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JUDITH FRANCISCA SACA


685 Venice Boulevard, Venice, California, 90291
(310) 822-9560

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"Oanzas Indlgenas"

• BIOGRAPHY

• RESUME

• PRESS ARTICLES

(Slides of arlwork- available upon request)


NtXa.bU Hu ' ..(1fttriclm Womm B.

Uni6n Mujel"~ Amcricanas literuy pme. 1962. and lh


Utcr:uy Prize: o{thc Year from the Imtiwto Pucrteniqueno
1970.

Sources:

Boo..

L1 Tntista tU1 Cmuu t.U Estudios Avcn:.ado.l' tU Puma Rial, E


Uribe, Department of PUerto Rican Studic:l. CQlteT fot
..\.dvanced Studi~ on Puerto Rico, 1989, p . .25.
Rivc:n de A1va.rez, Joscfina. Dicdo114riO dI litnaturtf,
~ Instituto de Cultur.:J. Pucnorriqucm. 1974~
pp.158-161.

Other

Riven. Carmen, tdephone interview with Pam Betry, Scpo


temba 9 and 10. 1992, Sanjuan, PuertO Rico.

MlJril1 TIff34 Babin

second husband, Jose Nieto, il Spanish-bom e:onegc pn> Judith F. Baa


fl:3sor. In 19157, il bock entitled 1A gCS14 d6 Pu.trfD JUco Wil3
publiohed, as well as AntoIop> po;ua: II. E _ Ribm>
(1946-)
Chrvrnrumt, written wichJaime Luis Rodriguez. And Babin Artist. muralist, professor
left Washington Square ColIegc to join the !aaIJ<y DC
Ldlman Collcgr: o{lhe City l1niYc:rsity ofNew Yon GMldu-
ate Center. It was during hc:r tenure at Lehm:an Conege. JUdith Francisca Baa ruu risen from the role of pre:-
19S9...72, that Babin founded and he2ded the tint Depart. miere mUI'llJist of the streets of Los Angelc:l to that of an'
ment of PuertO Rlcm Studi~ in the Unit&!d States. intenutioru1I chronicle:". In more than (wo dll:Odes o~
painting 12rge-so1e projecu. B3Cl'lu.s sought to c1isplay
In 1970, &bin took on the 3dditional d\1ti~ ofproCessor the nutory;and eu!ture of a variety of races in her artwoR..
of Spanish at the City University of New York Craduate In :o.ddition to hc:r work as. a inuralist and community
Center, me W3S named profcs.scr emeritus in 1978. Once organizer, Baa helped found the: Social and Public An
apin, Babin blended he aodemic duties a.t both Lehman Resource Crnter (SFARC) in Venic!:' California. an organi--
CoUcgc and Ci.ty Univcnity with her writing c:areer and .z:uion dcdie:ated to the promotion and cultivation of Latino
prOduced a nwnbcr of notable litt:rary worn. induding artisu. Baa's .statUre in the an world ro.se with her project
four wdl-n:<:eivctl. books; 1M p..Mf1D Ru:tnU' Spirit: 'Thm the "Crcu: Wall," the 1:l.rgest outdoor mur.U in the world.
ltislQry. Lif. """ Cu/llm. I.4 pam. galUfo d< C.- Lc=. He- next large-sole public 3rt project, the "World Wall"
Es:udios Lorquiano$, and Cmio]Jif;u'ro tUNt"ff'Wio R. CmuJie. which i3 a .study of envuiooing 3. world. without fQt.
includes participation by international artists and tw been
Although busy with her variOU3 fuU·dme toching posi· displayed in locations as diverse as Corky Pad in Mosc:ow
tiOtU and writing -wgnmenu, Babin :lisa found time to and the Smithsonian lrutitution in Washington. D.C. "A
share her extensive knowledge md love of Puerto Rican pivou.l figure since the early 19705 is Chicano muraJisL.
Culture and literat~ with omen by lectUring at numerous teacher. and communitY a.crivistJudy B3C1,," wrote Paul
'.mivenitiC3 i.CfO$3 the United Sr;;u.cs and co~uJ.ting with Von Blum in Z .....f~ "Her combinll!ld et:roru as a
variou:l univenitio, organizations, and government agen- muntin and artistic director of SPARC have brought her
cies. Babm. received numerous awards md honon for her national acclaim.... (Her) initial projects esClblished Baa.
worK, including several prestigious prizes for her writing, as a major public artist who!e work encompassed a COI1l"
the Instituto de utcntura Puenorriqucna !iter.ll'y pri%e, mun:ll. process cu1min:lting in vivid.. .sociaJly conscious
1954, the Atenco Puenorriquc:do literary prize. 1955. the imagery."

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!l.c>

by the Sistcn 1)( Sc.joscph Carondelet.. A YCU" l2.tc:"


wouJd m:uT)' at the ~ge of 19. The m:trriage would w:
~
yc:lt'S. She: rewmcd to her :ilim. mater to (cach af,
rccci..-ing a b3chclor' j dc:grce in art. in 1969 from C:tJiCor::
SQtC C'cive:3ity in Northridge. "TInt ~e yor. she er
barkcd on he" first coope-:uive ;an: venture when :si
rounded up a numbcT of cthniC111y dive~ nudenL:!
D3int ::L mur:li ae the schooL It was -a method to force to;
group inco coopcnaon." .she: :s:l.id. 2. method she: ""OU
employ time 100 ag3in in her future projeC'.Ji.

&let's days al the high school were numbcn=d.. Ba


txame involved widllbc: poee movc:ncnt:a.gainst the w
in \''It'.:( :"un and put:icipaLed in marcho. along3ide m~:
~(the nuns who also taught at the 3Chool A change in c
school'" adI:ini.nnnon resulted in a nOtorious incide:
~c: purge of the N."-ldD3.ny Elghttt:1," she: said. Ten nur
BolO., md seven other lay toehers wen fired for their:u:
.....-u ;.cti>.-icc:s. Shortly thcrc::Uter' the rest of the nuns wi I
d.-"ew from opc:ruing the 3d:tool in protest of me: u[ic
BOlCl Aid she was "quite a;:;.urru.tized°' by the ~nl, for s.
1)diC"."ed her tclching career was over.
• .- ~
... '_.,.iJ How~!'. Sao. soon found employmenl in a spc,:;
Progr"4JTl: for artists with the Gry of l.o3 Angdes Cultu:
juJiJA F. 8= .~'hin Division. Baa tnveled from schools to p:ar'
tc=':lChing ut. eve:1tu:ally forming her own group. ,·t
V"'.I3W ~~ .. ,he said. 'lbc groU?, m:lde up of 2{) k:
r."m fcur differt::l~ganS'and neghborhood groups, painl
her first mural for her, in Hollenbeck Park. '1be city \0-
SaC2., a secDnd-genC'r.ltion QUQJl3., waJ bor.l. S-:ptc:m· amazed;t the work I w;u doing," she rcCl.1Ied, "putting
be 20. 1!)46. in routh centra.! Los ..l,ngel0. Cro....ing up in muraLs with k.kb who'd I"UO director']' out ofncighborho,
the HuntingtOn Pm neighborhood.. me ~ brou~t".:p in Ce':'HetS. Tne city let me: do roy own thing. '.
a stranS' fOlate household. which included he:' mJ;d':er,
gr.mdmothe:-. :md rwo :lUnC3. one of whom wa" men!.aJI~·
retolrtic:d.. 'vVhiIc&o's mothc:r, Orte:r..s.ia.BaC1('''Sbtdrnppct;1
the 'H' beo\UC she didn't lik.c the Angie' caJl:r:g her
'Horte:ue.~" Raosaic1 in a telephone interview with Ylc::m:l ShOrtly after thc complC"Jon of the Hollenbeck p~
Martinez), workcd:U:l tire f.tcr.ory. Sao wa.s r.:Useci prim:;.ri. :r.llr:U. snme:me handed he' J. book l)n "Los Tn:s Cr.lndes'·
Iy by her gnndmother. AltholJ!h she did not know her Diego Rlvc:":1. D:a.vid Alfaro Siqueiros, ~d Jose Ceme::
father,:l mtuidan named Valentino Marcd. Baa \IoOS vcr.... Orozco-thc ~mou.s Mcxi~ munliso. and aao. beg,
happy. She rec:illed.: "It was a. very strong, wond~uL to- lCU':"l about !.he Mc:xicnlr.ldition ofmuraI painting.
rlT.Uri3rch:Li housCold.. I was ~l'"s ",~Id.. I had ;z me mid·19iO·s, she: did go to Me:::cico to Clkt: classo
wonderful playmate in my grown-up :lunt .",ho ~'t m:Jnl mate:ials 'UU1 technjau~ at Siqucirw', studlo :lJ
grown uP.in her hCld. It was like she w:I.S five. my ~g:t:.l)n;y
she was big. ,.
tr:lvc!ed. :lrCund the COwltrY look.ing it the mur.tls. -r
pret:edence oC all mural painting in Amc::'ic:a lies with l
Tres Cr.:mdc=." me S3id in:an in~ewwith.-\noM:d33pi:
When Sao W3J six her mothcrm3rricd CQ.rence F~Tj &0. is tinnJy fi.'CC'd in that tradition. .01 bc.!ieve Clking an
and m~ to Plcoima. wnere Baa would spc:nrl he the pr:ople is _ politiaJ KC.·' she .said. echoing her fa:
for:na.u~c y~. She .-cn.c::nbc:rs Wt .she spoi:.c E.-:gfu:~ ~n. "r Lon a McUo.n munJ p2inter in the true sensc. b
POOrly In ele.on~ school J.Dd fclt vet"V 3lien in tt!.~ ! ~nd, i( ~o the nat level To lc.eQ an ut fonn Jiving, it h
~ool She ::ttisxd liVing :n 2. Spanish-5pc::ajng housc~old to grow 3I1d c:han~."
Wlth he:- gnndmothcr. who Strled behind in .south coU<1J
Los ..\nge..'e5. Oueofthu aiien.:lCion. ho~, c:::une he UMt aaa. in Los .~gdcs. with the sUpport of the: dty 5m
?PPOruutity to Pr'aC'..icc art. Her te:u:hcr ~lo....ed. he" to ::;il t.ehind her. 8a.o. ~dcd her ?"'gr:un into rhe CICf""i>
In :t. COr:"l.a 3nd. paint. while the rest o( the!' dass o....,.;e1l)n.
Munl P:-ojl:C"_ .-\lldSt ~O muni.s ~ painted unde:- h
sU9C'f'Yision. Baa em rightfully cbim to be the: ant in l
Baa gr:tduated in I!)64 from 3bbop Alemany High .\nge!es to _ark with muJticuJruraJ youth to produce ::-
dtool. a Cuholic sc."1ool in Mission Hm.s. ClJifOr.IQ.., t"..m ::Us. "W:ills wen aJrcdy used 4S community billboards
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Baca

L~.so the e:xtc.sionofgnBiti to im1ges was nOltbatbig:a. cf the pancb p:rinted by B.acJ. U'C '"Triumph. of the Hen."
lap to rrulkc." me aid in ber telephone infe:"Yicw. "Nonviolent R.c;,utanCC'.," "New World Systems." "1bl-
ana:," "Hwmn Based T e:dmoiogy,'" ~ to SQOh.iPS. ~
Hcr'mO$t ambioOU1 project during the. 1970s was the ;md "Triumph aCme Hands." The paneb wiD usc striJting
"Crc:u W:ill, a hall-mi1c: long namuivc: mutaJ painted on
to imolgery lO prc:scnt 3peCfic allegories.
<be Tujunga Wa>h ~ anal in San Femondo V>Ilcy.
it:! subject is Los Angdo' mu1ti-ethnic history from neo- In her artist's SCltemO[ fer ··Wcrld Wall." Baca wrotc:
lithic timo up to the 195{);, andencompaJSO'uch evc1U~ - ... Many oC\U re:ad]oaathan Schen', Feu ojtJu E.crth. in
the .Freedom Bus Rides. Japanoc: •.uncric2n Internment which he .wd thou we must imagine the evenwa.lity of
during World Wull. tbe gn::u DuSt BowfJoumq. and the nudor war WOR we an change our d.cstiny. It OCCJn'ed
infamous Zoot Suit Rioa of 1942. The "ereu WaIl" w:u to Inc b.ter th2t it....., n~t imagining destrUCtion that W85 so
painted over fiye swnmen in nine yon: Bac::l ~ped 1w'd lO tn but mber imaginiDg pe:u::e. One of the: JWdenu
the concept, hired. people. and helped I'2lSC money ror the on the 'World WaIl' teLm said, 'ls pc::at:e C'Ylef'YODe .sitti"S"
projea. ";bich .she likc:ned in a. tdephone inu::rview to around wau:hing rv?' If we c:::lJmO[ ~ peace as U1
"devdoping a. miliary cnampmcnL" - aaive CODttpt. how an "'te: ~ bope for it lO happenr

aaca bcpn to JCt:: the value in worXing with ciiw=se Cr=ing the: World Wall ""I"'cialIY waddog wilh c!liJd.
grou~ to cre:ue public an. MIt niIl is ~ only ~.le of rc:n-was a labor of love. In ~ Baca. rccouncr:d an
inte":'"Jdal wort chat foc.1Sd on working on I'2ci:JJ difTc· ~ c she oftc::t did with hcryoung 2.Isj1cmcs. She ulted
e."1CO in Los .~=- 11 ~ not only a. mural p ~ but
them to pthe:' in ~ large cirde U1d hold out their hanm.
it addrl:!Sed. ethnicity and 2Cknowicdged the ditraencl:3 ~ And then YOu'd see all thC5e wondc::ful litt!c hand1. thee:
between cu1tunl groups." $he.said. Using the "Grell Wall" little b..",m £ini=. .wbby h1W. h=d5, 1Iim-fing=<i
project as 3. model.. Sa.ca. went an to found in. 1976 .the white han~. all these various hands," Baa reolled... Then
S~ciaJ and PubticArtRdource Center(SP.UC), In Vernee.
she would tell the: te-::nagcn: '"We need <:very ~d here.
Cilifomia.. The non-profic. muilicu1tl1n.1 ~ cemer contin- Wt: h:lve nine wecks and we b:Lve MO feet of wall, it's thC3C
UC$ a. progr.un of involving;umu. comrnUDity groups and l=ds _ wiD make that.•
youth to present and prt:sc:rve mur2Js and olhcr public an.
The im~a.tionaDy ~ a1te:nacive art a:na:r J.1.so
bow~ an;arch.ive of more than 16,000 slides of public art Oesoice her ,ucccs on n.umcrotn levels. Bact. has strUg-
from uouod the: world. gkd With nising funds: for ber work. In :I.tI. interView with
the lAs Angela- Tnna, Bac:a s:rid it wu "irooic" th1t she: h:Ld
''World Wall" Mural btablisbed RcputoDoe received more support for the "World wan" from abroad
thm on ;l leal Jcvcl She: said olber countries have soon-
soce:1 visits for her aud he:' :asUstants by providing 'fTer
In 1987 Baa cnbartl:d on an CYC1 grande:" projea. ilCCOmmodatioru and othC':ln'2Dgcment! but thatsbc l?d
"Wand. Wall: A V'uion of the Future Without Fc::u-.'· 113 bc= tumed down by ~ influential U.s. foundatio",
theme of global impora.nce,. war, ~ md cooperation :md :let c:ouncih.. However. she did seco..u'e funding from
greo.... out ofbnio.norming sessions W'lth pcopk sdected. to groups including the: Rodc.e!e!lcr Foundation. the Worn·
provide cultur.t.l diVt:r.rity 3nd c:xpC"tise in ~ of concern en's fow1d:uion. ~d Art:o. 'rnte intention is to acne a
to the project. The porable tnUt"3l is made oC X"tC:l. lo-by· dWogue of a vision of the future where there: 'Will be 2.
.3Q-fOOt pmel.s to be painted by aaa ant! arranged. in a !OO- world without fcar;o she told the LtJs AngdG Tz:ma. .0&
foot se.'"I1i<irdc. With four p:aneb completed. the: pttt: artists. we have tht: powcr of spreading icic2s. and this i.! :3-
premiered. in Finland in june 1990. It the Q'%VCcd. to the way in which the power of ideas an move around the:
Soviet Union. when' it W2.1 displayui in Gor1ty Part.. 111c world... she said.
munl includes sncn pandS to be painted by utisa !rom
me countries in whidl it wU1 be dispLayed. Thc:sc additional
pane, will be hung on the outc' circle. Baa'J art n::±1ccD her commitment lO 2d.drosing JOcia.I
iIls. This interest. 'he: c!2iuu. nems from being nixd by
for Bac:::L the jump from producing murals with neigh- her snndmotha, who'" >h. d<3cribcd .. being • ""1'
~ bornood. groups to werling 'With zrtists from uound the: rdig::ous penon and the ccighbcrhood', resident h~c:-.
world ~ :l natUta.l tr2IUition. '"My idCl was that what wc She an rec:ill that her grandmother used herbs and pnycr
had learned with the in~ wort in Los Angdes could to make her wdL She bciieve:s that her artWOrk exhibit.!
be applied to an intenwional scope, from the neighbor- much of me ccnscientiousnos iwtiIIed in her by he!'
I'1OQd to the global" she :mid. '"The World Wail ~ an g=u1motha "'"'usb <b. ~ of healing and makin,
utempt to pusb the scue of 3I'U in lD'Ur2fum jQ ~t the the family work. "(My wod] focu.sc:s OQ social1trU.8'8'1C.
mur.U c-c:atC:S its own ~ It makes io own lpace issues, :u.uJ ills that come 3.bout from r.td:sm." she saic:l
and c::U1 be :wc:nblcd. bv any DeaDle ~ .. Second.,
she asked the participating uUsa' to aa u vi3iorw-:=. to BaahoJd:s amaste's: degree inntfrom Uliromi:a.Seat.~
envision the fuwce withoutfe:u-, she Aiel The l'DUr:J.I, when Univc:sity at Nonhridge 2%1.d U a. full profes$Or of art:lL the
completed. -will be llfOl'!dowidc: col1a.bor.Wcn. .. The tides University of UliComia. at Irvine.
Great Walls Unlimited: Neighborhood Pride
Putting Communities and Artists Together
A MODEL PROGRAM

The Social and Public Art Resource Center (SPARC) Is a multi-culturaI arts center that
produces, exhibits, distributes and preserves pUblic art works. PubUc art is a vital part of
every culture because it exists where people live and work--in schools, OD public
transportation and In our neighborhoods. SPARC Is particularly committed to enhancing the
visibility of work which reneets the lives and concerns of America's diverse populations,
including ethnic groups, women, career people, the youth and the elderly. The ultimate
purpose for all of SPARe's programs is to eIaJDine what we choose to memoriaUze through
public art and develop alternative processes for the creation of public monuments for
communities.

