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ADDRESSING

Physical Address Hardware add MAC add : 48 bits


MAC address: 48 bits represented by 12 digits. 2. Ex: 00-E0-4C-4D-13-B0 IP Address: 192.168.1.4 Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.1.1 DNS Server: 192.168.1.1 WINS Server:

2. Logical Address 1. Software add 2. IP add: 32 bits

IP address 32 bits are divided into four equal part Ex : 192.168.1.4

NUMBER SYSTEM:1. Binary - ( 0,1 ) 2. Octal ( 0-7) 3. Decimal (0-9) 4. Hexadecimal (0-9,A,B,C,D,E,F) IP ADDRESSING:
A.

Base 2 8 10 16

The format of an IP address is a 32-bit (four bytes ) numeric address, Each byte of an IP address is known as an octet ,separated by periods("dotted decimal" notation). Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240 could be an IP address. B. An IPv4 address is divided into two parts: network and host address. The network address determines how many of the 32 bits are used for the network address, and remaining bits for the host address. The host address can further divided into subnetwork and host number.

CLASSES:
1st 1st Octet Octet Network/Host Class Decimal High ID (N=Network, Range Order H=Host) Bits A B C D E 1 126* 128 191 192 223 0 10 110 N.H.H.H Default Subnet Mask 255.0.0.0 Hosts per Network (Usable Addresses)

Number of Networks

224 239 1110 240 254 1111

126 (27 16,777,214 2) (224 2) 16,382 (214 65,534 (216 N.N.H.H 255.255.0.0 2) 2) 2,097,150 N.N.N.H 255.0.0.0 254 (28 2) (221 2) Reserved for Multicasting Experimental: used for research

Note: Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is reserved for loop back and diagnostic functions.

Private IP Addresses
Class Private Networks Subnet Mask Address Range A 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 B 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.0.0 255.240.0.0 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 C 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

SUBNET MASK: - A Subnet mask is a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and
Divides the IP address into network address and host address. Subnet Mask is made by setting network bits to all "1"s and setting host bits to all "0"s

SUBNETTING: - Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist
within a single Class A, B, or C network. If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. In order to subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of 204.17.5.0 which has a natural mask of 255.0.0.0, you can create subnets in this manner:
204.17.5.0 11001100.00010001.00000101.00000000 255.255.255.224 - 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 --------------------------|sub|----

By extending the mask to be 255.255.255.224, you have taken three bits (Indicated by "sub") from the original host portion of the address and used them to make subnets. With these three bits, it is possible to create eight subnets. With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed (it is very important to remember this). So, with this in mind, these subnets have been created
204.17.5.0 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.32 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.64 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.96 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.128 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.160 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.192 255.255.255.224 204.17.5.224 255.255.255.224 host host host host host host host host address address address address address address address address range range range range range range range range 1 to 30 33 to 62 65 to 94 97 to 126 129 to 158 161 to 190 193 to 222 225 to 254

Note: There are two ways to denote these masks.


1-since you are using three bits more than the "natural" Class C mask, you can denote these addresses as having a 3-bit subnet mask. 2- This second method is used with CIDR. Using this method, one of these networks can be described with the notation prefix/length. For example, 204.17.5.32/27 denotes the network 204.17.5.32 255.255.255.224 The network subnetting scheme in this section allows for eight subnets, and the network might appear as:
Figure 1

VLSM Example

In all of the previous examples of subnetting, notice that the same subnet mask was applied for all the subnets. This means that each subnet has the same number of available host addresses. You can need this in some cases, but, in most cases, having the same subnet mask for all subnets ends up wasting address space. For example, in the Sample Exercise 2 section, a class C network was split into eight equal-size subnets; however, each subnet did not utilize all available host addresses, which results in wasted address space. Figure 2 illustrates this wasted address space.
Figure 2

Figure 2 illustrates that of the subnets that are being used; NetA, NetC, and NetD have a lot of unused host address space. It is possible that this was a deliberate design accounting for future growth, but in many cases this is just wasted address space due to the fact that the same subnet mask is being used for all the subnets. Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) allows you to use different masks for each subnet, thereby using address space efficiently.

