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NH HNG CA LIU LONG AM N NNG SUT CHT KH CC GIAI

OAN SINH TRNG VA NNG SUT HAT CA MT S GING LA LAI VA LA


THUN
Affection of Nitrogen fertilizer level on dry matter production at different growth stage and
grain yield of several F
1
hybrid and inbred rice cultivars
Phm Vn Cng
1
, Phm Th Khuyn
1
v Phm Vn Diu
2

SUMMARY
In the Autumn season of 2004, two F
1
hybrid rice (Bac uu 903 and Viet lai 20), and one
inbred variety (CR203) were planted under different nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg
per ha) and the same level of P
2
O
5
(90kg per ha) and K
2
O (90 kg per ha) to compare between hybrid
and inbred rice about leaf area index (LAI) and crop growth rate (CGR) at 2, 4 and 6 week after
transplanting, flowering and dough-ripen stage, and grain yield and yield components at harvesting
stage. The experimental results showed that at all growth stages, LAI and CGR in both F
1
hybrid
cultivars increased much higher than that in the inbred cultivar as increasing N levels, especially at 4
weeks after transplanting. Both grain yield and the number of spikelets per panicle in all rice
cultivars increased as higher N condition. However, the increase was much higher in the F
1
hybrids
than that in inbred variety, especially under high N condition. It was found that in all rice cultivars,
grain yield was positively correlated with both LAI under all N levels at all growth stage, whereas
the correlation between grain yield and CGR was only significant at the early growth stage (2 -4
week after transplanting). A significant and positive correlation was found between grain yield and
the number of panicles per hill and between grain yield and the number of spikelets per panicle.
Keyword : CGR, Dry matter production, hybrid rice, grain yield, LAI, nitrogen fertilizer.


1. T VN
m l yu t rt quan trng nh hng n sinh trng v nng sut ca cy la (Wada v
cs, 1969; 1989; V Hu Ym, 1995). Cc ging la c thi gian sinh trng khc nhau th kh nng
s dng N khc nhau (Yoshida, 1981; Trn Thc Sn v ng Vn Hin, 1995). Trong cc ging
la th la lai c kh nng ht m mnh hn so vi la thun giai on u ca qu trnh sinh
trng do c u th lai (TL) v b r v kh nng ht m (Kobayashi v cs, 1995; Yang v cs,
1999). Ngoi ra, hiu sut s dng N i vi quang hp cng nh nng sut cht kh v nng sut
ht ca la lai cao hn hn so vi la thun (Murayam v cs, 1987; Yang v cs, 1999; Phm Vn
Cng v cs, 2003). u th lai v nng sut ca la lai F
1
so vi la thun c xc nh l do u
th lai v khi lng cht kh tch lu c cung cp bi ch s din tch l cao hn, c bit l
giai on u ca qu trnh sinh trng (Govinda v Siddiq, 1986; Yang v cs, 1999; Phm Vn
Cng v cs, 2004b). V vy, ti tin hnh nhm xc nh nh hng ca liu lng phn m
n ch s din tch l v khi lng cht kh tch lu ca la lai v la thun tng giai on sinh
trng v mi lin h ca chng i vi nng sut ht.
2. VT LIU V PHNG PHP NGHIN CU
Vt liu nghin cu gm hai ging la lai l (Vit lai 20, Bc u903) v 1 ging la thun l
CR203. Th nghim c tin hnh trong v ma nm 2004, ti Khoa Nng hc, Trng i hc
Nng nghip I, H Ni. Th nghim gm 4 mc phn m l 0, 60, 120 v 180 kgN/ha, trn nn
phn ln v kali ng nht l 90 kg P
2
O
5
v 60 kg K
2
0/ha, c b tr theo khi ngu nhin hon
ton vi 3 ln nhc li v din tch mi l 15m
2
(Gomez v Gomez, 1984). Ti cc giai on sau