Administered by SPARe, the Great Walls Unlimited: Neighborhood Pride mural program began
in 1988, when SPARe received funding through the Los Angeles Mayor's Office to produce
nine new murals within the city. Six years and over sixty murals later, the Neighborhood
Pride program is going strong, serving as a model program to cities across the country.

The Great Walls program has several goals: To foster community pride among the people
living In the areas where the murals are placed; to beautify neighborhoods with InsPIrin&
works of public art; and not least to provide young people with the opportunity to learn
artistic skills firsthand under professional guidance. For many oCthem, i~ is their first formal
exposure to art.

Great Walls Unlimited is inspired by the model of the Great WaIl of Las Angeles, the longest
mural in the world, located on Coldwater Canyon Avenue in the Tujunga Wash. In this
project, which lasted from 1976 to 1983, artists worked with local youth teams and solicited
community advice, producing a public mural monument, thereby making a lasting
contribution to life in Southern California through art.

SPARC's mural program is an important nationwide model for developing publlc art for
ethnically diverse neighborhoods. Careful selection of artists ensures the compatibility of
the artwork with the sites. Muralists include both locally and nationally recognized names
as well as first·time muralists.

Through Great Walls Unlimited: Neighborhood Pride, SPARC supports artwork that expresses
the many cultures and interests in Los Angeles. Together, these murals eloquently reflect
the multi-cultural nature of the city for which they were created, making a free outdoor
gallery of the streets.

For further information on SPARC and its many programs, please call or write:
685 Venice Blvd. Venice, CA 90291
(310)822-9560 -1'a1: 13101 827-8717
Ul.6 Angcles (Urncs
'~,' .
too.: .

.'

Is L.A.
Public Art
;:
aPie in
~.~.the Sky?
Let critic
Christopher
Knight show
you the high
.points, tfgm this
~u1/Jture ~ched 1
". over a Venice
t.:~·.. ....
'¢terrection to an
qnc mUral
-
al6ng a
city !lood ch~l.
. "
I
I
..'

~,Page4c:' .
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'* ... ~"'..,1t" ............. •_or_
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CO\Tr~ ::IOl~)

Not Just an Exercise in Futility


Public art is almost always
controversial but sometimes
it's even popular. .As it be~ome$
more commonplace, isn:t it

---- - .-- ... - --- ._---- --_.....'.. , worth considering a few


pieces that really work?
By ChristoPtter Kaicht

M ·G~al \\"~Il of LA...· u"furhn, for nNr,.,

T
S.~
Th~
punted
half a mi~ alonf an unlo~ejr ("O;'>Cl'C'It' no.><l
e~
Nortl';
~

mu:-al. a
lh.Il sllCft Ihroulth Va" :\"U.H an(:
Holl~·"..aod.mllFI ~IY rani; amoroe Ihe
p;Ilntlnp anp"he,"" In lh~ l'nlle'd

lCOlle;.\" linkf'd sNIU<n« 0; 41 J<'Cm',


,"~lttenll~' btl ...... n 1m 'O...c 19S3. lei;. a..,
alllIOlIl cirmnaue: hLl'tory of Cah;omla from the preh",.
\.OneeralD thepraoml d;I~'.
A$iOe fnlrn Ihe adchl.'· of 'UI mammoth AU. lM m"r,,:
a.bo n",lu: u a SlJTUficanl and compelL"'ll ..vrk gf ""hhc
ar.-.. sarwllIlt Ii'... : IS no ,,,,,"Ii aehl("'e~nl In that
IYP)l;;l!J~' be~ucred re.>lm. :\"ol.l.blC SlXC......~ CI Lh,'
pUblic-an ".nre ...... i..." tholn .. bu~nL. even tl\oul:h
tJM, I~lci .. 1~~i1Slnll In '''Slbih'~' lhroullltoul l..o>
A.Ies,
What ,t U :h..1 m.. keoc !'Om<' pu!ll,e U\ <'Clio ...."leI
I'e5OI.lIld lIl\he 1"",S"""uon, "'hile """" of lI;u.t MM of
sit-r theTe. Ioaklllg "a"OU$l~' pompoltJ or ;o:-;orn,
:umoyin« ~ loc!iff~1. In Ihe "'a.~ CIT out o! place7
Why 0Cl lOme "'orks of .. n set'!!I born to ,."'J<tl.,.
inMOlI the ptIblK realm ....11ler ,~" \Q :'t'qUIl'C' Lh-r
mol"f encloH<lwwid of th!' llalk-r.'· ;1nd m\l$C\lm 7
n.e QU8UOn "" wanh eon5ldc:n1lfl'. In par: tl«"..ll&<'
pubhc ~ .. iI('comiO-!l t'Ot1lmonp~ In LA. and III parI
btcause !he IflIn ill l!$elf of pnl S1rn"flCa~.
Art iI: ~. to a e'VlIl;r:t'd ...·orld. Thl'Olll!t>out
history.lJOv~t$ of aU k,m.. have bH-n pnnc"""
~ for ..,-.. . In orMr to aclue"e .. ovilW!d d=>oc... _
c~·. publIC pa\r'llnfiltl' . - to ~~all' U\ in lhe pUbJl1'
,,"IPl.
'I'he prolll~hDn of publlC ..n Ioe~Uy,~ a mull of ~h.,
cwnu..l.aun "'I.e'" of fedl:n1. sla'" and (:ny !aWl..... h"'h I'
"btpn.-ith the lUuanaI Endowmcml fCIT lhe Aru' An •
in Pubhe Ptaca p:lIJRIII d the I.aUl IS6OI. TClll.ay. man:
th;f.r. h;t./f the 1Il.a1"" ;and a...ns
"f Clt~ m;r,r.cl.ale
I
pen:enl_I«.an wmPli~ lram a mix of puW..: anc! ..
pnn"'de..lup",s.
Sanl.a "oruca.
Clllwr CIty ..nd l.D$ A"lIe,"", arc
"raonc lClui ~ t~1 r~ a port"", of
redev,,1apcoenj. or cil.• COftS\1VC1JCITl funds to be ok"utl'd
to the comrnssaoni"ll' ~ ~UtIi'I of publie work. of
an. A bfc bcul lw _ ltom MetJ'Q Rail .....,th iU
hiChly vl:Sib~ SlO-mLllio:ln AM lor Rail Tn"mt Pfqt'Ct
..-hK:b has invol..w UliIts m $\IbW')' Sl.;f.tJCJll dt'sIlft\.
In IOSlliDn top:lVernme>tI." f"", pnv'le IocaJ entities
a1Ic Itf... becoIDe mVDIwd. Foun:tatlans .. nd incll'pl'nd_
mt reaJ-etate Oevelopen ~ an mten<!<'d not
I« prjva", 0CIIIIlllIIpU0n but lelT the publIC realm.
Cuau'D. . . . cm&inly a~'t aL"'" IG lhe """fII'c1. I
SClmeumeI .. lIPft:ifie \lIOri: ell'*" a flap. as happencod in I
19111 wben • conp"I:IIm.In .Ind • fC!denI.iudl!' o/;IJc'elCd I
to. newletliplural ef"oRmole by Tnm Ottnnas.ll 1....1'
Roybal Fedenl BuiJdut&: dcJ""nlOWTt. (Their ClO;ecUo.'UI
did not prn'Iil.)
I'I-.
Otbe" tinl<f$. u in a l"Ktn1 stomI in Cul""" Cit v oyer I'
. whether .... not \he quality of Mwly buill .....,hit«lul'C' .
......1oCIZ\'O"-'"'QOC I ... _ _ c:auId le:I!UDWoely utJlly .. pertt'tll-ror.an 1"I'OU1l"t:'.
ment.. it is the Jarwu phlkMlphy of public an that "tues
I',
~ T [ . . .'": Terry Allen', head~ bron7J: ac Cirirol'Jl P\az;a is all too lttOptaat!k-hr is IlL t1wbea\. (Tba~~ stUlsimme>'s.)
Pl'od\ll:1l'l( pubbe' a.., II b«om1nI 10 f~r an bet_ ttwm. ADd lbe di&IoI\R. as wtUI an)" po..~ be ~ on perpru.w
cIispla)\ tMre IIIlQ ~ roc= ~~r
-,unl,. II: r- A~Ies. _lull' _ ~ tJw .:onwnation.. S'OI!"' be .-ort..'l mucll ID'IloI!II I!Iorn L"e V1ol'Wff7 ""to ~ bI\ lI'I ~ o:onten~ l.'lan Lhtft" .. !Ir.:
\OpK: mD&ilIllOI ~)' blurred. ~ t. fou:-.d.ly plenty of opmmc:s Ie:' u u,,~ pubIk to ~ all V\IS\'J b1c:.IK"" of.u
D ~~. fillinlcp:::r
conl~ includlnl t.., Gays o! pana cIixIIaicns i:L IpKe.
Friday and sawrday It I.M BiI~ Houl ..... baWwd Seulpur Siah ~ ~ hu ~ • .-eaI For e¥tdeMe. IoDk arWIlIII 10'00.... A1tilou(h 1M
Ul apIonlU!!WI)' ~ ~ u 1 -ens oIJl1,lb1X:In ~ lbeCOUDlrY. once IIUllltIft$ we trIOda\-L.- Anftles ha$ ~ _.
""Public An. ReallWs. Tlleorie$ aDd . . . . .~ '"It.b ~ lbe crur;:aJ ~ or auilIC f..u tbt what bdIilldauessuehuX_ ro:i<.~Vlli~·e:'l
bKkmIJ t:om lIM ~ IJU Counl::il. lIM e-mu. IaiddIl!D. ~ ~ c:ornat ...Iom l:IllkiIlI pubhe an. Seoullit in pnr.'llUIl( po:bfit :an_"",,", on'Pt~1
Dity R _ ~ ~ -the
CullW'al AlJan ~ Yill IttemPt
cst"', wwk ~.as indHd bftn compiow<l r~ ...
lbe IulIO 01' 12 years. Ie. \~. v.fno:l
to addreS lbe ~ m:m ulll'lll1lLlJ&la - - at tile . . . to __hell 1.M .er.....
• ~ -..ra. as ..d/ U 1M ~ oj tomImt· I
~ ilL of eourM. DO . . . ~.
bullet _ to lIM...-..on 0/. _Ily _
""""'I 1ftK~ ~ "·!'I>c:t. '\
C<lIDI!I II:to ~ II
putJbc art......u and _ d-.'- 'Tbe ...'lIalfolJo)ws ... M'Iecuo::>.t.... ""mn:w
"'G1'Ul. W~ 01 LA..~ _ ~y ~~.otfjye ....u_k.l:iooo.." ..~1<s i
pruc!l.ftd by - tJI ~ drawn
_1llJIQI!I-'" ~ 01
0/. pubIx L"'I.. 1'lIot hs: ~ ~ 10
~ • YWWI..l' « ~"peI d JIl'ClIKU.
f
!:'cal YW1DIlS
t!Ie public:. 1<;101 couk! Ia}'. ""lPPd II!
maltiI'I' publiC an_blrI ochI'r. amd&r1y
"""'.....""'Wd in I VW'IftY 01 ...,.,~. .. T."o
..-- IlIoaICR ~ • ~)' ..... dUI af
I
...-r-:I_~_ _ daD't_ ~ PD'IteJ'S ~ ~ "'i>o
dca ID eurtl:lW !he ~ ..... ,..u d. Nptd ~Vft ~1Cl1!,. AI puD'.lC
the ~ lAo'an.- aniNo O'lrft -... IlCll. •
Sysmuuc fonnlll.u jw;l dal"t wort. b' If tlIiI cl!Vft'W crouP Q...,
be sud 10 "... ~
an_wh>c:!l _ Dllt W iii:" Uwy doIl't pi. ~ 1ft - . It IS ceK .-.r. ~
tne4. FllI' 1ftSUDl:lL. rubD.I conyeftlal 01 CI'UllOftof:o.., iru~ ot,tc"_ ::r...."' ....
pubUc an \OGi:y _ tb.a1. tbilrouIIh ""*r· "1J ~ lO be loobd.t IX' '-_1II~ o!
n-=a cI 1lw pubbc: IlW 1ft w~ tbI ... aMW lM:" ha>.-e.all 60De u..:. -
...n triJ..I aIIl II' ~ '" UM u-t·s Crnx:aI \0 their IUttftJ III lhe lI:>Q.C.":'.
-. pCl9Ot1" u.- oqrcu: and pbal lis'""
l:)
So_WUSlSU')' lOco=pt'ehellds siw plvan:ze tb m'~, ..-heft <1"...,.
by beclollulW .-."'dMn-SJl _ ~. FIX' I'ubbt.n.. o:ontnl. is C'I'\>C".al •
hlsuIrian. ~ : ,raphet',.".
th.""'fIOloIlSL 11M art ~y
~
p:"Od\Xlt tlltlI-
..·...1 !las bMI'l daKo.ert'd dlll'ial
'Great W.II of LA.'
the~txlft. .., ... _ _ .........
~ GI the dulJeR. _ Lediou$ly
academoe pubbc an ,.u lIUlk Wt ...,..
StillnctOl\lycloa!be In«llod t'Iouri5h. u's '1'CIOIY CAIDUr': Sida Armljanl$ ouldoor TOOI'D lOr ~ and dvtrinJ.
.-r_ A"
AfriaII spbonsm ....ens tNt n',
1M I_.-ho ~ 10 It'll the~· of
roftlu\lJhtm.rudKds, the Ia:<lbro. In tile ""GlUt w.1i of
One I'eQtlD n tltnyU III WI II mues for LA...- lM ivIlbl -.uuly uke In-
an art WI', cay \0 e:q:JWn.. And public: an.. wlike an h ~ ~ «.he:" lJqa the ~ iUuRJ"llted pllcoo althe pod".....
IIlSolk in the pnvaey oJ tile stlldill, UIUldly needs ranrclnopnllftll>e1lttodio}·, The puntinl;, fonna1t}· IJl1focl :he ""~;l War!'!
upWrDq_lou 01 It. eoven !>den n I'¥W ~ ........ -In publx: an.- Am>a)anI told mterV>eW'tT Cal'·m 3olunl, HIIUI"~" of C.M:......_~ brf1n." ..,tll I btl of
The p1an n~ \0 be n:plaineC' lO pauons IlI'K! Tomkms Itt 19S1O, ~ II no room!Ol" f _ on tM t'fO. CUlOAur_ltuddtd Fft,Ul.Dr)-, qt:lCkl~· JUfI'ltIl' <li>e;lc! '"
commnues 01 bUTNlICnUl and reY_ Iloanis and Yau have \O,et lost III tMt:Onlen of lhework.- _ 1M nrl~· m'pUOll of HtllertI fl"O:;"l-....... In the' f;:ll.
poIiticiI.ns mel fundml! ;qfcncM!:l_.ny or aU of..,1lCIIll ConvenllOllaJ ..1Idom has tonI hekl thai the f~ "Illlennl\lftl and ~n eeu ~, .., 'I' main pu~.
may rqan! ~ an •·...h NlPlC:lOlL The show-and- rqn of ...""tlSl.K: flO COIn "Teak IIsvot Wlth.rt dI:fI.,nt'<! lellml ~IllOIltc.nont1'of IM-~ bc:IWft'II !'O'P""'"
telllcl>ool _ _ 60ubts by "\'~I e.tTYClOe. comfon· for the ptIbtic rnlm. Con ..~uo.... 1 'Il'1SdQm I\u bH'n ...... Ind libenuon for cthrno: mtnOnUC'S...-omen. J.......
sble iJlllest.Or}' 10 t1lIbnee. rilhL p~' men and le.IlNoov. Oust Bowl rl:f~ Llbor
ConYe:monllJ ""\SIloIr: al.lo hal il thai sllsU'Kt an w Yel II hun·1 'OM 1M filii llifu.nce. SotICe t!"..at Ol"pnlZcn. pollticsl clw:lOknua:'l<!........,.
~I avOt6ecl in pub!lC pIKes, IlIK't abslrac:uon III Annajani cbd IlOl 'IltO!y ,,-IIOIl' ir.L"Il'I.e q'o~ POW Ot/1e.c\·~nl$<lo rei t!tl'OnlCLed a!oru: ~ .·:..·. .uch u
S1lPpcoedJy Irltompal1ble wllh U:e IIItt1"UU of a..... problems. ~Ol' t!Id h.. limit the il!t'nl1t~ of who II is ......al Ih.. ~\·"I""m('lll o! ,he Il1O.,.. lIIC!unr)·· ancl Ih..
pubh<:. If lhal·. t~, """y IS h thai Msrs Un·. finally needs 10 !;Ie !"t;ease<l able ·'10 ,..t IclSt ,n ,hi: mobihzsuon of emun troops", Worlo:! Wal'll 1 ano:! II,
bruthtski", Vielnam Vetel"Sou 101"""",,,1 III Wahlnl- <:olI1.U1 of l!'le wart..~ But.. ..·,tll rOlJ"t'('~~lOn,lh*, III not a h1Sl.On' of lh~ ,.,..t~
lOn, 1JIt' IlIIlI'le ,,"Ulnt_snd mor. ww:lel~· heloY~- The often Cisreprded. f<lel II thll, It ,m'l onl~· \M ulOId Ihl'OlJf:'1: tlle hYKof btsbllAAmenl f;lt'J"t$.
work or contelllponry public: SM. il: W lInll~ :SUItS. II arlilll's tlI'O thai mllSl. bt' COlISCIOUSly It! UIOt' for As tueft. it 11 also a "",nu~ 10lMftlloSIISlvmeuof
.n -....nCt Kwpu.re~ .uccessful public arL W<:.1\lSt tht'l't' are 1.'0 I'da In tM 1M CIYi! ",hIS """'('menl Ibn'tll« the.' {<lte/111 penoc! 'n
pub!ic an equation. ilIt burnptioul flO of l.tlt' ""'lron "'''ICh lh.. m....~l ".... ~, .. well as 10 lhe munlllltJ
o eanlllltlctJllSlumlJt'h/'llyocuWKllNllve.ofllte ..'1'\0 m.ae it.. Th~ P.tlnUIIK WItS t'ftCUlecllII f,v.. to".
Seit!leT. brililani UWlIC fotm. bYI:Hlf, nor s nch uun. Cllllnb_I976. 197'8, 1990. IIlllI alX! 19!3_"~' ~,vr
pubIie lite. by 'tMlf. ill mourlt to pl...",u a work of When the public or lU ....".......,LI\.lY_tlle p&11'ON fI'OUIlS of mW'.1 mskt'l"S. mostly yo..",. poeople ;lnc!
PIIblic an. SecaMr)' umud IS s IPUkh", ~ for public: L"'\_<lemancllhll ilS prideful ViIo\ of 'u.elf Pfftw_~.\;

. .' .. . ... - ,- ..... , ,;.. .., ~ ,... ,... . _. ~ ~ ,~~.'.-


~l -AU: ~ LA.": The !IIIur.aL pcainttel ~. 187 .. nisrs from 1'116 lO 1911. dt"pins * hit~, orearrfoi'ng arid 5 ~ monument 10 ~ ri-it rf#htS·mo\tml:'nl.
COVER:iTORY

Piililic Art
,...,.J
...
~ of m,.p
• J.q S- N £\t Jlrmtl~.
apa: tbI
Public Art a::'~ ~ r I C:r.::-.c:;n
muit.. ~ IUi.l L!:e oc:~:-...
W'pt of CilPitLeC ~...' 1liIlI.
~::.;;

Couia....
priDdpaUJ' led by vtiII. JrJdy k1
nw -G.- w.a.,c:a,n
ll'__ ~
LA..~ 1'lIiafI:
A_ _ C=ri
I ,
"''''''''11brrinf.llm-
.) WI:rili.It\.er
Tht hoI:tililt WI some ~')f'.... r::
flel ~ BcntJky',Ie\1!pt:J-"e::
wtID CCIDClIiI"f'td t!lI! projld. .md 6ft--. Bw6a.t lIoUuInI' a i tIIiMId b DfCly 'ct'tIWI'Y. e=bIealux of tbr iI."tW pc:~
bnl the ttalIlO do tL~. 0nmIStTa!t. FaA'. . ~ lOWVc! ~ ar.. 5;::
G'.dM_oI1171:1~~
. liad tlM wall. wiliie • IhiftizII
CIII
amy of "'tel wumt. eoipcnt.e 'Corporate H....' -~
tioDr",1
s.-1.,.,...,.sr.
: • f''"I' .dra .." ",., ~.