VLSM Example
Given the same network and requirements as in Sample Exercise 2 develops a subnetting scheme with the use of VLSM, given: netA: must support 14 hosts netB: must support 28 hosts netC: must support 2 hosts netD: must support 7 hosts netE: must support 28 host Determine what mask allows the required number of hosts. netA: requires a /28 (255.255.255.240) mask to support 14 hosts netB: requires a /27 (255.255.255.224) mask to support 28 hosts netC: requires a /30 (255.255.255.252) mask to support 2 hosts netD*: requires a /28 (255.255.255.240) mask to support 7 hosts netE: requires a /27 (255.255.255.224) mask to support 28 hosts * a/29 (255.255.255.248) would only allow 6 usable host addresses therefore netD requires a /28 mask. The easiest way to assign the subnets is to assign the largest first. For example, you can assign in this manner: netB: 204.15.5.0/27 host address range 1 to 30 netE: 204.15.5.32/27 host address range 33 to 62 netA: 204.15.5.64/28 host address range 65 to 78 netD: 204.15.5.80/28 host address range 81 to 94 netC: 204.15.5.96/30 host address range 97 to 98 This can be graphically represented as shown in Figure 3:
Figure 3

Figure 3 illustrates how using VLSM helped save more than half of the address space.

Open System Interconnection Reference Model:The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984. Each layer is reasonably self-contained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently.

The following list details the seven layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model:

OSL Layer
Data Unit Host layers Data
Segments Media layers

Layer 7. Application 6. Presentation 5. Session


4. Transport

Function
Network process to application

Devices / Protocol /Format

Data translation, encryption ,decryption


Interhost communication

End-to-end connections and reliability, Flow control


Path determination and logical addressing Physical addressing Media, signal and binary transmission

http, telnet, ftp Jpeg, mpeg, ASCII (file format) SQL, NFS, RPC TCP /UDP
IP, IPX, Routers, Routing Protocols X.25, ATM ,Frame-relay Hubs, FDDI Hardware, Fast Ethernet, Token Ring Hardware

Packet Frame Bit

3. Network 2. Data Link 1. Physical

OSI LAYER APPLICATON LAYER PRESENTATON LAYER SESSION LAYER TRANSPORT LAYER NETWORK LAYER DATA LAYER PHYSICAL LAYER ROUTER / SWITCH / HUB ROUTER:1. Routers are physical devices that join multiple networks.

TCP/IP MODEL APPLICATON LAYER HOST-to-HOST INTERNAT LAYER NETWORK ACCESS LAYER

2. The router operates at the Network layer of the OSI model. 3. by maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the routing table, routers also have the ability to filter traffic, either incoming or outgoing, based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers 4. It as multiple collisions and multiple broadcast domains.

SWITCH:-

1. The switch operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.
2. It as single broadcast and multiple collision domain. 3. It as processor and memory 4. It understand MAC address 5. It creates MAC table and after creating Mac table can send packet directly to destination

HUB:1. The Hub operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. 2
3 4 It as single broadcast and single collision domain. It as no processor and no memory. It simply forwards the packet.

ROUTER BOOTING SEQUENCE:When a router boots up, it performs a series of steps, called the boot sequence, to test the hardware and load the necessary software. The boot sequence consists of the following steps:

1. The router performs a POST. The POST tests the hardware to verify that all
components of the device are operational and present. For example, the POST checks for the different interfaces on the router. The POST is stored in and run from ROM (read-only memory).

2. The bootstrap looks for and loads the Cisco IOS software. The
bootstrap is a program in ROM that is used to execute programs. The bootstrap program is responsible for finding where each IOS program is located and then loading the file. By default, the IOS software is loaded from flash memory in all Cisco routers.

3. The IOS software looks for a valid configuration file stored in NVRAM. This file is called startup-config and is only there if an administrator copies the runningconfig file into NVRAM.

4. If a startup-config file is in NVRAM, the router will load and run this file. The
router is now operational. If a startup-config file is not in NVRAM, the router will start the setup-mode configuration upon bootup. This above is the step before your router working and up to work follow your configurations on it.

MODE OF ROUTER:-

ROUTER PASSWORD COMMANDS:1. Set the password for privileged mode:Router (config) # enable password <put password here> (sets plain text password) Router (config) # enable Secret <put password here> (sets encrypted password by MD5)

2. Set the password for console access:Router (config) #line console 0 Router (config-line) #login Router (config-line) #password <put password here>

3. Set password for virtual terminal (telnet) access (password must be set to access router through telnet):
Router (config) #line vty 0 4 Router (config-line) #login Router (config-line) #password <put password here>

4. Set password for auxiliary (modem) access:


Router (config)#line aux 0 Router (config-line)#login Router (config-line)#password <put password here>
Connecting a Modem to the Console Port

Connecting a Modem to the Auxiliary Port

Rollover Cable

ROUTING PRINCIPLES: -

Routers must be aware of destination network to be able to forward packet to them. A router knows about the network directly attached to its interface; it calculates the subnet or network number of an interface by using the address and subnet mask configured on that interfaces. However, the router must rely on outside information. A router can be made aware of remote network in two ways: An administrator can manually configured the information (static routing), or a router can learn from other router (dynamic routing). A routing table can contain both static and dynamic recognized routes. Network administrator can use static routing, dynamic routing, or a combination of both.

