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A linear scale :

A scale with equal divisions for equal values. For example, a ruler has a linear scale.

A Non-Linear scale:
Situation where the relationship between variables is not directly proportional. For example, a per unit cost may decrease drastically (not proportionately) as production volume increases, because of economies of scale. The following diagram shows a comparison between a linear and a nonlinear cost function for production volumes.

Basically a non-liner scale is one in which the divisions ( or increments) are not equally spaced. When it comes to risk management, if a company follows a non-linear impact scale, it means that company gives more weightage to higher impacts and lesser weighatage to lower impacts. This indicates the companys desire to avoid high-impact risks by giving higher weightage. On the other hand, a liner scale for impact indicates equal weightage for all impacts whether low or high.


(P + 4M + O )/ 6 Pessimistic, Most Likely, Optimistic (P - O) / 6 [(P - O)/6 ]squared LS-ES and LF-EF EV - AC EV - PV EV / AC EV / PV AC+EAC, -- Initial Estimates are flawed AC+BAC-EV -- Future variance are Atypical BAC / Cumulative CPI, -- Future Variance would be typical (BAC-EV)/( Cumulative CPI* Cumulative SPI)

2. Standard Deviation 3. Variance 4. Float or Slack 5. Cost Variance (CV) 6. Schedule Variance (SV) 7. Cost Perf. Index (CPI) 8. Sched. Perf. Index (SPI) 9. Est. At Completion (EAC)

10. Est. To Complete Percentage complete 11. Var. At Completion 12. To Complete Performance IndexTCPI

EAC - AC EV/ BAC BAC - EAC Values for the TCPI index of less then 1.0 is good because it indicates the efficiency to complete is less than planned. How efficient must the project team be to complete the remaining work with the remaining money? ( BAC - EV ) / ( BAC - AC )

13. Net Present Value 14. Present Value PV 15. Internal Rate of Return 16. Benefit Cost Ratio

Bigger is better (NPV) FV / (1 + r)^n Bigger is better (IRR) Bigger is better ((BCR or Benefit / Cost) revenue or payback VS. cost) Or PV or Revenue / PV of Cost

17. Payback Period

Less is better Net Investment / Avg. Annual cash flow.

18. BCWS (Budgeted cost of work scheduled) 19. BCWP (Budgeted cost of work performed) 20. ACWP (Actual cost of work performed) 21. Order of Magnitude Estimate 22. Budget Estimate 23. Definitive Estimate 24. Comm. Channels 25. Expected Monetary Value 26. Point of Total Assumption (PTA)




-25% - +75% (-50 to +100% PMBOK) -10% - +25% -5% - +10% N(N -1)/2 Probability * Impact ((Ceiling Price - Target Price)/buyer's Share Ratio) + Target Cost


1 = 68.27% 2 = 95.45% 3 = 99.73% 6 = 99.99985%

Return on Sales ( ROS )

Net Income Before Taxes (NEBT) / Total Sales OR Net Income After Taxes ( NEAT ) / Total Sales

Return on Assets( ROA )

NEBT / Total Assets OR NEAT / Total Assets

Return on Investment ( ROI ) Working Capital Discounted Cash Flow Contract related formulas

NEBT / Total Investment OR NEAT / Total Investment Current Assets - Current Liabilities Cash Flow X Discount Factor Savings = Target Cost Actual Cost Bonus = Savings x Percentage

Contract Cost = Bonus + Fees Total Cost = Actual Cost + Contract Cost