1%$
PwW Wilit. Cf-
"BaJIiIriDa Qown- fa br"Jl;m: p.......
aid)' ~ It 11.... st='.lll
YiIllal fClnD UI tbr 0lht:n.1R l:\"U.

....
--
and prinrc ...... is aim icimti. lbJt .-ill _ ellli rtl'a1m 0:
T"" ........ "IIJL..-. ' CIown' 1M. mour time..
Tbe -ere-t Wall~ buiIdt 011 an
'Caqlln1e ~~ Barcl&t~. ,,~., out lbt ~'I
ilnp:lnanl C!lIcIno U'dtioo of D-
wmblinI fiuid, lIl\lJtifacfted ye1"
Itr\ICWNcI Jl"OIlIl' of people ill
order to ~ • vital lJItene·
II that rvt
aeeomplilhmull. , lallftl-
out_loud_funn,. ICUlptU"
blclr.ed b,. , ~Ye r-..:e
that Iinpn Ionc after U. Itll:iM ,;
_E't'~ ill 0lIIIllf0nahI,. famil.
iar wttlt the .-urtnI Fanta
UIIt pro't'idt _aX IfpIp
mcx:Itrn dillmlmll iI: iiI iu pll.'i:';':
u"'dIiJwss and bope{u1 pathol. Hu
sc:uipl.lln! it &II unlikrl~' C'lVl( 'ym-
bill flll" lbt ~ t brt,,'f'C
tioa bet..'tt!1 ttSthme pis and lttiI:u and alMlientti. both of
.....,., Imnwljllely ~ as i Iar .-daI t u j - lib tbr
mc:iIII ~ The mural'.
IIIUcn WlNld ~ and -'ed. IZI ilMp-watdl for'
• ..-nbY ~ y tripp
f_=-- Ii friead!)' . . . . UIat. .IooIa __
~ __ « the IriMinc
-*- Ini! boW1d br dMpt,. t111llWl
dIsirt IIld eqaalIJ hUmll:1 fIibl:I.
IliNn:al . . . . for de$IlaiDIl.
aDd thew woald tit ~ iDUJ Wi&tl t:M ~ W«'t
of wt-lbt i BI( .".. t!la J*fUlb' atm a • J-u.- lN7'of$kJ. ~ B4JU.ritlc
pEtanaI fcrm lIDdIr tbe SI4lt"i-
lion 0/. Bla.1Ild ocber lad artiItI.
~pMlsbKkiD ..o'ocali" :
......
T..". .t.nm., __ fiItn: fII "l i ! .... on. +-_
s:iPade barpr III ,..q -....
of r...a.ide
a....- ...
~.rftQ.
A_Ill n4 Jl4iJr

---
Tblt Ol'pIliptiDIW _ of ~ - .....pabIie ICUIpDna.
IDl:IIl1tDOUI 1lIaiI1: par. UI -'r. b7 pd't'at .... 11 ..__
"stnEuInd fllliditJ'- it; bnc:illIIr
I'1!OKtad in tbr arunI.". coqaIi.
IlIi1i
e-diDlUilmdliot-'CII"l"J"/Ilr ;
'I
1'hI>' _ . . _ _ far JolI_ IU!Iitr'
- . wttletI ~ • • aIIIbaU· ,trim~"'!IiI"""".! IlM:D ....,.,.-. wildly ........
_l'IIr'I'IUYt. N 41 - . " _ - . dIe~blfcndle~llIi ~. ' fllll7 - - . -SIne.
iIakte:l..;-', 4"t ~ llIII· clowmowfl', ~ Olicarp PIa_ i rtaa 00wL- a can-idl30-foot_

I
the buraueraue lIbJ!'UlW of
IL n. &zaiIlc pc. . . . . . , :
Q
dered lib ~ pcldI ill • &all . . . . 0I1D ~JlOPIlirIr per_ dl.y,o,awwrll. pecuIiiII' iOtas
Iimp!t lIf:\ of !lcDIfe at tlw ptas ! torm.. sa. Lbt _ ft _

-,
~r
a=t ItI"ip. lz:Nad.. itt:,"
dIIIrfed.. ~y ret hat.dleli.
c( I royal paIKl! d. .IIM:ldem ~_ :
Dow In aDd out of _ aDCllhef.
~

aD lift. Simu1~. it prI_ ~


~ iI1la1l1 ~. die ICUipWra
_MIIlI~IIWtqy
e- of the - . otn1Indiah "'alI
Il'I gption provided UI .IllI.iOr LA..
~ the wall", hoIi:lI::rfIw G-
Mnta tbe f~', ipominioUl; Vatct ~ of a-
A ..... devclopm., "'M Il"t rtqUil'td b.-·
bKUIdI 10 UIt buatlizlI ctOW'lIa i :lilt ItWSlIaiI::Isa-.
wbo hllrriedl,. qomd tbt IMpI ; dlY llniirlanoe UI COI11llUt I pa-.
0.,"' [mad ~ u y hy «nap of their buildinI eOIlJ 10
hItdDr:l him. i
T he vituaJ ftfKt is tD encIoY \lit
~ of llX:iDpo!iueaJ 1\riT.
~ With • _ of both timr.
~ aDd Pf't!RlItneIL The bu·
ODe man t!IInf' Tbt broaa ~
~ hal Del bead. Or. rat!l· .
•. !iii IllldI: 1'"" 1111 tlnD die
piDkkb craDilt aIah d. die offior
a pri't'W cIII't'elGper far the rae.dt
of I a-d'1lII boiIdiftI of I:bopf.
~ mil "** ClOallDalin.
IIaI. 8cIrcIMT1 mapifieently id.
public: II'L A dtYeioptr, tf lit Of It1t
WiII'Ia. an aetiIe the option Ul I
~ tilt Pf'OJItl &I'ld !be utiIt.
_ It. wilbar.It any puticipI_
tol
- . IU'\IqIt for irldepe~ iI
~ t!lu n- lJiIln tam. ;-
~ sc:uIpa;n it -uw- tina ....\t't'eT blo' ~utives I
IbDwD to Ill" I arc
hiIu:Iry. wiIlk
~lb the potiIbed.tn. DllIIl_
Ie. poiDltd ill ~ thr
pubIle ,..." III tIct. _ ~ of
d. the public:. I
~..,.. n'abtiatl!lli lICIUIIt bus tba. _ _ "725 Scuh. Tbilia 'Pl:lIuzwideJft nriIm of '
t"te'Y «bet. ill: ItIIDDizlc "'P.itl. e fa Lbt WI)' u1Itoaaue nobl_ ~ in '
SuddmIy. tlw ..... l
F'ipItroe. p
St)1ilUc:ally•• abcp l:Il'-.k IX·
b10cU It'OUDIl i
tIl~t flll" if. III5*b UI the -oam ~ d wbidl'~~.!
an in 1m Tbe twu.mer-.1 pubIie an itIIIf. f'I'qlIind WI t1dlI~ -*Y _ _ i

-
~"'WilI:Iw~
lIbI Oft UIt "ririd .... d. '!
........... ~UII-'pnjel::t. I
"BIDeiaa ao-~ illIZI imItI d Lbt bI.a1dIId - . h hal bmClU i
't'iIaII
un. . It
.; - 01 talk art;; tM
_ _
lbe ~ ' , braia . . . ; da . .UIaa
___ I:IOlhirlc
wllo _-.apMuIrt
. . -UI' add ~ lou at lind AlIfl iIldudiq 111 i
,...,
~

'elual dJme-llOft tnielttnact i


PIIIIIP up tbt ~ ~ iI:lto ItWS ...,. Ullht world but Wt10 fa blown '" UlIIIOIIlDtI1UI tcaloI lUI I
• hicbI,. IilIplliftiated If*PIak ~ bIillf IIIade I iIJJPilJI-
- . . wtdl • dlIdDctIy hp n. aliIbOy !atI'er·lhe.1lfe- :
stod.. Ia theM brutiab limn.
Ul.T.k Tot)'D1 and • sc:ulpwraJ,'
mtlapIlor fot a lkyacnper'l JIiIh-
-.ibilfr.,.-JCIIIf 0eInIme
_ _ MIdlIaa . - . Tbe .-!lIft
er- ala fiI!,n:. wbo would be IIbout
7 fftl. lIII tf be eouId IIWld uprtpl.
!
t ~1ikI1Dmiat~IM. ueh lir.ccn:litianinI tYMm 1 _ l
. . . . . 1 _. .WlIDd~ " II 0IlC:'t flmll.", tmalelliftl, IlIld : 1bt briPtb' pClIltcI fftZlllt fi,. thtrllWlC:ia!dilux:U. i
poiInanL He • pm Nodrhad ' un: of a bta1lec. ~ UI a nuny Onr m"ftificenl uetption i
!Or tbe mur.j", tullfIet.
In all ~ me\IJIbllri. pan untfonntd alrtOnIIton.
b _ ny tnpped In IIIOOtm 1m.
pan: Ultu it parehed 011 • ~ lqll . pro\'" 1l1e Imtrallooninta of the I
cal ~ 01 ttl ~
_I&. :i
:
0.... ,10_
ilUIp In Il"ChlWClUl'll peclft:tIl: il rule. That', beeltlM \lit &rUsts. •

,.....w. v..-.
c:mtaL the lIure IDUrllI UIlfokb
IlioDI • bIIf·tIdk ItftW:l of tIw
tbt SUI hmI.sD
Wbic:b II ..,. of

CXlIIUOl. ~ ~ mio tlIt 1.af


fIood-
. her. . . IDaantIy fecopiIt him

A tn. piaqw ~ iD UIt :


Pound 11 UIt .::aIpwrt., Ie« cw· ~
,.. PIlllip LewiDt', brW poiI!IIl> i
tPOI'U hup.
Lbt biI. buLb--a muir. of I
-=-u, am. doWn.
and

w~
bobo _,... I'tCIlJa Emmeu Kell,. or
Red Slw!uIft. Ilthind the dmc:er
VlIaJy KGma:r IDti AI.e:IandeI' "e- !
I.Imld. han 111 lIIIIIIIlIlIy rood
IJ'UP of the izIto1W W«kiDp of ;
poUtie&l buraucnc,. P'O'"l' re-
Iat.iorlal1ipa ilM ,Iorioua. ciVic:-
i
I
I
...... RiYu. n. munl ~
-----'1'Il!r.., rt','_.__
"j(Jr bUazxizIa ~Y CllI poilu. , mmdedodta IOnw....... ,
,..net to c:.c.r-.
CazI]'IlIlA 'Ie-
- . amdliac .... tlw ...-m 1I··..,.,....'""'...
"'" . .11 .., I
I
'l
j
j -"DOili(lned elUUirl pro't"idea a
~ iiumY ~ t.etdnlp.
EIJIi(re fnIID Lbt 5o't'WI. Union ,
..1tlI _ a cIeadr btfon iU coI- "
tar-. lbty __ . . . , . rr- a .
..n rr- Irlnat
......so-.
iI • _ _
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~ 10

m.-I
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by tilt .
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""1Oll bmdlllnaddlt
-.rt'iclr·1 _ _ you _.......
_ lbe
,
'nllt ~ it • modem 'ra'_
Iioa d. thI aniM CIIIl: II do-!! «
i&Dd:* emeuizla'. IUIljen U1 tlw
"'Ol.UiJt . . . . 01 .._ _ f.ormI d.
-=ill md potidc:ai ~ bIIppI'Il
YIll,Il1f . . m Lbt at!iciaw.. piaoriaI i
I1ltu:Irie 01 ..sal gptift +m1llClecl '
by tbIir p"aiitiWill. Tbty know
bow U1 WI'Q It.c:m iU bIK. II
...
IpII:Ie
.....-m IYIlGI piYDtaI 10 . . , . poIlIjoQ 01 tilt bWl m UI bokIsway. nm itI:I.Ip iI at. iIut On tht JI'lIUIld floor at down.
L.L', ....,.. 11Ie tn.l dMp II old .. WI_'s Jab-Cmwry lOWl!', nn:t rm..w.e Worid Can- ,
=-- ew tIln:iuP middle·ea.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . boocb CIlIa..,.
Rid lib )'OIIr plm!! ill. !bw bdd!ld

"Corplnte a-s.- I 1111 colIIb-


~ 01 Lbt 1l'lri&l1cIIolk mimt.
""Om-.. llI" VelUq\Ia:r, pullflmt
ttl'. Kocrtw and 1It!Amid., pIlDled !
1993 nlief·munl PUllity" I, iI ;
fnlIII Hamal Dam 10 tilt I'tr'er.
W1llIre thI aa-I ~ Grant
HiIb Sc1Iool. \bt min! sud6alIy
--.
(ftUal brt_ • poet IDt! m
'1nIal 1I'I"!ttt «lid IIlUIic:ian. ill tht
.......""ina mmmlwjm fer QtI.
cmp PiuI', PaN' Walk. , p q l
I pclI"U'"Uu: of lht d ~ ill Ult
17t11-Cemur) SpIniIb CO\II'L In tht
faUCOQll c:lmII of OQDtempOnl")'
lift. 8on:laIr:y'. -BIlltMa Clown"
btluUfu!ly tHC\IUld., wUaIy fUnny
..tire 011 tlIIt rhelDric:', hard)"
A1'Im'ICIII COUIin. lu Nh;eet. it the
pl"tdlear!llmlof mlliticuJu,lralilm in
I
1
I

The ZIIl;nI'I COIltelU. celeI:ntcIry 01 bItf • cll:IRD coUahana.. proj. i . . . . forwvd 10 Wte iu plau It • capiWial. _Y.
all paekiIIfd !
aDd 0I&at. . . an del:tric 011'_
nat throQp I a.b-CNWD 110-
_',.1lmd" wtlitlIlWIdI. __
tal _ _ .nina mt paN i
ICItta'wd aboDt lbt bui!diDl'. :
--.
Tbt ~ bas reeei't'eCl iU
for COIlIUIIlpticll b)' \.lit public. U
AI1Iuic:aDa of evtry fllOralilW::
;
I
lftIIIIld·aoar pabk.-. ; . . . til ('DUft ~ from Lbt atnpe _ conViDeed that ll1e j'
~ 10 IllOIIlpIa: W'Ib r;l cmc: ID d* ~CllIII:iIt_!' . . . . . lIUdieaa: lOG. A few DeiIh· OlIIy food 1M. is an thai. iI food for
..,.. IrI L.A."• .biIcary UloaPtfuI -=aIpQn. dlt w__ ; bors--wtlo waIId IitI!)' Ila't'e pDf you. 111m it 1oUowI Ulu CIlrpOral.e:
n.r. cbi ,...,.= c:Mt ~ d. die IlI!ro ftDdIrecI : 1iWe~"a~pIlit m\tftN wiIJ ebiIlapiaD (W,. an
I
I
IIZIfoWs ~ I.IziDIt dM iD hrua it ~iI:nlI WI.-.s rood for buai-.
GoocI.-dlIIlMl', ~ Dow __ ~
wtUllltlll'tie- :
lbt CCIa_ • bad MIll p.:t ' " OIl the bIoc:k-
~ bid!)' wberl 8lroDIr:y'l \;nil,.- it I taco
nMnlatilll' tnp- I
~ ",- - . . , . . . . 1lOCJt to .. .....-.....! ~ _ fira B'Wdad.. It 1laa PIrar_hfttW I

'------ -'
CUvER5TOHY

Public Art
Ccr!UiJIv.ed tr- ". 88
t}'c:t; ....IIOM !cna IS utnpOlIted
hom 13l.h·Ctnu..-, paintinp of
qds rOl.:r.ll in till! PwtiIOtleW.l
C'!'LIpel nut A.sist. luly-lht
C!:ll:"e!I f:o= ..'hie!: Los AqeOu
tabs its aaa:e. The t."'iplyeh ce·
InS IXI all e:o.:be:ra:lt I'tlid It ..
~·rUl.~ aJlpi...~ iI rGI-
dm4 .,.;:lh I
__ V1:f'X!y ~~
n e ~ w t l : e
lX-

moan,y loot of ai:1t/;Dea l)'Jlieal o!


