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Computer Acronyms

ACL (Access Control List) ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) ADF (Automatic Document Feeder) ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) AIX (Advanced Interactive Executive) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) API (Application Program Interface) ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) ASP (Active Server Page or Application Service Provider) ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Bcc (Blind Carbon Copy) BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) Blob (Binary Large Object) BMP (Bitmap) CAD (Computer-Aided Design) Cc (Carbon Copy) CCD (Charged Coupled Device)

CD (Compact Disc) CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) CD-RW (Compact Disc Re-Writable) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) CGI (Common Gateway Interface) CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow Black) CPA (Cost Per Action) CPC (Cost Per Click) CPL (Cost Per Lead) CPM (Cost Per 1,000 Impressions) CPS (Classroom Performance System) CPU (Central Processing Unit) CRM (Customer Relationship Management) CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) CTP (Composite Theoretical Performance) DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) DBMS (Database Management System) DDR (Double Data Rate) DDR2 (Double Data Rate 2) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory Module) DLL (Dynamic Link Library) DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS (Domain Name System) DOS (Disk Operating System) DPI (Dots Per Inch) DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) DRM (Digital Rights Management) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) DTD (Document Type Definition) DV (Digital Video) DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) DVD+R (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable) DVD+RW (Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable) DVD-R (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable) DVD-RAM (Digital Versatile Disc Random Access Memory) DVD-RW (Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable) DVI (Digital Video Interface) DVR (Digital Video Recorder) ECC (Error Correction Code) EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) EUP (Enterprise Unified Process)

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) FIFO (First In, First Out) FiOS (Fiber Optic Service) FLOPS (Floating Point Operations Per Second) FPU (Floating Point Unit) FSB (Frontside Bus) GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) GIGO (Garbage In, Garbage Out) GIS (Geographic Information Systems) GPS (Global Positioning System) GUI (Graphical User Interface) GUID (Globally Unique Identifier) HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) HDTV (High Definition Television) HDV (High-Definition Video) HFS (Hierarchical File System) HSF (Heat Sink and Fan) HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language) HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) HTTPS (HyperText Transport Protocol Secure) I/O (Input/Output) ICANN (Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers) ICF (Internet Connection Firewall) ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)

IDE (Integrated Device Electronics or Integrated Development Environment) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) IGP (Integrated Graphics Processor) IM (Instant Message) IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) IP (Internet Protocol) IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) IRC (Internet Relay Chat) IRQ (Interrupt Request) ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) iSCSI (Internet Small Computer Systems Interface) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) ISO (International Organization for Standardization) ISP (Internet Service Provider) IT (Information Technology) IVR (Interactive Voice Response) JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) JRE (Java Runtime Environment) JSP (Java Server Page) Kbps (Kilobits Per Second) KDE (K Desktop Environment) KVM Switch (Keyboard, Video, and Mouse Switch) LAN (Local Area Network)

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) LIFO (Last In, First Out) LPI (Lines Per Inch) LUN (Logical Unit Number) MAC Address (Media Access Control Address) MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) Mbps (Megabits Per Second) MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second) MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) NAT (Network Address Translation) NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) NIC (Network Interface Card) NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) NOC (Network Operations Center) NTFS (New Technology File System) OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) OCR (Optical Character Recognition) ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer)

OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) OOP (Object-Oriented Programming) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) P2P (Peer To Peer) PC (Personal Computer) PCB (Printed Circuit Board) PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) PCI-X (Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended) PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) PDF (Portable Document Format) PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) PIM (Personal Information Manager) PMU (Power Management Unit) PNG (Portable Network Graphic) POP3 (Post Office Protocol) PPC (Pay Per Click) PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array) PPI (Pixels Per Inch) PPL (Pay Per Lead) PPM (Pages Per Minute) PPP (Point to Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)

PRAM (Parameter Random Access Memory) PS/2 (Personal System/2) QBE (Query By Example) RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) RAM (Random Access Memory) RDF (Resource Description Framework) RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) RGB (Red Green Blue) RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) ROM (Read-Only Memory) RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPM (Revenue Per 1,000 Impressions) RSS (RDF Site Summary) RTE (Runtime Environment) RTF (Rich Text Fomat) RUP (Rational Unified Process) SAN (Storage Area Network) SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) SD (Secure Digital) SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) SEO (Search Engine Optimization) SERP (Search Engine Results Page)

SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module) SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) SLI (Scalable Link Interface) SMART (Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology) SMB (Server Message Block) SMS (Short Message Service) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) SO-DIMM (Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module) SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) SQL (Structured Query Language) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) sRGB (Standard Red Green Blue) SSH (Secure Shell) SSID (Service Set Identifier) SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) TFT (Thin-Film Transistor) TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) TTL (Time To Live) TWAIN (Toolkit Without An Informative Name) UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UML (Unified Modeling Language) UNC (Universal Naming Convention) UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) URL (Uniform Resource Locator) USB (Universal Serial Bus) VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) VFAT (Virtual File Allocation Table) VGA (Video Graphics Array) VLB (VESA Local Bus) VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) VPN (Virtual Private Network) VRAM (Video Random Access Memory) VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) WAIS (Wide Area Information Server) WAN (Wide Area Network) WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) WWW (World Wide Web) XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language)

XML (Extensible Markup Language) XSLT (Extensible Style Sheet Language Transformation) Y2K (Year 2000) ZIF (Zero Insertion Force)

General keyboard shortcuts


To... Use this shortcut Select all content in a document, window, or Press CTRL+A. text box Search for a file or folder Press F3. In Windows 7, you can also press the Windows logo key to open the Start menu and then start typing in the Search box. Rename a file or folder Select the file or folder, press F2, and then re-type the name. Find out when the file or folder was created, Select the file, and then press ALT+ENTER. by whom, and how big it is Display the Start menu Press CTRL+ESC. In Windows 7, you can also press the Windows logo key. Scroll between open windows Press ALT+TAB, and then hold down ALT while pressing TAB to reach the desired file or program. Undo an action Press CTRL+Z. Redo an action Press CTRL+Y. Check the spelling of titles or words in any Press F7. Office application with Spelling & Grammar checker Create a shortcut on your desktop to your In Windows 7: Right-click the file or folder. favorite file or folder On the shortcut menu, click Send to, and then click Desktop (Create shortcut). In Windows Vista: Right-click the file or folder. On the shortcut menu, click Create Shortcut. Drag the new shortcut to your desktop.

Working with Microsoft Word

To... Select text

Copy selected text Cut selected text Paste selected text Bold text Search for text in a document Find and replace text in a document Got to a page, line, or bookmark in a document Italicize text Underline Decrease font size Increase font size Change font Change font size Create page break Create new document Open the My Documents window Close a document Save a document Print a document Preview what you're about to print

Use this shortcut Press SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW, LEFT ARROW, UP ARROW, or DOWN ARROW to highlight text. To select one word at a time, press SHIFT+CTRL+ARROW. To select to the end of the line, press SHIFT+END. Press CTRL+C. Press CTRL+X. Press CTRL+V. Press CTRL+B. Press CTRL+F. Press CTRL+H. Press CTRL+G. Press CTRL+I. Press CTRL+U. Press CTRL+SHIFT+<. Press CTRL+SHIFT+>. Press CTRL+SHIFT+F, and then use the arrow keys to reach the new font. Press CTRL+SHIFT+P, and then use the arrow keys to reach the new font size. Press CTRL+ENTER. Press CTRL+N. Press CTRL+O. Press CTRL+W. Press CTRL+S. Press CTRL+P. Press ALT+CTRL+I. In Windows 7, this keyboard shortcut opens the integrated Print and Preview window, which you can also access by pressing CTRL+P. Select the shape, and then press SHIFT+ARROW. Select the shape, and then hold the ALT key while you press the LEFT ARROW or the RIGHT ARROW key.

Resize a shape (Office 2010) Rotate a shape (Office 2010)

Accelerating Microsoft Excel


To... Move left to right, cell by cell Move right to left, cell by cell Use this shortcut Press TAB, or press the RIGHT ARROW key. Press SHIFT+TAB, or press the LEFT ARROW key.

Move down, cell by cell Move up, cell by cell Erase data in current cell Return to the beginning of the row Enter the date Enter the time Start a formula

Find out about the style within the cell Display the Format Cells dialog box Apply the general number format Apply the currency number format Apply the percentage number format Apply a border

Press ENTER, or press the DOWN ARROW key. Press SHIFT+ENTER, or press the UP ARROW key. Press BACKSPACE. Press HOME. Press CTRL+SEMICOLON (;). Press CTRL+SHIFT+COLON (:). Press the equal sign (=). When you press the equal sign in Office Excel 2007 or Excel 2010, a list of formulas appears. Scroll through the list to select the one you need. Press ALT+APOSTROPHE (). Press CTRL+1. Press CTRL+SHIFT+TILDE (~). Press CTRL+SHIFT+DOLLAR SIGN ($). Press CTRL+SHIFT+PERCENT SIGN (%). Press CTRL+SHIFT+AMPERSAND (&).

