard prelude and need not be explicitly imported. Some related operations on ﬁle systems .
Any computation which returns an IO result may fail with isIllegalOperation. The try function returns an error in a computation explicitly using the Either type. the string is implementationdependent. which is already being used (for example. CHAPTER 21. and Nothing otherwise. All these functions return a Bool. and ioeGetErrorString which returns a string. 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ 4 ¦ ¢ 7 ¦ ¥ . isPermissionError – the operation failed because the user does not have sufﬁcient operating system privilege to perform that operation. Additional errors which could be raised by an implementation are listed after the corresponding operation. For “user” errors (those which are raised using fail). In this case it should return isIllegalOperation. This is an abstract type. and False otherwise. for all other errors. the string returned by ioeGetErrorString is the argument that was passed to fail. Three additional functions are provided to obtain information about an error value. The bracket function captures a common allocate. isEOFError – the operation failed because the end of ﬁle has been reached. isDoesNotExistError – the operation failed because one of its arguments does not exist. isFullError – the operation failed because the device is full. isAlreadyInUseError – the operation failed because one of its arguments is a singleuse resource.212 are contained in the Directory library. compute. This is similar to trycatchﬁnally in Java. isIllegalOperation – the operation is not possible. deallocate idiom in which the deallocation step must occur even in the case of an error during computation. In some cases. isUserError – a programmerdeﬁned error value has been raised using fail.1 I/O Errors Errors of type IOError are used by the I/O monad. which is True if its argument is the corresponding kind of error. ioeGetFileName which returns Just if the error value refers to ﬁle . opening the same ﬁle twice for writing might give this error). These are ioeGetHandle which returns Just if the error value refers to handle and Nothing otherwise. INPUT/OUTPUT 21. an implementation will not be able to distinguish between the possible error causes. the library provides functions to interrogate and construct values in IOError: isAlreadyExistsError – the operation failed because one of its arguments already exists.
The ﬁrst two (stdin and stdout) manage input or output from the Haskell program’s standard input or output channel respectively. Each value of this type is a handle: a record used by the Haskell runtime system to manage I/O with ﬁle system objects. directories may themselves be ﬁle system objects and could be entries in other directories. any nondirectory ﬁle system object is termed a ﬁle.2. though an implementation cannot reuse its storage while references remain to it. ordered ﬁles. File and directory names are values of type String. A handle has at least the following properties: whether it manages input or output or both.2 Files and Handles Haskell interfaces to the external world through an abstract ﬁle system. it should include enough information to identify the handle for debugging. whether it is open. A handle is equal according to == only to itself.1 Standard Handles Three handles are allocated during program initialisation. In some implementations. FILES AND HANDLES 213 21. Haskell deﬁnes operations to read and write characters from and to ﬁles. or enabled on a line or block basis. it is writable if it manages only output or both input and output. A handle is open when ﬁrst allocated. although it could in fact be a communication channel. 21. closed or semiclosed. . A handle is readable if it manages only input or both input and output. Files can be opened. Once it is closed it can no longer be used for either input or output. The third (stderr) manages output to the standard error channel. no attempt is made to compare the internal state of different handles for equality. These handles are initially open. whether buffering is disabled. whose precise meaning is operating system dependent. whether the object is seekable. or any other object recognised by the operating system. Handles are in the Show and Eq classes. For simplicity. Most handles will also have a current I/O position indicating where the next input or output operation will occur. and normally reside on disk. Physical ﬁles are persistent. a buffer (whose length may be zero). represented by values of type Handle. The string produced by showing a handle is system dependent.2. which may be organised in directories (see Directory). likewise. This ﬁle system is a collection of named ﬁle system objects.21. yielding a handle which can then be used to operate on the contents of that ﬁle.
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21.2.2 SemiClosed Handles
The operation hGetContents (Section 21.9.4) puts a handle into an intermediate state, semiclosed. In this state, is effectively closed, but items are read from on demand and accumulated in a special list returned by hGetContents . Any operation that fails because a handle is closed, also fails if a handle is semiclosed. The only exception is hClose. A semiclosed handle becomes closed: if hClose is applied to it;
if an I/O error occurs when reading an item from the handle;
or once the entire contents of the handle has been read.
Once a semiclosed handle becomes closed, the contents of the associated list becomes ﬁxed. The contents of this ﬁnal list is only partially speciﬁed: it will contain at least all the items of the stream that were evaluated prior to the handle becoming closed. Any I/O errors encountered while a handle is semiclosed are simply discarded.
21.2.3 File locking
Implementations should enforce as far as possible, at least locally to the Haskell process, multiplereader singlewriter locking on ﬁles. That is, there may either be many handles on the same ﬁle which manage input, or just one handle on the ﬁle which manages output. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for output, no new handle can be allocated for that ﬁle. If any open or semiclosed handle is managing a ﬁle for input, new handles can only be allocated if they do not manage output. Whether two ﬁles are the same is implementationdependent, but they should normally be the same if they have the same absolute path name and neither has been renamed, for example. Warning: the readFile operation (Section 7.1) holds a semiclosed handle on the ﬁle until the entire contents of the ﬁle have been consumed. It follows that an attempt to write to a ﬁle (using writeFile, for example) that was earlier opened by readFile will usually result in failure with isAlreadyInUseError.
21.3 Opening and Closing Files
21.3.1 Opening Files
Computation openFile allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the ﬁle . It manages input if is ReadMode, output if is WriteMode or AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is ReadWriteMode.
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is If the ﬁle does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new ﬁle. If WriteMode and the ﬁle already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty ﬁles, so there is no guarantee that the ﬁle will exist following an openFile with WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the ﬁle if is AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal I/O position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementationdependent. If openFile fails on a ﬁle opened for output, the ﬁle may still have been created if it did not already exist. Error reporting: the openFile computation may fail with isAlreadyInUseError if the ﬁle is already open and cannot be reopened; isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle does not exist; or isPermissionError if the user does not have permission to open the ﬁle.
21.3.2 Closing Files
makes handle closed. Before the computation ﬁnishes, if is Computation hClose writable its buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush. Performing hClose on a handle that has already been closed has no effect; doing so not an error. All other operations on a closed handle will fail. If hClose fails for any reason, any further operations (apart from hClose) on the handle will still fail as if had been successfully closed.
¥ ¥ ¥
21.4 Determining the Size of a File
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For a handle in 8bit bytes (
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returns the size of that ﬁle
21.5 Detecting the End of Input
For a readable handle , computation hIsEOF returns True if no further input can be taken ; for a handle attached to a physical ﬁle this means that the current I/O position is equal from to the length of the ﬁle. Otherwise, it returns False. The computation isEOF is identical, except that it works only on stdin.
¥ ¥
21.6 Buffering Operations
Three kinds of buffering are supported: linebuffering, blockbuffering or nobuffering. These modes have the following effects. For output, items are written out, or ﬂushed, from the internal buffer according to the buffer mode:
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linebuffering: the entire buffer is ﬂushed whenever a newline is output, the buffer overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed. blockbuffering: the entire buffer is written out whenever it overﬂows, a hFlush is issued, or the handle is closed.
nobuffering: output is written immediately, and never stored in the buffer.
An implementation is free to ﬂush the buffer more frequently, but not less frequently, than speciﬁed above. The buffer is emptied as soon as it has been written out.
¥
Similarly, input occurs according to the buffer mode for handle
linebuffering: when the buffer for is not empty, the next item is obtained from the buffer; otherwise, when the buffer is empty, characters are read into the buffer until the next newline character is encountered or the buffer is full. No characters are available until the newline character is available or the buffer is full.
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blockbuffering: when the buffer for the buffer.
becomes empty, the next block of data is read into
nobuffering: the next input item is read and returned. The hLookAhead operation (Section 21.9.3) implies that even a nobuffered handle may require a onecharacter buffer.
For most implementations, physical ﬁles will normally be blockbuffered and terminals will normally be linebuffered.
¥
If is BlockBuffering , then blockbuffering is enabled if possible. The size of the buffer is items if is Just and is otherwise implementationdependent.
If the buffer mode is changed from BlockBuffering or LineBuffering to NoBuffering, then
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if
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if
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is writable, the buffer is ﬂushed as for hFlush; is not writable, the contents of the buffer is discarded.
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Computation hSetBuffering reads and writes.
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217
Error reporting: the hSetBuffering computation may fail with isPermissionError if the handle has already been used for reading or writing and the implementation does not allow the buffering mode to be changed.
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Computation hGetBuffering
returns the current buffering mode for
The default buffering mode when a handle is opened is implementationdependent and may depend on the ﬁle system object which is attached to that handle.
21.6.1 Flushing Buffers
¥
Computation hFlush to the operating system.