ilIroquIt pa:."ltiqI by Guido Rei
The cia'o::I:latic ll&!me:a o!. Ow
1)'mbol·1a.c!c~i:r~
o! ~ fWai&l:: ieo:1. 11'$ doaked iI:
ezq-DiWy ar~ ~ 11
red·aw:I·r~ 8ul!Cl::ic ba=er,l
~ l:.alo bc:nowed ~ Jft-
O·hrl!hiln imqa af an Azl&c
0e:t.1 PIC! • 1Mbopn,. beadpieer ~
Ce'ived t=!Io-~masQ.
ne UlpI'. ~l"u=r silye·
wm,p an! JlCB'ofd tD .-!UP; tile
ffiaual erw.ture t;uye...w.
cue!l u ~ l::rulk d ~ m
the labby bUIw sta:llb ready tD
Jolo_-..
H:ll! 70lJ up. llP-1:P-1O t!le: e:1lcr'f· '1lMTr': A trip)'dl mural by Komar and ~kbmid. il!Im in deWL
.al ratms o! tbe ~'.13rd is a..,itty satire 00. an and multiculluralism in a ca¢tali:sI: economy.
&lor. n.e.IJ"IDC! 1ri:Ip dC: I
n:.ber dlffC't'IU .II:C"t'f lbarI. the FWtTy ~ ~ deftly :::erps: .t I.I:'pr et:~:xla c! ~
. . . . other ~ PU--l. llDl! !loft o! c=fliaiIlI ~ ShIkr. ~t. 1ll"'hicb&1lan m-..
tbI:ll eotIIiderabIy cJoHr tD !lome: Rylf be:Jcbesof aokIaI-i::ard _oed·
• SUit _.......jIlai. ~rM Pwt.,., GIIr.
'I'bey'n toJ*(I aaalr fro:ll \be sWad lib tbe c:!:I;:lboc11s of f,D old
wizlp ll! an ~., aaJc. u K_ EncJ.md nou.. f, p:rUrl' m. LGltlU:lt Flt'"ldo'Iiolt. Hl.il
M

JlllCCOOIltril .... n'_


cIep:atd en the bKt of a::I ~ WithUl·f,·p.rdeJI ~e.ll.t of
qllIl'W dire:U:r be::la.U:l the mono
£~."UL
PtrsiaiI a:.iDifou::-es: • 4.'"U.lI.I.tk.
:IlDIl1:lM:l11l.l ple'n~' .~ st~iIr
o
btTf Loot WIt :JlU'tI"llrti:,. a·
In ""tinit}'.M X - 1nC!)felIzDid
b<lve lIl&IIaled I do.. ble·eo~
~t. at ox. ce!r.l..,.1.lIrY
* fObcnD.. W"nill! UW beaUty d.
reca11J nri,._2001~ Rm-
EI.:I CoJlstnx:lj'risl. piaN U1: pub!ic
il;fa:"tllf,UOl:l tiosIu: f, ~ 1"0_ of
Ulthtopon1o:-pllic emelt }l1"lI
T I.a:l)la
~h
u:nl f:lHmble n
« public art III tllYT~
u tbf Otlen:f:lIS
:.he Roybl.l
r"'p-

lhe nlitl·mllTaJ pay••esthetic stiCUc! ~vtiy one I.l.Oj) Ul- 8ui14inc I.nC I l:'.a(lli!'.u:ll PI.::' of
l;tibme tD • =uluewwral mir.JI..iDI 0I.!lIr. liJl Ul tip: lbe hfo:ld.U'n: ma;:.-onf of t!'!f hcttic R:=. thl'
01 fun)•• Afncan_, ~tino- a:ld ~ o! • Spmlish MisslDn. otNl' cl IW':'y to:lSlflll.UON_m
.ui&II.A:Iltl'ia:l ewWfW. the~­ $I,.1f =tyL"'l!: eeo!o&ictlly Illl:llC I.e apalllivt l.fn'UZO riOOl" or-
.u-! UnlIt o! IOciaI har'mlmJ II plfon:.s, t.appec! br • flII,(lIi!krr.1 tirntd by Alem Smiti': II t.'ll' lIf'"

-
fulIlly beInr ,,,~ by. GO S\:b;ec.~ C.t1ilorni;1 live ~ I;IPI'OPli.I.tl' 10
L.as A:lfelt$ Convfnuoo Cenle:'.
10. the eotr. n ~ preTlIptivu of iU Sl'IIli-vid dl'RM. .tung. L'll!
Tbt ~ rapor.sUlle for III tiltH
bulinta. At • but of the Wlal nlI'.ark.lblf Jr.'OIf'CI,.I hive rr~Cr
bank builcliq lr. UlWn. -Unity" Lou mOl'l'. "'OTks in whfcil thl' lOX1I.I "W.d:-
n::::bly c1&:1fies the lXIllte:n "'1thi."l Two ir.$pit"J:~ Sftt:l pi,'ol.l.l 10 ftClUIlCI IlId phyriel.l l'nvlron!llent
. . . mu.
so m..eh IIOCial d.WoA;ue Utl' lia:g:1. One is ~ Anecdotl' 01 UI_1U; COnlflrt_l'llve llHr.
toeIay wa piau. of the Jc;' .t potm by Ame:ic:Ir. proI"llItlll!.ly fllllfeG. T~: ellfi,e-
pot't Wfollael' S1.fVl'lIS. "'hid: the mtnl is tfY 1.0 thfU" ~erptioM1
• K~ fJ'Id .llrillll\Xl. "1i"Uy.~
artISt prominl'ntly ..nnttd or. u- lfvd of ICcomplislunf'nt.
1'1r,f lllf"'$ICIf World: Cen.lv. Yft It's ... ort.'l t::tP!l.uil'.ttf tl'tal

-
WW.5lhSI. l"IIl'lie :ile!" Ibo"f thf baeU of thf
bl'ndles. Th~ othf:" is the If:'lfnl c:or.s-..cIft'aUons of CO:tt.ul. Co not
layOOl: of f, ciuslcal Islantit pari' 't.OP at tM ph)'IiW. ~lUe.
tThe Poetry Garden'
... m..prdfn, ....hich A."1DI..JIllIKnr..' $OCiI.!.. po!ltial. ~ ll:" an)'
!:om cc"dbcoct othe: l(,Idfr:Utl.ii)' rrselrt:l:Iblf
The S~!I:S pam: ~ LO:t COlll1itioo of t.'lf t1lf- F'or the con·
l'tiitio:lsl'lip betWft1l Cltur1! mel tf:Xl. ol In)' wort of Il"l. public 01"
p&Ulti:!& DOl'
N
eilher II I XIl1p-
CItlt:ur. Th.-cI¢ tbr mqic&l1Ul- ~.isproflll:lll1ly~b~
UOTt. -rhe Poeuy Garde:!!-
a;::or of f, jc ~ i:: the wiIQe. O'.lr IS$UIl:puon$ abolIt &r. Itsel!.
fi9S21 it IlUlW:! .. fu:leuonaJ
eIlYi:oeme:'ll CuiJ::ed as UI inVit- ness d Tm..--r. w c:vilW:II n.- sww uacpJes cf p:Jl:l!Jc
of:':. 4ir~ thl':IlftIves_1ll I:D
inI GUlOcc::'llOll: ir: ..'h>e!I VU;lOn f1meUctl of art iI drftl)' U5l'lUC.
c:e "l aM: t&lk Ill4 ra~ An 1sII.mic jlUIQiR-p..-dr.t. Itll.. n.a.U "'-f,r-b)' bo:ir., clftpl)' Illto
The pniu:, pnnwy ~ . cioIed by hifh w:aJJs iIllli e.t.~ tM eo."om:lO.'lIJ J'.tJ:l]eca. !;::\C-
Iicned fo~ an tlOsti:l( 5O-IOOt-b,.- pil.nttd acccni!nc to ct:SUllll. iI tior:s &Ill! !llpKUtxlI'".s "'l' bole! for
11).foo: COI::'".y&l"d adjamI:t til the lIleet as a ~ aneu.:a:y In Ill4 fa:- L'1:IU. I.CC lot the:
offia:s ar.c:l pllcia: crt :!le La:-.nan ~ the brutal ~ fllVi1ut- reiltiolIsbl;> til t!:f lOCI.! rRlm.
FlllIlld.luo::t. ..-as 1:1ta:xle:1 as I kiDcl lIlen: br)'OlK! iu fo:':ificaUClllS. lb ~., WNt &:'t ;tst!f 1I".IIt:t
01 Vft'.-pocU1. pl.; llpCl Ul tU «=,,~"X'CtiO.:I bItt.ec ~ ccie::.: be Is CIt ::ICIf: bISlc job ~
pIObbc: in A:: C"..!:erwlM blair; lIJtt- ~ .E::astc1l fann a:.i SteYftlS' fa:- f,ll)' I1t:s:: ,.ito eel..., to be I.
ino,!us;.."1Il ~DUl'~. CIlil' to. ~ ja:- \oIICe, dcmu:- citizlul of ~ _O:iC., w~ is ...il.a~
u6l:lRey. icIr: OVe'" the .o\JIlenan wil~ p:blE &1"1. c!l'lT~.4s. c:
l.0Ul.b(>n:.. YilllUSOt.l-bu«. ti::.J<s twO dispI.nl.r c:z:= • For "'~ 011 :4r aN/tT-
AmencI.:l ania. SW: ~ tn- Tbry are. ol CC\I:'Ilt. tUtwO _ ~~ An.·.'!tceia. TAtWWs
&til!. I. piaee t.;'l Upir'a; til be I.
I!VilI&' c .....apbo:' of DOt!:inc ksl
~
~tO~~t:I".
WTed by.t.ll L~ im- awl: ~.~ n.....,.
'*'rei' w~Houl.al1t rl1JJ
~ IOez:I S...•

-
UIn Ow ciemlIaI.tic i6uL pJofts a!>d memcr~ his ow:!
ZSI-4ll2f.
I: werts. !listorT in ""The ~ Guden.-
I.llla:lC iu clII:tlizl(
siIIlpk ,Itt crt
eIepll eJemelI:a. "'Tbt .
m.,. bet be <klft all i:::I
st:mf t!w ~ ~
wa,.
tt.at I:lb-
imc f,
~E~if=n-orr.

10 SUSDAY. ~ Z3. 1991


PARTI\G SHOT

AMulticultmul Mural

T
he fJrncc~~ of cremin/!: ~ ffillrJ.] is ~ duscd.:l1I the while t;!kinL: ph"lCl'...rr.1ph~, sil!nifyin/.: cultures anu people inte:lCon-
fasc:irutin.f:, cumplcx uyn:Jmic. Ihl\';n.!.: dctincu rhcir :wdicnt'c from m.:uill~, :. Ill.:s~~e of 1-.'Teat imporranl"C: 10
I(s about Ittili:ljn~ m:m'\" forms Th,,~c "h~cr":Iti(ln~. tlu.: ~tlldcllt~ Ill:ldc the stuuenrs,
"f l~,mmunil"l[ion. tr.tnsfo;min,t: ~ scI'cr.11 :'~~lIIllflti"n~, I'rnpcHinl! tht- I'm.. :\nd all Ihill OIXUm:d before one dtop
corn,:cjlt frunl a wriw,:n ivc;! inCH a \,j'<ll:ll jc..:! (0 the nex! lel'cI flf hrain~wrmin.l! of p"int had telllchcd the l-:lnVas.
imaJ!c. ii's anOUE tryin.e. to l'Cm\'cy [he the {'tln{'ept. while always them:Hil-:llly The t3lcnted slOlknts. like the: city
m~s:.I~c or swnl..'$ while l1mn:mtly bcin,t: um.Jerpinnin;: u:mcc. TllU<;e iue:Jx were they wen: illusu:lrin~ were amninJ!.ly tli-
:lien to Ihl: ;mdicncc fm whom {he work rhen uen.:lor>t:u into :l ~rfJ~'ho:lru fi,fm:lr "crsc:. They maue: up a multicultural
is intended. and forther rcline:d. mCl'Ca of majorx :lnd cullUre:s. from an-
'I'he .,j{j..(ool-h'\"·IO-ftlOl mUr;ll illxm: -\Vc wantcd [0 pm rhe wmk inro ;\ thrul'ulo.L:Y ttl u:mcl;. Axi.." 10 Chk:mu,
t1csil::nco w he "inH:llkd in liCLi\'~ n.lwral conte:u ~howin~ Ihe different "me da$.<;rlJom di~~·ux..<;iun \\":lS ennxr~nrly
Danl'c BuiIJin:l:. was stich a II"nrk. the people of I.os t\n~c1cs mixin,g in daily animaleu, atl{lin~ ~mUlher dinH.:nsi"n [Il
Fail QlJ;Ifrcr prujn't of:J. Wmld "nl> and life, 'ii~nifyin.::. the meltin,!!: por "f Ihe rh..- prfll,"C:Xx..
Cultures nlur~c tau.eh! by celehrated l'ity.- SOIy" U:JC:I, ~·Il.is mHfaL- sa~":'I R"""2. -is lik..: ~n ~r·
mur.. lis{ luui,h flal";l. • ,\uu III thaI rht: uime:n~i"n of tillle, l,;hacpillj!il-:d di~ tlf L.:\.. mll\'inS! ,,~'rn,~X
The d:t'l.-~ initiated the rnuel-'J<.;; Iw f;lk. :IOU th::: Illural Wllk un rhe ~II-eql uf hi,- Ji~t'lIlt'..:s lI"ilh:1 c"mm{ln:llir~' "f ille~s,- •
in~ a hiuh-c~c sc:lt in the build in!!.. rIIry w the prc~m day. ill\lstr~tin,l!: the tli..
dc,,\cI\' tlh5cn'in~ dancers anu pcopk \crsity "f Ihc dry rhmu/.:h the prism uf a H. J, l,,,!rrl
who work there comin/.: and going, n"t- non-Eur"pean pcrspenil'c. ,\lIu!1lcr ,'isll-
in~ ch:lngcs in liJ!:ht :;1.." uour" ClI)Cn~tl ;lnd
.. ....1::',,:'11 \\";1.. to link unc Sl.:CIlC rn thc 111..'''1.
t :CL\ MAGAZINE W1NTE'R 19!M
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,
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\.1 ....., ~ "?i'
.~. J :_';..l:';;~

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.....
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'.;I ...
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". . . . ..i
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Visitors pose by the World


Wall in East los Angeles.

ROPle express themselves in m~ny


ways. Artists often use their paintings
to express how they feel about things.
Some artists paint their pictures on
canvas. Some paint on walls. Huge
outdoor wall paintings, or murals,
are works of art that tell about the
hopes and concerns of the people
who have created them. Some cultures,
especially Mexican and Chicano, have
long, proud histories of mural-making.
For many Chicanos, people of
Mexican origin living in the United
Finnisn artists
created this colorful
panel. A Diaiogue of
Alternatives.

States. paiming murals is a \\"<.lY to !let


in touch with their roots. Xu\\,. in two
cities in California. East Los .-\.ngeles
and San Diego. special art programs
help people carryon this grem .:\Iexi-
can tradition.
Judith Baca. a Chicana artist. Future ~Vithollt Fear. This mural is
believes it is important to remember made up of seyen coiorful panels
her roots. :\'1s. Baca feels that he!' dose created by Chicano and international
connection to her culture has helped artists. The pictures on the panels
her to create beautiful murals. During express feelings about peace. war.
the 1970s. Ms. Baca began several cooperation. interdependence. and
mural programs in Los Angeles. growth. Cnlike traditional wall
Teenagers from the barrio. or neigh- murals. these panels can be moved.
borhood. worked with her to create They ha\-e tra\"eled to Finiand.
more than 250 murals~ Russia. and 7\Iexico.
In 1987 in Los Angeles..Ms. Baca Three of the finished panels are
began World Wall: A Vision of the Triumph oftlze Hean. A Dialogue of
THE GREAT WALL

Altematives, and Triumph a/the Hands.


Triumph a!the Heart shows how people
from many races can work together for
world peace. The candles in the painting

For many Chicanos. painting More than 600 people. including

murals is a way to get in touch 450 teenagers from nearby barrios


with their roots. and 40 scholars. helped Chicana
artist Judith Baca create The Great
represent hope for peace and under- Wall of Los Angeles. This spectacu·

standing. A Dialogue of Alternatives lar mural. which is half a mile long,


is in California's San Fernando
shows how artists can join together to
create a new language that evervone Valley. The work of art W3.S
can understand. 1liumph of the Hands painted during five summers and
completed in 1980. It s.h~- ' .... ::,~",,::
shows how people working together can
create good things. The people in the local histOry and describes the
mural look to the power in their own contributions and struggles of
hands for hope and change. _ California's diverse. multicultural
residents-frorn prehistoric time
by Claudia M. Caruana
until the late 19505.

In 1990. Ms. Ba.a's Triumph of the


H~nds panel was shown in Moscow's
Gorky Park.
L.A. TH1ES
7/27/93

Journey Back in Time


At the Baldwin Park Rail Station, DC! Art Prof"""rJudy Baca PaysH~tothe Area's Indian Herirage
w..
By ZAN DUBIN For the BaldwiD Park
TlWU nAf1 ....rru anwcrk. she wanted to
BALDWIN
Artist PARK-
judy Baca did
portray an "authentic" mel.
..truthful" vision of the ar·
a liUle daDce here ea's biItary.
the other day, a vt:r'f old Et.c.hed into the weath·
little dance. end adobe·like cmtral
In the dry heat of a arch iI the word Slilnigna.
midday sun, Baea st:i:pped the Gabrielino name for
along a concrete footpath the area. and a quote from
that represents cenmonial Latino lUthor Gloria An-
steps performed by early uidul' "This land was
California inhabitants:. the Mexican once. was Indian
Gabrielino and Chumash always and is. and will be
Indian'. opln."
The winding lane is part Lettering on the plaza
of "DaNa l~ (In· floor speI1s out, in English,
dilenous Dances), the the statement ''When the
public arlwork she de· Indianl died. the villages
siIned to spruce up the endm"
Baldwin Park Metrolink When the Spanish ar-
commUltt' rail Ntion.. rived. Baa aid.. so1dien
., wanted to put memo· raped scores of Gabridino
ry into a piece of the land" women, Including the
thal once was home to the chief's wife. The chiefs
Indian culturu. said the protest.Iled to his decapi.
Los Angela: muralist, La· tation. "It was in that cli-
tino activist and UC lryinf mate that the Miasion San
Gabriel wu founded. she
art professor. She bopes to
have the project finished ...... stone
A
N

mound, like one


within a few day&.
Central to &ca's desiCn the Gabrielinos would
is the 2O.foot.high re·ere· . have de:siBna\ed as a place
ation of an archway in one wall of the nearby San of prayer, embodies a feminist ideology the arttSl
Gabriel Mission. Beneath it stretches the mission's worked into the project. It is a tribule to Toypurina. a
abstracted floor plan, etched into the eo1ared <:tJllcrtle of 23-year.old Gabrielino woman who leel a nvoll againsl
an open plaza.. From it extends the footpath. which links the Spanilh missionaries. she said.
shelters where commuters wait for trainJ. '"I'oypurina was depict.ed (by the Spanishj as a
Located at the comer of Downing Avenue and seduetrea and sorceress because she organized large
Ramona Boulevard in the San Gabriel Valley, the groups of native people to fight the Mission San Gabriel
$60.000 projeel is part of the four·year.oId Art for Rail and bring it down. For that, she was banished from her
Trao.&il Program ins'JtlO".zd b:.. t..'1e t.A. Cc::&l}' Me~""C· natin land. I felt it was approprlatt to pUl her back into
polilan Transportation Authority. To date, 65 artists her own territory."
have been comminVmed to adorn stations throughout "Dana IodiImu" was a eoUaboration lnvolving Bac:a
Southern California. and_
at LA architects Kate Diamond
_ MebJteeU and
"We believe it', important to make the train system
DOl only efficimt but attractive and user·frie'Ddl1'.n said Gusta'VO Leclerc of Adobe LA
Jessica Cusick. rail-art prc:cram directot. "It', also really Typical of her mural-making
important to . . _ provide commw1ities with a sense of metbods. 8K:a abo iIlterYiewed
ownership in the statioDs. N e.tJrie:l.iIa aDd other residenll of
Baldwin Part. a quaint, 1argeI.y
B aea., who was chosen for the job from amoag roughly
25 other artists, bas been involved in mural·making
fot as many yean. Among her murals is the half·mile·
Latim town of '70,000.
"In the procea. I dn'eIoped a
Ioag "Great Wall of LA.... purported to be the world's . , . of wba1 was IQi:nI on
«
longest. She has oveneen creation ab:Iut 200 works as with the wheNe p1ace.... she said. aDd
p&hered quota she emblamned on
a founder of two mnrrieipl.1J.y funded mural programs in
the arcbw1.y. Amcng the residents'
statements. "u this pl.aee wu good
enoucb for me to grow up in. then it
iI sood enough for my children"
and "'The kind of community that
people dream of, ricb and poor,
brown, yellow. red, white, all living
to«ether."
To further "personalize" the no. Chumash. English and Spanish.
train station. Baa imp1'inted into At the shelter farthest from the
the concrete beneath each of four main plua are the words "memory
and will pcnnr." which "are what
any cultUZ"e-the ones living then
and those living now-bas to have
ToypumJa 'was banished to prue: Ye itself," she lUi.
from her native land. I felt So fa!'. community response bas
~ y ~ positive. Children
It was appropriate to put dance akm.g the footpath and peo-
her back Into her own ple driviDg by give thumbs up. said
territory.' Chris Wille, job supervisor with
Rock and Water Scapes. the proj.
JUlYIIACA ect's Irvine-based contrac:tot'S.
UCI art professor "'I'bey dig it.; they think it's an
awful fancy transit station," Wille
wd.
shelt=., (also ~-"18' floor plans of • Baldwin Park J(etroiink lt4tion is
California missions) such phrases IocaUd at 3825 Do1oning Ave., Ba1Jj.
as "my mother" and " am i win Parle, at 1M COT'RotJ' of Downing
Gabridino," rendered in Gabridi- A WftIU' mid Rarrumo. BoW.mmt.

