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The identification and later authentication are the need of time for security and development. Automated recognition of individuals is becoming increasingly important. Biometric systems are thus a boon to the world. Biometrics are becoming a necessity for sensitive work processes in the public and private sectors around the globe. Biometrics is the automated recognition o f individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In general it is the science of measuring physical properties of living beings. Before I move on to the core of the topic, the basic terminology of Biometrics should be understood.
A biometric characteristic is biological or behavioural property of an individual that can be measured and from which distinguishing, repeatable biometric features can be extracted for the purpose of automated recognition of individuals. Example: face. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioural characteristics for recognition are required
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which dispose of biometric features which are as unique as possible, i.e., which do not reappear at any other person: Uniqueness which occur in as many people as possible: Universality whose biometric features don't change over time: Permanence which are measurable with simple technical instruments: Measurability which are easy and comfortable to measure: User friendliness
A biometric sample is the analog or digital representation of biometric characteristics prior to the biometric feature extraction process and obtained from a biometric capture device or a biometric capture subsystem. Example: electronic face photograph.
A biometric reference comprises one or more stored biometric samples. In Automatic Teller Machines . Justice and law enforcement. Identification: A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. Internet Banking and Crime analysis. It can be done in conjunction with a smart card. Biometrics in computer network: Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait. Computer networks.Biometric features are information extracted from biometric samples which can be used for comparison with a biometric reference. . biometric templates. A biometric system operates in the following two modes: Verification: A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. username or ID number. Application of Biometrics Biometrics is being extensively used in the fields Network security and authentication. This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e commerce etc . Example: characteristic measures extracted from a face photograph such as eye distance or nose size etc. or biometric models attributed to a biometric data subject which can be used for comparison.The network can be exploited fully without a security breach.
a fast authentication is done with total privacy maintained as well as control by the users of their accounts. an easy. preventing hackers from getting in and combating identity theft through the emerged biometric application subscription control . with a finger touch on the sensor alone.e. Biometric web-based authentication protects network integrity. Biometric in banking: Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking. as more and more business is done online .Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers. through internet. The user swipes a finger over a biometric sensor for the card to be unlocked . . this is the first time the matching occurs on the actual card instead of sending information to an external device for authenticating. Even without any User ID and password. secure authentication is done. This system control is a one to much authentication system. The system will verify the signatures over the internet. Although both digital signatures and fingerprinting devices have around for several years. A system has been developed whereby a card that already has a customer s digital signature is inserted into a smart card reader. But nowadays. the need of secure web-based transactions is constantly increasing passwords and user ID are no longer considered secure enough for transacting business over the network i. medical information and other personal information. It is used to secure transactions in Automatic T eller Machines (ATM s) thus no longer requiring the person to present the ATM card. Even when the database of users is extremely large.
Special software will pass client authentication requests made using the mouse via a secure internet link to the bank s we server. lawyers. Access control using multi-modal biometric technology is now also common in courthouses. is extremely useful. offenders and witnesses.An online banking institution will be offering its customers fingerprint verification through a mouse to securely bank over the internet. This system is recently developed that will identify the bank s customers through a high resolution fingerprint recognition system that fits into a regular size mouse. Biometric technology is used in Justice and Law Enforcement because of the enormous capabilities of its automated (as opposed to manual) software. Speech recognition solutions are common in Justice and Law Enforcement due to the advantage they provide identifying audio samples. he can proceed ahead for transactions. Biometrics in Justice and law enforcement: In the field of Justice and Law Enforcement applications include Prison administration and bookings. As the id is authenticated. Another window based teller technology has emerged which has totally replaced the use of identification cards. Biometric technology can also function as access control. An instant identification of customers will be done at teller windows. where a c entralized fingerprint template database will be housed. . and can even provide a virtual 'line up' application if witness authentication is needed. This technology can be used remotely. Facial recognition technology uses facial features to compile profiles of individuals and compare them against existing databases. A customer simply walks up to the teller line and looks into an iris identification device to prove identity. allowing easy and accurate management of personnel. crime scene identification and national identity programs. which matches an individual's face to the mug shot database. facilitating the documenting of legal proceedings. Tellers will not match picture identification and signatures. The customers will n ot have to show the id card. Biometric technology also provides accurate court transcription systems. Mug shot recognition technology. and comparing them against known criminal profiles.