cy 2, 4 v 6 tun, giai on tr v chn sp (sau tr 15 ngy), mi th nghim ly 5 khm theo
ng cho o m cc ch tiu v din tch l (cm
2
) bng my ANA-GA-5 (Nht Bn); Ch s
din tch l (Leaf area index- LAI) = Tng din tch cc l (m
2
)/ Din tch t ly mu (m
2
); Khi
lng cht kh trn ton cy (Dry matter accumulation- DM) o din tch l sau em sy mu
nhit 80
oc
trong 48 h; Tc tch lu cht kh (Crop growth rate- CGR) = (P2 P1)/t x s
khm/m
2
(g/m
2
/ngy), trong P2, P1 l khi lng kh ca cy ti thi im ly mu v t l thi
lng gia hai thi im
Ly 5 khm trn 1 tin hnh o m cc ch tiu v nng sut nh: s bng/khm, s
ht/bng v s ht chc/bng. Tnh khi lng 1000 ht bng cch ly mi 2 mu, mi mu m
500 ht. Tnh nng sut l thuyt (NSLT), nng sut ht thc thu m 14%.
Cc s liu thu c phn tch thng k theo phng php ANOVA bng chng trnh
IRRISTAT Ver. 4.0 v SAS, 1995.
3. KT QA V THO LUN
3.1 nh hng ca liu m n ch s din tch l (LAI) ca cc ging la
LAI ca c 3 ging tng dn trong qu trnh sinh trng v t tr s ti a vo giai on tr
50% (bng 1). giai on tr, khi tng lng m t 0 n 120kg N/ha th LAI ca cc ging la
u tng mc ngha, mc 120N, LAI ca cc ging CR203, Vit lai 20 (VL20) v Bc u 903
(BU 903) ln lt l 5,8; 4,5 v 6,1. Kt qu ny ph hp vi nghin cu trc y (Sarker v cs,
2002; Bi nh Dinh v Nguyn Vn B, 1995). Khi tng lng m bn, LAI ging Bc u 903
tng mnh hn ging CR203, iu ny chng t kh nng chu phn ca la lai tt hn la thun
(Murayama v cs, 1987; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003). Khi tng lng m bn t 120 ln 180kg
N/ha, LAI ca ging CR203 v Vit lai 20 tng mc ngha, trong khi ging Bc u 903 li
gim. iu ny xy ra l do ging Bc u 903 b bnh bc l gy hi nng giai on ny. Giai
on sau tr 2 tun, LAI tt c cc ging u gim mc ngha. cc ging la lai, LAI gim
nhiu hn so vi la thun. iu ny chng t ti giai on sau tr kh nng chuyn vng ng
ngha vi vic vn chuyn hydrat carbon ca l la lai mnh hn la thun (Song v cs, 1990;
Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003).
3.2 nh hng ca cc mc m n tc tch lu cht kh(CGR) ca cc ging la
Khi tng mc m bn t 60 kg 180kg N/ha, tc tch lu cht kh (CGR) ca 2 ging la
lai tng vt tri so vi ging la thun (bng 2). giai on 2 v 4 tun sau cy, CGR ca ging
CR203 khng tng mc ngha, trong khi iu ny xy ra ging la lai VL20 (12,6 14,2)
v BU903 (13,1 14,3). Kt qu ny hon ton ph hp vi cc nghin cu trc (Bi nh Dinh v
Nguyn Vn B, 1995; Yang v cs, 2002; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003). c bit l giai on tr
50% v sau tr 2 tun, CGR ca CR203 thp hn ca VL20. iu ny c th gii thch l do la lai
c kh nng duy tr b l tt hn la thun. Trong cng mt mc m, CGR ca la lai cao hn la
thun mc c ngha, mc 180N trong giai on sau cy 2 4 tun, CGR ca VL20, BU903 v
CR 203 ln lt l 14,2, 14,3 v 12,6. Kt qu ny ph hp vi nhng cng trnh trc y (Song v
cs, 1990; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2004b).
3.3 nh hng ca cc mc m n nng sut v cc yu t cu thnh nng sut ca cc
ging la
Trong cng mt mc m, ging la thun (CR203) c s bng/m
2
cao hn so vi la lai
(VL20 v BU903), mc 120N, CR203 c 311 bng/m
2
, VL20 c 260 bng/m
2
v BU 903 c 288
bng/m
2
(bng 3). Nh vy u th lai v nng sut ht ph thuc vo s ht/bng, iu ny ph hp