Differences between a routing protocol and routed protocol:Routing protocol: - A routing protocol is used by routers to dynamically find all the
network in the internetwork and to ensure that all routers have the same routing table. A routing protocol determines the path of a packet through an internetwork. Example: RIP, RIPv2, EIGRP and OSPF

Routed protocol: - A routed protocol can be used to send user data (packet) through
the established enterprise. Routed protocols are assigned to an interface and determine the method of delivery. Example: IP and IPv6

There are three type of routing:1. Static Routing 2. Default Routing 3. Dynamic Routing

1. STATIC ROUTING: - Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in
each router's routing table. Static routes are routes that are administratively configured in routers. They are typically used when dynamic protocols are either unnecessary or unwanted. Static routing has following benefits:-

1. There is no overhead on the routers CPU.


2. There is no bandwidth usage between routers, which mean u could possibly save money on WAN links. Static routing has following disadvantages:-

1. The administrator must really understand the internet work and how each router is
connected in order to configure routes properly.

2. If a network is added to internet work, the administrator has to add a route to it on


all routers.

The syntax for the global configuration command used to enter a static route is: ip route {destination prefix} {destination prefix mask} {interface OR forwarding routers IP address} {distance}

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.1/8

Router2

E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1/8 S1 40.0.0.2 /8

Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.2/8 Router2 to Router3 50.0.0.0.1/8 Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.2/8

Router3

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 End with CNTL/Z.

(config) # interface e0 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 (config-if) # no shutdown (config-if) # exit (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 Router1 (config) # ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 Router1 (config) # ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 Router1 (config) # sh ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set S S S C C 50.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 40.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 30.0.0.0/8 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial 0 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Ethernet 0

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0

Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router2 (config) # ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 Router2 (config) # ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 End with CNTL/Z.

(config) # interface E0 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 (config-if) # no shutdown (config-if) # exit (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router3 (config) # ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1 Router3 (config) # ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1 Router3 (config) # ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set s s s C C 10.0.0.0 30.0.0.0 20.0.0.0 40.0.0.0 50.0.0.0 [1/0] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:04, Serial1 [1/0] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:04, Serial1 [1/0] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:04, Serial1 is directly connected, Serial1 is directly connected, Ethernet0

2. DEFAULT ROUTING: - Default routing use to send packets with a remote


destination network not in the routing table to the next-hop router. You can only use default routing on stub networks-those with only one exit path out of the network.

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.2 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8 Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.0/8

Router2

Router3

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1 (config) # interface E0 Router1 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router1 (config-if) # no shutdown Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line.

End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router2 (config) # ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 Router2 (config) # ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 End with CNTL/Z.

(config) # interface E0 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 (config-if) # no shutdown (config-if) # exit (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router3 (config) # ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 40.0.0.1

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is 40.0.0.1 to network 0.0.0.0 s* C C 0.0.0.0 [1/0] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:04, Serial1 40.0.0.0 is directly connected, Serial1 50.0.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0

3. Dynamic Routing: - Dynamic routing is the process of using protocols to find and
update routing tables on routers and to maintain a loop-free, single path to each network. This is easier than using static routing but it will cost u in terms of router CPU processes and bandwidth on the network links Comparison: - Static Routing and Dynamic Routing Static routing and Dynamic Routing the router learns about remote networks from neighbor routers or from an administrator. The router then builds a routing table that describes how to find the remote networks. If the network is directly connected then the router already knows how to get to the network. If the networks are not attached, the router must learn how to get to the remote network with either static routing (administrator manually enters the routes in the router's table) or dynamic routing the routers then update each other about all the networks they know. If a change occurs e.g. a router goes down, the dynamic routing protocols automatically inform all routers about the change. If static routing is used, then the administrator has to update all changes into all routers and therefore no routing protocol is used. Static routing and Dynamic Routing Only Dynamic routing uses routing protocols, which enable routers to: Dynamically discover and maintain routes Calculate routes Distribute routing updates to other routers Reach agreement with other routers about the network topology statically programmed routers are unable to discover routes, or send routing information to other routers. They send data over routes defined by the network Administrator.

