# Best Practices for Modeling Multiphase Flows in Automotive Industry Tiberiu Barbat June 10, 2004

Content
Introduction, Definitions and Specifics Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.1 Ten Important Items for Multiphase Modeling with FLUENT Best Practices for using Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.1 in Automotive Applications (I) Transient VOF Model Steady-State VOF Model User Presentation Best Practices for using Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.1 in Automotive Applications (I) Mixture Multiphase Model Eulerian Multiphase Model Cavitation Model FLUENT 6.2 - New Features for Modeling Multiphase Flows Conclusions

Introduction, Definitions and Specifics in Multiphase Flows
Phases = homogeneous parts of a heterogeneous system (Gas, Liquid, Solid) Phase boundaries = surfaces of discontinuity for macroscopic system properties (density, viscosity, etc.) Shape and position of phase boundaries to be determined with the solution ! Phase Interaction Mass Transfer (Phase Change) Momentum Transfer (Drag, Lift, Virtual Mass) Surface Tension Wall Adhesion Heat Transfer

gas phase=air+fuel vapors (two species) interface gas-liquid

liquid phase (one species)

Introduction, Definitions and Specifics in Multiphase Flows

Phase Volume Fraction (α) = scalar field to capture phases distribution in Eulerian framework Large number of CFD Multiphase models are solving transport equations for α

δVi α i ≡ lim δV → 0 δ V
Vi (cell) α (cell) ≡ V (cell)

δV1 δV2 δV

∑α
i

i

=1

Alternatively, Lagrangian approach using Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Practical only if α < 10%

Multiphase Flow Regimes
Bubbly / Droplet / Particleladen flow = Discrete secondary phase structures (bubbles, droplets, solid particles) in a continuous primary phase Slug flow = Large bubbles in a continuous liquid Annular flow = Continuous liquid along walls, gas in core Stratified / Free-surface flow = Immiscible fluids separated by a clearly-defined interface Jet flow = thin liquid core surrounded by bulk gas phase Film flow = thin liquid layer flowing along wall boundaries

Slug flow

Bubbly flow / Droplet flow / Particle-laden flow

Annular flow

Free-surface flow

Film flow Jet flow

annular and slug flows. jet and film flows Mesh is resolving all primary and secondary phases flow field Phase interfaces are captured in the limit of the mesh resolution One set of continuity.Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.1 Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Model Free surface / stratified flows. momentum and energy equations (α-averaged) Transport for secondary phase(s) volume fraction Several formulations available – differ through the method of solving for α .

their size is input for the drag forces Model Phase Interaction through constitutive equation for slip velocity and drag forces between phases One set of momentum and energy equations . α-averaged local properties Secondary phases form structures (bubbles. solid particles) which are not resolved by the mesh. droplets.Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.1 Mixture Multiphase Model Bubbly / droplet / particle-laden flows with small particle relaxation time Interpenetrating phases. phase boundaries are not resolved Mesh is resolving flow field of a “mixture” fluid.

1 Eulerian Multiphase Model Bubbly / droplet / particle-laden flows.Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6. granular physics option for solid phases Interpenetrating phases. size of the structures are input for drag / virtual mass / lift / collisional forces on the particles Momentum and energy equations for each phase . phase boundaries are not captured Mesh is resolving phase average flow and energy fields for all primary and secondary phases Secondary phases form structures (bubbles / droplets / particles – granules) not resolved by the mesh.

1 Cavitation Model Phase change when local pressure becomes lower than vaporization pressure.1 introduced a new cavitation model. more robust and with more physics included Primary phase – the liquid Secondary phase – the vapor and a specified amount of non-condensable gas .Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6. mechanical work is main cause. no significant heat transfer FLUENT 6.

Multiphase Models in FLUENT 6.is not resolved Was implemented within the frame of the Mixture Multiphase model one set of momentum and energy equations. bubble size input refers to drag forces only homogeneous or flow with slip between the phases Variable density allowed for phases .1 Cavitation Model Phase change captured in both directions (cavitation and condensation) through model for mass transfer rate between phases included in vapor phase volume fraction transport equation Phase boundary .

images. 5. 9. 7.Ten Important Items for Multiphase Modeling with FLUENT 1. 2. 10. 4. Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) and driving forces Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Choose Model options and specific settings Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Identify variables. 6. and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing . 3. 8.

Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) and driving forces Free Surface Flow Filling Problems – Gravity and Inlet flow Fuel Tank Transmission Fluid Drainage Problems .Evaporator .Gravity Rain water management in HVAC system cowl Condensation water from air-side of the evaporator Sloshing Problems – Gravity and Inertia Fuel Tank Oil Pan Power Steering Reservoir Jet & Film Flow – Gravity.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 1. Inlet Flow and Inertia Cooling and Lubrification Piston Head Fuel injector Annular Flow / Slug Flow – Inlet Flow and Gravity Two-Phase Heat Exchangers .

not sharp.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 2. needs high order discretization . Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) – 4 formulations available grouped in two categories based on how the fluxes are computed in the Volume Fraction (α) equation (a) Solve α equation with Interface Reconstruction Geo-Reconstruct VOF Explicit time marching solution for α Most accurate for shape of the interface (linear slope) Donor-Acceptor VOF Explicit time marching solution for α Less accurate for interface shape Able to handle highly skewed cells Works only on quad / hexa mesh (b) Solve α equation as any other transport equation Euler Explicit VOF Explicit time marching solution for α Interface is diffused. needs high order discretization Last resort solution Implicit VOF Implicit solution for α Allows larger time steps Diffused interface.

No Interface Reconstruction With Interface Reconstruction Implicit with 2nd order upwind Geo-Reconstruct Donor .Acceptor .Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems Regular Discretization Methods.

Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 3. Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s (a) Phase Change Fuel Tank Filling Evaporation – Compute and Prescribe Evaporation Rate Species Diffusion – through User Defined Scalars (UDS) Two-Phase Flow in Evaporators Boiling / Condensation – Compute and Prescribe Mass Transfer Rate (b) Boundary Conditions Hydrostatic Pressure at Pressure Inlets and Outlets (c) Initial Conditions Interface shape and flow field at t=0 (d) Postprocessing Interface shape and center of gravity Mass / Volume of liquid / gas in the domain .

only the volume fraction field values determine the interface shape and location Droplets / bubbles smaller than mesh size will not be correctly described by the volume fraction solution At least 4 .Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 4.9 cells are required to capture a droplet / bubble through values of volume fraction field . Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Free surface details are captured in the limit of mesh resolution Phase boundaries are not postprocessed directly .

but keep in mind that General requirements (cell skewness..Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 4. Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Donor-Acceptor VOF is available ONLY for Quad / Hexa mesh Geo-Reconstruct VOF works with any type of mesh (tri / quad / tet / hex / hybrid). the required time step for stable runs will be very small (See Item 7 – Set the time step . if interface is passing quickly through regions with unnecessary fine mesh.) . size change.95 Maximum aspect ratio 5 Smooth size change between adjacent cells Time step size for the explicit α equation is internally determined by the solver on interface cells. aspect ratio) for FLUENT meshes should be strictly enforced Maximum cell skewness 0.

1 Slit Baffles (Double-sided walls) when using Geo-Reconstruct VOF ! . slit all the doublesided wall boundaries before running the simulation (TUI command) /grid/modify-zones/slit-face-zone If Surface Tension or Wall Adhesion Phase Interaction effects are to be captured Use Quad / Hexa meshes Mesh should be generated as uniform and isotropic as possible DO NOT use Hexcore meshes for VOF Cases in FLUENT 6.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 5. Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems If Geo-Reconstruct VOF or Donor-Acceptor VOF are used.

25 (Default) Operating Conditions Gravity components Specified Operating Density Should be turned ON Specify the density of the lighter phase Reference Pressure Location Specify a location where the lighter phase is found . Choose Model options and specific settings Implicit Body Force formulation Should be turned ON for all transient VOF problems in Automotive applications driven by Gravity and Inertia Forces Solve VOF Every Iteration Should be kept OFF (Default) Courant Number Should be kept at 0.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 5.

Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 6. Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Gradient Option in Define>Models>Solver Node-Based is preferred Pressure Discretization schemes: ONLY PRESTO! Body Force Weighted Pressure-Velocity Coupling PISO Skewness Correction decreased to 0 Neighbor Correction kept to 1 Skewness-Neighbor Coupling turned ON .

25) . energy. Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems Two time scales in the transient VOF problems using Interface Reconstruction Physical time step (user specified) ∆t VOF sub-time step (internally computed by FLUENT) ∆τ Momentum. and other scalar equations are solved with the ∆t specified by the user in Solve>Iterate Volume fraction α equation is solved explicitely with ∆τ Simulation is stable and efficient when ∆t ≤ 10K 20 ∆τ VOF sub-time step Varies during the simulation Represents minimum time to move secondary phase(s) out of an interface cell at that instant Depends on Mesh resolution in the interface cells Fluxes in the interface cells Courant number user input (default 0. turbulence.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 7.

com explains in detail the following procedure Start the simulation with a small time step ∆t1 allowing good convergence within 20 iterations per time step Run a number of time steps to get the flow going Save converged data file Specify a very large time step ∆T (at least 6 orders of magnitude larger than originally) FLUENT will pass an error message detailing the number (N) of VOF sub-time steps needed to cover the specified ∆T Now the VOF sub-time step can be computed simply as ∆τ = ∆T N Now user can continue the simulation with a physical time step ∆t2 within the limit of 10-20 VOF sub-time steps .fluentusers.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 7. Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems How to find out ∆τ in order to determine a good ∆t ? FLUENT has this information computed at each time step Solution 871 on www.

Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 8. Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Specify volume fraction for secondary phases at velocity-inlet and pressure-inlet boundaries Specify realistic backflow volume fraction for secondary phases at pressureoutlet boundaries depending on gravity direction and boundary orientation Specify mass flow rates for each phase at mass-flow-inlet boundaries Do not use outflow boundaries in transient VOF cases ω ax g V/p p .

Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Patch volume fraction for secondary phase(s) to match initial phase distribution in the problem On predefined cell zones Better interface control On registers of cells created with Adapt menu tools More versatile.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 9. suitable for parametric studies Use custom field variables Use UDF for initialization .

images. no surface picked in the selection list “vf05” . and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing Free surface flows with bulk phases Define free surface through an Iso-Surface of constant volume fraction of 0.5 (named for example “vf05”) created from the entire domain Surface>Iso-Surface>Phases>Volume Fraction of the phase of interest.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 10. Identify variables.

color them differently in Display>Scene “clipf” .Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems Create a surface for all fluid zones Surface>Zone. group these surfaces in “fluid-all” Define the areas of the boundary zones wetted by the phase of interest through an Iso-Clip surface of volume fraction between 0. select “fluid-all” Display>Grid only Faces on the “vf05” and “clipf”. create surfaces for each fluid zone Surface>Manage.5 and 1 (named for example “clipf”. clipped out of all fluid zones Surface>Iso-Clip>Phases>Volume Fraction.

Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems •Display>Grid only Faces on the “vf05” and “clipf” .

Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems •Use these surfaces for transient interface shape. by simply re-displaying them with the new data .

between a specified range of 0.01-1 Use Contours of Volume Fraction on sections through the model . Identify variables. one of the phases (say the liquid for example) occupies a much smaller / narrow group of cells in the domain than the bulk phase (gas) Using the previous method from Free Surface Flows may lead to wrong conclusions about the extent and continuity of the liquid jet or film Cells with volume fraction less than 0. Clip to Range 0. and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing Jet / Film Flows The postprocessing is more delicate.01 and 1.Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems 10.5 would not be included Use instead Velocity Vectors colored by the phase of interest. to capture the direction of the flow and extent of the liquid jet / film Display>Velocity Vectors>Colored by Phase>Volume Fraction. images.

between a specified range of 0.01 and 1 Use Contours of Volume Fraction on sections through the model .Best Practices for using VOF Model for Transient Problems Velocity Vectors colored by the phase of interest.

Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) Jet Flow – Fuel Injector Flow driven by high pressure at the fuel inlet Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Two phases – liquid fuel and gaseous air – clearly separated Interface shape is of importance – determine cone angle VOF Model for the portion of the domain up to the liquid sheet breakup Separate inflows for the two phases – liquid fuel and air Steady state implicit VOF can be used if no transient boundary conditions and initial jet development stage is not of interest Transient Geo-Reconstruct is expensive and not needed Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s 2.Best Practices for using Implicit VOF for Steady State Solutions 1. . 3.

Best Practices for using Implicit VOF for Steady State Solutions 4.7 Volume Fraction 0. 6. Volume Fraction Discretization QUICK on Hexahedral Meshes Second Order on Hybrid / Tetra meshes Under-Relaxation Factors Pressure 0.2 –0.3 Momentum 0.0.5 –0. Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Can use either hexa / hybrid / tetra mesh (hexa preferred) Good mesh resolution in the area of the jet / liquid sheet Choose Model options and specific settings Implicit Body Force formulation ON Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Pressure Discretization – Only these two schemes should be used Body Force Weighted PRESTO! Momentum. 7. 5.5 Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems . Turbulence.2 .

Identify variables.01-1 range . and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing Identify the interface shape – cone angle Volume Fraction contour plots on sections Velocity Vectors colored by Volume Fraction of liquid within 0. images. Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Use a domain large enough to minimize reversed flow areas Specify backflow volume fraction 0 for liquid 9.Best Practices for using Implicit VOF for Steady State Solutions 8. Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Solve first without Volume Fraction equation. then solve all equations 10.

Best Practices for using Implicit VOF for Steady State Solutions Velocity Vectors colored by the phase of interest. between a specified range of 0.01 and 1 Use Contours of Volume Fraction on sections through the model .

tetra. . hybrid) of good quality No need for boundary layers here 2.Inertia (centrifugal) forces and Gravity Oil Separator for Automotive HVAC Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Estimate average Volume Fraction of secondary phase If below 10%. 4. consider using DPM Compute time scale characteristic for primary phase flow T Assume a diameter for secondary phase structures d Compute relaxation time for secondary phase structures t Compute Stokes number St =t/T Mixture Model is applicable if St <<1 Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s Drag customization Droplet diameter distribution Initialization Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Any mesh type (hexa.Best Practices for using Mixture Model 1. 3. Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) and driving forces Phase Separation Problems Droplet Flow .

Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems Lower Under-Relaxation Factors than Defaults Pressure 0.001-0.1-0. Volume Fraction and Slip Velocity (multiphase with slip) 7. Turbulence.3 Turbulence 0. Turbulence and Volume Fraction (homogeneous multiphase flow) Flow.4 Volume Fraction 0. Second Order for accurate solution for rest of equations Solve in steps Flow and Turbulence (primary phase flow) Flow.5 Slip Velocity 0.1 Run the problem as transient to steady-state . Choose Model options and specific settings Slip Velocity ON Implicit Body Force formulation ON Turbulence Model RNG k-e with Swirl Flow option RSM 6.Best Practices for using Mixture Model 5. Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Pressure discretization Body Force Weighted PRESTO! First Order for starting the problem.2-0.1-0.

Identify variables. Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Use Solve>Patch to patch volume fraction fields which are closer to solution 10. and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing Volume Fraction fields Mass flow rates per phase Pressure field Slip velocity 8.Best Practices for using Mixture Model Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Velocity field can be different at velocity inlets Backflow value for volume fraction of secondary phase to be realistic 9. . images.

Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) Oil separator in HVAC system Droplet flow Driving forces – inlet flow. inertia (centrifugal) and gravity Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Droplet sizes are large Particle relaxation time is large relative to characteristic time scale of flow Stokes number St >1 Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s Drag customizations Droplet diameter distribution Initialization Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Any mesh type (hexa / tetra / hybrid) of good quality. 3.Best Practices for using Eulerian Multiphase Model 1. hexa mesh preferred Boundary layers elements to capture flow separation 2. 4. .