UCI Professor
Honors Indians
tiC JrviM an profrnor
Judv Bag is sprucing up
the Baldwin Park Metro-
link commute: rail sutlon
with public artwork that
pays hom.,e to tribes that
inhabited the area. the
Gabrielino and Chumash
Indians. FeaturM is a re-
creation of a San Gabriel
Mission archway. Fl
TONY l>.\.RNARO I Los Alllein Tl-.
Artist Judy Saca re-created archway trom Mission San Gabriel at Baldwin Park's MetroJink rail station.

UCI Professor
Honors Indians
uc Irvine art prQjessor
Judv Baa is spruc:ng up
the Baldwin Pa~k Metro-
link commuter rail station
with public artwork that
pays homage to t~ibes that
inhabited lhe area, the
GabrieHno and Chumash
Indians. Featured is a re-
creation of a San Gabriel
Mission archway. Fl
L ocated at the comer of 001lOl:.·
_ A YUIlle aDd Rarilor::; &0/01.
"ud in 1M San c.~.cl Vailey.
the $6Q,Q(X) prqeet Is ...." "i 01 W
4.,._-0101 An fot Ra£ Tr.nli~
Protnm irDtitut«l 0] the L.A.
Cowny Metl'opoUcan TTanspon.l.

--
lion Alrthcril.y_ To 41te.·~ art1st&
bave been ~ to ado.-n
-.aUDn& ~ Southern Cali-

' "We ~ it', ir.Jponan. w


a.b the train & ~ DDI. o.oIy
eftk:iall but ~ and IUC:"
Judy 8aca's "Danza ~ .. friISldIy," aid JeIIic:t o..act. nil.
is a coIIabcntiYe wark of a't. an pracram direcl.O:l". ~l>:". ~~
really ialporUnt to . . . provi(>c
QlIClmunities With .. RnIIe of owt;.

Muralist ership in !he stations."


Baca. who wu ebosen for the job
ff'Oll1 aIDODIl"OIChi}" 25 other art-

Honors iIU, bat been inn),nd il: :au·


rai-muq for about. • QlWU:
ce:nwry. AmDnI her zunis is 1M
half-mile-loa( nCrnt Wali Df
American LA... purpxud to be: til:: ':'1'0:;0"1
M

~ 8M bat ov<::---.. ~ t
of abcU 2lIO wcna as c. ic=dc:" 31
Indians. two munir:ipally furllk'u m;,o:~ ;4-0-
JI'tIN in Las Anfta
FOI' !.be Baldwin pJl..-'.:: ~=Il..
• Art: Judy 8aca's 160,000 aile wanted l.O portl"aj';M1 w::UU~"l'
UC" and '"truthfuJ" viIiar:I 01 tilc
project to spruce up tm am', history.
Baldwin Park Metrolink we:l~j ~.
rail station puts 'memory E te.bed iino the
be_like ce!lU'llI. ardll:.- tho: ~
S~ \be GabrieU::.:; ll<ll:t': i"o:-
into a piece of land.' the Ira. aDd , qUlXC i~ ~~
autbor Gloria ~ -rbil; i.oIilCi
BylANDCBJN .... Moican Met. ~ lndia.,
nMU nAfT • • ITD Il_ysand is. and Wili On ipin.-
Lettering OD Ib.:' .. Iuo: nc:::r
rtist Judy 8aQ Gid li.ue .,111 OUI.. in EncIW!. IN: Nl(:·
A
&
lWJce in Bald-,;rj., h-k tile men", nWhen the Indiw~ died. Uu:
other ~. ;II ''ier'7 oicl Ii'Ole viJ1alt'S ended...
""""
In the dly hat of i. ~:.m.
8Ic:a skipped akmi ~ O:::':-h~~
When lhe Spanish arrtv-...:'. ~
Aid. aXdien raped :oc= "" Ca·
bmllno women. Ineluditli the
fooqath that.~.:= ctn::=:Ii- ebIel""l WifL The dlId':; ~ ~
aI . . . pa1'ormed 07 c:-,:, CaJi· }ed to his <leelipjtatJon. It =:- In
fon:m mbabiWlU, the ~ tbat tIimate that UK: ~ San
and 0wlDab lDdial'&. Gabrid _ foundeQ.; ~:;akl

'Jbt wiDdiDI laDe Is pan ~ A Slone: mound. .~~ one ttl.::


"DaIUll. J.ndl.rmq" (I~G.iBenc;a Cabrieanc. would ~7C ~rn'l~
.0.-1. the public art":lOr'il: me u • place of prayer. =bodie= a
desiped to 'PJ"IICt up the Bakiwin feminist kleoIocY the :l.~t 1'llT."iced
.....
ParIr. Metrolink eonllr.a\.a':all N-
, wanted ttl put rneIA.;;.,-y ~to •
Into the prn;ecL. It Is 1". trib-..itc to
Toypurin.a. a 23- YUf. ~d Gl:<Jnw·
DO -.oman who led a :-evtllt ar~.sI.
pieee of the 1and~ that ~ _
the Spanish miaioaaric:..4::ill: :iii(.
bome to the Ameriem:i Indian Wi· "oypurina wu depico.<:z: {b;; the
tuNI:, aid the 1001 An6..xs m\~­
itt. Latino KtiYist a:xl UC 1niIw!
Spanilhl u. ~ :cd :;or-
c:eraI beo::alaIt the ot.....~ lati"
vt prof_. She hci=a to =. crouPS of rwin peopk' 11) fi&h:. the:
plae firUIbmI touches 0Ye" the M\uioll San Gabriel ;,.,-,c ~ 11
nen two weelu.. down. For thaI. she .....e.; ::-:;;!::beQ
~r.ral to Btu', 0eIiIn 15 lhe from her IllItin IIi1Ki. 1 felt I;. ....:a
2O-foot.hi,sh re-ereation of all. appropriate to put her ~ ~-:';C
an:hway from the neari)1 San Ga- 'Ieu.c ~. BACh, t:'S'..
briel Mission. BmuUt it ~..retches
the miKion'. a ~ f1c(l;' plan.
eWM:d inUl the eo.IomI eonco"et.e of
an gpm pLaa From il ~ tbe
footpath. _Md1 1iniuI pel~
wben: c:or:ammas WlIi.t for~
LOS ASGf':" TI~.1ES

BACA:Art
Pays Homage
Continued fnm F8
her own territory."
"Danza Indigenas" was a collab·
oration involving Baca and L.A.
architects Kate Diamond of Siegel
Diamond Architects and Gustavo
Leclerc of Adobe L.A. Typical of
her mural-making methods. Baca
also interviewed GabrieHnos and
other residents of Baldwin Park, a
largely Latino town of 70,000.
"I n the process, I developed a .
sense of what was going on
with the whole place," she said,
and gathered quotes she embla-
zoned on the archway. Among the
residents' statements, "If this place Cent:raI to Judy Baca's work is a 20-foot-high archway. re-created after
was good enough for me to grow up San Gabriel Mission, from which a footpath links commuter shelters.
in, then it is good enough for my
children": "The kind of community
that people dream of. rich and poor, dance along the footpath and peo- "They dig it: they think it's an
brown, yellow, red, white, allliv- ple driving by give thumbs up, said awful-fancy transit station," Wille
ingtogether." Chris Wille, job supervisor with said.
To further "personalize" the Rock and Water $capes. the proj-
train station, Baca imprinted into ect's Irvine-based contractors.
the concrete beneath each of four
shelters (also bearing floor plans of
California missions) such phrases
as "my mother" and "I am a
Gabrielino." rendered in Gabrieli-
no, Chumash, English and Spanish.
At the shelter farthest from Ute
main plaza are the words memory
and wUlp<TWeT, which "are what
any culture-the ones living then
and those living now-has to have
to preserve itself," she said.
So far, community response has
reportedly been positive. Children
OCTOBER 1991
I Z MAGAZINE
mural's planning and execution. Young people often work
W01t1EN closely with mawre artists in large-scale anistic expression.
As a medium of public art. munls have impact far beyond
traditional a."tisric produclS in museums. and other tradition-
POLITICAL al an worid instinnions. Their presence on interior and ex-
terior walls of major buildings makes them easily acces-
Iarxc
ARTISTS IN sible to
them.
numbers of people who live and work among

Chicano anisTS in particular have made a unique con-

LOS ANGELES: tribution to this expression of public art. For more than 20
years in California. Chicano murals have transfonned
Thousands of dreary walls into vibrant expressions of cqlor.
JUDY BACA'S ful anwotks that reveal the culnmal identiTy and as~iralions
PUBUCART of the Mexican-American corrununiry. Los Angdes. with its
enormous Latino population. has been at the forefronT of
the modem mural movement. Well documenTed in national
BY PAUL VON BLUM and rea:iooal books and articles. this work has collcoively
added a dtam.atic dimension to the broader lradition of
T VARIOUS times throughout tbe 201h ccnlUly. the American political alt.

A mural has served as a major medium of political


commentary and criticism. Rooted in the Mexican
mural renaissance of the 19205. many conlen1-
pomy muralists have =aled works of impressive mistie
stature and dnmatic social impact. lbese artWorks typically
Women artists have been extremely prominent in the
modem mural movement in southern California. Its par-
ticipatory flavor and democratic charnaer have increased
the opponWliTics for women to achieve wide recogniTion
for their artistic ac:complishmcnts. A pivoral figure SiDCC the
call attention to social ills and reclaim lbe neglected history early 1970s is Chicano muralist. teacheT. and community
of marginalized peoples. Above all they express the hopes activist Judy Baca.. Her combined effons as a muralist and
and frustrations of millions of people. anistic director of the Social and Public An Resource Cen-
Socially conscious muralists througnoul the country ter (SPARC) in Venice. Califomia. have brought her nation-
view their an as a powerful means [0 foster social cohesion al acclaim. Re...--ent reviews of her woIk in Signs from th~
and political awareness in working class and ethnic com· H~art: California Chicano Murals by Eva Cockcroft and
munities. They usually seek neighborhood panicipation in a Holly Barnet-Sanchez and Mixtd Blasings by Lucy Lip-

~"':';;;:.;a; ••• :
'.;:". ~.

-

10
Z MAGAZINE OCTOBER 1991

--
, • b-

DIVISION OF TilE B/,RRIOS So CHAVEZ RAVINL

pard have enhanced her high standing in the


prog~ssive mistie community.
Born and raised in the Los Angeles area..
Baca developed a commitment early in her ~ ...
career 10 a collaboralive misfic process
rooted in her involvement wim the Chicano

I
movement of the early 19705. Her wort as
a community an teacher brought her ima
contact with young people from diverse eth-
nic backgrounds. many gang members
among them. She felt deeply attached to
these young people. identifying with Ebcir
spirit of ~bellion and sympathetic 10 their
daily slIuggles for dignity in a hostile, racisl:
society. lbese enCOunten led to the (onna-
tion of the Citywide Mural Project, which
produced hundreds of murals throughout the
Los Angeles area. many of which she
directed herself wim the extensive panicipa-
tion of these young men and wamm.
These initial projects established Bac.a as
a major pUblic anist whose wad:. encom-
passed a communal process CUlminating in
vivid. $OCially conscious imagery. As she
has regUlarly nored. the images produced
are the final pan of the entire proceu-and
nor at all rhe most signific3nl. Th.e col-
laboration irself empowers young people to
rake control of their own lives and imbues
them with the respect I()[)~ denied them by
n"""
71
Z MACAZINE OCTOBER 1991

American societv, This feature of Baca:s work has enduring


political impact even as the actual irnzges fade Ihrough
time, weather, and the general atmospheric pollution of Ihe
Los Angeles basin.
In 1976. Bata oJ!anized and directed a massive team of
young people. including rival gang rrx:mbers. 10 produce
one of the most monumenla1 projects in the entire history
of an. -rbe Oreal Wall of Los Angeles" employed dozens
of white. Asian. African American. and Chicano youths [0
produce a people's history of California. Located in a flood
" control channel in the San Fernando Valley. [his mural is
the lllll!est outdoor mural in the world.
The most remaIkable accomplishmem of the Greal Wall.
an ongoing proj«t throughout lhe 19805 :md 1990s.. has
been the cooperative effons of the teenagers involved in the
project. A politicai anist v.;th a comprehensive eoucarional
vision. Baca implemented an amazing instructional process
that forced the young panicipants !O confront e<lCh other's
ste:~otypical perceptions of their respective etbnicities-an
awesome challenge for teenagers with hisl:ories of mutua!
i
a!'1tagonisms and \·iolence. She used comperent and sensi- I
tive scholars 10 provide an accunue hislorica1 perspective !
for her young colleagUe! before they began the arduous
process of designing and implementing the ;;IOI'k itself. Par·
ticipams in the Great Wall learned a splendid combination
\
of histOrical. artistic. a."'Id social skills. which have served
most of them ex~elv \/o."el1 Ihrou£h the cresent.
Influenced by the g~l Mexi~ muraiislS Diego Rivera.
Jose Clemente Orozco. and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Ihe
.....ork is a panoramic view of California history from the
~rs~cti...e of indigenous and immigram groups. A striking
Contrast to "official" hislOry. the mural panels progress
!
-
.;..-
~
. \
Z MAGAZINE OCTOBER 1991

,
j
f·I/ '
. I

w'd"t
from the original Kative American inhabitantS to Ihe A similar episode occurred the following year. when
present. A major theme is !he oppression against various wlors slormed. intO bars and other establishments. beating
ethnic groups whose contributions to California have been young Chicanos and tearing their zoot suits from their
as profound as they bave been ignored Similarly. Ihe mural bodies. Civilian and military police encouraged tbe
highli£hts the accomplishments of many elhnic heroes rampage. even assisling the ferror by arresting young
whose lives and works seldom grace the leJ::lbooks of OliCBno's on baseless charges. The local press meanwhile
public and privale schools in California or elsewhere. intensified the hysteria. The riOt eventually ended. but the
Baca'S commitment to the neglected hislory of her own consequences aff~ted southern California for decades to
Chicano communily finds dramatic expression in the Great come.
Wall. The bombing of Pearl Harbor spawned enonnous Judy Baca has captured this deplorable historical re3]ity
wanime hysteria throughout the United States. Mosl tragi. in a Great Wall panel known as "Zoot Suit Riots" (figure
cally. this hysteria caused the unconscionable and uncon- l). The work highlights the black. Gestapo-like boots of the
stitutional incarceration of IIO.OClO persons of Japanese an- local police. an image with uncomfonable contemporary
cestry on the West Coast. 3 theme ponrayed in one of the resonance in light of the savage beating of Rodney King by
Grell! Wall panels. the Los Angeles police in early 199L The anisfs focus is
Less weU known is tholl incidents of racial violence ....-ere StaIk and unsubtle. a powerful reminder of the repressive
common throughout the nation during the early 1940s. The history of police misconduct throughout U.s. history.
annosphere in Los Angeles W3S tense and volatile. especial- A companion detail in the Great Wall updates the history
ly against the large Chicano population. In 1942 the press of oppression against the Chicano community of Los An-
promoted fears of Mexican crime. focusing especially on geles.. "Division of the Barrios and Chavez Ravine- (figure
young Mexican-American men wearing ~zoot suits.~ 2) reveals the human consequences of various political
~ n flared at the knees and tight at the ankles. 'The Los decisiOf'.5 made by elite forces in Los Angeles. The con·
..l\ngcles City Council passed an ordinantt prohibiting the muction of a f~ay for the benefit of suburban com-
wearing of zoot suits. and police roamed Chicano areas muterS split a long-established OIicano community in IWO.
making sea:n:hes and terrorizing the population. In August fostering family disruption and frustration and generally
1942. a young Mexican-American was found near deaIh by diluting the historical stability and cohesion of thaI com-
!he Sleepy Lagoon just outside the city. After his death. munity.
police used the corpse as an excuse to round up 22 gang The 1958 move of the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles
members and beat confessions out of them. Several were similarly wreaked social and emotional havoc on the
convicted of murder and Other serious criminal charges: Chicano neighborhood. City powers constructed Dodger
only later was this miscarriage of justice re~rsed. Stadium in Chavez Ravine. bringing enormous profits to

