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What is PBN?

Performance-based navigation is a generic term that encompasses the principles of both area navigation (RNAV) and required navigation performance. ICAO saw that area navigation and required navigation performance were being specified differently by national aviation authorities all over the world, which ultimately makes international aviation more complex and costly for operators. So ICAO decided to develop "a globally harmonised concept that meets current operational requirements while remaining flexible enough for future requirements". It boiled the PBN concept down to two categories: the first for aircraft with no on-board performance monitoring and alerting systems, but which can comply with any of the four present RNAV accuracy levels between 10nm (18.5km) and 1nm and the second for aircraft with on-board monitoring and alerting systems, but that can operate to any of the RNP accuracy specifications from 4nm to 0.3nm plus future requirements like 4D navigation. Apart from standardising global navigation performance categories, the advantage of PBN is that it does not specify navigation aids nor on-board equipment, only the navigation performance category an aircraft can meet in any given environment.

ETOPS is an acronym for Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards, an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standard and Recommended Practice (SARP) permitting twin-engined commercial air transporters to fly routes that, at some points, are farther than a distance of 60 minutes' flying time from an emergency or diversion airport. This rule allows twin-engined airlinerssuch as the Airbus A300, A310, A320, A330 and A350 families, the Boeing 737, 757, 767 and 777, and the Embraer E-Jets to fly long-distance routes that were previously off-limits to twin-engined aircraft. ETOPS operation has no direct correlation to water nor distance over water. It refers to single-engine flight times between diversion airfieldsregardless as to whether such fields are separated by water or land. ETOPS may be replaced by a newer system, referred to as LROPS or "Long Range Operational Performance Standards", which will affect all civil airliners, not just those with a twin-engine configuration. Until the mid-1980s, the term EROPS (extended range operations) was used before being superseded by ETOPS usage. Currently, the ETOPS term is commonly used for operations previously described as LROPS or EROPS.[1] Government-owned aircraft (including military) do not have to adhere to ETOPS regulations. An instrument landing system (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, highintensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument

meteorological conditions (IMC), such as low ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow. Instrument approach procedure charts (or approach plates) are published for each ILS approach, providing pilots with the needed information to fly an ILS approach during instrument flight rules (IFR) operations, including the radio frequencies used by the ILS components or navaids and the minimum visibility requirements prescribed for the specific approach. Radio-navigation aids must keep a certain degree of accuracy (set by international standards of CAST/ICAO); to assure this is the case, flight inspection organizations periodically check critical parameters with properly equipped aircraft to calibrate and certify ILS precision.

ILS categories
There are three categories of ILS which support similarly named categories of operation. Information below is based on ICAO; certain states may have filed differences.

Category I (CAT I) A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 200 feet (61 m) above touchdown zone elevation and with either a visibility not less than 800 meters (2,625 ft) or a runway visual range not less than 550 meters (1,804 ft). Category II (CAT II) A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 200 feet (61 m) above touchdown zone elevation but not lower than 100 feet (30 m), and a runway visual range not less than 300 meters (984 ft) for aircraft category A, B, C and not less than 350 meters (1,148 ft) for aircraft category D. Category III (CAT III) is subdivided into three sections: o Category III A A precision instrument approach and landing with: a) a decision height lower than 100 feet (30 m) above touchdown zone elevation, or no decision height (alert height); and b) a runway visual range not less than 200 meters (656 ft). o Category III B A precision instrument approach and landing with: a) a decision height lower than 50 feet (15 m) above touchdown zone elevation, or no decision height (alert height); and b) a runway visual range less than 200 meters (656 ft) but not less than 75 meters (246 ft). Autopilot is used until taxi-speed. In the United States, FAA criteria for CAT III B runway visual range allows readings as low as 150 ft. o Category III C A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations.

This category is not yet in operation anywhere in the world, as it requires guidance to taxi in zero visibility as well. "Category III C" is not mentioned in EU-OPS. Category III B is currently the best available system.

Preclude

CAR SEC 2, Airworthiness; SER F Pt XXII LOAD AND TRIM SHEET REQUIREMENTS THEREOF Transfer of CARs from SEC 2 (Airworthiness) to SEC 8 (Aircraft Operations)

CAR SEC 2, Airworthiness; SER F Pt XXII LOAD AND TRIM SHEET REQUIREMENTS THEREOF Transfer of CARs from SEC 2 (Airworthiness) to SEC 8 (Aircraft Operations)

CAR SEC 2, Airworthiness; SER F Pt XXII LOAD AND TRIM SHEET REQUIREMENTS THEREOF Transfer of CARs from SEC 2 (Airworthiness) to SEC 8 (Aircraft Operations)

CAR SEC 2, Airworthiness; SER F Pt XXII LOAD AND TRIM SHEET REQUIREMENTS THEREOF Transfer of CARs from SEC 2 (Airworthiness) to SEC 8 (Aircraft Operations)