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Bicol University College of Arts and Letters Academic Year 2010-2011, First Semester

Written report

Output Devices

Prepared by: Frondoso, Kenneth Raeneil B. Gonzales, Je-Ann H. Lasala, Lea B.

Table of Contents

I. II.

Introduction to Output Devices. The Kinds of Output devices a. The Monitor 1. Brief History of the Monitor 2. Kinds of Monitor 3. Parts of a monitor b. The Printer 1. The History of Printer 2. Kinds of Printers 3.

Introduction to Output Devices

Kinds of Output Devices a. The Monitor 1. The Brief History

Until the early 1980s most monitors were terminals. They were boxy video display terminals (VDTs) combined with an attached keyboard. A terminal could be configured to work with just about any computer on the market. Terminals were attached to computers by a serial interface. In those days, the VDT was commonly referred to as CRT(Cathode Ray Tube). Before the DOS, the dominant operating system(OS) for 8 computers was CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors). Early CP/M machines were originally designed to use separate memory-mapped video display devices and discrete keyboards that plugged into the machines- not unlike video display cards used later. The most wellknown was the VMD-1. Terminal manufacturers recognized this lost market and began to market mainframe and mini-style terminal to the CP/M community. The sales pitch of just like a real(mainframe at the time) computer paid off. CP/M computers soon used terminals most exclusively. Apple II computers and the early game machines(such as those made by Atari, coleco or Nintendo) hooked to a monitor not a terminal. The apple was built with a keyboard as part of the system. All that was missing was a monitor once the Apple II was plugged in. These monitors unlike terminals looked like television sets without the tuner. In some cases they were actually television sets. Many computers- such as the Commodore Vic20, 64, and 128, could be used with any television set with a special RF adapter that hooked to the antenna of the TV. The IBM came out with PC-DOS computers, which are dubbed three-piece computers. One explanation according to a prominent used car dealer Moonie Bronstein was that many of the early marketers/ hucksters advising the techies of the early computer era had their start in the competitive world of auto sales where such terms as 3 piecers and four piecers were popular marketing and sales terms. Other explanations for this marketing term was because the computers included three main components i.e.- the monitor, the keyboard and the CPU box. Ironically, when the IBM PC-DOS computers arrived on the scene with separate monitor and keyboard- the monitor connected directly to the computer. Just like the earliest personal computers through a display device connection. These new monitors used video cards that were either IBM monochrome(MDA), IBM color graphics cards9(CGA), or Hercules (the first third party ad-on cards.)

2. Kinds of Monitor
A computer display is also called a display screen or video display terminal (VDT). A monitor is a screen used to display the output. Images are represented on monitors by individual dots called pixels. A pixel is the smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades. The density of the dots determines the clarity of the images, the resolution.

Screen resolution: This is the degree of sharpness of a displayed character or image. The screen resolution is usually expressed as the number of columns by the number rows. A 1024x768 resolution means that it has 1024 dots in a line and 768 lines. A smaller screen looks sharper on the same resolution. Another measure of display resolution is a dot pitch. Interlaced/Non-interlaced: An interlaced technique refreshes the lines of the screen by exposing all odd lines first then all even lines next. A non-interlaced technology that is developed later refreshes all the lines on the screen from top to bottom. The non- interlaced method gives more stable video display than interlaced method. It also requires twice as much signal information as interlaced technology.

There are two forms of display: cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and flat-panel display. y Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT)

A CRT is a vacuum tube used as a display screen for a computer output device. Although the CRT means only a tube, it usually refers to all monitors. IBM and IBM compatible microcomputers operate two modes unlike Macintosh based entirely on graphics mode. They are a text mode and a graphics mode. Application programs switch computers into appropriate display mode. Monochrome Monitors A monochrome monitor has two colors, one for foreground and the other for background. The colors can be white, amber or green on a dark (black) background. The monochrome monitors display both text and graphics modes. Color Monitors A color monitor is a display peripheral that displays more than two colors. Color monitors have been developed through the following paths.

CGA: This stands for Color Graphics Adapter. It is a circuit board introduced by IBM and the first graphics standard for the IBM PC. With a CGA monitor, it is harder to read than with a monochrome monitor, because the CGA (320 X 200) has much fewer pixels than the monochrome monitor (640 X 350). It supports 4 colors. EGA: It stands for Enhanced Graphics Adapter. EGA is a video display standard that has a resolution of 640 by 350 pixels and supports 16 colors. EGA supports previous display modes and requires a new monitor. VGA: VGA stands for Video Graphics Array. This is a video display standard that provides medium to high resolution. In a text

mode, the resolution of this board is 720 by 400 pixels. It supports 16 colors with a higher resolution of 640 by 480 pixels and 256 colors with 320 X 200 pixels. Super VGA: This is a very high resolution standard that displays up to 65,536 colors. Super VGA can support a 16.8 million colors at 800 by 600 pixels and 256 colors at 1024 by 768 pixels. A highpriced super VGA allows 1280 by 1024 pixels. Larger monitors (17" or 21" and larger) with a high resolution of 1600 by 1280 pixels are available. VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) has set a standard for super VGA.

y Flat Panel Displays Portable computers such as a lap top use flat panel displays, because they are more compact and consume less power than CRTs. Portable computers use several kinds of flat panel screens: Liquid-Crystal Displays (LCDs) A display technology that creates characters by means of reflected light and is commonly used in digital watches and laptop computers. LCDs replaced LEDs (light emitting diodes) because LCDs use less power. LCDs are difficult to read in a strong light, because they do not emit their own light. Portable computers wanted to have brighter and easier to read displays. Backlit LCDs are used for the purpose now.