Bng 1. Ch s din tch l ca cc ging th nghim cc mc m qua
cc giai on sinh trng (m
2
l/m
2
t)
Ging
TSC
MP
(kgN/ha)
2 4 6 Tr 50%
Sau tr
2 tun
0 0,2
abc
1,2
l
2,8 3,5
l
2,7
deghi
60 0,3
ab
1,5
i
3,5 4,7
h
3,4
de
120 0,3
ab
1,9
bcdeg
4,0 5,2
cd
3,9
c
CR
180 0,2
abc
1,9
bcdeg
4,3 5,8
ab
4,5
a
0 0,3
ab
1,5
i
2,6 3,3
lmn
2,2
k
60 0,3
ab
1,8
bcdegh
3,2 4,1
hik
3,2
deg
120 0,4
a
2,2
bc
4,7 4,5
hi
4,2
abc
VL
180 0,4
a
2,5
a
4.8 5,1
cdeg
4,4
ab
0 0,3
ab
1,4
ik
2.5 3,4
lm
2,9
degh
60 0,3
ab
2,0
bcde
3.5 5,8
cde
3,4
de
120 0,4
a
2,1
bcd
3.4 6,1
a
3,5
d
BU
180 0,4
a
2,3
b
4.1 5,3
c
3,5
d
Ghi ch: TSC- Tun sau cy; CR- CR203; VL - Vit lai 20; BU-Bc u 903 ; MP- mc phn
Nhng s trong cng 1 ct c cng ch (
a
) th khng khc nhau mc xc sut 95% theo Duncan.

Bng 2. Tc tch lu cht kh ca cc ging th nghim cc mc m
qua cc giai on sinh trng (g/m
2
t/ngy)
Ging
TSC
MP
(kgN/ha)
2 4 4 6 6 tr
50%
Tr 50%
2TST
0 8,3
m
24,5
degh
22,0
i
4,3
klmn
60 10,5
cdeghi
25,8
de
27,1
g
9,2
deg
120 12,8
cde
24,5
degh
29,1
de
10,2
d
CR
180 12,6
cdeg
28,3
ab
26,1
gh
5,2
klm
0 9,7
k
25,4
deg
10,7
klmn
10,1
de
60 12,2
cdegh
26,1
d
11,4
klm
11,4
c
120 12,6
cdeg
28,1
abc
12,2
kl
17,7
b
VL
180 14,2
ab
29,1
a
13,2
k
19,6
a
0 9,6
kl
20,0
lm
30,0
d
6,4
k
60 12,9
cd
21,1
l
37,8
bc
8,8
deghi
120 13,1
c
22,9
deghik
40,7
a
8,9
degh
BU
180 14,3
a
23,2
deghi
40,0
b
5,6
kl
Ghi ch: TSC- Tun sau cy; CR- CR203; VL - Vit lai 20; BU-Bc u 903; MP- mc phn
Nhng s trong cng 1 ct c cng ch (
a
) th khng khc nhau mc xc sut 95% theo Duncan.