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causes any items buffered for output in handle
to be sent immediately
Error reporting: the hFlush computation may fail with: isFullError if the device is full; isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded. It is unspeciﬁed whether the characters in the buffer are discarded or retained under these circumstances.
21.7 Repositioning Handles
21.7.1 Revisiting an I/O Position
returns the current I/O position of as a value of the abstract type Computation hGetPosn HandlePosn. If a call to hGetPosn returns a position , then computation hSetPosn sets the position of to the position it held at the time of the call to hGetPosn. Error reporting: the hSetPosn computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.7.2 Seeking to a new Position
The offset is given in terms of 8bit bytes. If is block or linebuffered, then seeking to a position which is not in the current buffer will ﬁrst cause any items in the output buffer to be written to the device, and then cause the input buffer
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SeekFromEnd: the position of
is set to offset from the end of the ﬁle.
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is set to offset from the current position.
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Computation hSeek
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to be discarded. Some handles may not be seekable (see hIsSeekable), or only support a subset of the possible positioning operations (for instance, it may only be possible to seek to the end of a tape, or to a positive offset from the beginning or current position). It is not possible to set a negative I/O position, or for a physical ﬁle, an I/O position beyond the current endofﬁle. Error reporting: the hSeek computation may fail with: isPermissionError if a system resource limit would be exceeded.
21.8 Handle Properties
The functions hIsOpen, hIsClosed, hIsReadable, hIsWritable and hIsSeekable return information about the properties of a handle. Each of these returns True if the handle has the speciﬁed property, and False otherwise.
21.9 Text Input and Output
Here we deﬁne a standard set of input operations for reading characters and strings from text ﬁles, using handles. Many of these functions are generalizations of Prelude functions. I/O in the Prelude generally uses stdin and stdout; here, handles are explicitly speciﬁed by the I/O operation.
21.9.1 Checking for Input
Computation hWaitForInput waits until input is available on handle . It returns True as soon as input is available on , or False if no input is available within milliseconds.
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Computation hReady .
indicates whether at least one item is available for input from handle
Error reporting: the hWaitForInput and hReady computations fail with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
21.9.2 Reading Input
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Computation hGetChar
reads a character from the ﬁle or channel managed by
Error reporting: the hGetChar computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. The hGetLine computation fails with isEOFError if the end of ﬁle is encountered when reading the ﬁrst character of the line. If hGetLine encounters endofﬁle at any other point while reading in a line, it is treated as a line terminator and the (partial) line is returned.
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Computation hGetLine reads a line from the ﬁle or channel managed by getLine is a shorthand for hGetLine stdin.
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which is made semiclosed.10 Examples Here are some simple examples to illustrate Haskell I/O.21.9. hPutStr and hPrint computations may fail with: isFullError if the device is full. 21. 21.10. 21. the ﬁle or channel managed by given by the shows function to Error reporting: the hPutChar.3 Reading Ahead ¥ Computation hLookAhead returns the next character from handle from the input buffer.9. ¥ © © ¥ Computation hPutStr ¥ writes the string to the ﬁle or channel managed by § .10. blocking until a character is available.5 Text Output ¥ writes the character to the ﬁle or channel managed by Computation hPutChar acters may be buffered if buffering is enabled for . Computation hPrint writes the string representation of and appends a newline. or isPermissionError if another system resource limit would be exceeded. EXAMPLES 219 21. Error reporting: the hGetContents computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached. 21.4 Reading The Entire Input 7 ¦ Computation hGetContents of the channel or ﬁle managed by ¥ returns the list of characters corresponding to the unread portion .1 Summing Two Numbers This program reads and sums two Integers. Char 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ . 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ ¥ 7 ¦ 7 ¦ ¥ without removing it 7 ¦ § .9. ¥ Error reporting: the hLookAhead computation may fail with: isEOFError if the end of ﬁle has been reached.
f2] <. import IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1. with all lowercase characters translated to uppercase.10.readNum putStr ("Their sum is " ++ show (x1+x2) ++ "\n") where readNum :: IO Integer .Providing a type signature avoids reliance on . Note that exactly two arguments must be supplied to the program.openFile f2 WriteMode copyFile h1 h2 hClose h1 hClose h2 copyFile h1 h2 = do eof <.hIsEOF h1 if eof then return () else do c <. using string I/O is: .openFile f1 ReadMode h2 <.getArgs h1 <.220 import IO CHAPTER 21. This version uses characterlevel I/O. INPUT/OUTPUT main = do hSetBuffering stdout NoBuffering putStr "Enter an integer: " x1 <.hGetChar h1 hPutChar h2 (toUpper c) copyFile h1 h2 An equivalent but much shorter version.2 Copying Files A simple program to create a copy of a ﬁle.the defaulting rule to fix the type of x1.x2 readNum = readLn 21.readNum putStr "Enter another integer: " x2 <. This program will not allow a ﬁle to be copied to itself.
21.11.before rs <.actions that IO exports.export list omitted } where .readFile f1 writeFile f2 (map toUpper s) 221 21. try try f :: IO a > IO (Either IOError a) = catch (do r <.Just provide an implementation of the systemindependent .variant of the above where middle computation doesn’t want x bracket_ :: IO a > (a > IO b) > IO c > IO c bracket_ before after m = do x <.getArgs s <.try m after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .f return (Right r)) (return . Left) bracket :: IO a > (a > IO b) > (a > IO c) > IO c bracket before after m = do x <. LIBRARY IO import System import Char( toUpper ) main = do [f1.11 Library IO module IO {.f2] <.try (m x) after x case rs of Right r > return r Left e > ioError e .before rs <.
INPUT/OUTPUT .222 CHAPTER 21.
223 .
writable... removeFile. searchable ).. doesFileExist.. getCurrentDirectory. createDirectory. getModificationTime ) where import Time ( ClockTime ) data Permissions = Permissions { readable. writable. executable. executable. readable. renameDirectory. ..224 CHAPTER 22. getDirectoryContents.. . . searchable :: Bool } instance instance instance instance Eq Ord Read Show Permissions Permissions Permissions Permissions where where where where . setPermissions. getPermissions. renameFile. doesDirectoryExist. > > > > > IO () IO () IO () FilePath > IO () FilePath > IO () createDirectory removeDirectory removeFile renameDirectory renameFile getDirectoryContents getCurrentDirectory setCurrentDirectory doesFileExist doesDirectoryExist getPermissions setPermissions getModificationTime :: :: :: :: :: FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath FilePath :: FilePath > IO [FilePath] :: IO FilePath :: FilePath > IO () :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Bool :: FilePath > IO Permissions :: FilePath > Permissions > IO () :: FilePath > IO ClockTime .. setCurrentDirectory. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS Chapter 22 Directory Functions module Directory ( Permissions( Permissions. removeDirectory..
or as £ ¦ ¦ ¦ 7 7 7 2 2 £ £ ¦ ¦ £ £ ¦ ¦ £ ¦ . The implementation Computation removeDirectory may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a directory can be removed (for instance. however. A conformant implementation need not support directory removal in all situations (for instance.” or “. the directory has to be empty. it is atomically replaced by the directory. renaming to an existing directory. A conformant implementation need not support renaming directories in all situations (for instance. it may also be possible to have paths which are relative to the current directory. The createDirectory computation may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to create the directory. Any Directory operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. but the constraints must be documented. If the directory already exists. all other permissible errors are described below. considered to form part of the directory contents. Computation renameDirectory changes the name of an existing directory from to . Entries in subdirectories are not. If the object already exists. each of which is a named reference to a ﬁle system object (ﬁle. It is not legal for an implementation to partially remove a directory unless the entire directory is removed. if an implementation does not support an operation it should raise an isIllegalOperation. Error reporting. or isDoesNotExistError if the new directory’s parent does not exist. this library does not distinguish between physical ﬁles and other nondirectory objects. Although there may be ﬁle system objects other than ﬁles and directories. it is atomically replaced by the object. Error reporting. In some operating systems. Some entries may be hidden. where is Computation removeFile not itself a directory. “. Note that. as described in Section 21. Computation renameFile changes the name of an existing ﬁle system object from to .). All such objects should therefore be treated as if they are ﬁles. or may not be in use by other processes). the ﬁle may not be in use by other processes). If the directory is neither the directory nor an alias of the directory. in particular. A directory contains a series of entries.225 These functions operate on directories in the ﬁle system. inaccessible. ¦ ¦ 7 2 £ ¦ ¤§ ¦ ¤§ 7 ¦ 2 ¦ which is initially empty. it is removed as if by removeDirectory. There is normally at least one absolute path to each ﬁle system object. Neither path ¦ ¦ 7 7 2 2 7 7 ¦ 7 2 ¦ 7 ¤§ 2 ¦ ¤§ creates a new directory Computation createDirectory near to empty as the operating system allows.. The removeDirectory and removeFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to remove the ﬁle/directory. or across different physical devices). but all such entries are considered to form part of the directory contents. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. removal of the root directory). Each ﬁle system object is referenced by a path. isAlreadyExistsError if the directory already exists.1. directory etc. removes the directory entry for an existing ﬁle . removes an existing directory . The implementation may specify additional constraints which must be satisﬁed before a ﬁle can be removed (for instance. or have some administrative function (for instance.” under POSIX).