Two types of routing protocols used in internetworks:-

1. IGP: - IGP routing protocol are used to exchange routing information with routers in
the same autonomous system (AS). An AS is a collection of network under a common administrative domain. IGP fall into three categories: Distance Vector Protocols: - The distance-vector protocols find the best path to a remote network by judging distance. Distance can be hops or a combination of metrics calculated to represent a distance value. The IP Distance Vector routing protocols still in use today are: RIP, IGRP. they send the entire table to directly connected neighbors. Link State Protocols: - Link state protocol also called shortest path first protocol, the router each create three separate tables. One of these tables keep track of directly attached neighbors. One determined the topology of entire internetwork, and one is used as routing tables. Link state protocols know more about the internetwork then any distance vector routing protocol. Examples: - OSPF IS-IS Hybrid: - Hybrid protocols use aspects of both distance vector and link state for. Example, EIGRP

2. EGP: - EGP's are used to communicate between AS. BGP is an example of EGP.
Path vector

CLASS FULL AND CLASS LESS ROUTING PROTOCOLS:1. CLASS FULL: - The protocol which does not send the subnets mask information
with routing updates. Example: RIPv1, IGRP

2. CLASS LESS: - The protocol which sends the subnets mask information with routing
updates in the from of CIDR. Example: RIPv2, OSPF, EIGRP

AD VALUE: - A numerical value between 0 and 255 (inclusive) associated with each
route based on how the router learned the route. When a router learns more than one route to reach a subnet, using multiple ways to learn routes, the router chooses the route with lowest administrator time distance.

METRIC VALUE: - A metric is a value (such as path length) that routing protocol use
to measure path to a destination. But different routing protocols base their metric on different measurements, including hop count, interface speed, or more complex metric. Most routing protocols maintain database containing all network that the routing protocol recognizes and all the path to each network.

Protocol Connected interface Static route out an interface Static route to a next hop add Rip V1, V2 OSPF IGRP EIGRP

AD Value 0 0 1 120 110 100 90 for Internal Route 170 for External Route 5 for Summary Route

Metric Value 0

0 Hop count Cost Composite Composite Composite Attributes Attributes Cost

BGP IS-IS ODR

20 for External (EBGP) 200 for Internal (IBGP) 115 160

Unknown

255

RIP (Routing Information Protocol):1. RIP is a true distance vector routing protocol. 2. It sends the complete routing table out to all other active interfaces every 30
seconds.

3. RIP uses Hop Count as it's only metric. 4. The maximum number of hops in a RIP network is 15, one hop is a directly
connected network, and 16 hops is an unreachable network.

5. RIP v1 uses only classful routing. RIP v2 uses classless routing. 6. RIP works well in small internet works, but is inefficient for large networks. 7. It is slow to converge and forces routers to learn network information only from
neighbors

8. Routing Loop Prevention:Unless a remedy is provided inherently by the protocol, a routing loop might easily occur in a mesh network (a network allowing multiple paths between destinations). A routing loop disallows some packets from being properly routed due to the incorrect routing information circulating in the network. The symptom of such a routing loop is counting to infinity (see Figure 3): while routing updates on an unreachable network are incorrectly replaced by the older routing information, the metric when passed from router to router gradually increases. Unless some limit is put onto the metric indicating that the network is unreachable (for IP RIP it is 16 hops), the routing loop will be infinite.

Starting point -- routers converged

Network 10.4.0.0 detected down by router C

Router B advertises its old information about 10.4.0.0

Incorrect routing information causes routing loops

Figure 3. Routing Loop Creation

Three modifications to the distance vector protocol have been developed in an attempt to reduce the chance of routing loops:

SPLIT HORIZON: - Prevents loops between adjacent routers. Rule: Never advertise a
route out of the interface through which you learned it!

ROUTE POISONING: - Usually used in conjunction with split horizon, route


poisoning involves explicitly poisoning a routing table entry for an unreachable network. In our example, once Router learned that network 172.16.0.0 was unavailable it would have immediately poisoned the route to that network by setting its hop count to the routing protocols infinity value. In the case of RIP, that would mean a hop count of 16.

HOLDDOWN TIMER: - Prevents incorrect route information from entering


routing tables. Rule: After a route is advertised as down, do not listen to routing updates on that route for a specific period of time

9. a. b. c. d.

RIP uses four different kinds of timers to regulate its performance: Update timer 30sec Invalid timer 180sec Holddown timer 180sec Flush timer 240sec (set the time between a route becoming invalid and its removal from the routing table.

Using the sample network below, we'll enable RIP routing for the network.

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8

Router2

E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.2 /8

Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8 Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.0/8

Router3

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 End with CNTL/Z.

