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The identification and later authentication are the need of time for security and development. Automated recognition of individuals is becoming increasingly important. Biometric systems are thus a boon to the world. Biometrics are becoming a necessity for sensitive work processes in the public and private sectors around the globe. Biometrics is the automated recognition o f individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In general it is the science of measuring physical properties of living beings. Before I move on to the core of the topic, the basic terminology of Biometrics should be understood.
A biometric characteristic is biological or behavioural property of an individual that can be measured and from which distinguishing, repeatable biometric features can be extracted for the purpose of automated recognition of individuals. Example: face. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioural characteristics for recognition are required
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which dispose of biometric features which are as unique as possible, i.e., which do not reappear at any other person: Uniqueness which occur in as many people as possible: Universality whose biometric features don't change over time: Permanence which are measurable with simple technical instruments: Measurability which are easy and comfortable to measure: User friendliness
A biometric sample is the analog or digital representation of biometric characteristics prior to the biometric feature extraction process and obtained from a biometric capture device or a biometric capture subsystem. Example: electronic face photograph.
Justice and law enforcement. Internet Banking and Crime analysis. Example: characteristic measures extracted from a face photograph such as eye distance or nose size etc. In Automatic Teller Machines .Biometric features are information extracted from biometric samples which can be used for comparison with a biometric reference. Application of Biometrics Biometrics is being extensively used in the fields Network security and authentication. Biometrics in computer network: Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait. It can be done in conjunction with a smart card.The network can be exploited fully without a security breach. username or ID number. A biometric reference comprises one or more stored biometric samples. A biometric system operates in the following two modes: Verification: A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Computer networks. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. Identification: A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. . biometric templates. or biometric models attributed to a biometric data subject which can be used for comparison. This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e commerce etc .
. But nowadays. The system will verify the signatures over the internet. The user swipes a finger over a biometric sensor for the card to be unlocked . Although both digital signatures and fingerprinting devices have around for several years. the need of secure web-based transactions is constantly increasing passwords and user ID are no longer considered secure enough for transacting business over the network i. with a finger touch on the sensor alone.e. through internet. A system has been developed whereby a card that already has a customer s digital signature is inserted into a smart card reader. Even without any User ID and password. It is used to secure transactions in Automatic T eller Machines (ATM s) thus no longer requiring the person to present the ATM card.Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers. medical information and other personal information. Even when the database of users is extremely large. this is the first time the matching occurs on the actual card instead of sending information to an external device for authenticating. an easy. preventing hackers from getting in and combating identity theft through the emerged biometric application subscription control . secure authentication is done. as more and more business is done online . a fast authentication is done with total privacy maintained as well as control by the users of their accounts. This system control is a one to much authentication system. Biometric in banking: Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking. Biometric web-based authentication protects network integrity.
Special software will pass client authentication requests made using the mouse via a secure internet link to the bank s we server. he can proceed ahead for transactions. which matches an individual's face to the mug shot database. Facial recognition technology uses facial features to compile profiles of individuals and compare them against existing databases. offenders and witnesses. Speech recognition solutions are common in Justice and Law Enforcement due to the advantage they provide identifying audio samples. facilitating the documenting of legal proceedings. The customers will n ot have to show the id card. Access control using multi-modal biometric technology is now also common in courthouses. An instant identification of customers will be done at teller windows. Mug shot recognition technology. Another window based teller technology has emerged which has totally replaced the use of identification cards.An online banking institution will be offering its customers fingerprint verification through a mouse to securely bank over the internet. As the id is authenticated. allowing easy and accurate management of personnel. Biometrics in Justice and law enforcement: In the field of Justice and Law Enforcement applications include Prison administration and bookings. lawyers. and comparing them against known criminal profiles. This system is recently developed that will identify the bank s customers through a high resolution fingerprint recognition system that fits into a regular size mouse. This technology can be used remotely. Biometric technology can also function as access control. Tellers will not match picture identification and signatures. where a c entralized fingerprint template database will be housed. is extremely useful. and can even provide a virtual 'line up' application if witness authentication is needed. crime scene identification and national identity programs. Biometric technology is used in Justice and Law Enforcement because of the enormous capabilities of its automated (as opposed to manual) software. A customer simply walks up to the teller line and looks into an iris identification device to prove identity. Biometric technology also provides accurate court transcription systems. .