Note that to change some. For directories. A conformant implementation need not support renaming ﬁles in all situations (for instance. The Permissions type is used to record whether certain operations are permissible on a ﬁle/directory. the executable ﬁeld will be False. Error reporting.226 CHAPTER 22. The getDirectoryContents and getCurrentDirectory computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the directory. Note that directories may be searchable without being readable. Error reporting.getPermissions f setPermissions f (p {readable = True}) The operation doesDirectoryExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. If the operating system has a notion of current directories. Each entry in the changes . setCurrentDirectory may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change directory to that speciﬁed. DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS may refer to an existing directory. and False otherwise. respectively. but not all permissions. The getModificationTime operation returns the clock time at which the ﬁle/directory was last modiﬁed. and False otherwise. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. doesFile(Directory)Exist. if permission has been given to use them as part of a path. Error reporting. ¦ ¦ . makeReadable f = do p <. a construct on the following lines must be used. but the constraints must be documented. or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory ¤§ If the operating system has a notion of current directories. and for ﬁles the searchable ﬁeld will be False. and getModificationTime may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to access the appropriate information. The operation doesFileExist returns True if the argument ﬁle exists and is not a directory. or isDoesNotExistError if the directory does not exist. getPermissions and setPermissions get and set these permissions. but not to examine the directory contents. get(set)Permissions. or if either argument to renameFile is a directory. setCurrentDirectory the current directory of the calling process to . The renameDirectory and renameFile computations may fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to rename the ﬁle/directory. not as an absolute path. Error reporting. getCurrentDirectory returns an absolute path to the current directory of the calling process. ¦ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¤§ ¦ ¦ Computation getDirectoryContents returned list is named relative to the directory returns a list of all entries in . Permissions apply both to ﬁles and directories. renaming across different physical devices).
or isDoesNotExistError if the ﬁle/directory does not exist. The setPermissions computation may also fail with: isPermissionError if the user is not permitted to change the permission for the speciﬁed ﬁle or directory.227 does not exist. .
DIRECTORY FUNCTIONS .228 CHAPTER 22.
Computation getEnv returns the value of the environment variable . 229 ¤ ¢ ¦ ¦ 2 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 ¤ ¢ ¦ 2 . getEnv. In particular. as described in Section 21. some values of may be prohibited (for instance. getArgs. exitWith. Any System operation could raise an isIllegalOperation. the isDoesNotExistError exception is raised.1. 0 on a POSIXcompliant system). system. Computation getArgs returns a list of the program’s command line arguments (not including the program name). Read. Ord. Show) getArgs getProgName getEnv system exitWith exitFailure :: :: :: :: :: :: IO [String] IO String String > IO String String > IO ExitCode ExitCode > IO a IO a This library describes the interaction of the program with the operating system. if an implementation does not support an operation it must raise an isIllegalOperation. Note that. getProgName. all other permissible errors are described below. Computation getProgName returns the name of the program as it was invoked. ExitSuccess indicates successful termination. The exact interpretation of is operatingsystem dependent. exitFailure ) where data ExitCode = ExitSuccess  ExitFailure Int deriving (Eq.Chapter 23 System Functions module System ( ExitCode(ExitSuccess. If variable is undeﬁned. in particular. and ExitFailure indicates program failure with value . The ExitCode type deﬁnes the exit codes that a program can return.ExitFailure).
Before the program terminates. exitWith bypasses the error handling in the I/O monad and cannot be intercepted by catch. it is treated identically to the computation ( >> exitWith ExitSuccess) ‘catch‘ \ _ > exitFailure 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¦ 2 ¦ 2 4 Computation system the command . If a program terminates as a result of calling error or because its value is otherwise determined to be . returning to the program’s caller. The caller may interpret the return code as it wishes. Otherwise.230 CHAPTER 23. The value exitFailure is equal to exitWith (ExitFailure where is implementationdependent. but the program should return ExitSuccess to mean normal completion. if any program terminates without calling exitWith explicitly. then it is treated identically to the computation exitFailure. and ExitFailure to mean that the program encountered a problem from which it ). SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ¦ ¦ Computation exitWith terminates the program. could not recover. ¦ returns the exit code produced when the operating system processes 4 7 ¢ § 0 § § S ¢ ¡ ¡ . any open or semiclosed handles are ﬁrst closed.
231 .
ctSec. ctIsDST). Bool data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Show) :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int. tdHour. instance Ord ClockTime where . Bounded. ctYear. Show) data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear.. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. Ord. ctYDay. Int. .April. tdYear. ctDay. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) data ClockTime = . ctHour. tdDay.August.Tuesday. Ix. toCalendarTime. tdMonth. Ord. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.Saturday). Read. ctPicosec. ctTZ. Day(Sunday.November. ctMonth.. ctHour. tdMin. String. Int.. instance Eq ClockTime where .Wednesday. Ix. tdMonth.Thursday.September. Read. diffClockTimes. toClockTime. tdSec. Enum. Month(January. Bounded. tdHour. Read. Ord. Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. toUTCTime. tdSec :: Int. ctMin. July.Friday.Monday. ctWDay.December). getClockTime. Day.October.June. Integer. calendarTimeToString.232 CHAPTER 24.May.. DATES AND TIMES Chapter 24 Dates and Times module Time ( ClockTime. Int. ctMin. tdPicosec). tdMin. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. CalendarTime(CalendarTime. tdDay. Show) .. ctTZName..February. Ord. Enum.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. Month.March. Read. addToClockTime.
including timezone information. used for the system’s internal clock time. The returns difference may be either positive or negative. CalendarTime is a userreadable and manipulable representation of the internal ClockTime type. It follows RFC 1129 in its use of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Function getClockTime returns the current time in its internal representation. Value ctYear maxInt ctDay 1 ctHour 0 ctMin 0 ctSec 0 ctPicosec 0 ctYDay 0 ctTZ 89999 Range maxInt 31 23 59 61 365 89999 £ Comments PreGregorian dates are inaccurate The ﬁeld is the name of the time zone. The TimeDiff type records the difference between two clock times in a userreadable way. The expression addToClockTime adds a time difference and a clock time to yield a new clock time.Functions on times getClockTime :: IO ClockTime addToClockTime diffClockTimes toCalendarTime toUTCTime toClockTime calendarTimeToString formatCalendarTime :: TimeDiff > ClockTime > ClockTime :: ClockTime > ClockTime > TimeDiff :: :: :: :: :: ClockTime > IO CalendarTime ClockTime > CalendarTime CalendarTime > ClockTime CalendarTime > String TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String The Time library provides standard functionality for clock times. The numeric ﬁelds have the following ranges. Function toCalendarTime converts to a local time. The ﬁeld is True if Daylight Savings Time would be in effect. ClockTime is an abstract type. modiﬁed by the timezone and daylight savings time settings in force at the time of conversion. Because of this dependence on the local environment. § § © S§ ¤ § § § t ¢ £ ¦ ¤ § 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 ¤ ¢ ¤ £ 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8¥¥8 8 8 8 ¥¥8 8 8 ¥¥8 Allows for two Leap Seconds 364 in nonLeap years Variation from UTC in seconds § § ¦ 4 ¢ ¦ E ¡ § . toCalendarTime is in the IO monad. and False otherwise. The expression diffClockTimes the difference between two clock times and as a TimeDiff. Clock times may be compared directly or converted to a calendar time CalendarTime for I/O or other manipulations.233 .
ctMonth. tdDay. Show) ¢ £ 4 ¢ E ¡ 7 § § ¢ G § 7 ¢ ( § .February.. Enum. Month(January.Wednesday. ctPicosec. tdYear. tdMonth.234 § CHAPTER 24.March.. instance Ord ClockTime where . and ﬁelds. Ix. toCalendarTime.October. CalendarTime(CalendarTime.defaultTimeLocale) import Char ( intToDigit ) data ClockTime = . Bounded. tdMin.Saturday). Show) data Day = Sunday  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday deriving (Eq. ctHour. Enum.). Ix.. instance Eq ClockTime where . ctYDay. Function calendarTimeToString formats calendar times using local conventions and a formatting string. Bounded.November. DATES AND TIMES Function toUTCTime converts into a CalendarTime in standard UTC format.Implementationdependent data Month = January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December deriving (Eq. tdHour.April. ctDay.September. toClockTime converts into the corresponding internal ClockTime ignoring the contents of the . ctTZ. . Ord.. . calendarTimeToString.1 Library Time module Time ( ClockTime. July.August.. toUTCTime. addToClockTime. ctSec. . diffClockTimes.December). Day(Sunday.May.. ctYear.Monday. ctWDay.Friday.Thursday. ctTZName. t © S§ 24. tdSec.Tuesday. TimeDiff(TimeDiff. Read. Ord. formatCalendarTime ) where import Ix(Ix) import Locale(TimeLocale(. Read. toClockTime.June. getClockTime. tdPicosec).. ctIsDST). ctMin.