"
Z MAGAZINE OCTOBER 1991

Dod!!er owners. doubtless a far greater concern than the memation project encourages communication across com-
resu~ing dislocation for the Ol.icano residents of the area. munities. cultures. and nations. enabling progressive anists
Once auin. Baca has used the power of mural an to reveal everywhere [0 learn from one another and enhance Ihe
the political and human realities concealed by the glitz of power of mural art in their respective locales. This resource
LA's entry infO major league base~1. . , is largely unavailable elsewhere: the established media.
More recently. the artist has pamted a majOr mural In the universities. and museums rarely bother with artWork lhey
central California town of Guadalupe. where Chicano and regard as ephcmer.a.l and politically suspect.
other ethnic farmworl.:ers work for major agribusiness inter· Baca's jnfluence on the SPARC Gallery equally benefits
ests. Consisting of four panels. the Guadalupe mural high- progressive artists and activists in the Los Angeles area.
lights the people whose eff~ns truly u.~erli~ the ~a's Unlike private an galleries. SPARe is a nonprofit enterprise
commercial and cultural achIevements. Ethnic Conmbu- showcasing artists typically excluded hom mainstream ar-
tions to Guadalupe" (figure 3) emphasizes the diversity of tistic institutions. The SPARC Gallery also emphasizes an
the lown. Baca's depiction of various immigrant Lalino. with social and political coment. which sustains a centuries-
Ol.inese. and European workers and shopkeepers reveal a old tradition of visual political criticism. In recem years the
~ accuf3te account of California's historical develo~ gallery prog.ram has presenled exhibitions of works by
menl than usually ponrayed in textbooks and other instruc- African American women artists. Los AogclcslNew York
tional materials. urban activist an, views of homelessness. graphics by South
In 1987. Baca embarked on another large·scale par- Korean student protestors, recent Chicano an from Los An·
ticipatory projeCt concerning the issues of peace. human gcles. and many other socially conunined artworks.
cooperation. and global interdependence. Like her previous Perhaps above all, Baca's most enduring influence as
effons. this mural was initialed by involving people of SPARC artistic director is the continuing mural production
diverse backRrounds. Baca held brainstonning sessions with program, Under SPARC auspices. scores of murals have
historians. ~holars. leachers, students. and others whose been produced throughout Los Angeles. generally incor·
feelings inform rhe entire effon.. -World Wall: A VISion of p:>rating the collaborative process that characterizes Baca's
the Future Without Fear" consists of a series of 10' by 30' mwal art. Since 1988. SPARC has administered a neighbor·
ponablc panels that envision a future world radically dif· hood pride: program for the city. with mural works directed
£emu from George Bush's -new world order.- A traveling by professional artists with the assistance of young people
installation system enables the work to be reassembled referred by schools and social service agencies.
anywhere. reflecting its highly public character, World Wall One typical SPARe·sponsored example is an effon in
premiered lasl year in Finland. where local anists joined the progress by Sandra Drinoin. Entitled ''The Living City of
project by adding their own visions about a peaceful and Los Angeles" (figure 5). this work continues the tradition of
humane world fUlure. Later in 1990 the mural went on to working people with young people in the community. This
the Soviet Union. where it was exhibited in Moscow's wort.: will be completed on a supennarket wall in ccntral
Gorky Pari:... A Soviet anist added another panel to the ef- Los Angeles. in a neighborhood populated by Latinos.
fon. continuing the panicipatory process. Asians. and African Americans. Mwals arc no panacea for
Four of the work's projected seven panels ~ now com- the vast complex of urban problems in Los Angeles. Never-
plete. A panicularly slriking panel. photographed in Mos- theless. they encourage communiI)' youths to develop artis·
cow, "Triumph of Ihe Hands" (figure 4). illustrales the tic and organizing skills. providing tremendous significance
rransfonnation from a war to a peace-based economy re- for personal and social change.
quired for global peace and social juslice. The mural's mu)- This focus also extends 10 young children. AI the recent
licolored people realize their own power by seizing the exhibition of Baca's World Wall in predominantly Latino
military machinery. demanding the -peace dividend" Easl Los Angeles. SPARC amnged for elementary school
aboned by Ihe Bush administraIion's repressive domestic children 10 panicipate fully in the festivities. Figure 6
policies and brutal military adventures. shows Neighoorhood Pride Coordinator Alan Nakagawa
Baca's commitment to panicipalion has led her 10 Si2- discussing the won: with a group of children. lbcy tOO
niflCantly broaden the definition of public an. Realizi';g have the opponunity to express their vision of a world of
that visual images alone. however politically critical. are in- peace and justice-opponunities oflen denied in their in-
sufficient. she has pionec~d the crealion and maintenance slitutional scnings of school. church. and elsewhere.
of alternative anistic instilutions. In 1976. Baca. painter As an anist and community organizer, Judy Baca has
Christina Schlesinger. and filmmaker Donna Deitch had a profound impact on the p:>litical an world of Los
fOUnded SPARe as a multicultural an center to produce. Angeles and beyond. Her murals complement her leader·
exhibit. documcoL and preserve public artworks. In the en· ship effons in building alternative cultural institutions. She
suing 15 years. SP.-'\RC has become one of the nation's has established the highest standard for progressive artists
most Successful institutions for p:>litical anists. Baca's in-- througnout the United States and fortified the stature of
tensive dfom as anistic director of SPARC have been cru- women artists in the broader struggle for a decent and
cial to Ihal Success. numane society. Z
The Social and Public An Resource Center perfonns
man~ functions of vital imponance 10 Ihe progressive com- SP.~RC is C'OfldUC1ifl~ a m~mb~rship dril'~ 10 Sllppon its multi-
munlly. Its mural resource center. for eltample. contains faceted C'lIllIIral and artistic octh'ities, iflcllld;fI/l Ih~ complerion
16.000 slides of murals from around lhe world. including andfllnher exhibition 0{ Jlldy BDC'o's ~World Wall." Write SPARe.
7.000 slides of Chicano murals in Califomia. This docu-- 685 V~nice SlId.. \'enice. CA 90191.

74
"The World Wall: A VISion of the Future without Fear,"
An Interview with Judith R Baca

Frances K. POW

In • recent issue dIm Angela MJJgadne Judilh F. Baca viva) br pc:opk: of color" meant the prt:SCmllion of their vari-
was refemd 10 as "'the \<Dice ol che srreet~)eyd community ous cultures. "1f)'OU deDy the presence of another people and
""""""' ;px.d by tho _ _ Itt ..nd."' The descrip- their culwre.," she has commented, ''and you deny them their
tion is &II accura&c one. Currently an assistanl prolr:ssor of an traditions. )'OU arc basically conuninif!8 culrum genocide.")
at the University of Calibmia. Irvine. and anistic director of Baca had experienced such a denial at Northridge, where
tho Social and PubUc An Resou= e-< (S"'RC). >he Iw wtSIem EuropeaD an bad been held up as the model for aU
tried to keep alive and in me public eye the cultures and tradi- an. No one told her about the: MeUcan mwaI rrtOYement, about
tions of the many difl:rcut peoples of 50lIthcm CaUlbmia. Diego Rivera or Jose Clemence Orozco or David Alf.uo Si-
Baca was born and raised in die Los AnceJes area... She queims. The surrealists studied included the Spaniards Joan
dcscn"bes her early years in Pacoima•• 5Uburb oi Los A1J. MinS and SaJ'Iador Dali bul: not the: Maican Frida KahJo.
gdes, as ... time when eYet)'body was ~ very hard at From 1969 through 1974 Baca worked specifICally within the
just being American."' Edmic &fOUPS ~ 10 '1J&cnd in," 10 Oaicano and MeUaoo communiIy cryinc ~ reYerSe Ihis denial.
dowDplIy their diffeJeoces from the nile CXImInLIIli1y. This W~ her B.F.A. in baAd, she IaUIhI ata CaIhoIic high school
meaDl speekinc Eaa1ish. prdeRbIy wiIbouI an acceDl. Olil- where she orpniz.cd her first munJ proje:a as a 'WrJ 10 briJIg
dm:I from Spaaisb-speakinJ f.unilic:s who were lIIIIlbie 10
masaer d:lc E..aclisb . . . . ill r\cmrncary scbooI: SOOIl bmd
lhc:msdves tabdc:d slow or rewded _ bdd Nck.
FunmaIdy hi' Baca. sbc bad • quick miDd aDd amodler
who bdic¥cd $lJOIICIY in the wlue of ,............ In Ihe I96Os.
afier canpIdiac hiIb scbool. she earoUed • • SIUdio an: majo£
at Calibuia Stale UDiYaUy at NonhridF. Ew::n then she
_

an,
~ S h e _ ..
JOF:ther SIUdenu from diflereal oeia;hborhoods.. In thc: sum-
mer r# 191O, Mille Vo'Of'kinB b 1be Lo5 Aa£des Rccn:alioD
aDd Parks Dtputmalt, she agreed 10 take on 1be CUr.I cast
r# ClfPoiring aDDlber mun1 am r# twmry oaIykids
_ from_
buI also about understaDdinc the put aod making COIl-
nectioos betwceD the past and the praenL
b.tr

was COIItCrlXd abouI the rdevance 01 bet an. a coocem dull . Rcaliring boch the educarional. and 1be political power of
was prompu:d in pan by her fiuniJy's douba abouI her cboscu rmnIs, Baca submined to the Los AJlBeIes City Council in
probsioo. What impKt wooJd her an brc 00 reallik? Wbal 1974 a proposal b' a citywide mural program. Forty murals
woWd it mean 10 her grandmolher? How praaica! was it wbc:n would be produced each year. c::oo.oerinc a radius r# om- a
it came lD earning a living? Thillaacr cp::sOon led her 10 minor hundred miles in r:very ethnic communiry in chc: ciry, at a cost
in hisIory and educatioo. disciplines thai: pn:Md invaluable in of approximately $L5O,OOO a)UC. The progfUI was funded,
her Iaref work. and Baca lBVeled from me black comnwniry to the 0Ucan0
The I960s ~ important years br Baca. People of color communiry to the Thai cornmuniry to the Chinese communi·
were beginning 10 agiwe on campuses across die counuy fOr ty, _ ........-. hmne _Ie, and nogotiatine wid>
African-American stUdies, alicano scudies. HarM:: American ciry officials. OYer 1be course of iu aisIcnc:e (1974-1984) the
srudics. AJian...A.mcric Sbtics. s.:a pWc:4:ad in Ibe mug- program funded 250 murals and empkJyed KXXl crew mem·
ga cI this decade and became C¥en more axwinccd thai: sur- ben. Baca acquired \'a)' early on, lbereb'e. bolh thc: admiJl..

Frrmcu K. PohI r«dved her B.A. ond M.A. tU8rus in an history.from lhe Uniwniry of British Colwrtbia (Jbncouver) tutJ
lin Ph.D. tkgree ill Q1T history from lite llniwmry of CaJi./onUo, Los An~ks. SM Iw publisMd 0 s~ri~s ofonidu ""feminist
an ~ an history in IN Uniuti SImu; * Hbmans Building ar Ihe 1893 Mbrld's Columbian &posilj,," in DriallO; llIIIi the
I~ onisr MirellD &mil'08lio. Her book Ben Shahn: New Deal Anise in a Cold War Clinwe, 947·1954, KW m:DI11y ptb
lisIttuJ by me University of Tam Press. SN is cunmrly an auisIant pro{enor of an history ar 1bmona CoII~ge.

fAl:WTIRS \bI. XI, No. 1 e 1990 FJOIT£RS &IIofiaI Ct*cIiw


"'hI 3S

bition. Sevm JO' by 30' mur:als au be hung OIl the opposite lion ~ their creation. and serine the addition 01 new visions
sides of the original panels. and an additional twemy-eip is i'*"ndtd 10 make rhe exper tel'llce oIthis exhibition an acIiwe
smaner murals (10' by ICY) can be Ioc:aIed on the bmeeD tr.m- one. an experience IhaI will ,.nI1d the message rI the murals
inc:devices projectirc at right ansles from the outside of the Ihcmselves-that people 01 an ethnic, culnml. and nalional
main Slt\JCtUre. Baca wanU these smaller murals 10 be ere- backgrounds musI bqin 10 WOfk &ogdhet if work! peace is
alai by chiJdmJ. Viewing the murals. re:Jding the documema· 10 be achiew::d.

WORLD WALL

NEW 'NOALO BALANCE HUMAN BASED


SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
NON-VIOLENT MISSILES 10 STARSHIP
RESISTANCE WEAPONS CONVERSION

TRIUMPH OF TRIUMPH OF
THE HEARTS THE HANDS

Fip~ 1. Abrid II6ll ~ dtOMlilfl.


I'bhl 41

BACA' T'bey we:Je diflerml in the sense dw the brainsIorm- pnx:ess of wortiDB from die YeI')' geaeraI down 10 Ihe more
iDe b 1be World w.u" b:usc:d 011 just ODe .-JIobal specific is the concqJt that I u.oe beea. dewdopiDc in this nttaI
c:oaftict. for eumpIc. we bad speakers come calk ., us nor ~ prognm. which is i'*'""cd to Ir:actl people bow 10
. . . . hisIory but about tbf:; arms race. ~ Mel a wtde ct.y di=ct ct.nae. hcMo 10 SO Ihroogb. traabiilMi~pocas l-J
011 lhe ~ «the American &rIaIa1. And we Jearr.:d alxu efIieca c:haee in themseha aDd therebc mates than more
the MX missile, Then we had anocher dIy wheu people came abie 10 make • piece m. has some kind rL UilPOWd lUa. base..
., speak ., us Ibout NatiYe Americ:aIl c:onccps rL baJanc:e and _ of ... people ..... _ _ oauaIly """'" " ' -
whII cheir poinr of view was 011 why the wortd had &'JCIal 11baI) ••. I \1WOf"kc:d out Wer it*) the (mal imaFs- Some d
OUI «baIaDCe. and why we were in {our cumut:) sirualion them were not two-dimc:nsiona utisu, Otawing was DOC their
euvUO'pnmglly and in ICJ11'lS rL conflict berwem nIboas. .. - skill. Some ol them were ~ pcopIe. Some d them
The b:us was not: an hiSlOricaI cwerview. tt"'lC..br~. b!.a. very were media people, Buc ew:rybody panicipartd in the coo-
spDcific b:us on the cooccpl eX peace. Vk had scmcone come ctp"'lIljzarion and conaibuted iOmClhina.
aDd mIt. 10 us about parallel systanS aDd how one orpni7a POHL: How f&r Uong an: you now .on the piece?
• pwalld systan that ooukI mlM alongside. mainsuam ee:a. BACA: I hZ"C • full-scale maqueUC-ODC: inch to one fOot. J
amy. aDd lben how the Cf'OSS(JYC'" could occut when: )'OU coukt ~ one panel c:omplc:tc and two pands nearly c:omplde. or
acnWIy sutwert the mainstream economy aDd ab$orb il _ me bu' remainin& pneIs J have dtawinp b "Nonviolem
-sysoom. Resistance.. and I'm missing "New \\brld Sys&ans"-wfUctt
~ abo had brainstorming sessions about OW' owa dreams.. are all Ihoac peopie-fo-peopI corM:nIions lie juscX:e: aad aJO-
F« .......... we <tid ...... worl<shops ....... . . . . . - vivWiry and an aid 10 racism-"Hwnan·Bascd Techrdogy,"
ltu:lfded dreams br • number U moatlls. VC used me Sa- aDd "Missiles to Starships. Those three need II'IClCe work and
Of

rrdtl teemiquc in wbidJ }'OU ask: )'OIUIdf • question before more coac:qxii.lizabon.
)'OU sk:ep and then )IOU t.ec:p • DOItbook by )'QUI' bed and )'OU
r=ord wbal )OU are dRaminc. '\bu abo do thcIe little aer-
POHL: '*" Ihc:R atIY panicularly difficult bmaI or
ir:::orq.....UcaI probk:ms thai: c:.DC up in die ecune oldie dis-
ciIcs in which )'OU by and prac:tic:c: I QIIaIlila ia.
were dramil:lc- Wb:II was iraJesti4 was that wheD we were
whaI )'O'l cussiont? .
BACA: When we were initially dIinkirw.!xU doiDs this b
doiac this ..colk:cti'o'e dramiJ:l&" we JOI very similar imaFs abe GrcM Pcac:e Man::b. our paobkms ~ UIOi'1t1WS. How
fICGI people simuhaneousty. 1"bcre was CDC wc:ck wba1 QUI could we mae the pieces in time and what kind d treabDeII:
ti. IfllUP «tMUy peope _. . we JOl • imIp:s Ihal Mft could we give them so 1baIl:bey c:ouJd be pained YeI')' qWd.:.
chc: ~ WIler. ~ across wafIU'. ly aDd wicb 1arze iUDbers ol ~ ill Iddition 10 me ini-
We abo did • whole sccticm _ . . bniD:s8DrnWlc about whII tial am. allihe whik beping • COdinuity ti imIp:s? If 1herr:
pcxc MS or .... we IhougbI tuu..l-bi:sed lettaiOkltY woukl were going to be ~ paods, bow coukl we wort. • series
do. And as we did Ihe5e thinp we phered all this inbma- d Iit:amS through Jhose ~ paacls and SliD I-.: continuity
lion and Slancd 10 c:aqotizt: it in 'Various . . . In oc:her words. belwem Ihem? J ta.d Deed sDnilu lssues on 1he GtaI WI."
)lOU aMdd group this inbmation abouI how we were, !he col- I had diflere:nt people each summer. and yet the piece ta.d 10
k:clive imlgina ofwNit we thoughl the world would look like .•. match the pm'Klus piece in termS of iu Sl)'listic lrQt-
as it was transforming, what • SCX'tely would have 10 do, what menl. What hcld it a1110gether was the 5tT\ICCUre I Ct'CIted and
kind 0( stages it would have to go ItuTxagh lO come 10 peace the syslCmalized .pp1tcation, SO thai the bodies could dwlge
or balance. . . . II bcamc: clear that all this inbmwion could and the hands could clwige but the application remained the
be divided into twO major categories. !he spirinW and the same. So that was one ol the issues.
1MICriaI. and dlat these two categories could tben be divided On '1'he \\brid Vtall" I also led a whole series of work-
_ pmeIs that roWd be named as we hatoe named than, (with) shops called "8e)tlnd the Obvious Symbol." wtw we fiJund
pae:nJ CIlqOricaI lides br bodies 01 inbrmalion that came was that we ta.d huDdreds of examples aDd knew \'CI)' well
frnm diu coIlccti'o'e grouping. All the lnbnn8boD from Ihe how 10 image c:oafIict and violence and that those were the
braiDsbming sessions came in • really tudom order. Or- first images that came 10 our minds.. But imaging peace was
paiziDc it u.o specific carcpies. giviac cac:b pad • tide. more difficult. In ocher words. we could define peace by say-
*-, __ the work thal J did with Mao (Wuc:rbr•• Los AD- iDe the abacDce d war, but we couldn't say what it was. ~
&des pXitical aaivisl and political carblaiIll. ThcD we couldn't say what it kd:ed like. Vk got stuck. As. Ibis poiol:
bnJucbr whM we had come up widl bKt 10 me group and • studatt said "What is peace? EYeJ}'body s.ittiDc around and
funher imagined each one of dIoie ,..mom wau::hiDs 'IV?" ADd Ihai we really realized thai pan 0( wbM
!'OfU.: ~ how long • period ti time did cbese tJrainsIorm. was happeninc was cbat the media and the ~ ambieal ad-
. . ta:IIoJIs wicb the group ol bty-five peop&e cake piKe? lUre in p::umJ supponcd. very..aonalistic. Q)lupc.1itioe., Yio-
BACA.: We had tweDry weeb. ~ would 'MJril: all d.y OD iaIl situatKlaal kind u politics. It was much easier b us 10
Sardays. The mornings woWd be cIaoIed 10. more thl:on:t- see the world as • soccer mak:b. or-. ixlcbaI1 pme than t:)
icaI dilculsion. wish speakers brouaht in from tbf:; 0UI$idc. see while would happal wbal we weft: wotting c0operative-
~ in the .l1eaUOOllS we woukJ work on dw:: ....,.. *p,pliza- ly. whaI: we chanp:d the rules rL the game. ThinkiDa u peace
~ IIQd dcYdopmenc ti the imagery. The emphasis u me eo- was YC:l'}' hard 10 do, it required mudl more etative thinking.
tift: program was training people 10 be nwraI painras but noc I drink this is me reason why. inherently, we (1$ • society)
decorative painters. And in faa. It the dose of this training, doo't u.oe reaDy strong images or very clear ideas.bouI wtw
~ could hive nude anything-. peri:lrmance, a book, • it would be like if we were \loUicing on an international rooper-
video. They wouldn't oecessarily have 10 make • mural. The .live level lOr the development of. suucture or • model fOr
4