(config) # interface E0 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 (config-if) # no shutdown (config-if) # exit (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit rip network 10.0.0.0 network 20.0.0.0 exit

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit rip network 30.0.0.0 network 10.0.0.0 network 40.0.0.0 exit

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router3 (config) # interface E0 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit rip network 50.0.0.0 network 40.0.0.0 exit

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set R R R C C 10.0.0.0/8 20.0.0.0/8 30.0.0.0/8 40.0.0.0/8 50.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via [120/2] via [120/1] via is directly is directly 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 connected, Serial1 connected, FastEthernet0

Stopping RIP Propagation:Use the passive-interface command to stop RIP broadcasts from going out an interface. The interface will still receive RIP updates, but it won't send them on the network that the interface is connected to. Router3 (config) # router rip Router3 (config-router) # passive-interface serial 1

IGRP (INTERIOR GETWAY ROUTING PORTOCOL):1. IGRP is a true distance vector routing protocol. 2. It is a Cisco proprietary protocol.

3. IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route, including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and reliability.

4. IGRP is considered a classful routing protocol 5. The maximum hop count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default 100), 6. IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as metric for determining the
best route to an internetwork.

7. The AS number parameter specifies the autonomous system number that is


supported by this IGRP. The AS number can be between 1 and 65,535.

8. To control performance IGRP uses different kind of timers: a. Update Timers specifies how frequently IGRP routing messages will be sent. The
default is 90 seconds. b. Invalid Timer specifies how long a router should wait in the absence of a routingupdate message of a specific route before declaring it invalid. {3*90=270 seconds} c. Holddown Timer specifies the holddown period. The default is three times the update timer plus 10 seconds, 280 seconds. d. Flush Timer indicates how much time should pass before an IGRP route is flushed from the routing table. {7*90=630}

Creating the IGRP Routing Process


To create the IGRP routing process, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

Command
Step 1 Router(config)# router igrp asnumber Step 2 Router(config-router)# network network-number

Purpose
Enables an IGRP routing process, which places you in router configuration mode. Associates networks with an IGRP routing process.

IGRP sends updates to the interfaces in the specified networks. If the network of an interface is not specified, the interface will not be advertised in any IGRP update. It is not necessary to have a registered autonomous system number to use IGRP. If you do not have a registered number, you are free to create your own. We recommend that if you do have a registered number, you use it to identify the IGRP process.

OSPF (OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST):Features can be broken into 3 main categories: Neighbor Discovery, Database
exchange, and Route Calculation. OSPF routers first form a neighbor relationship that builds a foundation for all continuing OSPF communication. Then the neighbor routers exchange the contents of their LSDBs (Link-State Database), called database exchange. Last, as soon as the routers have the topology information in their LSDBs, they use Dijkstra Shortest Path First algorithm to calculate the new best routes, and adds them to the routing table. It supports VLSM/ CIDR. 1 The OSPF Hello process defines how neighbors can be dynamically discovered. (Knows when the neighbor is healthy, when the connection has been lost, and tells the router when to recalculate the routing table to reconverge the new routes.

2 OSPF does checks of the information in the Hello messages to ensure the 2 routers
should become neighbors

3 OSPF neighbor discovery: neighbors check and verify basic OSPF settings before exchanging routing info: OSPF neighbor states: - OSPF creates adjacencies between neighboring routers for
the purpose of exchanging routing information. Not every neighbor becomes adjacent in a broadcast environment. The Hello protocol is responsible for establishing and maintaining an adjacency. The hello packets contain various parameters. Some of them should match
between neighboring routers. These include:

A B

Hello and Dead intervals Area ID

C Authentication type and password D Stub Area flag E Subnet ID and Subnet mask

A router can be in several neighbor states: 1 Down R1 and R2 are running OSPF. A known neighbor is no longer reachable,
often because of an underlying interface failure. 2. Init An interim state in which a Hello has been heard from the neighbor, but that hello does not list the routers RID as having been seen yet. 3. Two-way The neighbor has sent a Hello that lists the local routers RID in the list of seen routers, also implying that neighbor verification checks all passed. 4. Full This state means that the complete information has been exchanged between OSPF neigh-bors. R1 and R2 have exchanged their entire database information and are in the Full state.

OSPF RIDs (ROUTER IDs) are 32-bit numbers written in dotted decimal. They are used to uniquely ID each router.