. Show) getClockTime getClockTime addToClockTime addToClockTime td ct diffClockTimes diffClockTimes ct1 ct2 toCalendarTime toCalendarTime ct toUTCTime toUTCTime ct toClockTime toClockTime cal calendarTimeToString calendarTimeToString :: IO ClockTime = .. tdSec :: Int. ctSec ctPicosec ctWDay ctYDay ctTZName ctTZ ctIsDST } deriving (Eq. .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > String = formatCalendarTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" . > ClockTime > ClockTime . Int. Bool data TimeDiff = TimeDiff { tdYear. :: ClockTime = . tdMonth. Read. Integer. String.Implementationdependent :: TimeDiff = .Implementationdependent > ClockTime > TimeDiff ... tdMin.Implementationdependent > IO CalendarTime .Implementationdependent :: CalendarTime > ClockTime = . Read. Int. tdDay. tdPicosec :: Integer } deriving (Eq.. Day. :: ClockTime = . ctMin. LIBRARY TIME data CalendarTime = CalendarTime { ctYear ctMonth ctDay. Ord.1. :: ClockTime = . tdHour.Implementationdependent > CalendarTime ...... Show) 235 :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Int... Int. Ord.24. . ctHour. Month.
if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . .Implementationdependent show2 ((yday + 7 .236 CHAPTER 24. days) = (yday + 7 .fromEnum wday) ‘div‘ 7) show (let n = fromEnum wday in if n == 0 then 7 else n) decode ’V’ = let (week.1 else 6) ‘divMod‘ 7 in show2 (if days >= 4 then .. DATES AND TIMES formatCalendarTime :: TimeLocale > String > CalendarTime > String formatCalendarTime l fmt ct@(CalendarTime year mon day hour min sec sdec wday yday tzname _ _) = doFmt fmt where doFmt (’%’:c:cs) = decode c ++ doFmt cs doFmt (c:cs) = c : doFmt cs doFmt "" = "" to12 :: Int > Int to12 h = let h’ = h ‘mod‘ 12 in if h’ == 0 then 12 else h’ decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode decode ’A’ ’a’ ’B’ ’b’ ’h’ ’C’ ’c’ ’D’ ’d’ ’e’ ’H’ ’I’ ’j’ ’k’ ’l’ ’M’ ’m’ ’n’ ’p’ ’R’ ’r’ ’T’ ’t’ ’S’ ’s’ ’U’ ’u’ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = fst (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) snd (wDays l !! fromEnum wday) fst (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) snd (months l !! fromEnum mon) show2 (year ‘quot‘ 100) doFmt (dateTimeFmt l) doFmt "%m/%d/%y" show2 day show2’ day show2 hour show2 (to12 hour) show3 yday show2’ hour show2’ (to12 hour) show2 min show2 (fromEnum mon+1) "\n" (if hour < 12 then fst else snd) (amPm l) doFmt "%H:%M" doFmt (time12Fmt l) doFmt "%H:%M:%S" "\t" show2 sec ..
1 else 6) ‘div‘ 7) decode ’w’ = show (fromEnum wday) decode ’X’ = doFmt (timeFmt l) decode ’x’ = doFmt (dateFmt l) decode ’Y’ = show year decode ’y’ = show2 (year ‘rem‘ 100) decode ’Z’ = tzname decode ’%’ = "%" decode c = [c] show2. LIBRARY TIME week+1 else if week == 0 then 53 else week) decode ’W’ = show2 ((yday + 7 .24. intToDigit x] else show2 x show3 x = intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 100) : show2 (x ‘rem‘ 100) 237 .if fromEnum wday > 0 then fromEnum wday . show3 :: Int > String show2 x = [intToDigit (x ‘quot‘ 10). show2’. intToDigit (x ‘rem‘ 10)] show2’ x = if x < 10 then [ ’ ’.1.
DATES AND TIMES .238 CHAPTER 24.
months :: [(String. Show) defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings The Locale library provides the ability to adapt to local conventions. 239 . dateTimeFmt. String)]. timeFmt. String). dateFmt.). defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String. amPm :: (String. Ord.. String)]. At present. time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq.Chapter 25 Locale module Locale(TimeLocale(. it supports only time and date information as used by calendarTimeToString from the Time library.
240
CHAPTER 25. LOCALE
25.1 Library Locale
module Locale(TimeLocale(..), defaultTimeLocale) where data TimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays :: [(String, String)], months :: [(String, String)], amPm :: (String, String), dateTimeFmt, dateFmt, timeFmt, time12Fmt :: String } deriving (Eq, Ord, Show) full and abbreviated week days full and abbreviated months AM/PM symbols formatting strings
defaultTimeLocale :: TimeLocale defaultTimeLocale = TimeLocale { wDays = [("Sunday", "Sun"), ("Monday", "Mon"), ("Tuesday", "Tue"), ("Wednesday", "Wed"), ("Thursday", "Thu"), ("Friday", "Fri"), ("Saturday", "Sat")], months = [("January", ("March", ("May", ("July", ("September", ("November", "Jan"), "Mar"), "May"), "Jul"), "Sep"), "Nov"), ("February", ("April", ("June", ("August", ("October", ("December", "Feb"), "Apr"), "Jun"), "Aug"), "Oct"), "Dec")],
amPm = ("AM", "PM"), dateTimeFmt = "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y", dateFmt = "%m/%d/%y", timeFmt = "%H:%M:%S", time12Fmt = "%I:%M:%S %p" }
Chapter 26
CPU Time
module CPUTime ( getCPUTime, cpuTimePrecision ) where getCPUTime cpuTimePrecision :: IO Integer :: Integer
Computation getCPUTime returns the number of picoseconds of CPU time used by the current program. The precision of this result is given by cpuTimePrecision. This is the smallest measurable difference in CPU time that the implementation can record, and is given as an integral number of picoseconds.
241
242
CHAPTER 26. CPU TIME
243
244
CHAPTER 27. RANDOM NUMBERS
Chapter 27
Random Numbers
module Random ( RandomGen(next, split, genRange), StdGen, mkStdGen, Random( random, randomR, randoms, randomRs, randomIO, randomRIO ), getStdRandom, getStdGen, setStdGen, newStdGen ) where  The RandomGen class class RandomGen genRange :: g next :: g split :: g g where > (Int, Int) > (Int, g) > (g, g)
 A standard instance of RandomGen data StdGen = ...  Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where ... instance Read StdGen where ... instance Show StdGen where ... mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen  The Random class class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > (a, g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a, g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a, a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a,a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where ... ... ... ... ... ...
 The global random generator newStdGen :: IO StdGen setStdGen :: StdGen > IO () getStdGen :: IO StdGen getStdRandom :: (StdGen > (a, StdGen)) > IO a
Default method genRange g = (minBound. It is required that: The second condition ensures that genRange cannot examine its argument. The library makes it possible to generate repeatable results.maxBound) The genRange operation yields the range of values returned by the generator. by starting with a speciﬁed initial random number generator. That in turn allows an implementation to make a single call to genRange to establish a generator’s range. g) .1 The RandomGen class. The library is split into two layers: A core random number generator provides a supply of bits. ¦ ¡ ¡ . without being concerned that the generator returned by (say) next might have a different range to the generator passed to next.1. or to get different results on each run by using the systeminitialised generator. This is very useful in functional programs (for example. The split operation allows one to obtain two independent random number generators.27. but very little work has been done on statistically robust implementations of split ([1. THE RANDOMGEN CLASS. or by supplying a seed from some other source. then . when passing a random number generator down to recursive calls). 27. . and hence the value it returns can be determined only by the instance of RandomGen. and a new generator.4] are the only examples we know of). and the StdGen generator The class RandomGen provides a common interface to random number generators.Int) next :: g > (Int. The class Random provides a way to extract particular values from a random number generator. For example. g) split :: g > (g. AND THE STDGEN GENERATOR 245 The Random library deals with the common task of pseudorandom number generation. The next operation returns an Int that is uniformly distributed in the range returned by genRange (including both end points). – genRange – If genRange . class RandomGen g where genRange :: g > (Int. the Float instance of Random allows one to generate random values of type Float. The class RandomGen provides a common interface to such generators.