POHL: ~ you thinkine abouIthe viewing of these: murals socially conscious public an. If. group wants 10 do an ea
by an imanational audience when you were working through Jocic:aI piece in wtUcb they absolutdy transbrm the ~ in Sal
your imagery and symbols? ta Monia or, on III international ~I, take on the desuuctio
8ACA: Definitely. But the wir. mat we set br ourselves. and of the Amazon, then there's the money. Public an of this t)'J1
my idea abouc '1'bc \\brld Wall," is dw: the inraior piece is fraught with difficu,lties., both orpnizational and fi~
is an American vision, and while iIs a"dicace will be inIema- We need more of this end of wad, though, and havinc iii
tioaal, out job is 10 come from u American perspccti~ I mooey there would be half me ban1e woo.
think that tbc: most profDwld thiac about die piece is _ it
is lD come from a mlllrindcul2J paspeaiYe widUD the UDilaI NarES
sa.s. wtUch is of a:lW'Se • miDoriIy posirion The cuerior
IDIU'&ls wouJd thea do die work of each alUIID)' spcakinc spe- l I*lokGec, ........ 1'tMu.~ l M ~ ...... 33 (O:I:Ibcr I!ilII
cifically lD iIs ilatllMX:cal-Jdicnce So I dd1't miad die speci- llI.
_ct;,. 1. JrIdidl; ~ s.c., "'Our PIII:lpk Iuc"
I..... EaaD- ( t - I
....... __ o - . ~... c...a .. Cll n·DN.1IIiIed by Dull
POHL: H.w:)'OU decided wtUch cnuntries)'Oll wouJd like 10 till JCIM MIl ~ ~ (s-k: The ItAI e - PI-. 1915). 6:
haw: the piece visit yet! 3. Ibid•• 61
BACA: Actually, that will RO( be br me 10 decidc.. A JEld -t. a.c:. is _!be &c.d of ~ 01_ AJDmc. ea.-i! of_ An
or turd wilJ be Sd up thai will pq:oinI1be places in 1be world Iac. • ..s _ I..of.uplc$ M_oIe-"I'Oftlf An Md bu ......
AJtI;
ia_~~oa_' oIlhcTomaRMrae-.LA.TllIi
at this moment tha1 are the most signific:anl CCIlWrieI in termS Form Ibr cb£ Am. _ ~'. LA. 2(0) eon.m-, a.t 1Ilc Hal..., ~
of coming 10 some relationship with each other lOr peace. In dowmnI ... !he Am. III
other words. wtUdl counaies are the hoc. spots. I suspect the 1. A ck:Io:ripUon ollhc InlIlIJ QIl be; b.IIId in M6llUIr br GItd a..a.l
SoYict Uuion and Latin America will be among mem, and ., e..-llOUcfu.~(LOI A.....: Scdal and PIIblic An fl&:Iouft
~. MJ). nc _ _ ........ by £~ CocmofI as! Rc*n Picnoi
probably some Ewopean aJUnUy. I would lib: 10 ICC it SO 6. a- ... ...,. t.-. ~ ... d. cirywicIe _
10 Mexico.. pRIja f"'Nc:4fPbcw buod Prick,
by ~ Brdey. MID. ill 19II. _ _
POHL: Who is goias lD be 011 die boanf?
BACA: ThaI is wbaI we are wortiDB 011 ricbt DOW. ~ are
abouc 10 bin: a ~ iJr the project aDd are aOO JCUia&
ltOJO.tpwbrjons iJr eIqIaU, pcopk who make Ibe JOIdy d
_m......
SUOIXlO -.. _ pojca. A .... IidIaId . . _ _ aD _ _ -at
......... _cily. llll!ill9

7.
JIIIIicc
~ ~

a- Md - r fRDlbc CriMiIral-.a ~.......


_,........., bid kI _
_ .. ~ .... "-'It..

eriIIria. n.: r.._


~

g10bal conflict their CODCCrD. For ~, we are taJkiDB II) _.,. _ wi6 _ _ ftICllIIdI cc.6d be; ,....,.. _ dle _
_ ..... " _ . - . . . mM.........,w. Tbey bria& ,.... .
&- _
c.e.ao.~

•. ally
__ ....
.w, 2. 16llailies.
~ "all--..s_~ ...
IIJgCthcr scboWs there 10 diIaw specific policy as it afkts.
.. fa -t - a d _ _ in die - . d o - l i
Y)'. ~ educaaioD. We would also lib: lD bN: as
'-Pc. Caliinia, Baa _ tpneific IIiIay 01 this '--ten. a.
membecs a number of promiDaIC women of eokK from ...-lilly, _ A.K u. ., btwda" ~ MdI .Ibe .
duou&hout me UDiIed States who could help us with visibili- . , . . 01 fIi'cIt
IIbor ill ~.
1)' and fwx1raising. The baud would also ultimaIdy be resp0n- 9. nc ~
w
.... __ r-n -v.brId Wall: A VISion 01. f'ti
sible tlr me tmd, security, aDd disIribuUon of the piece and turl .....--. fac. I typae:ripI ...uabk from Itlc. Social IIId Pub&:
would decide what wouJd happco with it when it l'tl\Ir'ned
~ e - (SPARe) (IU!.).
n n. ~ _ ~ 011 April '11, 19t9.
home. I would like II) see the '4rious murals so&d and me u. a- _ -primiti'lOt- hc:re ill. poNlM -.e. - - . . Mtirsc miIIII
money pa _ • fund that woWd caabIe adler artias II) produce or "'prilaU milld.w
,
,... Life/Arts

TEUVlStOfVC4
ElnUfu. ll.'/CS
C. . . . . . . ./C6
H_try eo.aIclc }'oung
piQ,,;s' "'"~tRrs 1M
past/CS C

L T he 'World \Vall" is not


complete until dialogue
occurs. It is not a static
')iece silting ill a museum.
- JDdlth Ban

uilding a wall of peace


........................... r _
Venice artist is taking wia.-. .....
So-. Mwoo .... u.. Ilo-iuo .-.101;••
... MANocI it> i.....n ......." -
aM .......:I ift\o u.l_tionod
..ioU- 11>0 oklilo aAd w...t
.... .....:l1O _CIlia bK_ her murals on the road
...... 10 _ " , . ,...............,.. Hoco.
....
.... . . _ A I n i " 104_
fouM
...... c1
' ; ' "_
-"
u.l.N ....._ _ lho
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ud W.<Ola1oo .uu- ..-on. S-w..
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.... _ ..... ,..." .... "-I odooMil

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~et
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AJlno- ....... _ " - , ' ....

. . . . . . lies erel'ted a Ii8nt rru.l


wl105e ~ oeDiC;t the CI'I8n,eS
--
..... t _ ........ nioliaf;"

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tt..
"G_t
it the IIftiot _1M> ,.,...."" the
WallJ'-,,-"-"~
'""" t"" Mhto • R"............ pOlo..... _M.O
Mural FROM PAGE C I I
tM 0Il.Aai0: _&My 01 CaliIonia
10 lb. p'OCr••, coMKtId .... IQgn1 fOl' the tR.......
r.- ~ ti-a to lhot ~ the .""9~ ol Mqor - city.
UI'Oo .itJl. .. h.apI to pmlaaw Tom Bn.dMY. otr. . . . . . _ 11_~.hulB..
local i.Ler-,.eW .,mo"", ~ lO ....hbottoood. _
...... 10 NtIliDIt. tbt -..pc.
. . . . 1M· CIo-toofre-
1
' ~o-;,.
_ _t*- " - ............. tIMo
! k.ila tJ.a. . . . ~ an:hitKu 10 help
q_tu.. ..... peiM. &be _ _ u. _ . . . . a por$oI~ -.lulu IQU-
E........u... ball . . . . . . • daat ...w dapin lbt ~
I .... Tujoap WMh fIaod. CIllDtnll ....... 01 ...... ...,. ol ..... cMBce- SPAKe
d0.3. . . . . . NonIa HoUywood. I..o- ~ .. tIMo . . . . . P I ' TN la1b trido paopM
Ii... -C_ W.n- ;. til. . . . . . -w ,.;w iD t.be -w. ..,. b w", •. - . . , ....
.nun.! .. tIMo ..w. MaN lMa B.a,...tIob. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,... 40 ;..
auo )'IDadII ,...,. _.,. edmic f~ CaIilomioI s-. u---. a ~ ~ ~ flOfld-
~ ~ i t _ ty. Nor\Iuiola.. ... .-lW lid b,. u. u.s. Dip," t 01
r... - - . ~ - u d 10 d.,"_ t.It.o
.u
UN utiatie dincwo' of
.."'...... ...;t!a doe Nnic:uI
- . CNdn to- co LA." .......01-.-..·
......
v....'. s.w . . ..,... Art
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I.- A.....• .u.ic: JI'
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i... ~_
publi<- __pk.o _0.
.... .'
__" .. to d_loop c _ _ . . . . . . . Moout ~ 0- of ...,.
, .... r........... wMt lMJ- ...... rlMlly aaked. '1.0 ~

_01.. . . .. ,.....
Iry'" - . I ~ with ~ .bout thu_l_ . - • .....,.lIoody .ittia,: .rouad
.....'" thai. 150 lOieoee it _ tMI~.....,. ....... TYr.
l...-Md .. 1916.. It ' - aa ..._
do... 0 1 _ u.- 16.000 ph<>-
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SM'. \eltiac tIM..- &- 1Mi.- _ . _W.-J pro-
t M ~ " " ' P O d _ _ 1t
_fIII lOud ........
SPARC ;. a.-.d ill tM ok!.

--.y ....
iate tM ifttenwu-aJ _ . . . . . 1I1Iid ....
V_iw Police St.eu-, wlwn w.n.·
II......... dotuoI p.e. .... -n.e Worid ""-r ~ 'World Wall' ;" a 1*"-

ut. Ie. edliIlit it dle .... . . . .p\Ior .. dYe u- ...


(Ii
r...-.jIoil. ......... _tUt~ WotGry,. a-.,.. -It a I I _
...... _ ...'1 ..... _ on. .... rw the _ _ GriP- . . . . . . at auetIy tba rilEht
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~ _hen _ $,000,...... 11ft ,...,. ace> POd _ . _hen
M" peopIoI .1wI . . . . . Wi,
....Ir.•• . . . . . . 10 ~ the C'OUMIy
~. Th.
'01' ..u.
or'.fti,.... .p.
an ,,_iftC d .... n. the
'WaD' it a CIllIlaKtioIl b u _
1'- y - . IICO SPARe, f\Uld.
eel by tM city of U. ~ . ~ a- 10 aeaw. In¥- ~ ..0 - IMn • d ....ioa..·

o..-~ 01. Cukunl Main.


1M N.tioeaJ EDd_t for
0. Arte. Ca1iI-a-. AN e-n.
cil. Hic.dai IIDlI. tM Nco FOI,lII:
d.tion• .-ocJC' ol.hen. bee"n
-N.i,hbo,hood Prid••Cr•• t
W.UI U~.· NiDe .......
ba¥e bMa =-tl',-..:l .UId u_
oOter 15 ... is! ~
~ -:t'&
Judy s.ca l~' In
sewerIIIln b WORLD WAlL,
n.. of _ NaIl"""
Prr' ra_ - - . _ of
on....,.1tle
e-ty ~ ~
G8fdenI ttn&CJI MIy 6. e.:a
II biked by her ~ Mr• ..t Mo'"_ Fenrl

A Panel
Discussion
BY KERRY BLANKENSHIP artist Alexi BegIov, and one by the
FIJUlish Arts Group.
'The W:wtd WaD: A VISion fA the Baca has been irIYotved in 5eYeIaI
Future Wltbout FaD'. A porl4blt mural projects and is the founder of
muralun dis:p/4Jat tht SnUx GardDu
SPARC and of the city of LosAngeles's
at titl 5.B" Conty Cowl'thbwst throwglt C~ MunUs Project. Her acrylic
May' on canvas panels in 1Jtt MJmJI Wall
(Including, so far, "Triumph of Heans.•

I
t is l'IOI: without much effort that
the art conununity continues its "Non-VIOlent ResisIance.~ '"Triumph of
attemp( 10 spread peace ~ Hands. ~ and ~Ba1ancej show a mes-
out theworld. An example of one of the sage that SPARe hopes to :sprN:!1O
most ambitious efforts ye! can be other activist artists and communities.
viewed in the Sunken Gardens at the For example, "Non-VIOlent Resist-
courthouse. T1tt HOrld WIlll: A V"lSioJI ance· encou~ change through in-
of titl Fftblrt W"rtfImd FltlT combines
six portable murals that together try to
picture a fu1l1l'e of global harmony
...........
dMduil commitment and commw1ity

1Jtt mmd Wall is a direct desct'nd-


through ~ conten\pOl"al')' gl0- ent of the Great WaIl of Los Angeles.
bal issues and e:xpbringways in which the nearly haJi.mile-long rmnI in the
communities can learn to rT\OYt Son F""""'" """. prod""" by
beyond war and confIicL SPARe. thaJ dePcts the history of
Conceived in 1987 by the Los Azt. California from an ethnic viewpoint
gdes-based Social "and Public Art ~ From the Great WallofLosI\ngeks 10
~~, Tht H0rid Wall, when TM"1%rld Wall. Baca has expanded
compW:, will consist of 14 lo.fooc by her bros from barrio and urban em
3O-foot paneis-seYen by Chicana art· cernS to e'obal issues. 1M nbrld Wall
istJudith F. Baca mel &eYeD byvarious will tn0'e from Santa Barbara 10 Mex-
-...o.w........._""'. ico..(.anada. South Africa. Korea. and
ing lJ"aVds abroad. 'iJ date. six ofthe 14 Japan. wj(h SPARe highlighting perti-
~ ............ h ... hv1l;,...." ............ RI.«...... .,_'~; ... ",-m"""""..." _
NOVEMBER 14,1991
\ULU1oiE 22, NUMBEB. 38
SlSO PER COPY

Towards a
World
in Balance
SiDct the late ei.Jhties.. 1.01
Aasdcs D:1walistJady B_
ha been st 1rOd: OP w.l.l
w.u, l huge trudinr manJ.
whole cnmded narntift sAd
aIIIlpln symbolism fonD.
visionary depiction of our
worid in ba1mct. HWU w.o
owamI==ly"_
IIDd F'mJmd, -.rhcn: snisu
dlert conaibuu:d to it. In the
£ira Rpxnt ors two-put
dialorac with U'[ hisrDrian

UId theorist Marin Roth, Baa


diIc:as.cs the proj«t aDd its
I l'IIIIifie:ati0Q5. 1D
---_._,_.~_ .. _~---

be W.rlJ W.U i • •

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of "," Towardsconversation
a World Judy
in Balance A with Haca: Pan 1
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nriaus ~!u>d, I'd .. ~.. 'Lool: did ,n.l· r..c,: Fu, •.,,,,pl•. ,
.. rhac 1Iando. ..... fi"JCf_..., J""""", ~....... foy, poneil ,,,01
.iaJle fi"I'" .vc..,. .i",I. loud Fi"nioh o..e fo.",.d • Io<l~e ..
"'praeR' the cliff.:rent '-'" of d>c I oM l>ca...m.l. Carr-- ... tel'. rich .vhido it in dtio rrouP'~'d-""" cil"Cle .nd .c••d o••he oil< (~
....mol. And ,he l"'..UlJ l>1Ick mole I J"'I'C"- of low bcinc.bIc ... _ rhcmod_ , p.... co .. (e ....co. Ire", ....
tipe .. ho NO off .... hi. i<>un>cl' i ... ohio ..-.y-·W. """"" ~ IlInd j lirai,,!!" tb.crc ~IICN"J '0 <he
.ttolDp.aied by IIi. G.ndhi. 'I"
Tl>e otniIo.iar e-
of the tbcre. We b...e -..b """... """ c>do:u>rra .bou,
doc l'unre
ae
....010... n
.",.11 fi,.. OD the 6pa ..... booed .... p"~._. lut... lSO fccI of ll. i.'. do.... PC'" .u... !i..."" ""'.ind ,
~ '"""" ..ma. ,D ~ him., baa". au will k. ,h.... So. sp::akcn were tt.. -u..
ODd "'" dlra......., Ikr n.u of die . . ••. of...,. W..lJ. Wdl runt.. .pin. it'l • ph« eMftCd..... ",-,.nd 'o'Cfbo1 di~ fr>r
W ..... ofW•. \\'boll did .... .,. _ I JIll II> ICI ~. audiocn<c to c:qocncnoc.
die port . . die \\...... 01 W. _ I I ICC the "'Tri.... ph of .h•
.. TIre ilDalel ca• ., ..... of .a.-.:I "')" __ .""""'........DCd Haado' ~ • a -y -.Ie of .. n-c """" ...diaM:a
...,.;., '0 ... lr.c • colte;'e <:I'e- docir IiaM irD&o!NmaIly,"'" u die 11'",11'", ........ very diffct-t. ladad. doer .....
lori ... tio. of doe ~ ...e of i.. te , pa.. of ae p .............. _ _ ~o.._kft...,.. diffe ....' w, •..,e'be••her
~J~_~ f ..-h .,. p ible, 1 d>an.acn _ tu. who oarc .. I _ _ a -..ploot for orloa.....
tnNf-..ti-. TIroe ID.......... pbooopapll wilido IlCZ"eCO _ wUdo thuc are dolbr tryiaJ to x~. . .th the It·
poIa' i <laC a.1 to -..h I . , te..... _ _ doc .1aDCC5 of lrilIIllDd n. .......... ""a W...
pc 1 d.oiee-...d w, i. ia wUc die ..,.. will 1M:. I :ally Iikcd tfCICatiIl. ft' l'or c.umpIc, 10 }DC....... m. people ..
.1 ,.. • diffi.,.,h o.c....01 i. m- ......... ""JCd- .. docy ,-..,.....-..,.....,,.,.... ........ tbe......oc~.......,