Hellos are sent based on their Hello timer settings


The hello message follows the IP packet header, with IP packet protocol type 89. Hello packets are sent to multicast IP address 224.0.0.5 OSPF routers listen for packets sent to IP multicast address 224.0.0.5, in part hoping to receive Hello packets and learn about new neighbors

Hello messages include the sending RID, Area ID, Hello Interval, dead interval, router priority, and the RID of the designated router, the RID of the backup designated router, and a list of neighbors that the sending router already knows. Potential problems becoming a neighbor (If any of these are different, the routers do not become neighbors).

Subnet mask used on the subnet Subnet number (as derived using the subnet mask and each routers interface IP address) Hello interval Dead interval OSPF area ID Must pass authentication checks (if used) Value of the stub area flag

4. OSPF Topology Database Exchange 1. Based on the OSPF interface type, the routers may or may not collectively elect a Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router (BDR). 2. For each pair of routers that need to become fully adjacent, mutually exchange the contents of their respective LSDBs 3. When completed, the neighbors monitor for changes and periodically reflood LSAs while in the Full (fully adjacent) neighbor state. When a DR is required, the neighboring routers hold an election. To elect a DR, the neighboring routers look at two fields inside the Hello packets they receive and choose the DR based on the following criteria:

The router sending the Hello with the highest OSPF priority setting becomes the DR If two or more routers tie with the highest priority setting, the routers sending the Hello wither highest RID wins. Its not always the case, but typically the router with the second-highest priority becomes the BDR. A priority setting of 0 means that the router does not participate in the election and can never become the DR or BDR The range of priority values that allow a router to be a candidate are 1 through 255. Any events which occur are advertised to the DR using the Multicast address of 224.0.0.6 When the DR advertises any events to the Non-DR devices it is done using the address of 224.0.0.5

If a new, better candidate comes along after the DR and BDR have been elected, the new candidate does not preempt the existing DR and BDR.

5. OSPF areas: - OSPF areas break up the network so that routers in one area know
less topology info about the subnets in the other area(s), And they do not know about the routers in the other area at all.

OSPF Design Terminology:Area Border Router (ABR) An OSPF router with interfaces connected to the backbone
area and to at least one other area.

Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) An OSPF router that connects to routers
that do not use OSPF for the purpose of exchanging external routes into and out of the OSPF domain

Backbone router - A router in one area, the backbone area. Internal router A router in a single nonbackbone area. Area A set of routers and link s that share the same detailed LSDB information, but not
with routers in other areas, for better efficiency.

Backbone area A special OSPF area to which all other areas must connect. Area 0. External route A route learned from outside the OSPF domain and then advertised into
the OSPF domain.

Intra-area route A route to a subnet inside the same area as the router Interarea route A route to a subnet in an area of which the router is not a part. Autonomous system In OSPF, a reference to a set of routers that use OSPF 6. OSPF Area Design Advantages 1 The smaller per-area LSDB requires less memory. 2 The router requires fewer CPU cycles to process the smaller per-area LSDB with the
SPF algorithm, reducing CPU overhead and improving convergence time.

3 The SPF algorithm has to be run on internal routers only when an LSA inside the area changes, so routers have to run SPF less often. 4 Less information must be advertised between areas, reducing the bandwidth required
to send LSAs.

5 Manual summarization can only be configured on ABRs and ASBRs, so areas allow
for smaller IP routing tables by allowing for the configuration of manual route summarization.

Configuring the OSPF Router ID 1. If the router-id rid OSPD subcommand is configured, this value is used as the
RID. 2. If any loopback interfaces have an IP address configured and the interface has a line and protocol status of up/up, the router picks the highest numeric IP address among the up/up loopback interfaces. 3. The router picks the highest numeric IP address from all other working (up/up)

OSPF Metrics (cost)


OSPF calculates the metric for each possible route by adding up the outgoing interfaces OSPF costs. The OSPF cost for an interface can be configured, or a router can calculate the cost based on the interfaces bandwidth setting. IOS chooses an interfaces cost based on the following rules:

1. The cost can be explicitly set using the ip ospf cost x interface subcommand, to
a value between 1 and 65,535, inclusive 2. IOS can calculate a value based on the generic formula ref-BW / Int-BW, where Ref-BW is a reference bandwidth that defaults to 100Mbps, and Int-BW is the interfaces bandwidth setting. 3. The reference bandwidth can be configured from its default setting of 100 (100Mbps) using the router OSPF subcommand auto-cost referencebandwidth ref-bw, which in turn affects the calculation of the default interface cost. OSPF supports three types of authentication, Null authentication (meaning none), simple text password (easy to break), MD5 (best option)
Using the sample network below, we'll enable OSPF Single area routing for the network.