Again. then g1 and g2 should be independent. split returns g itself and a new generator derived from g... It guarantees to consume only a ﬁnite portion of the string. But now consider these two apparentlyindependent generators: g1 = snd (split g) g2 = snd (split (fst (split g))) If split genuinely delivers independent generators (as speciﬁed). The Show/Read instances of StdGen provide a primitive way to save the state of a random number generator. by mapping an Int into a generator.. mkStdGen :: Int > StdGen The StgGen instance of RandomGen has a genRange of at least 30 bits. . Until more is known about implementations of split.3]. the read instance of StdGen has the following properties: It guarantees to succeed on any string. RANDOM NUMBERS The Random library provides one instance of RandomGen.... Different argument strings are likely to result in different results. Implementation warning. variantOf g) Here. A superﬁcially attractive implementation of split is instance RandomGen MyGen where . all we require is that split deliver generators that are (a) not identical and (b) independently robust in the sense just given. . of course. The function mkStdGen provides an alternative way of producing an initial generator. In addition. distinct arguments should be likely to produce distinct generators. read may be used to map an arbitrary string (not necessarily one produced by show) onto a value of type StdGen. The result of repeatedly using next should be at least as statistically robust as the “Minimal Standard Random Number Generator” described by [2. split g = (g.. but in fact they are both equal to variantOf g. Programmers may. the abstract data type StdGen: data StdGen = . instance Read StdGen where . It is required that read (show g) == g.. In general. Implementations of the above form do not meet the speciﬁcation...Abstract instance RandomGen StdGen where . instance Show StdGen where .246 CHAPTER 27. supply their own instances of RandomGen.
The plural versions. .. and do not return a new generator.a) > IO a randomIO :: IO a .. – For bounded types (instances of Bounded... THE RANDOM CLASS 247 27. produce an inﬁnite list of random values. random does the same as randomR. – For fractional types. For continuous types there is no requirement that the values and are ever produced.2. randomRs and randoms. a) > g > (a. . and returns a random value uniformly distributed in the closed interval . randomIO = getStdRandom random randomRIO range = getStdRandom (randomR range) instance instance instance instance instance instance Random Random Random Random Random Random Int Integer Float Double Bool Char where where where where where where .. g) random :: RandomGen g => g > (a. but they may be..27.. . a) > g > [a] randoms :: RandomGen g => g > [a] randomRIO :: (a. but does not take a range.Default methods randoms g = x : randoms g’ where (x. the range is normally the whole type. randomR takes a range and a random number generator .2 The Random class With a source of random number supply in hand. such as Char).. the range is (arbitrarily) the range of Int.. depending on the implementation and the interval.g’) = random g randomRs = . – For Integer.similar.. together with a new generator. ... g) randomRs :: RandomGen g => (a. the range is normally the semiclosed interval ¦ ¨ § ¨¥ 2 7 § ¨¥ £ § ¨¥ 2 7 2 7 § ¨¥ 2 7 .. ... the Random class allows the programmer to extract random values of a variety of types: class Random a where randomR :: RandomGen g => (a. . It is unspeciﬁed what happens if ..
Oct 1988. or Linux’s kernel random number generator. newStdGen applies split to the current global random generator. and KW Miller. It is initialised automatically in some systemdependent fashion. use setStdGen.3 The global random number generator There is a single. for example. Jan 1990. 33(1).6)) References [1] FW Burton and RL Page. 27. randomRIO and randomIO.sbg. July 1998. and updates the global generator with the new generator returned by the function. “Two fast implementations of the minimal standard random number generator”.mat.good ones are hard to ﬁnd”. respectively. pp8289. StdGen)) > IO a getStdGen and setStdGen get and set the global random number generator. rollDice gets a random integer between 1 and 6: rollDice :: IO Int rollDice = getStdRandom (randomR (1. use the global random number generator (see Section 27. To get deterministic behaviour. April 1992. ACM SIGSIM Simulation Digest 28(1). setStdGen getStdGen newStdGen getStdRandom :: :: :: :: StdGen > IO () IO StdGen IO StdGen (StdGen > (a. The Web site http://random. “Distributed random number generation”. [3] DG Carta. Comm ACM. pp11921201. Comm ACM 31(10). pp8788. getStdRandom uses the supplied function to get a value from the current global random generator. [4] P Hellekalek.248 CHAPTER 27. Journal of Functional Programming. held in some global variable maintained by the IO monad. .at/ is a great source of information. [2] SK Park. 2(2):203212. by using the time of day. RANDOM NUMBERS The IO versions. “Don’t trust parallel Monte Carlo”. implicit. “Random number generators . and returns the other.3). For example.ac. updates it with one of the results. global random number generator of type StdGen.
Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR901.M. May 1996. 146:29–60. 249 .0. New Jersey. Principal values and branch cuts in complex APL. Jones. October 1999. Fax´ n A static semantics for Haskell Journal of Functional Programming. NorthHolland Pub. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. San Francisco. A system of constructor classes: overloading and implicit higherorder polymorphism. Addison Wesley.. Reading. Jr. Paris. [11] Unicode Consortium. Co. CACM. [10] S. Yale University. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages. [4] KF.R. Combinatory Logic. Milner. 2000. 21(8):613–641. Amsterdam. MA. [8] Mark P. Damas and R. January 1989. Typing Haskell in Haskell. Englewood Cliffs. The principal type scheme of an object in combinatory logic. [12] P. 1987. 5(1). 1958. How to make ad hoc polymorphism less ad hoc. e [5] J. [3] L. Haskell Workshop. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Peterson. pages 60–76. Backus. [6] P. Version 3. Wadler and S. September 1981. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. Fasel. [7] Mark P. December 1969. Peyton Jones. In APL ’81 Conference Proceedings. PrenticeHall International. Austin. Curry and R. Blott. Hindley. January 1995. [2] H. A gentle introduction to Haskell. Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style? A functional style and its algebra of programs. Albuquerque.B. August 1978. 2002. Penﬁeld. Journal of Functional Programming. Texas. N. Principal type schemes for functional programs. Hudak. J. pages 207–212. pages 248–256. January 1982.. Feys. [9] P. and J. The Unicode Standard.L.Bibliography [1] J. Jones.
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19 function. 12 \v. 139 algebraic datatype. 187 \. 155. 129 any.). 217 abstract datatype. 104. 82. 109 ˆˆ. 12 \f. 177 !!.. 80 :+. 104. 106 //. 90. 67. 92. 84. 90. 30 <. 173. 91. 109 >>=. 55. 55. 66 abs. 105 AbsoluteSeek. 106 acosh. 174. 91. 91. 129 any. 88.). 12 \\. 104. 235 aexp. !. 110 $!. 104. 91. see operator application approxRational. 79. 109 @. 55. 84. 109 ==. 156 ::. see aspattern [] (nil). 142 >=. 91. 55. 142 <=. 233. 88. 104. 110 %. 62 and. 44. 80 (). 110 ˜. 206 apat. 177 acos. 115. 142 >. 55. 115 . 104. 76 accum. 9. 151. 12 \n. 91. 80 \\. see also negation . 88. 55. 55. 142 >>. 230 ˆ.Index font. 20–23. 55. 104. 79. 92. 104. 25. see irrefutable pattern abbreviated module. 175–177 /=. 55. 55. 80 (. 119 alt. 126 AppendMode. 105. 176. 104. 202. 182 \a. 9. 55. 97. 92. 12 \t. 142 :. 153 251 § 7 3¢ §§ ¢ ¦ . 91. 12 \r. 91. 91. 16. 55. 81. 106 +. 186. 104. Code Index entries that refer to nonterminals in the Haskell syntax are shown in an entities are shown in typewriter font. 55. 92. 104. see function application operator. 55. 116 $. see lambda abstraction \&. 109 _. 104. 177 accumArray. 104. 9. 97. Ordinary index entries are shown in a roman font. 51. 90. 55. 129 ap. 180. 104. 97. 45. 81. 141 all. 139 alts. 55. 17. 140 appendFile. 55. see also + pattern ++. 43. 81. 84. 104. 105. 151. 55. 173. 173. 104. 110 (. 142 =<<. 82. 104. 93. 84. 119 ANY. 214 application. 104. 25. 174. 175. 104. 153 &&. 173. 55. 12 \b. 91. 55. see wildcard pattern . 12 . 90. 119 ANYseq.. 106 addToClockTime. 55. 139 ambiguous type. see trivial type and unit expression *. 104. 55. 110 /. 31. 104. 105 **.