vi tc gi Song v cs (1990); Phm Vn Cng v cs (2004a), nhng khc vi kt qu nghin cu
ca Kobayashi (1995) cho rng la lai vt tri so vi la thun c v s bng/khm v s ht/bng.
Khi tng lng m bn, ch s ny tng mnh cc ging la lai hn so vi la thun (bng 3),
iu ny cho thy nhu cu m vi nhnh ca la lai cao hn la thun. mc m thp (60
kgN/ha) nng sut ca la thun (CR203) v 2 ging la lai (VL20; BU93) khng khc nhau mc
c ngha. Khi tng mc m ln 120 v 180 kgN/ha th nng sut ca VL20, BU903 cao hn
mc ngha so vi CR203. S d c s khc bit ny l do s vt tri ca cc ging la lai v c v
din tch l, kh nng hp th m v cng quang hp (Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003). CR203
l ging la thun, kh nng thm canh khng cao nn khi tng nng mc m bn nng sut ht
tng khng ng k. Trong khi BU903 l ging la lai c kh nng thm canh cao, khi tng mc
m bn lm tng nng sut ht. Ging Vit lai 20 cng l ging la lai nhng do thi gian sinh
trng ngn nn mc m 180N nng sut ht khng tng mc ngha so vi nng sut mc
120 N. Kt qu ny cho thy la lai c u th lai v nng sut (Yoshida, 1981; Yamaguchi v
Yoshida, 1985; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003, 2004 a)

Bng 3. Cc yu t cu thnh nng sut v nng sut ca cc ging th nghim cc mc m
Ging
ch tiu

MP
(kgN/ha)
S
bng/m
2
S
ht/bng
T l ht
chc(%)
M1000
(g)
NSLT
(t/ha)
NSTT
(t/ha)
0
265,0
h
105,2
n
86,9 22,4 62,6 45,5
mn
60
290,7
abcde
118,3
klm
89,7 22,4 74,2 51,1
hi
120
311,2
ab
122,9
k
91,7 22,8 82,2 54,9
e

CR
180
320,8
a
130,2
ghi
91,5 22,6 88,0 59,0
c
0
226,7
hiklm
120,3
kl
84,4 24,8 62,2 46,1
m
60
245,0
hik
130,9
gh
86,2 24,7 69,6 50,7
hik
120
260,0
hi
140,9
cde
85,8 23,9 75,1 52,3
h

VL
180
303,3
abc
143,9
cd
91,1 24,2 86,2 57,3
cd
0
231,7
hikl
134,3
g
87,1 23,9 64,7 48,7
hikl
60
265,0
h
149,7
c
84,6 23,4 78,5 54,8
eg
120
288,7
abcdeg
158,5
ab
82,6 23,8 89,9 63,7
b

BU
180
300,0
bcd
160,9
a
80,3 23,6 91,4 68,0
a
Ghi ch: CR- CR203; VL - Vit lai 20; BU-Bc u 903 ; MP- mc phnNhng s trong cng 1 ct c cng
ch (
a
) th khng khc nhau mc xc sut 95% theo Duncan. M 1000 - khi lng 1000 ht ; NSLT -
nng sut l thuyt; NSTT - nng sut thc thu.
3.4. Mi quan h gia nng sut ht v cc yu t lin quan cc thi k sinh trng
tt c cc mc m, nng sut ht c tng quan vi LAI tt c cc ging la trong cc
giai on sau cy 2, 4 v 6 tun v giai on tr, c bit giai on 2-4 tun sau cy, tuy nhin
tng quan ny khng ngha giai on chn sp ( th 1). iu ny cho thy khi tng lng m
bn, u th lai v LAI ca la lai ch yu trong giai on u (Murayama v cs, 1987; Phm Vn
Cng v cs, 2004 b), y l nguyn nhn lm tng nng sut la lai. Tc tch lu cht kh
(CGR) v nng sut ht c tng quan thun mc c ngha trong cc giai on u ca qu trnh
sinh trng (2-4 tun sau cy), tuy nhin tng quan ny khng c ngha giai on sau ( th
2). Kt qu ny l do ng thi LAI, quang hp v kh nng tch lu hydratcarbon ca la lai cao
hn la thun, c bit l nn m cao (Kumura v cs, 1995; Song v cs, 1990; Kobayashi v cs,
1995; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2003).





