Biometric System: An Introduction Today, we live in an anonymous information society characterised by increasing global mobility.

The identification and later authentication are the need of time for security and development. Automated recognition of individuals is becoming increasingly important. Biometric systems are thus a boon to the world. Biometrics are becoming a necessity for sensitive work processes in the public and private sectors around the globe. Biometrics is the automated recognition o f individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In general it is the science of measuring physical properties of living beings. Before I move on to the core of the topic, the basic terminology of Biometrics should be understood.

A biometric characteristic is biological or behavioural property of an individual that can be measured and from which distinguishing, repeatable biometric features can be extracted for the purpose of automated recognition of individuals. Example: face. In the development of biometric identification systems, physical and behavioural characteristics for recognition are required
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which dispose of biometric features which are as unique as possible, i.e., which do not reappear at any other person: Uniqueness which occur in as many people as possible: Universality whose biometric features don't change over time: Permanence which are measurable with simple technical instruments: Measurability which are easy and comfortable to measure: User friendliness

A biometric sample is the analog or digital representation of biometric characteristics prior to the biometric feature extraction process and obtained from a biometric capture device or a biometric capture subsystem. Example: electronic face photograph.

Biometric features are information extracted from biometric samples which can be used for comparison with a biometric reference. A biometric reference comprises one or more stored biometric samples. It can be done in conjunction with a smart card. Biometrics in computer network: Biometrics is used to authenticate an individual based on this unique biological trait. Computer networks. Internet Banking and Crime analysis. or biometric models attributed to a biometric data subject which can be used for comparison.The network can be exploited fully without a security breach. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. biometric templates. A biometric system operates in the following two modes: Verification: A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. This kind of security gives people immense confidence and relief in areas like e commerce etc . Example: characteristic measures extracted from a face photograph such as eye distance or nose size etc. username or ID number. Identification: A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. . Justice and law enforcement. In Automatic Teller Machines . Application of Biometrics Biometrics is being extensively used in the fields Network security and authentication.

Biometric web-based authentication protects network integrity. with a finger touch on the sensor alone. an easy. Even without any User ID and password. It is used to secure transactions in Automatic T eller Machines (ATM s) thus no longer requiring the person to present the ATM card. secure authentication is done. preventing hackers from getting in and combating identity theft through the emerged biometric application subscription control . . Biometric in banking: Biometrics finds important application in the areas of internet banking and telephone banking. the need of secure web-based transactions is constantly increasing passwords and user ID are no longer considered secure enough for transacting business over the network i. Even when the database of users is extremely large. Although both digital signatures and fingerprinting devices have around for several years. a fast authentication is done with total privacy maintained as well as control by the users of their accounts. But nowadays. The system will verify the signatures over the internet. through internet. as more and more business is done online .e. medical information and other personal information. A system has been developed whereby a card that already has a customer s digital signature is inserted into a smart card reader. This system control is a one to much authentication system. this is the first time the matching occurs on the actual card instead of sending information to an external device for authenticating.Biometrics tighten the security in the areas of banking intelligence and secure Banking data and credit card numbers. The user swipes a finger over a biometric sensor for the card to be unlocked .

offenders and witnesses. Another window based teller technology has emerged which has totally replaced the use of identification cards. and comparing them against known criminal profiles. This system is recently developed that will identify the bank s customers through a high resolution fingerprint recognition system that fits into a regular size mouse. Biometric technology can also function as access control. Access control using multi-modal biometric technology is now also common in courthouses. . A customer simply walks up to the teller line and looks into an iris identification device to prove identity. Biometric technology is used in Justice and Law Enforcement because of the enormous capabilities of its automated (as opposed to manual) software. Facial recognition technology uses facial features to compile profiles of individuals and compare them against existing databases. lawyers. facilitating the documenting of legal proceedings. allowing easy and accurate management of personnel. where a c entralized fingerprint template database will be housed. As the id is authenticated. Special software will pass client authentication requests made using the mouse via a secure internet link to the bank s we server.An online banking institution will be offering its customers fingerprint verification through a mouse to securely bank over the internet. The customers will n ot have to show the id card. he can proceed ahead for transactions. Tellers will not match picture identification and signatures. is extremely useful. An instant identification of customers will be done at teller windows. and can even provide a virtual 'line up' application if witness authentication is needed. This technology can be used remotely. crime scene identification and national identity programs. Biometric technology also provides accurate court transcription systems. Biometrics in Justice and law enforcement: In the field of Justice and Law Enforcement applications include Prison administration and bookings. Mug shot recognition technology. which matches an individual's face to the mug shot database. Speech recognition solutions are common in Justice and Law Enforcement due to the advantage they provide identifying audio samples.