234 char. 106 atan2. 110 boolean. 11. 47. 142 Complex (module). 221 bracket_. 9 nested. 69. 39. 79. 173. 79 literal syntax. 136 cntrl. 232. 130 chr. 18. 91. 137 cdecls. 174 Array (module). 9 comment. 37 function. 91. 161. 211. 177 asTypeOf. 210 CalendarTime (datatype). 80 Array (datatype). 197 array. 198 cis. 193. 130 coercion. 18. 140 concat. 91. 93. 67 with an empty where part. 9 endofline. 121. 137 class assertion. 93. 33 ascDigit. 176. 235 case expression. 130 conjugate. 41 class declaration.252 arithmetic operator. see ASCII character set transparent. 9. 177 aspattern (@). 114 atan. 12. 31. 12. 226 Char (datatype). 89. 9. 215 closure. 173 accumulated. 155. 137 basic input/output. 12. 173. 7 ascLarge. 130 ASCII character set. 79 Bounded (class). 74 cname. 38. 95 binding. 47 class. 233. 125. 9. 93 comment. 106 atype. see simple pattern binding body. 98. 129 ascSymbol. 174 derived. 156 conop. 136 Bool (datatype). 221 break. 17. 232. 234 closecom. 21 conid. 137 ceiling. 107 changing the directory. 38. 9. 173. 143 instance for Char. 174. 79. see transparent character set charesc. 195. 66. 129 asin. 84. 197. 9. 47. 105 derived instance. 90 arithmetic sequence. 174. 137 BufferMode (datatype). 47. 129 closing a ﬁle. 48 class environment. 23. 104. 48. 176 array. 156 con. 10. 140 . 41. 92. 49 clock time. 51. 161. 129 ascSmall. 108 atanh. 12 character set ASCII. 195. 110 Char (module). 106 asinh. 130 character. 118 btype. 40. 38. 115 concatMap. 232 ClockTime (datatype). 42 class method. 174. 129 compare. 111 bounds. 38. 91. see pattern binding simple pattern. 92. 25 INDEX catch. 235 calendarTimeToString. 115 conditional expression. see function binding pattern. 156 class. 194 cdecl. 211. 129 ascii. 12. 17. 9. 106 assocs. 155. 155. 40. 230 catMaybes. 177 bracket. 173.
see ﬁxity declaration import. 43. 51 defaultTimeLocale. 186 elems. 180. 92. 59 cos. 112 drop. 43 data declaration. 187 deleteFirstsBy. 41. 225 deleting ﬁles. 182. 90. 224 div. 111 either. 138 constructor class. 97 doDiv. 232. 224 Directory (module). 130 decl. 239. 111 elem. see algebraic datatype declaration. 129 digitToInt. 197 directories. 108 default class method. 106 divMod. 235 current directory. 93. 163 doesDirectoryExist. 91. 81. 241 CPUTime (module). 232. 89. 226 curry. see instance declaration within a class declaration. 234 dclass. 213. 24 within an instance declaration. see recursive datatype renaming. 232. 151. 240 delete. see import declaration instance. 187 deleteBy. 93. 80. 240 Day (datatype). see data declaration default. 235 ctMin. 51. 138 diffClockTimes. 182. see class declaration datatype. 40 consym. 115. 58 derived instance.. 233. see data declaration recursive. 235 ctHour. 49 declaration group. 27. 184. 26. 195. 41 context. 91. 47 within a let expression. 137 declaration. 106 cosine. see also instance declaration deriving. 235 ctIsDST. vii cycle. 10. 55. 173. 9. 141. 184. 224 Double (datatype). 235 digit. 48. 104. 92. see abstract datatype algebraic. 81. 239.INDEX const. 93 CPU time. 106 do expression. 232. Haskell B. 108 . 180. 180. 153 dependency analysis. 117 dashes. 114 Curry. 240 dateTimeFmt. 182. 81. 43 abstract. 241 cpuTimePrecision. 119 elemIndex. 38. 38 constructor expression. 239. 137 context reduction. 118 e. 225 creating a ﬁle. 58 decls. 50. 130 context. 177 encodeFloat. 11. 55. 91. 180. 174. 43. 186 elemIndices. see newtype declaration dateFmt. 138 constrs. 110 constr. 106 cosh. 137 decodeFloat. 38. 56. 138 decimal. see default declaration 253 ﬁxity. 129 data constructor. 43 datatype. 241 createDirectory. 180. 232. 224 doesFileExist. 91. 43. 167 Either (datatype). 9. 118 dropWhile. 43. 92. 187 deleting directories. 37 class. 145 default declaration. 214 ctDay. 224. 225 denominator.
215 entity. 105 enumFromThenTo. 166 ¡ ¢ ¡ . 67. 33 floatRadix. 98 executable. 105 environment class. 170 enumFrom. 108 ﬂoating literal pattern. 213 FilePath (type synonym). 30. 89. 93. 97. 163 f. 16. 136 export list. 106 exponent. 92. 186 ﬁxity. 91. 82. see type environment environment variables. 186 findIndex. 105 enumFromThen. see type expression unit. 49. 110 Float (datatype). 29 ﬁelddecl. 224 execution time. 67. 91. 92. 105 enumFromTo. 229 ExitSuccess. 108 floatRange. 94. 93. 112 ﬂoat. 212 False. 177 instance for Char. 215 ﬁle system. 108 Floating (class). 27 update. 106 instance for Complex. 65 Enum (class). 24–26. 17 error. 139 exp. 28. 81 Eq (class). 16. 51. see case expression conditional. see class environment type. 113 instance for Ratio. 154 superclass of Integral. 180. 38. 202. 139 exp. 44 construction. 207 find. 230 escape. 104 derived instance. 142 instance for Char. see unit expression expression typesignature. see label. 182. 136 v INDEX expression. 104 error. 115 filterM. 15 case. 4. 164 ﬁeld label. 48. 167 fail. 51. 92. 229 ExitFailure. 91. 66 exports. 105 derived instance. 139 FFFormat (datatype). 17. 159. 229 . 186 findIndices. see conditional expression let. see let expression simple case. 139 fexp. 105 superclass of Ord.254 end of ﬁle. 229 exitWith. 81. 109. 108 exception handling. see simple case expression type. 86. 92. 138 ﬁle. 180. 43. 54. 91 export. 18 ﬁxity. 106 enumeration. 229 exitFailure. 89. 54 flip. 30. 21. 180. 125 filter. 162 expts. 92. 52 expt. 108 floatToDigits. 229 EQ. 213 ﬁle buffering. 114. 28 selection. 86. 86. 16. 86. 111 instance for Double. 12 floatDigits. 108 exponentiation. 110 superclass of Num. 4. 12. 137 ﬁxity declaration. 158 superclass of RealFloat. 51. 99. 19. 113 instance for Float. 93. 130 even. 88. 19. 241 ExitCode (datatype). 79 fbind. 86. 89. 142 instance for Array.
244. 188 GT. 23. 139 gdrhs. 215 head. 108 gcon. 202. 49. 81 function binding. 96. 18. 181. 114 function. 189 genericTake. 54. 38. 229 getLine. 140 Fractional (class). 109 fromJust. 56 function type. 181. 18. 34 guard. 106 fst. 189 genericIndex.INDEX floor. 153 superclass of Floating. 224 getProgName. 111 instance for Maybe. 176 foldl. 159. 181. 111 functor. 194 fromRat. 233. 113 instance for Array. 42 generator. vii. 137 guard. 233. 116 foldl1. 206 Handle (datatype). 9. 3 Haskell kernel. 93. 190 genericLength. 25. 181. 92. 129 fpat. 91. 86. 162 fromRational. 183. 193. 138 gap. 31. 210 handles. 129 255 . 181. 12. 18 gd. 219 getArgs. 94. 107 ﬂushing a ﬁle buffer. 55. 235 getContents. 96. 184. 96. 245 get the contents of a ﬁle. 107 fromEnum. 105 fromInteger. 194 fromMaybe. 116 foldM. 248 getStdRandom. 236 formatRealFloat. 210 HandlePosn (datatype). 9. 31. 140 gconsym. 109 instance for []. 91. 229 getChar. 224. 40. 41 functional language. 92. 138 gdpat. 40. 165 formfeed. 81 gtycon. 189 genRange. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 181. 213 Haskell. 11. 4 hClose. 181. 18. 87 funlhs. 18. 244. 137 generalization. 125 getClockTime. 129 group. 210. 105 fromIntegral. 157 instance for Ratio. 25. 189 genericReplicate. 224 getPermissions. 89. 109. 241 getCurrentDirectory. 229 getStdGen. 56. 87. 138 gendecl. 87. 23 genericDrop. 193. 225 getEnv. 125 getModificationTime. 106 instance for Complex. 3 formatCalendarTime. 115 hexadecimal. 190 genericSplitAt. 59 generalization preorder. 92. 177 instance for IO. 140 fpats. 47. vii Functor (class). 90. 217 fmap. 248 graphic. 162 fromRat’. 117 formal semantics. 91. 91. 130 hexit. 56. 207 foldr. 187 groupBy. 181. 244. 130 gcd. 202. 80. 90. 25. 9. 224. 125 getCPUTime. 225 getDirectoryContents. 117 foldr1.