Backlit LCDs: This is a type of LCD display having its own light source provided from the back of the screen. The backlit makes the background brighter and clear, as a result the texts and images appear sharper. However, this still is much less clear than CRTs. Thus, better technology is needed. Active Matrix LCDs: This is an LCD display technique in which every dot on the screen has a transistor to control it more accurately. This uses a transistor for each monochrome or each red, green and blue dot. It provides better contrast, speeds up screen refresh and reduces motion smearing.

Electroluminescent (EL) Displays A flat panel display technology that actively emits light at each pixel when it is electronic charged. This provides a sharp, clear image and wide viewing angle. The EL display type of flat panel is better than LCD. Gas Plasma Displays This is also called a gas panel or a plasma panel and is another flat screen technology. A plasma panel contains a grid of electrodes in a flat, gas filled panel. The image can persist for a long time without refreshing in this panel. The disadvantages of the gas plasma displays are that they must use AC power and cannot show sharp contrast.

3. Parts of a Monitor

Most common parts to check Ball links To check a link pull on it and see if it comes off. If it comes off with light pressure or you see side to side slop of it on the ball then it is time to replace it. The links that wear out most often are the ones close to the ground. This would be the one at the back of the tail control rod and the ones on the throttle link. Note: If you put a new link on and it is still loose then what happened is dirt got embedded into the old link and it wore down the ball. You have to change both the ball and the link when this happens. Fuel line inside One of the number one causes of engine tuning problems is from detoriated tank clunk line. At the end of a flight the tank is full of hot exhaust gases that break down the silicon fuel tubing. This makes the line soft and soggy. It can also crystalize.

A-arm rods

Check the metal rod at the bottom of the A-arms. If the holes in the A-arms are tight it can cause the rod to eventually work its way out.

Rubberbands One is on the radio tray helping to hold the receiver and battery in place and the other one to check is holding the antenna wire at the back. Less common parts to check Ball Links screws It has not happened to me but a few times, but sometimes when looking for slop in the control system I have found the screw(s) that hold the balls on are loose just enough that the ball moves on it.

Check pitch The two screws that hold the pitch arm on can back out sometimes and cause arm side to side slop. Check clutch If you have the engine out and you notice the edge on the back side of the shoes are not parallel to the straight edge of the hub then the clutch liner got too thin and now you have to change both the liner and the clutch. Ideally you should check the gap between the liner and the clutch shoes and when the gap is more than 0.010" per side then replace the liner before the clutch is damaged. If you do not have feeler gauges then take the start shaft out and the clutch off. Place the clutch in the bell and push it to one side against the liner. Next see if a business card will squeeze between the clutch and the liner. If it fits loosely then replace the liner. If you bought a Raptor 30 and are using the stock two or three piece muffler then the long bolt that goes through from front end to back will become loose from time to time. It's best if you tighten the bolt immediately after a flight, while everything is still warm. The bolts that hold the muffler on have spring washers which lose their spring when they get hot. This makes the muffler vibrate loose, resulting in a very lean engine which can quit if you keep flying. (submitted by Gary Benade, thanks Gary :) 1. The nut that holds the main needle on the carburetor could be loose from the factory. 2. Also check the nut that holds the throttle lever arm on. 3. And the bolt that holds the barrel in. It is the one that goes in at an angle.

Muffler bolt

Muffler bolts

Carb nuts and bolts

Dirt in If you find a loose link and find the plastic link still snaps on another ball fine, plastic links then suspect dirt in the plastic link. This grinds on the metal ball. Change both the link and the ball. Tail blade grips Check for slop in the tail blade grips on the tail hub. If it is very loose that is a sign that the nuts or set screw going into the hub has backed out. If it is just a little slop that could just be the fit of the blade grips on the bearings. If that is the case you can sand a little off the inside of one grip and that will allow it to squeeze closer to the bearings.

Rotor head A flying buddy had an in-air boom strike that we believe to be caused by the double link double link on the rotor head breaking, so check yours for fractures caused by a previous crash and make sure they fit on the ball good. If you can easily pull

them off then you need to replace it. Locknut As part of your pre-flight check, make sure the bolt and locknut on the loose on the bottom of the main shaft is secure. Note: do not overtighten or this will cause main shaft the autorotation hub not to work. (tip came from Bob Cardone, thanks Bob) Bolt through auto hub I found this bolt was broke in 3 places on a crashed Raptor of a friend of mine. I helped him put the crashed Raptor back together then we flew a tank through it and while fueling up again, we found the head of this bolt was gone. A section of threads and another section of threads with the nut on it was all that was left. This very easily could have caused another crash. So after a crash or hard landing check this bolt. Also make sure the bolt is not tightened too much. This will help cause the bolt to break. After 534 flights Raptor #1 had worn out the start shaft bottom bearing block. My guess is the bearing got too much dirt in it and eventually locked up causing the bearing to rotate in the bearing block. It melted the frame and covered the bearing with a coat of plastic. I regularly check this by slightly pushing on the gyro to see if the tape tries to separate. I typically have to replace the tape that came with my Futaba gy401 gyro about every 500 flights using 15% nitro fuel. If you fly 30% then it will greatly shorten the lifespan of the tape.

Start shaft bearing block Gyro tape

b. The Printer 1. The Brief History