residential permits. A National Identification Number (NIN). US passports with facial (imagebased) biometric data were scheduled to be produced. On the other hand the poor African nation Gambia has been implementing this technology on national level. is issued to the applicant. An individua l s data. Even if an Iraqi has lost their ID card. such as individual personal history. Both the developed and the developing world seem to be interested in Biometrics for consistent growth and development. there is some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can be "skimmed" and identify people's c itizenship remotely for criminal intent. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for the potential harm to civil liberties. This card contains biometric data and digitized photographs. Additional information can also be added to each account record. The Gambia Biometric Identification System (GAMBIS) allowed for the issuance of Gambia s first biometric identity documents in July 2009. privacy. Currently. During account creation.Countries following Biometrics Technology In the present world. Biometrics are being used extensively in Iraq also to catalogue as many Iraqis as possible providing Iraqis with a verifiable identification card. unique to each applicant applying for a card. such as kidnapping. The US Department of Defence Common Access Card. . There have been over 10 million of these cards issued. Biometric documents issued for Gambia include national identity cards. In the United States of America from 2005. non-Gambian ID cards and driver licenses. and the risk of identity theft. is an ID card issued to all US Service personnel and cont ractors on US Military sites. many countries have adopted or are planning to adopt this technology. It also has laser-etched photographs and holograms to add security and reduce the risk of falsification. immune to forgery. the collected biometrics information is logged into a central database which then allows a user profile to be created. including their biometric information (thumbprints) is captured in the database. their identification can be found and verified by using their unique biometric information.

but they are no more reliable than turnkey locks. Disadvantages of Biometric System As said Science is an evil born. Our nation India is also undertaking an ambitious mega project to provide a unique identification number to each of its 1. Evidence Planting Evidence planting by police ha ppens.25 billion people. specifically "iris recognition biometric technology" used for border control and security for air travellers. If the computer . That makes the information vulnerable to copying from any other computer system that can access it. people are free to do what they will with their own biometr ic information.. Officials in India will spend one year classifying India's population according to demographics indicators. is already operational. but it has been documented throughout the United States. At least one program. Customs and Border Protection.S. It is a functioning example of biometric technology. It has been reported that Police have at times misused biometric information. but such systems can be abused. the NEXUS program operated jointly by the Canada Border Services Agency and U.. How often evidence planting happens is an open question. If implemented . There are many other drawbacks to these systems. The Identification number will be stored in central databases consisting the biometric information of the individual. The government will then use the information to issue identity cards.Canada has begun research into the use of biometric technology in the area of border security and immigration. Biometric identification systems have many disadvantages also. described the process as "the biggest exercise. One disadvantage is that a determined pirate can steal the biometric information if it's stored on a computer. P Chidambaram. Of course. since humankind came into existence". this would be the biggest implementation of the Biometrics in the world. India's Home Minister. Fingerprint readers are used to limit access to computers. Copying Some of the systems store biometric information through software and keep it in the computer or on a disk. and a cop gone lost armed with an innocent person's biometric information can destroy that individual.

Biometric identification systems undermine privacy by making identity theft more likely. can copy it. much like the criminally accused of the past.with the biometric information is connected to the web. the situation is far worse because such systems have been grossly abused in the past. When implemented by the state. it is wise to avoid biometric systems. Technical Vulnerability--Unauthorized Use Some biometric identification systems can be beaten with a copy of a fingerprint or eye. it's best to preserve privacy. A government within the U. These biometric identification systems are often touted as foolproof but they are far from it. In a radically difficult economy. . Privacy To safeguard freedoms. For those concerned with freedom. They've even resulted in state crime. police generally need probable cause before arrest and formal fingerprinting at the station. A biometric identification system is not an economically advantageous technology. a biometric identification system is far more expensive than a simple turnkey lock. Astute private individuals find less expensive systems. it undermines the presumption in a free society of innocence. There are much cheaper ways of confirming the identity of an individual. Someone who understands the technology c an fabricate a copy from the owner's biometric information and access the computer system. state expenditures on such systems are questionable. Notoriously Expensive Biometric identification systems are notoriously expensive. but when the state establishes biometric identification schemes. and it's no more reliable. the tradition shifts. someone in a foreign country can copy it.S. A Subtle Presumption Undermined When biometric information is required by the state. In America. People are expected to show up at the government office and submit to fingerprinting. It is more expensive to change than the turnkey system. Locks are More Economical As a security measure on a computer system.

Conclusion In a nutshell. It is being extensively around the globe. Facial recognition and more. Vein. The advantages of biometrics are the person is the key so you need never remember your card or key again. In computer science. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Fingerprint. The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks. these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill. In spite of having so many pros and cons. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioural traits. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. it is only hoped that this technology contributes to sustainable development. Each body part is unique and Biometrics uses your unique identity to enable a purchase activate something or unlock something. voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from labouring. Biometrics encompasses Voice. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy i ssues. Eye. This technology is in its initial stages now and it is too early to question it. Thank You!! . eyes puffy. Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person. biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. in particular.

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