privacy. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. On the other hand the poor African nation Gambia has been implementing this technology on national level. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. An individua l s data. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and cont ractors on US Military sites. The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's c itizenship remotely for criminal intent. During account creation. Additional information can also be added to each account record. . non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. immune to forgery. and the risk of identity theft. US passports with facial (imagebased) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq also to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. Both the developed and the developing world seem to be interested in Biometrics for consistent growth and development. A National Identification Number (NIN). This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. residential permits. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. such as kidnapping. unique to each applicant applying for a card. many countries have adopted or are planning to adopt this technology. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification.Countries following Biometrics Technology In the present world. Currently. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. such as individual personal history. is issued to the applicant. In the United States of America from 2005. The US Department of Defence Common Access Card.
P Chidambaram. but such systems can be abused. That makes the information vulnerable to copying from any other computer system that can access it. people are free to do what they will with their own biometr ic information. since humankind came into existence". Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics indicators. and a cop gone lost armed with an innocent person's biometric information can destroy that individual. There are many other drawbacks to these systems. If the computer . At least one program. The Identification number will be stored in central databases consisting the biometric information of the individual. described the process as "the biggest exercise.Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration. How often evidence planting happens is an open question. but it has been documented throughout the United States. is already operational. Disadvantages of Biometric System As said Science is an evil born.25 billion people. Our nation India is also undertaking an ambitious mega project to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1.S. specifically "iris recognition biometric technology" used for border control and security for air travellers. the NEXUS program operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and U. Fingerprint readers are used to limit access to computers. Biometric identification systems have many disadvantages also. If implemented . The government will then use the information to issue identity cards.. India's Home Minister. Evidence Planting Evidence planting by police ha ppens. It has been reported that Police have at times misused biometric information. but they are no more reliable than turnkey locks. One disadvantage is that a determined pirate can steal the biometric information if it's stored on a computer. It is a functioning example of biometric technology. Customs and Border Protection.. this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. Of course. Copying Some of the systems store biometric information through software and keep it in the computer or on a disk.
Someone who understands the technology c an fabricate a copy from the owner's biometric information and access the computer system. There are much cheaper ways of confirming the identity of an individual. police generally need probable cause before arrest and formal fingerprinting at the station. . Privacy To safeguard freedoms. In America. but when the state establishes biometric identification schemes. People are expected to show up at the government office and submit to fingerprinting. can copy it. A government within the U. the tradition shifts. Notoriously Expensive Biometric identification systems are notoriously expensive. it's best to preserve privacy. the situation is far worse because such systems have been grossly abused in the past. someone in a foreign country can copy it. A Subtle Presumption Undermined When biometric information is required by the state. In a radically difficult economy. state expenditures on such systems are questionable. Technical Vulnerability--Unauthorized Use Some biometric identification systems can be beaten with a copy of a fingerprint or eye. Astute private individuals find less expensive systems. These biometric identification systems are often touted as foolproof but they are far from it. it is wise to avoid biometric systems. When implemented by the state. a biometric identification system is far more expensive than a simple turnkey lock. it undermines the presumption in a free society of innocence.with the biometric information is connected to the web. They've even resulted in state crime. Biometric identification systems undermine privacy by making identity theft more likely. Locks are More Economical As a security measure on a computer system. A biometric identification system is not an economically advantageous technology. and it's no more reliable. much like the criminally accused of the past.S. For those concerned with freedom. It is more expensive to change than the turnkey system.
The advantages of biometrics are the person is the key so you need never remember your card or key again. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. Biometrics encompasses Voice. these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. Each body part is unique and Biometrics uses your unique identity to enable a purchase activate something or unlock something. Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person. The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks. In computer science. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. it is only hoped that this technology contributes to sustainable development. eyes puffy. This technology is in its initial stages now and it is too early to question it. voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from labouring. It is being extensively around the globe. Facial recognition and more. in particular. Fingerprint. Eye.Conclusion In a nutshell. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy i ssues. In spite of having so many pros and cons. Vein. Thank You!! .
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