215 hIsOpen. 106 interact. 210 IO (datatype). 218 hIsEOF. 195. 211. 212 isHexDigit. 195. 211. 69. 172 indices. 183. 214. 217 hSetBuffering. 211. 211. 210 input/output examples. 181. 211. 212 ioeGetFileName. 89. 211. 33 integerLogBase. 174. 211. 215 hFlush. 96. 136 impdecls. 214 irrefutable pattern. 137 idecls. 211. 91. 212. 138 instance declaration. 218 hGetContents. 218 hIsReadable. 195. 211. 173. 197 isDigit. 81. 147 INDEX input/output. 195. 181. 169. 155. 98. 189 inst. 49 Int (datatype). 9 ifthenelse expression. 183. 219 hPutStr. 211. 49. 211. 198 IO. 219 inRange. 12 integer literal pattern. 181. 69. 172 insert. 89. 181. 125 IOMode (datatype). 217 hGetChar. 188 inlining. 136 import. 212 isAlreadyInUseError. 195. 183. 218 hSeek. 218 I/O. 211. 211. 66. 211. 58 hIsClosed. 215 isAscii. 210. 71 with an empty where part. 24. 212 isJust. 211. 187 intersperse. 211. 211. 197 isDoesNotExistError. 49. 218 hLookAhead. 181. 195. 195. 69 impspec. 125. 211. 216. 126 intersect. 212 id. 177 init. 81. 70 HindleyMilner type system. 212 ioError. 38. 221 ioeGetErrorString. 217 hWaitForInput. 137 identiﬁer. 212. 111 IO (module). 92. 184. 211. 211 hReady. 136 import declaration. 92. 211. 212 IOError (datatype). 216 hSetPosn. 49. 217 hiding. 212 isFullError. 210 I/O errors. 211. 69. 38. 219 hPrint. 112 Integer (datatype). 33. 211. 171. 219 hPutChar. 219 hPutStrLn. 211. 57 isAlpha. see also derived instance importing and exporting. 136 index. 38. 211. 81. 211. 211. 49. 187 intToDigit. 218 hGetPosn. 50. 211. 217 hGetBuffering. 219 hGetLine. 218 hIsWritable. 156 impdecl. 116 inits. 211. 218 hIsSeekable. 211. 211. 197 isAlphaNum. 188 insertBy. 34. 210. 169. 184. 193. 163 Integral (class). 187 intersectBy. 215 isEOF. 182. 4. 197 isAlreadyExistsError.256 hFileSize. see conditional expression imagPart. 112 integer. 110 idecl. 211. 212 ioeGetHandle. 215 isEOFError. 197 isIllegalOperation. 211. 197 isControl. 194 . 181. 171.
210. 45. 207 v 257 liftM2. 172. 240 locale. 105. 197 isUserError. 45. 219 lookup. 181. 134 Locale (module). 174. 122 lexDigits. 127 maximum. 183. 50. 239. 140 LT. 202. 239 log. 202. 202. 232. 155. 129 last. 89. 111 v § ¢ £ 7¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ 7 . 81 magnitude. 44. 31. 212 iterate. 74 liftM. 195. 139 libraries. 24 in do expressions.INDEX isLatin1. 9. 92 magnitude. 198 max. 181. 7 lexLitChar. 80 list comprehension. 129 lexical structure. 207 liftM3. 31. 207 liftM4. 91. 194 mapM_. 91. 109 Left. 177 listToMaybe. 81 length. 234 ixmap. 195. 80 list type. 39. 176. 180. 189 Maybe (datatype). 206 Just. 142 maxBound. 109 match. 197 isPermissionError. 188 mapAccumR. 65 making directories. 41 listArray. 115 mapAccumL. 31. 170 instance for Char. 211. 12. 193. 9. 91. 88. 56 linearity. 193. 183. 84. 202. 206 mapM. 116 layout. 188 isPrint. 195. 212. 118 List (module). 168 lexeme. 195. 211. 21. 119 . 197 isLower. 181. 188 mapAndUnzipM. 13. 117 Ix (class). 40. 19. 173. 202. 106 lookahead. 225 map. 197 isNothing. 116 let expression. 104. 129 literal pattern. 143 maximal munch rule. 193. 9. 86. 64 kind inference. 194 isOctDigit. 19 large. 50. 202. 171. 9. 19. 181. 159. 169. 40. 27 lambda abstraction. 176. 186 list. 23. 16. 119 maximumBy. 81 kind. 177 join. 65 main. 197 isSpace. 181. 172 instance for Integer. 184. 91 logBase. 199 . 64 label. 173. 202. 215 isPrefixOf. 56 lines. 195. 207 liftM5. 188 isUpper. 32 literate comments. 172 derived instance. 109 mapMaybe. 207 linear pattern. 81. 40. 195. 173. 172 instance for Int. 44. 194 literal. 26 in list comprehensions. 176. 92. 195. 130. 234. 169. 23 lex. 197 isSuffixOf. 156 Main (module). see also offside rule lcm. 106 logarithm. 172 Ix (module). 88.
168 not. 214 opening a ﬁle. 105 negation. 225 mplus. 225 moving ﬁles. 88. 193. 32–34. 89 literal syntax.258 Maybe (module). 95 MonadPlus (class). 61 Month (datatype). 66. 89. 84. 198 Ordering (datatype). 143 minimum. 113 octal. 108 offside rule. 245 nonnull. 136 module. 17. 244. 109 instance for []. 194 maybe. 234 moving directories. 81. 91. 90. 105 ord. 161. 65 module. 19. 54. 9. 129 odd. 197 numeric type. 19 operator application. 61 monomorphism restriction. 187 null. 244. 90 numericEnumFrom. 111 superclass of MonadPlus. 115. 79. 116 Num (class). 46. 142 minBound. 19 ops. 151. 113 numericEnumFromThen. 105. 210. 206 monomorphic type variable. 129 newStdGen. 206 instance for []. 214 operating system commands. 60. 206 mzero. 110 notElem. 105 instance for Complex. 52. see qualiﬁed name special. 136 Monad (class). 180. 202. 51. 46 INDEX next. 157 instance for Ratio. 206 Monad (module). 32. 106 superclass of Real. 195. 181. 206 instance for Maybe. 84. 27. 89. 159. 11. 206 + pattern. 89. 244. 178 instance for Char. 104. 16. 11. 13. 113 numericEnumFromTo. see special name namespaces. 88. 57 name qualiﬁed. 232. 153 Numeric (module). 9. 90. 246 mod. 33. 206 monad. 91. 91. 10. 202. 9. 230 operator. 130 octit. 112 ¢ ¦ . 180. 20 newconstr. 54. 156 mkStdGen. 186 nubBy. 153 superclass of Real. 130. 106 modid. 186. 155. 34. 193. 111 instance for Maybe. 206 msum. 182. 184. 119 Ord (class). 38. 104. 184. 111 instance for Ratio. 81. 248 newtype declaration. see class method min. 66. 202. see also layout op. 113 numericEnumFromThenTo. 91. 104 derived instance. 142 instance for Array. 55. 202. 121. 202. 9. 5. 18. 26. 119 Nothing. 153 superclass of Fractional. 9. 194 method. 105 number. 19. 55. 140 opencom. 129 openFile. 129 negate. 18 numerator. 138 newline. 113 instance for IO. 11 translation of literals. 119 minimumBy. 10 ncomment. 111 maybeToList. 137 or. 81 nub. 189 mkPolar.
18. 155. 153 rational numbers. 130 qtycon. 125 PreludeList (module). 171. 75. 247 randoms. 119 program. 130 Random (class). 11. 18. 103. 244. 30 overloaded constant. 156 physical ﬁle. 96. 172 Ratio (datatype). 244. 156 polling a handle for input. 247 Random (module). 229 program structure. 218 polymorphic recursion. 247 randomRIO. 247 random access ﬁles. 224 phase. 51 partition. 140 qtycls. 140 qvarsym. 140 qconsym. 151 Ratio (module). 34 Permissions (datatype). 245 randomIO. 143 instance for [a]. 38 overloaded pattern. 247 randomR. 55. 18. 103. 90. see also ﬁxity pred. 169. 125 PreludeIO (module). 11. 187 . 11. 106 qvar. 23. 9. 247 range. 140 qconid. 70. 106 quotRem. 129 v 259 program arguments. 91. 103 PreludeBuiltin (module). 229 program name. 171. 11.INDEX otherwise. 151. see irrefutable pattern linear. 72 qualiﬁer. 244. see refutable pattern pattern binding. 115 PreludeText (module). 3 properFraction. 103. 244. 96. 124 instance for Array. 19. 161 Rational (type synonym). 79. see patternmatching overloading. 125 product. 217 RandomGen. 147 precedence. 151 Read (class). see wildcard pattern constructed. 42. 130 qvarop. 31. 125 putStr. 11. 244. 18. 213 pi. 57 patternmatching. 41 quot. 140 path. 93. 121 principal type. 51. 130 qconop. 169. see + pattern refutable. 105 Prelude implicit import of. 18. 125 qcon. 107 putChar. 75 Prelude (module). 178 ¢ ¦ ¢ ¦ § ¢ £¡ . 121 derived instance. 125 putStrLn. 247 randomRs. 140 qvarid. 91. 31. 110 overloaded functions. 47 defaults. 11. 104. see integer literal pattern irrefutable. 30 @. 155. 11. 140 pat. 172 rangeSize. 130 qual. 130 qop. 96. 53 print. 225 pattern. see linear pattern + . 54 polymorphism. 153. 139 qualiﬁed name. 91. 244 random. 244. see constructed pattern ﬂoating. 103. 25. 183. see aspattern _. 106 polar. 103. 151. 181. 96. 23 quantiﬁcation. 85. 43. 4 pragmas. see ﬂoating literal pattern integer. 92.