--
......nr ""'"' wido .... ItlOI:l>c< ...
>do • ...,. thor dIcJ' <qIlcniaII doc
'IUI""" _ AKrilka of yo...
--..if,.,.. <:boo.- II> be .........
'JC.' ....
to In~ she world- i .. I
.............. ,.. "-'" it. "The
procao I bdi_ it tlo.at ,.... ..._
fin. _ ,..... .U .. ItO iDdioidul
'0
.....u tb.roo,h .... ,.......... of ",100 flY. oJ'.. JoOD, .......r. I'.
~ ! ... ,.,...,.. oJ liMed
bodies ...dcr pr...-c- """""'. u
pm. ... J'C' d>c _ - , . . ' 1:0
the middle ;. I dlanonc .... ho ;.
........... _ .......... G..- W.t1 .....,;"C ... _ _
..-tI .., ....u..d ·iaoidttI........• ocria 01 .. adoi
ud I ~ it lao 011 d>io IIOC02JC rip. d>crc •• _ _
b.ItlOo "'to.
n.... _ "'"'
Io<>b ..
m-...ti<>o:Ial,
"'ll>Ir in••11
."""c..... oi
_ _ .boIa the pIo...... '"
no.,
1 people ..
Irudr ,...01

r'"" 0."'" me ·",.. ,i.J of ,


..-orido 1/r doc ..........
",I. nen tben .re icc pbaQ. >ad d.c. )"0" ....... join wim ....f'Jl'. TiIcr rnIly Iih<l ... pcrah .............nd COOlIe"'pl docir thi. yc J<>eu. . felli.al
hiuonal prccaM_ 1ooltiIl, ...
hido 're "'y- ......,;.... IIld hich
-., lrloooninI 0UIIidc my
he ,;".. I .... pain';,,! thiI pond.
at """. odo... people b.>.... do<>c. ......
,II... rag ...... join ...id. Ihe
I
flOC anodic< ."""" I-fIClCe' "'err power. And Den '0 hcr it
pbrsicaL So, _'01 J'C' '" d>cIc Iinca p"lllli.., hi. Iolndl ..... r fro'" Ioi.
ond .... ·01 1iN: ..... ""'" die II'- if, Iood.
.. ...Ioe" pcopl. 'fluded ,
.....fe••"c. 100".. 01 ill .he W
",.11 "en•• " .....cry in ....
rhe'. arc ""cch'"i .,,01 red eO"'III.... i.,..
I" ·Tn ph of m. tloo'OI'lCpenoa iom.-.. ofrt.c 1'hac w..-tJ. W.IJ ...... ti.... Then. in tho s.o.;•• Ulli.....
.hb b ,he, Ife ... H.....• "'" four &,....,. d>o Icft- cird. ond
aIJoo"od
fO p, ioI. W no< .n on....
_ OW" ...... 00' fur .... imo,u., of il
bo~. Ii",ple '<leu. Th
• tdlioJ of
- • populotB.~ (.., w
orJ'o nd ••• ..,...hi", i. ........ on ~ ..... eocb b.oldo die ~ upccII

""'"'" 6e<p, dorIl urtb. Ab.o:wo< • IiJh,-. a .. dl_aocl thco 0 .... ...,u.;",. o....)'Ofl brak in, 1""'", h_ . - """'"P pr-. dtc 10 e'e ..... "nf.mili•
ntbe""""'ond ...... which_1I dI.onct.:r "'I1b ..... ~ ..... path ;0 !he dull .Ild ..............lac;. 01 pri..... ill an ! dlIns< .h. So.i.. Union doct hI
~ a-. an::bc<ypical icna,... for ~ he will &nd _ ocr die O..L TIre.. "" QlIt abo.., .. hat il toward bol~ t don', "'ad <U "'o..., <:allOciai .nli.. In""
lC ........... female. n. _ io bon.- ............ hi... U>d thcD, of £coioliltc. Some ldclo ..... 't ........ try- idea lb... i' it • li .. pl ........ <i •• In Mooc o( COlIne ••h.re
, 011 ill ea...,c. """ m.n it doc c:oonc. <bey will CO doc oat IU'd il bec ..,.e i, hll nch • "iJ prim... lila", co i' ,chi••a • the oddiDoot of d>c Sarin pelId
Alai Bc:ro laJI ...... .
o<Idruoa 0 - """ mood> •
tb.c Soviet U _ . F"lfloIir.
ac Piau "e la R.u. w. loa"
"'ori:iar"-dau ludicace. Lati
"-cb tt.. .... - - - . a _
_ the prira..,. pcOfIIc ........
io ,"e. un Los 'cI.. co
......,.. ebild.e pa.......
£omilia.. r<l..., dM: JOrity ..
pcOfIIc hod probobty . -
..... the M....- ofC"_. .~'
ArtiaLao~
I
,. ........... _._-
... -
-.-
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* .'
• ".Sad I.i' ;- t ..- .'--.',·'s ."...

Towards a World in Balance


A conve=tion with Judy Baca: Part 2
SVNDRAAOTH
I
........ At you 1tD_.J
<dI< down ... _ die two-dry " ' -

do II a- irIsuIlotica ollilo w..u I w.u WMI has • ......., rc:loOoooohip _bo.... bud. b..tled p .
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I

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lUI • ,""- I t:IWU: it 01 -.nl -.k, ...aido _-.pc- • ...,. 0101_ ............... T:IIe:o Ihc __ _ _ _, i< 10 tha' . - . .....t:
.........,... _~-* ..... ..li... d i. ..... JCOI'"plUc i wi ptacri" Iot...t Dl iaIonoolliOll ~ f..- ..-ld , be ... cnawoa ol
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""""'P .. period. no
p
on.!
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tIt.o. coBI.

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cliff p lo
,... 01: lbo IlBIftl ~ 0 - me U .. itod S... u, .. e are reall, .... the ,... d. lb I-r••• The i"f i.." .11... eo" ' be fto ....,........". th....
JD"o . . m1lftIs " - .,....j drIrf pooilioocd .., do....,h """' _ .... "'-II.Ii_'. or- of pol.- """ ...... ..,.- oi "Thore ...
.....bWoy in dIc cicy. n. 1 '''...''..i 1 .. ole. W. bu•• eabIoo aIlowt die ~ I .. G ... d.lupe •• .11. .. opodAc: TIyIco oi paiM>nJ: thor .-d
..........&ed ..,. w. daM:
<PIopo tN1 0<ltI0rftd
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... bod to JO to ,....,.z••• IOIIrOCS
like I....... , f• • II, .110...... d
SO • iolIow "'" the ......... _ ...

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fSori.1 • P.Wk 1011 R_.n r.IiI:E ................. ariiot ~ TIM: Go- for .......... 011 the people. ill .
Ceo..,). lIt_,lot • 1"_'
c:loildruo oJoror-a4 ...,.
of
talboI
__ M alOCIttIIiDJ .. ..-l ..
""-- It is _ 01 .... few ..... ca.pk.. . . . . - - - - projoa
i. 1990 iA G...o.I.pe•• 1Ud. io
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bit ........... All 01 doe-. cal.kiooS
.-... tbo h_ r this pbec i.
....... ...,. w
ao! ~......w Ilk. \\'11.01 doct
Jioood

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ndiu«s. in .... I..j~p ..
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scornpb, i .. _I ••d m.k.. i.
....,. ~ abou< liM: Iia <boo l!Io< R.u.o uhibi~ ..., aJJod • loo:aI pop.l.. i.....I. 'n<ludu los. ........."" "fformL I. """ ... rely
&no nsI "'-"'I 01: die W""" W.... ...... --.. ..bid> io ..... """ ia ~.boolI.peoplc'.~. oa .. edi> ,.. form. Ii"". ocolori<.l
ia dIU ..0-...,. took pi.... in r.- ..... Proc""""'- .... tbct gj. thoy no. e-lol ,...;c.;, in. nnl U>fwmotion. n>odl• .,.......... .t><l ....
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" " - nlooK I"O"P"o bot il: ....
<oilobona-. 11. io _ .oIikc
ocloet work ito d.." i' Ioob fot d'>o
--'"Y _ _ peopIc. I ....
-a.iDc&.. ............ bas to do -..ith lb. r"..... 01 doc
p1.u. So d•• Los """,Iu ...d
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IIot ..,. boooiaIl,.pply .... __ (as Casooda io dc.-cJopiaJ ,......,.


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"-oria -Aa.ria•• alI ... d.....lop ..u ,10.
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do. f...._.n:! if...,.
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fioiQ belp.her we

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loiS collab"..:...., TWca io """i.ti ro."d 110 1<1, It... ...d ~"Io.. nd IOlIJe..i .. s ...

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b.o ol '1.... "........~......,.,
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,... ._ I won oopdo..... r-r T... <ini C.......,.. n., •••• 1 .... doc _ Mdil>on
I Fe do... ;.f _ .100.... -....r-.J. "'-' .,..baIo 100<::.,. ioIiOaI ... to . . Sc>oieI: li__ at ...acm.l pOtlca ... Ioio ..,... _ """ Scoria ,.....
--...me.--.,;m
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...... of cbe
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,.....w.riDos 01 the ........
. . !ocr:I!lMi!isoudl
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mOl Alui B.'......1ylM: we e"
p<:ti'.:t ... nmIaDolio 10 . . . . . . So
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I Jali. 11;1"11.". \\.....h
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h. ;" <be _ . it .... IlIindo
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anod>er. TIw is p.nlr .. ~ I NO'<
<><>I,. cumpIct.oo:Ibr olm,. pio<cs""
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...illin of do..- ill the w•• ld
..1>0 i. thiDki"f .bo.1l 'he '<lUI
~....,. dwI ~ to &rod
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Itm<Ua cbompopc. "'"
foe • ride in _ .
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dUnkinr onlr
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.bou.
their prob
far; I doa'I ..... to f...... lOI.te Ih<- ~ doc ....,..... ond. I lbiak, ... &nil...bo YOUId be ";!lin, to cow••• d Mo.c. . . .0 look for how 10"" IOod Itld lI>OnIr:ho.<
idcu is> en. Uaioocl Sola by myocl£ that .-.Ily iIlB...,.,..;I. . . &co: 1Ibo' _ _ • ","'"'-W wloo .... work ~blc o..._-..~ "".k< .nd. m....",d rood fh .
, ....... __ .. ~ idooo abuat: r-r...w or ..........., 0( the f.""m... I", thi. """... ph. . . .
the .......tonulioo 01. -'et7 of coon olmac <be ~ n-. .,;th the ;",paoo;hlc bur"""'""'r.
bdaDot -..idloaI: ........, • • me,.
ore thi..n.. ia .do" ._tries,
wIuo. """r .... taliUc obo& .......
..
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dioc.uio.. _ wiIm ...,. dIiM U"","" .sa-. Alai --W....l _ bi, I t the w.u Wdf. Sh" " -
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doc ti,•• of tIoi. iDO,.l" for
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ai"
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T.-tim Cu...,.- uod die
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fiD.D.i.1I _ i. -Alleno.tiTc ...do • C10C loold", .-ud ..... do< _ _ of M ~ 0Nr ••
..... I &-I '"Who!'. i - to i, .cnnll,. h.ppc... e1 e1id I
!be ripr" <be r- y"" "'-". ....d..... "'d .by ud 10o. " ....
. . Y0<1 o,pO.ld "'do the duo kiDd '" ~ was ,......, boa> ,-.blL TN........... hod.
"01Ip of woo Ti
d.iffucady
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do p"'......
bKk """ fonh .rri", hi'" to occ ....roW".... , idOl. sad .h.", ....
tb. f.,u.c i" puh.p•• "'0'. ulbd with poople ...,-" .... _
s->et ..... Y _ b .. Ioopon.I "'"Y'-if d>= was Joop.. I iD M-.nd ~.incd her ~
6nr.m.. io. _ _ 011990 an. ........tofiDdh. they bop", '0 _
the ponihility '"
,...W . . . . . . . ...., .........

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........... """"" ol,~.,;m. i.. .."'.... ber ho.. ,h...othn .bo
"'.Yf<
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.. _-_.- _-
bWod ...... """ -hliac ~J"""L ..., .p d•• WII'U W.U i'" Go.ky

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_ n . .... ~
Judith F. Baca:
Community and Culture
in the United States
...

-
• ]UDrrn F. BACA is known nationally and internationally as a muralist and a
public educator and has taught in the University ofCalifomia system since
1981. Her commitment to community-based an m3king led her to found.
along with filmmaker Donna Dieteh and artist Christina Schlesinger. the
Social and PublicAn Resoun:e Center (SPARC) in the mid-1970s in Venice,
California. Through SPARG, Baca has not only facilitated the creation,
preservation and documentation of public an in the Los Angeles area. but
has also provided a space for the images and voices ofpeoples ofcolor. She
has coordinated two major citywide mural projects in Los Angeles and has
organized, along with the staff of SPARG, symposia and exhibitions that
draw attention to the multiplicity ofcultures that make up the greater Los
Angeles area and the nation at!arge. Her most famous mural, The Greal Wall
of lAs Angeles (1976-1983) (Figures 1,2, and 3) extends for almost haifa
mile along a drainage canal in the San Fernando Valley and documents an
alternative history ofCalifornia, one that acknowledges the presence ofNa-
tive Americans. Asian Americans, African Americans. Latinos. Chicanos,
gays and lesbians, and working class people. She has brought her coalition-

,,

building skills to other parts ofCalifornia, indudingthe farming communi-
ty of Guadalupe, just north of Santa Barbara (Figure 4), and the city of
Baldwin Park,just east ofLos Angeles (Figures 5 and 6). She has also taken
• these skills and applied them to an international project, The World Wall: A
Vuion oftIu Future Wzthout Fear (Figures 7 and 8), a series of!0' by 30' porta-
ble murals that has traveled around the world, joined by similar panels
painted by artists from the host countries.
I first met Baca in 1988, when I invited her to speak to a women's studies
class I was co-reaching at Pomona College. I was impressed by the nature

K'"-s StsuDa. 1996 C 1996 OPA (On!neas Publishc:n&soriaricm)


Vol 25, pp. 215-%117 Amsrerdam B.Y. puNished in The NetberiaDds
Reprints anilab&e direc:dy &om the: ~ UDder 6cazse by Gordoa and Bn:::ac::b.
Ph"""""yin, pamiaed by - . . oaIy ScicDce PubIisbcn SA

• PriDccd in ~
216 FRANCES POHL

. ".:::
••j':

- -::~.:
,- .
.~

. •"..::,1

Figure I 77uGrt4t Wallo!LosA",elG.1976-8S,aaylic:oDconacte,lS·x2,43S·, Tujunga


Wash dninageanal. San Fernando Valley. Group photogn.ph. summer 1981 (JudithBac:a
in center or foreground group.)

of her work and her commitment to education, and subsequently orga-


nized a retrospective exhibition, judiJh E B=: Sites and Insights,
1974 -1992, for the Arizona State University, Tempe Art Museum in 1992
(it appeared the following year at the Pomona College Montgomery Gal-
lery). I interviewed Baca in her studio in Venice, California on July 10,
1994.

In a December 1993 interview of a Bill Jensen exhibition for the Y"l1lag.


Voice, Peter Schj~ wrote: '~ere is DO art community, only more or

the art
.
w"
less an art ,society.,::" .. Society is formal. Community is soulfuL Many in

a community
-.
are so soul-starved they convince themselves ofbelonging to
when they rea11ydon'L The art world is a fairly savage social

JUDITH F. BACA 217

and economic zone where values are always in doubt and often in con-
flict." What has been your experience of this "savage" society and where
do you see the "soulful" art community? .

My first thought is that the "savage" art world truly is a non-community.


There's a certain brutality to it because it co-ops the truth of community
and uses this language in such a way that people, particularly srodents, be-
come extremely confused about professional group life. They talk about a
professional group life as opposed to a community, which I would define
more as a group ofpeople who have shared values, mores, perhaps share a
geographical space in which they have to live in some way in relatedness
and connectedness. I think what the art community is really about is dis-
connection. in the sense that we really foster individuation. We foster com-
petitiveness. We foster within our an schools and universities the sense of
inscantly disconnecting people from where they came to engage in the cre-
ation ofwhat is called a -universal aesthetic." and that "universal aesthetic"
is essentially a western-European aesthetic and it's very specific. It's ge0-
graphically specific, ethnically specific. It's intellecrually specific. And yet
we call that "univerul" and what happens is that people become very iso-
lated. Right now we are recruiting the creme of the crop from our ethnic
communities, for example the Chicano community. We're recruiting
California students or people out of neighborhoods and we are putting
them into the university and, as we recruit them and bring them in. we
foster the disassociation from their origins. We say to them, "this is the
highest form of achievement." It was put to me repeatedly-the highest
fonn of achievement is to disassociate entirely, in totality, from where I
came from. This means that, essentially, we're talting California taxpayer's
money to recruit Califox:ma.swdents out of California neighborhoods so
that they will never address the most salient issues. the most diflicult and
incredibly troublesome problems. We take the best of them and we take
them away. Essentially we're doing a brain drain ofthose places, so that we
can never solve the problems that plague those communities. We have a
continuing cycle offeeding people offinto this never-never land or non-
space of professional group Jife. Basically what it means is we serve corpo-
rations with those people. Those kids never come back to where they came
from. The biggest, biggest struggle in all of my life bas been to stay con-
nected in somry to where I came from. They've offered me every ki!>d
ofimaginable1@odyiflwouldleaveandevengotasfarastellingme rm a
failure because 1 haven't.

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