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.2 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8 Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.0/8

Router2

Router3

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1 (config) # interface E0 Router1 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router1 (config-if) # no shutdown Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # router ospf 10 Router1 (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 Router1 (config-router) # network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit ospf 20 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 network 40.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 network 30.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router3 (config) # interface E0 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router3 (config) # router ospf 30 Router3 (config-router) # network 50.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

Router3 (config-router) # network 40.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0/8 [110/1562] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:59, Serial1 20.0.0.0/8 [110/1563] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:18, Serial1 30.0.0.0/8 [110/782] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:59, Serial1 40.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial1 50.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Ethernet0

O O O C C

Using the sample network below, we'll enable OSPF multiple area (ABR) routing for the network.

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.2 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8 Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.0/8

Router2

Router3

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1 (config) # interface E0 Router1 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router1 (config-if) # no shutdown Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # router ospf 10 Router1 (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 Router1 (config-router) # network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit ospf 20 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 network 30.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 network 40.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area1

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router3 (config) # interface E0 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router3 (config) # router ospf 30 Router3 (config-router) # network 50.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area1

Router3 (config-router) # network 40.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area1

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set O IA 10.0.0.0/8 [110/1562] via 40.0.0.1, 00:01:33, Serial1 O IA 20.0.0.0/8 [110/1563] via 40.0.0.1, 00:01:33, Serial1 O IA 30.0.0.0/8 [110/782] via 40.0.0.1, 00:01:33, Serial1 C 40.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial1 C 50.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Using the sample network below, we'll enable OSPF (ABSR) routing for the network.

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8 Router3 to Router2

Router2

Router3

S1 - 40.0.0.2 /8

40.0.0.0/8

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1 (config) # interface E0 Router1 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router1 (config-if) # no shutdown Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # router ospf 10 Router1 (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 Router1 (config-router) # network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit ospf 20 network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 network 30.0 0.0 0.255.255.255 area0 Redistribute rip subnets default-metric 64 exit rip network 40.0.0.0 Redistribute ospf 20 default-metric 1 exit

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) # (config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router3 (config) # interface E0 End with CNTL/Z.

Router3 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 (config-if) # interface e1 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 172.20.35.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 Router3 Router3 Router3 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router3 (config) # router RIP Router3 (config-router) # network 50.0.0.0 Router3 (config-router) # network 40.0.0.0

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set R R R C C 10.0.0.0/8 20.0.0.0/8 30.0.0.0/8 40.0.0.0/8 50.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:10, Serial1 [120/2] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:10, Serial1 [120/1] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:10, Serial1 is directly connected, Serial1 is directly connected, Ethernet0

EIGRP (ENHANCED INTERIOR GATEWAY ROUTING PROTOCOL):EIGRP follows three steps to be able to add routes to the IP routing table: 1. Neighbor discovery: EIGRP routers send Hello messages to discover potential
neighboring EIGRP routers and perform basic parameter checks to determine which routers should become neighbors.

2. Topology exchange: Neighbors exchange full topology updates when the neighbor
relationship comes up, and then only partial updates as needed based on changes to the network topology.

3. Choosing routes: Each router analyzes its respective EIGRP topology tables,
choosing the lowest-metric route to reach each subnet.

EIGRP Neighbors The router checks the following settings to determine if the router should be allowed to be a neighbor:
1. It must pass the authentication process. 2. It must use the same configured AS number 3. The source IP address used by the neighbors Hello must be in the same subnet.

Exchanging EIGRP Topology Information


EIGRP users EIGRP update messages to send topology information to neighbors. Update messages can be sent to multicast IP 224.0.0.10 if the sending router needs to update multiple routers on the same subnet; otherwise they are sent to the unicast IP address of the particular neighbor. Update messages are sent using Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) EIGRP can resend routing updates that are lost in transit, and by using RTP, EIGRP can better avoid loops.

Calculating the Best Routes for the Routing Table


EIGRP uses a composite metric, calculated as a function of bandwidth and delay by default. The calculation can also include interface load and interface reliability, although Cisco recommends against using either.

EIGRPs metric formula, assuming that the default settings use just bandwidth and delay is; Metric = ((107 / least-bandwidth) + cumulative-delay)*256 Feasible Distance and Reported Distance
1. Feasible Distance (FD): The metric of the best route to reach a subnet, as calculated on a router 2. Reported Distance (RD): The metric as calculated on a neighboring router and then reported and learned in an EIGRP update.