Best Practices for using Eulerian Multiphase Model 5. Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Solve in steps Flow and Turbulence (primary phase flow) Flow. Turbulence and Volume Fraction (multiphase flow) Adjust properties of second phases in steps Start with similar properties for all phases Adjust density and viscosity of secondary phases to real values in steps Adjust boundary conditions for volume fraction in steps . Choose Model options and specific settings Implicit Body Force formulation ON Multiphase turbulence option Dispersed to start with (more robust) Per-phase for final solution Virtual Mass OFF Lift Forces OFF Drag model – Schiller & Naumann Interphase Heat Transfer – Ranz-Marshall correlation 6.

4 Volume Fraction 0. Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Use a Mixture model solution for a modified problem (St<<1) to initialize the problem Use Patch with custom field functions and UDF’s 10. Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Pressure value is the only common input Temperature per phase Turbulence per-phase requires turbulence boundary conditions for each phase 9. and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing .3 Turbulence 0. images.1-0. Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems Use lower URF’s than regular Pressure 0.1-0.1-0.5 Run the problem as transient to steady-state 8.Best Practices for using Eulerian Multiphase Model 7. Identify variables.

.Best Practices for using Cavitation Model 1. Analyze physical problem for Multiphase flow regime(s) Liquid fuel under high pressure differences in a fuel injector Driving forces – pressure gradient and phase change Vapor phase develops in regions of high velocity. 4. where p<pvaporization Identify the appropriate Multiphase model(s) available in FLUENT Cavitation Model – within framework of Mixture Model in FLUENT 6.1 Establish any need for customization and additional models through UDF’s Drag customization Formulate specific meshing requirements for Multiphase problems Hexa mesh is preferred Dynamic Mesh and Cavitation only hexa mesh Fine mesh in cavitating areas 2. 3.

g.4 . Identify the right numerical procedures and solver settings Pressure Discretization Body Force Weighted PRESTO Momentum.Best Practices for using Cavitation Model 5. Choose Model options and specific settings Mixture Model Liquid primary phase Vapor secondary phase Mass Transfer – Cavitation ON Liquid properties Vaporization pressure Surface Tension Mass Fraction of Non-Condensable gas (e. stabilizing numerical effect Slip Velocity OFF Implicit Body Force formulation OFF 6.7) Scheme command (rpsetvar ‘pressure-correction/relax 0. air) Constant (no de-gassing effects) Non-zero. default is 0.. and Volume Fraction Second Order QUICK Reduce the pressure-correction under-relaxation (hidden URF.4) Do not reduce it below 0. Turbulence.

1 Input appropriate Boundary Conditions for the Multiphase problem Input Initial Conditions for the Multiphase simulation Obtain initial condition as solution of a modified (milder) problem Start with high pressure at pressure-outlet. except Pressure Pressure 0.Best Practices for using Cavitation Model 7.1-0.3 Volume Fraction 0. Set the time step for efficient and stable runs in transient Multiphase problems Very low URF’s relative to Default. 9.4-0. no cavitation Decrease back-pressure to initiate cavitation and adjust it in steps Adjust vaporization pressure in steps 8.6 Momentum 0.5 Vaporization Mass 1e-6 – 0.1-0. .

Identify variables. images.Best Practices for using Cavitation Model 10. and other appropriate information to be monitored and saved during the run for testing convergence and postprocessing Vapor phase volume fraction includes the amount of non-condensable gas .

1 Variable Time Stepping for VOF User specified controls .2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 1.New Features in FLUENT 6. VOF Model Speed Improvements Optimized Iterative PISO Pressure-Velocity Speed Increase by a factor of 2 versus FLUENT 6.1 Non-Iterative Time Advancement (NITA) New Transient algorithms with one iteration per time step Very efficient compared with Iterative PISO Good accuracy compared with Iterative PISO as benchmark Speed Increase by a factor of 9 versus FLUENT 6.

2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 1.1 PISO CPU=29.2 NITA – Fractional Step CPU=4.043 FLUENT 6.794 FLUENT 6.2 ITERATIVE PISO CPU=15.New Features in FLUENT 6.2 NITA – PISO CPU=3.450 .591 FLUENT 6. Transient VOF Geo-Reconstruct for Tank Sloshing with Non-Iterative Time Advancing (NITA) Algorithms FLUENT 6.