A
y = 4 3 , 0 6 x + 4 0 , 9 7
r = 0 , 5 0 8 *
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
0 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6
N
S
T
T

(
t

/
h
a
)

C R ; r = - 0 , 0 3
V L ; r = - 0 , 4 4
B U ; r = 0 , 9 5 * * *
B
y = 1 3 , 7 5 x + 2 8 , 6 2
r = 0 , 7 7 * *
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
1 2 3 4
L A I ( m
2
l / m
2
t )
C R ; r = 0 , 9 6 * * *
V L ; r = 0 , 9 7 * * *
B U ; r = 0 , 9 2 * * *
C
y = 5 , 6 7 x + 3 0 , 8 5
r = 0 , 8 6 * *
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
1
3
5 7
C R ; r = 0 , 9 9 * * *
V L ; r = 0 , 9 8 * * *
B U ; r = 0 , 8 1 *
D
y = 1 , 1 3 x + 5 0 , 7 7
r = 0 , 1 5
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
1 3 5 7
C R ; r = 0 , 9 9 * * *
V L ; r = 0 . 9 4 * * *
B U ; r = 0 , 8 5 * *
L A I ( m
2
l / m
2
t )
N
S
T
T

(
t

/
h
a
)

th 1. Tng quan gia ch s din tch l (LAI) vi nng sut thc thu (NSTT) cc ging la CR203
(trng), Vit lai 20 (en) v Bc u 903 (xm) vi cc mc phn 0N (vung), 60 N(trn), 120N (thoi) v
180N (tam gic), ti cc giai on sau cy 2 tun (A), nhnh hu hiu (B), tr (C) v chn sp (D).
*, ** v ***: tng ng ngha mc xc sut 95; 99 v 99,9%.

A
y = 2,64x + 22,58
r =
**
20
40
60
80
5 10 15 20
CR;r= 0,94***
VL;r= 0,95***
BU;r= 0,90***
B
y = 0,05x + 52,93
r =
20
40
60
80
10 20 30 40 50

N
S
T
T
(
t

/
h
a
)

CR; r= 0,73**
VL;r= 0,93***
BU;r= 0,99***
C
y = 0,31x + 46,55
r = -0.07
20
40
60
80
0 10 20 30 40
CR;r= 0,67*
VL;r= 0,74**
BU;r= -0.11***
D
y = -0,04x +
r = -
20
40
60
80
0 10 20 30 40
CGR (g/m
2
t/ngy)
CR;r= -0.186
VL;r= 0,79**
BU;r= 0.98***
CGR (g/m
2
t/ngy)
N
S
T
T
(
t

/
h
a
)

th 2. Tng quan gia tc tch lu cht kh (CGR) vi nng sut thc thu (NSTT) cc
ging la CR203 (trng), Vit lai 20 (en) v Bc u 903 (xm) vi cc mc phn 0N (vung), 60
N(trn), 120N (thoi) v 180N (tam gic), ti cc giai on sau cy 2 tun (A), nhnh hu hiu
(B), tr (C) v chn sp (D).
*, ** v ***: tng ng ngha mc xc sut 95; 99 v 99,9%.

y = 0,35x + 5,87
r = 0,81**
20
40
60
80
90 120 150 180 210
CR;r= 0,99***
VL;r= 0,94***
BU;r= 0,96***
S ht/bng
y = 0,15 x + 12,49
r = 0,68*
20
40
60
80
200 250 300 350
S bng/m
2
CR;r= 0,99***
VL;r= 0,98***
BU;r= 0,98***
N
S
T
T

(
t

/
h
a
)

y = -0,55x + 102,69
r = 0,30
20
40
60
80
75 80 85 90 95 100
T l ht chc (%)
CR;r= 0,94***
VL;r= 0,92***
BU;r= -0,98***
CR;r= 0,89***
VL;r= -0,68*
BU;r= -0,23
y = -0,18x + 58,60
r = 0,01
40
60
80
N
S
T
T

(
t

/
h
a
)