is issued to the applicant. . On the other hand the poor African nation Gambia has been implementing this technology on national level. There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. immune to forgery. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. residential permits. unique to each applicant applying for a card. In the United States of America from 2005. US passports with facial (imagebased) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009.Countries following Biometrics Technology In the present world. such as individual personal history. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. privacy. An individua l s data. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and cont ractors on US Military sites. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. During account creation. and the risk of identity theft. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's c itizenship remotely for criminal intent. Both the developed and the developing world seem to be interested in Biometrics for consistent growth and development. many countries have adopted or are planning to adopt this technology. Currently. The US Department of Defence Common Access Card. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. A National Identification Number (NIN). Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq also to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. such as kidnapping. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. Additional information can also be added to each account record. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs.
but it has been documented throughout the United States. Biometric identification systems have many disadvantages also. people are free to do what they will with their own biometr ic information. How often evidence planting happens is an open question.. but they are no more reliable than turnkey locks. Our nation India is also undertaking an ambitious mega project to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. India's Home Minister. It is a functioning example of biometric technology. Customs and Border Protection. If the computer . The Identification number will be stored in central databases consisting the biometric information of the individual.25 billion people. Of course. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics indicators. Evidence Planting Evidence planting by police ha ppens. since humankind came into existence". this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. If implemented . Copying Some of the systems store biometric information through software and keep it in the computer or on a disk.. At least one program. Fingerprint readers are used to limit access to computers. specifically "iris recognition biometric technology" used for border control and security for air travellers.S. It has been reported that Police have at times misused biometric information. Disadvantages of Biometric System As said Science is an evil born. and a cop gone lost armed with an innocent person's biometric information can destroy that individual.Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards. One disadvantage is that a determined pirate can steal the biometric information if it's stored on a computer. described the process as "the biggest exercise. the NEXUS program operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and U. but such systems can be abused. That makes the information vulnerable to copying from any other computer system that can access it. There are many other drawbacks to these systems. P Chidambaram. is already operational.
S. can copy it. There are much cheaper ways of confirming the identity of an individual. the situation is far worse because such systems have been grossly abused in the past. someone in a foreign country can copy it. People are expected to show up at the government office and submit to fingerprinting. Biometric identification systems undermine privacy by making identity theft more likely. It is more expensive to change than the turnkey system. police generally need probable cause before arrest and formal fingerprinting at the station. Astute private individuals find less expensive systems. it's best to preserve privacy. a biometric identification system is far more expensive than a simple turnkey lock. state expenditures on such systems are questionable. Notoriously Expensive Biometric identification systems are notoriously expensive. Privacy To safeguard freedoms. They've even resulted in state crime. A government within the U. it is wise to avoid biometric systems. . In a radically difficult economy.with the biometric information is connected to the web. much like the criminally accused of the past. and it's no more reliable. In America. When implemented by the state. the tradition shifts. it undermines the presumption in a free society of innocence. For those concerned with freedom. A Subtle Presumption Undermined When biometric information is required by the state. Someone who understands the technology c an fabricate a copy from the owner's biometric information and access the computer system. Technical Vulnerability--Unauthorized Use Some biometric identification systems can be beaten with a copy of a fingerprint or eye. but when the state establishes biometric identification schemes. These biometric identification systems are often touted as foolproof but they are far from it. Locks are More Economical As a security measure on a computer system. A biometric identification system is not an economically advantageous technology.
Thank You!! . It is being extensively around the globe. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. This technology is in its initial stages now and it is too early to question it. Fingerprint. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. The advantages of biometrics are the person is the key so you need never remember your card or key again. In computer science. eyes puffy. Each body part is unique and Biometrics uses your unique identity to enable a purchase activate something or unlock something.Conclusion In a nutshell. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. In spite of having so many pros and cons. in particular. these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill. it is only hoped that this technology contributes to sustainable development. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy i ssues. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person. Biometrics encompasses Voice. voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from labouring. The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks. Eye. Facial recognition and more. Vein.