EIGRP Successors and Feasible Successors


EIGRP calculates the metric for each router to reach each subnet. For a particular subnet, the route with the best metric is called the successor, with the router filling up the IP routering table with this route. The immediately usable backup routers in the

topology table are called the feasible successor routes, because they can feasibly be used when the successor route fails. If a non successor routes RD is less than the FD, the route is a feasible successor route.

Variance 1. The variance is multiplied by the current FD (the metric of the best route to reach the
subnet).

2. Any FS routes whose calculated metric is less than or equal to the product of variance
times the FD are added to the IP routing table, assuming that the maximum-paths setting allows more routes.

3. Routes that are neither successor nor feasible successor can never be added to the
IP routing table, regardless of the variance setting.

EIGRP Features Compared to OSPF 1. Converges quickly EIGRP OSPF 2. Built-in loop prevention EIGRP OSPF 3. Sends partial routing updates, advertising only new or changed information
EIGRP OSPF

4. Classless; therefore, supports manual summarization and VLSM EIGRP


OSPF

5. Allows manual summarization at any router EIGRP 6. Sends routing information using IP multicast on LANs -EIGRP OSPF 7. Uses the concept of a designated router on a LAN OSPF 8. Flexible network design with no need to create areas EIGRP 9. Supports both equal-metric and unequal-metric load balancing EIGRP 10. Robust metric based on bandwidth and delay EIGRP 11.Can advertise IP, IPX, and AppleTalk routes EIGRP 12. Public Standard OSPF Ospf and Eigrp Difference
There are many differences between these two routing protocols. 1. Ospf is open standard and EIGRP is Cisco proprietary. 2. Administrative distance for OSPF is 110 and for EIGRP (Internal Eigrp 90 & External Eigrp 170). 3. Ospf uses Cost as the metric values to calculate the shortest path wheres as EIGRP used 5 metric values (Bandwidth, Delay, Load, MTU & Reliability) to calculate the shortest path.

4. Eigrp use Dual algorithm for calculating shortest path where as Ospf use SPF Algorithm fro calculating shortest path. 5. Eigrp use multicast address 224.0.0.10 where Ospf use multicast address 224.0.0.5 goes for all ospf routers and 224.0.0.6 goes for all DR and BDR 6. In OSPF, there is no Backup route option, wheres as in EIGRP it will maintain backup route. So if main link goes down, it will directly take the backup route and starts working, where as in OSPF, if main route fails it has to recalculate the shortest path.

Characteristics of EIGRP
1. Support for VLSM/CIDR 2. Uses Diffusing Updates Algorithm (DUAL) for path selection. 3. Maximum hop count is 255 (default is set to 100) 4. Use hello packets for neighbor discovery 5. Supports for IP and IPv6
Using the sample network below, we'll enable EIGRP routing for the network

The network's configuration is as follows:

Router
Router1

Interface Addresses
E0 - 20.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.1 /8 E0 - 30.0.0.1 /8 S0 - 10.0.0.2 /8 S1 - 40.0.0.1 /8

Network to Next Hop Router


Router1 to Router2 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router1 10.0.0.0/8 Router2 to Router3 40.0.0.0/8

Router2

Router3

E0 - 50.0.0.1 /8 S1- 40.0.0.2 /8

Router3 to Router2 40.0.0.0/8

Router1
Router1> enable Router1# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1 (config) # interface E0 Router1 (config-if) # ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router1 (config-if) # no shutdown Router1 Router1 Router1 Router1 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s0 ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit

Router1 (config) # router eigrp 10 Router1 (config-router) # network 10.0.0.0 Router1 (config-router) # network 20.0.0.0

Router2
Router2> enable Router2# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2 (config) # interface E0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 (config-if) # interface s0 Router2 (config-if) # ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router2 (config-if) # no shutdown Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 Router2 (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) # # # # interface s1 ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 no shutdown exit eigrp 10 network 10.0.0.0 network 30.0.0.0 network 40.0.0.0

(config) # router (config-router) # (config-router) # (config-router) #

Router3
Router3> enable Router3# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router3 (config) # interface E0 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown Router3 (config-if) # interface s0 Router3 (config-if) # ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router3 (config-if) # no shutdown

Router3 (config-if) # exit Router3 (config) # router eigrp 10 Router3 (config-router) # network 50.0.0.0 Router3 (config-router) # network 40.0.0.0

Viewing the routing table


You can use the show ip route command to view the router's routing table. Router3#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR

Gateway of last resort is not set


D D D C C 10.0.0.0/8 [90/21024000] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 20.0.0.0/8 [90/21026560] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 30.0.0.0/8 [90/20514560] via 40.0.0.1, 00:00:14, Serial1 40.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial1 50.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Ethernet0