20
20
22 24 26 28 30
Khi lng 1000ht (g)
tt c cc mc N, nng sut ht c tng quan vi s bng/m
2
mc c ngha trong tt c
cc ging ( th 3). Nh vy khi tng lng m bn, kh nng nhnh hu hiu la lai tng
mnh hn so vi la thun (Sarker v cs, 2002; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2004b). Nng sut ht
ca cc ging t l thun vi s ht/bng nhng khng tng quan vi t l ht chc hay khi lng
1000 ht ( th 3). iu ny c th do tng lng m bn giai on u ca qu trnh sinh
trng lm tng s hoa phn ho la lai cao hn so vi la thun (Saitoh v cs, 2000; Nagata v
cs, 2001). Tuy nhin tng quan gia nng sut v s ht trn bng (r= 0,81) cht hn tng quan
gia nng sut ht vi s bng/m
2
(r = 0,68), nh vy, khi tng lng m bn th vic tng s ht/
bng la lai cao hn so vi la thun v ng vai tr quan trng hn trong vic tng nng sut
la. Kt qu ny ph hp vi cc cng trnh nghin cu trc (Govinda v Siddiq, 1986; Virmani,
1994; Kobayashi v cs, 1995).
2
th 3. Tng quan gia cc yu t cu thnh nng sut vi nng sut thc thu (NSTT) cc ging la
CR203 (trng), Vit lai 20 (en) v Bc u 903 (xm) vi cc mc phn 0N (vung), 60 N(trn), 120N (thoi)
v 180N (tam gic), ti cc giai on sau cy 2 tun (A), nhnh hu hiu (B), tr (C) v chn sp (D).
*, ** v ***: tng ng ngha mc xc sut 95; 99 v 99,9%.
mc c ngha trong tt c
cc ging ( th 3). Nh vy khi tng lng m bn, kh nng nhnh hu hiu la lai tng
mnh hn so vi la thun (Sarker v cs, 2002; Phm Vn Cng v cs, 2004b). Nng sut ht
ca cc ging t l thun vi s ht/bng nhng khng tng quan vi t l ht chc hay khi lng
1000 ht ( th 3). iu ny c th do tng lng m bn giai on u ca qu trnh sinh
trng lm tng s hoa phn ho la lai cao hn so vi la thun (Saitoh v cs, 2000; Nagata v
cs, 2001). Tuy nhin tng quan gia nng sut v s ht trn bng (r= 0,81) cht hn tng quan
gia nng sut ht vi s bng/m
2
(r = 0,68), nh vy, khi tng lng m bn th vic tng s ht/
bng la lai cao hn so vi la thun v ng vai tr quan trng hn trong vic tng nng sut
la. Kt qu ny ph hp vi cc cng trnh nghin cu trc (Govinda v Siddiq, 1986; Virmani,
1994; Kobayashi v cs, 1995).
4. KT LUN 4. KT LUN
Khi tng lng phn m bn, LAI , DM v CGR ca la lai tng vt tri so vi ging la
thun, c bit giai on sau cy 4 tun.
Khi tng lng phn m bn, LAI , DM v CGR ca la lai tng vt tri so vi ging la
thun, c bit giai on sau cy 4 tun.
Khi tng lng m bn, nng sut ca cc ging la u tng, tuy nhin nng sut ca la lai
tng nhiu hn nng sut ca la thun.
Khi tng lng m bn, nng sut ca cc ging la u tng, tuy nhin nng sut ca la lai
tng nhiu hn nng sut ca la thun.
Nng sut ht ca cc ging la th nghim cc mc phn bn c tng quan thun mc
c ngha vi LAI v CGR giai on u ca qu trnh sinh trng, v s bng/m
2
v s ht/bng.
Nng sut ht ca cc ging la th nghim cc mc phn bn c tng quan thun mc
c ngha vi LAI v CGR giai on u ca qu trnh sinh trng, v s bng/m
2
v s ht/bng.
Ti liu tham kho Ti liu tham kho
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