2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 1.New Features in FLUENT 6. VOF Model Speed Improvements Modified High Resolution Interface Capture (HRIC) Better resolution than QUICK or Second Order. but more diffuse than Geo-Reconstruct Very efficient for Steady-State and Transient problems where getting faster to final interface shape is more important than accurate interface shape history Speed Increase by a factor of 100 versus Geo-Reconstruct Fuel Injector Hydroplaning Sealing Problems .

New Features in FLUENT 6.1 First Order .2 useful for Multiphase Modeling Swirl Fuel Injector FLUENT6.

1 Second Order .New Features in FLUENT 6.2 useful for Multiphase Modeling Swirl Fuel Injector FLUENT6.

2 Modified High Resolution Interface Capture (HRIC) .New Features in FLUENT 6.2 useful for Multiphase Modeling Swirl Fuel Injector FLUENT 6.

2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 1. VOF Model New Physics Species Transport and Chemical Reactions Mass Transfer across phase boundaries must be specified through UDF Evaporation at Free Surface Inviscid Flows Ship Hydrodynamics New Boundary Conditions Open Channel Boundary Condition Mitigate the reflection of free surface waves at flow boundaries Surface Tension Force implementation has improved Larger time steps allowed Faster convergence .New Features in FLUENT 6.

2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 2. Mixture Model New Physics Granular option for solid phase particle-particle interaction Species Transport and Chemical Reactions Mass Transfer Rate across phase boundaries specified through UDF Nucleate Boiling Eulerian Multiphase Model New Physics Species Transport and Chemical Reactions Mass Transfer Rate across phase boundaries specified through UDF Nucleate Boiling RSM Turbulence model for dilute Eulerian Multiphase Flows Mixture-based Very dilute flows Phases have similar properties Dispersed-based Dilute flows Additional granular options PDE for granular temperature 3.New Features in FLUENT 6. .

New Features in FLUENT 6.2 useful for Multiphase Modeling 2. Cavitation Model Liquid and vapor phase compressibility Vaporization pressure can be specified as a function of temperature Enhanced robustness and speed Less sensitivity to initial conditions and under-relaxation Fuel injectors with large pressure differences Rotating machinery Water pumps Bearings .

1 has Multiphase Models able to tackle all the Multiphase Flow Regimes and problems encountered in Automotive Industry applications Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Geo-Reconstruct for accurate shape.1 allow for Heat Transfer computations Phase Change modeling requires in general UDF implementation (except Cavitation) . transient problems Implicit for steady-state problems and transient with larger time-steps Mixture Model Bubbly / Droplet flow with small relaxation time (small droplets) Eulerian Model Bubbly / Droplet flow Granular options Cavitation Model Mixture Model approach to phase change in areas with pressure lower than the vaporization pressure of a liquid All Multiphase Models in FLUENT6.Conclusions Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer Problems require several different Multiphase Models in order to deal with different situations Multiphase Flow Regimes Transient or Steady State Flow Dilute or Dense Flows Need for accurate capture of free surface shape FLUENT6.

2 brings in new features and improvements to all Multiphase Models Species and Chemical Reactions with all Multiphase Models Transient efficiency improvements for VOF – Non-Iterative Time Advancement algorithms (NITA) Variable Time Stepping for Transient VOF New method of capturing the interface with implicit VOF – High Resolution Interface Capture (HRIC) scheme More physics in Mixture Model (granular option) More physics in Cavitation Model Vaporization pressure varies with temperature Liquid and vapor phase compressibility .Conclusions Running a Multiphase Flow & Heat Transfer Problem in FLUENT6.1 requires the user Be proactive in mesh quality and resolution issues Skewness and aspect ratio limits Time step and grid resolution are linked for Geo-Reconstruct explicit VOF formulation Change some settings for numerical discretization and other specific inputs Use only Body Force Weighted or PRESTO Pressure discretization PISO pressure-velocity coupling for transient Under-relaxation factors schedules Patch initial conditions or start from a solution of a modified problem Select equations in steps FLUENT 6.