92. 85. 121. 126 ReadMode. 139 rhs. 224. 116 scanr. 225 setPermissions. 90. 225 renaming ﬁles. 92. 126. 210. 92. 85. 122 readSigned. 155. 164 readParen. 109 setCurrentDirectory. 91. 88. 33 RelativeSeek. 91. 109 recip. 31. 159. 225 removeFile. 130 return. 224. 104. 218 readInt. 217 semantics formal. 117 replicate. 159. 214 readOct. 117 reservedid. 143 instance for [a]. 93. 163 readsPrec. 225 removing ﬁles. 123 instance for Ratio. 224 section. 81 round. 154 read. 122 ReadS (type synonym). 164 readIO. 109 reverse. 121 reads. 244. 121 derived instance. 248 setting the directory. 46 refutable pattern. 85. 121. 117 scontext. 214 separate compilation. 76 seq. 124 instance for Double. 217 seeking a ﬁle. 156 realToFrac. 159. 97. 93. 96. 198 readFile. 162 scanl. 154 superclass of RealFloat. 86. 138 Right. 137 searchable. 108 realPart. 224 setStdGen. 225 renaming directories. 56. 225 repeat. 88. 225 renameFile. 198 readLn. 96. 124 v v § ¡ ¢ £¡ ¢ ¡ ¤ ¤ . see also operator application SeekFromEnd. 85. 126 readList. 55. 92. see formal semantics semiclosed handles. 119 . 214 Real (class). 140 INDEX scaleFloat. 159. 117 scanr1. 224. 123 instance for Float. 168 readHex. 88. 225 renameDirectory. 10. 10. 94. 214 readFloat. 86. 225 removing directories. 123 instance for Int. 85. 16. 159. 224 readDec. 110 sequence. 108 scaleRat. 130 reservedop. 143 readLitChar. 107 roundTo. 10. 89. 122 readable. 195. 51. 106 superclass of RealFrac. 164 readEsc. 164 reading a directory. 105 instance for Ratio. 226 reading from a ﬁle. 91. 217 SeekMode (datatype). 108 RealFrac (class). 116 scanl1. 81. 106 recursive datatype. 107 RealFloat (class). 109 sequence_.260 instance for Char. 20. 143 ReadWriteMode. 226 Show (class). 159. 123 instance for Integer. 224. 106 removeDirectory. 217 rem. 166 . 107 instance for Ratio. 104. 224. 85. 92. 153 superclass of Integral.
106 sine. 164 showFloat. 164 showHex. 45 strictness ﬂags. 92. 143 showLitChar. 85. 121. 12 transparent. 154 superclass of Num. 129 snd. 163 showList. 9. 159. 111 string. 121 shows. 121 show2. 183. 93 sinh. 53 significand. 122 ShowS (type synonym). 106 tangent. 245 splitAt. see also Prelude stderr. 91. 86. 123 instance for Int. 163 showsPrec. 9. 62 simpleclass. 82 String (type synonym). 43. 119 superclass. 181. 94. 130 subtract. 9. 114 sort. 159. 127 System (module). 235 tdHour. 181. 139 strictness ﬂag. 118 tan. 80. 143 showString. 244. 235 tdMin. 122 sign. 91. 159. 122 showSigned. 57. 105 simple pattern binding. 195. see transparent string string. 163 showParen. 106 standard handles. 12. 26. 188 sortBy. 85. 74. 163 showIntAtBase. 123 instance for Ratio. 159. 105 show. 164 showFFloat. 129 span. 105 sum. 199 showOct. 159. 244. 163 showInt. 159. 215 small. 45. 232. 129 split. 106 tdDay. 232. 210. 80. 237 show3. 235 tdPicosec. 213 standard prelude. 26.INDEX instance for Array. 210. 232. 229 tab. 129. 48. 123 instance for HandlePosn. 91. 122 showEFloat. 49 symbol. 9. 213 stmt. 106 size of ﬁle. 181. 91. 79 literal syntax. 115 tails. 85. 93 tanh. 46. 91. 123 instance for Float. 246 stdin. 92 signature. 232. 229 system. 188 space. 130 synonym. 213 stdout. 164 showGFloat. 138 sin. see type synonym syntax. 118 sqrt. 121. 92. 159. 235 tdMonth. 108 succ. 41. 232. 117 takeWhile. 85. 118 special. 210. 108 signum. 183. 124 instance for Double. 91. 139 stmts. see type signature signdecl. 159. 86. 210 instance for Integer. 235 261 . 188 take. 129 tail. 85. 237 showChar. 178 instance for Char. 213 StdGen (datatype). 184. 9. 137 simpletype. 237 show2’. 159.
103. 40 type renaming. 234 time. 114 unwords. 181. 80 tuple type. 51 topdecl (instance). 9. 107 try. 41. 43 topdecl (default). 195. 114 undefined. 130 uncurry. 130 type. 198 toUTCTime. 42 ambiguous. 224. 232 time of day. see tuple type type. 180. 224 Time (module).262 tdYear. see monomorphic type numeric. 40. 206 unlines. 53 for an expression. see also datatype recursive. 41. 129 uniLarge. 180. 239. 129 unless. 4. 38. 232 time12Fmt. 41 tycls. 93. 190 unzip5. 12 UnicodePrims (module). 114 unfoldr. 232. 67. 11. 119 until. 22 uniWhite. 9. 66. 191 userError. 98. see ambiguous type constructed. 38. 17. 45 topdecl. 129 uniSymbol. 137 type class. 240 to12. 120 unzip3. 233. 18. see numeric type principal. 47 topdecl (data). 43 type environment. 136 toRational. 7. 185. 130 varop. 86. see class type constructor. see list type monomorphic. 188 Unicode character set. 11. 130 tycon. 232. 232. 235 terminating a program. 17. 181. 191 unzip6. 230 the ﬁle system. 9. 106 toLower. 136 topdecls. 80. 9. 81 True. 235 transpose. 239. 105 toInteger. 40. 81. 22. 17. 240 TimeDiff (datatype). 181. 92. 129 unit datatype. 93 trivial type. 181. 4 var. 45. 191 unzip7. 42 type expression. 93. 79 truncate. 11. 240 TimeLocale (datatype). see principal type INDEX trivial. 181. 91. 119 unzip. 39. see function type list. 9. see newtype declaration type signature. 120 unzip4. 184. 105 toUpper. 46 tyvar. see expression typesignature type synonym. 49 value. 198 topdecl (class). 235 toClockTime. 183. 181. see trivial type unit expression. 129 union. 187 uniSmall. 125 valdefs. see trivial type tuple. 195. 182. 235 timeFmt. 140 varid. 42. 239. 46 topdecl (type). 49 topdecl (newtype). 38. 236 toCalendarTime. 140 . 202. 233. 18. 49. 221 tuple. see constructed type function. 187 trigonometric function. 235 toEnum. 211. 11. 197 uniDigit. 4. 187 unionBy. 49. 233. 40. 10. 22.
120 zipWith3. 9. 9. 53. 38. 190 zipWith5. 190 zip6. 202. 130 vertab. 120 zip4. 129 whitespace. 181. 190 zip7. 118 writable. 31 words. 185. 207 zipWithM_. 202. 181. 190 zip5. 120 zipWith4. 9. 185. 129 whitestuff. 10. 181. 181. 202. 80. 214 WriteMode. 181. 190 zipWith. 9. 190 zipWith6.INDEX vars. 207 263 . 224 writeFile. 181. 214 zip. 190 zipWith7. 129 when. 97. 137 varsym. 126. 206 whitechar. 181. 129 wildcard pattern (_). 190 zipWithM. 120 zip3. 181.
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