Find more Excel keyboard shortcuts at the MSDN blog.

Expediting Internet Explorer


To... Add sites to your Favorites Use this shortcut 1. Go to the site. 2. Press CTRL+D to add to your Favorites. 3. Click Favorites and then click Add to Favorites to create a separate folder for the site or to add it to an already-formed list. 1. Go to the webpage that you would like to make your home page. 2. Open the Tools menu and select Internet Options. 3. Under Home page, click Use Current. 1. Press CTRL+H to open the History pane. 2. Select the site that you would like, right-click the site, and then select Add to Favorites.

Select a home page

Use the History function if you visit a few select sites constantly

Customize your toolbar to the tools you use most frequently Go to your home page Switch between tabs

1. Right-click the command bar. 2. Point to Customize. 3. Click Add or Remove Commands. Press ALT+HOME. Press CTRL+TAB, or press CTRL+SHIFT+TAB. Press TAB.

Move forward through the items on a webpage, the Address bar, or the Favorites bar Move back through the items on a webpage, Press SHIFT+TAB. the Address bar, or the Favorites bar Find on this page Press CTRL+F. Stop downloading a page Press ESC. Use zoom on a webpage Increase zoom (+ 10%): Press CTRL+PLUS SIGN (+). Decrease zoom (- 10%): Press CTRL+MINUS SIGN (-). Increase to 100%: Press CTRL+0. Find more Internet Explorer 8 keyboard shortcuts. For Outlook keyboard shortcuts, read the Outlook team blog. A final piece of advice from Brown: Save the links to Office.com and Microsoft Answers to your Favorites in Internet Explorer, so youll always have the help you need nearby. "At work you rely on your IT person to solve problems that come up, but at home you need to fix them on your own, and these websites are extremely useful," she says. The more you use these tools, the more time you can save. Have fun, and explore the options available to you. Article written by Liz Eustace and adapted from an original piece from Microsoft Home Magazine.

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General keyboard shortcuts


CTRL+C (Copy) CTRL+X (Cut) CTRL+V (Paste) CTRL+Z (Undo)

DELETE (Delete) SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin) CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item) CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item) F2 key (Rename the selected item) CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word) CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word) CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph) CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph) CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text) SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document) CTRL+A (Select all) F3 key (Search for a file or a folder) ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item) ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program) ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object) ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window) CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously) ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items) ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened) F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop) F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer) SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item) ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window) CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu) ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command) F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program) RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu) LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu) F5 key (Update the active window) BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer) ESC (Cancel the current task) SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CDROM from automatically playing) CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager)

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Dialog box keyboard shortcuts


If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs) CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs) TAB (Move forward through the options) SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options) ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option) ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button) SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box) Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons) F1 key (Display Help) F4 key (Display the items in the active list) BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

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Microsoft natural keyboard shortcuts


Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu) Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box) Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop) Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows) Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows) Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer) Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder) CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers) Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help) Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard) Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box) Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)

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Accessibility keyboard shortcuts


Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off) Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)

Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off) SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off) NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off) Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)

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Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts


END (Display the bottom of the active window) HOME (Display the top of the active window) NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder) NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder) NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder) LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder) RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)

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Shortcut keys for Character Map


After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:

RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line) LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line) UP ARROW (Move up one row) DOWN ARROW (Move down one row) PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time) PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time) HOME (Move to the beginning of the line) END (Move to the end of the line) CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character) CTRL+END (Move to the last character) SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)

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Microsoft Management Console (MMC) main window keyboard shortcuts


CTRL+O (Open a saved console) CTRL+N (Open a new console)

CTRL+S (Save the open console) CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item) CTRL+W (Open a new window) F5 key (Update the content of all console windows) ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu) ALT+F4 (Close the console) ALT+A (Display the Action menu) ALT+V (Display the View menu) ALT+F (Display the File menu) ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)

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MMC console window keyboard shortcuts


CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane) ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window) SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item) F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item) F5 key (Update the content of all console windows) CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window) CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window) ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item) F2 key (Rename the selected item) CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)

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Remote desktop connection navigation


CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box) ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right) ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left) ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order) ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu) CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen) ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu) CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.) CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

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Microsoft Internet Explorer navigation


CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box) CTRL+E (Open the Search bar) CTRL+F (Start the Find utility) CTRL+H (Open the History bar) CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar) CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box) CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address) CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L) CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box) CTRL+R (Update the current Web page) CTRL+W (Close the current window)