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Science started from ancient India.

Vidyut _Chakraborty
The impression that science started only in Europe was embedded in the minds of educated people all over the world. This was, perhaps, due to the fact that the period of falling behind of Indian enrichment coincided with that of ascendancy of empirical dominance in Europe. The period of dominance of Roman Empire over the centuries left a long shadow of cultural heritage of Europe. Its rise amalgamated the Greek epistemology and its fall engenders the rise of European imperialism. There was scientific advent in the age of Indus Valley Civilization. Even in Europe, science was a chapter of philosophy. In 1600AD Mathematics and Astrology had a special entity. European Scientists looked back in history to pay homage to ancient science of Egypt and Greece and not of India and China. Of course they did not forget to mention Aryabhatta. The science of Himalayan civilization, one can call it Aryan civilization, has a long process of evolution through conflict and consensus with the wisdom of Vindhyachal based Dravidian (non-Aryan) civilization. The episodes are too old to keep track historically and stored in the story telling. Besides, the practice of education was schooling in the teachers house (Gurukul) and through telling and hearing and memorizing (Shruti) and the reading of science was known as hidden learning(Gupta Vidya) and came under the purview of black magic. The western school of education discovered an archaic language named as Indo-European language which in this Southern part of Himalayas has been resurrect as Sanskrit language( renovated and modified language in Devnagari script).The scripture was regarded as sacred and restricted to the learned persons (Brahman) only. Due to invasion and aggression, many good things has been lost and very little has been restored in Shrines and Temples out of general peoples notice. The science (Bigyanbisesh gyan or special wisdom) was a separate subject under the omnibus cult of Philosophy (Darshan- Drish+On or observation and inference).This way of learning of Darshan created many cult and community whose style of rites were cultured as religion.The ancient Indian Darshan was different from the Western Philosophy but nearer to Oriental social culture and established religion. There were two major branches of believers- Astik and Nastik which can be construed as believer of Vedas and non-believer of Vedas, these two word has nothing to so with the believer of existence of God and non-believer of existence of God. Astiks were divided into six sects of Darshan (religion): Sankhya, Yoga, Nyay, Baiseshiki, Purbo-Mimangsa and Uttar Mimangsa.

Nastiks were divide into three sects of Darshan (religion): Lokayata (Charbak), Buddha(Buddhism) and Jain(Jainism). In each sect of these nine sets of religion the Matter was the key point and to get relief of physical and mental earthly agony the practitioners aimed at salvation (Mokshya) and not relief (Mukti). Out of these, Jainism preaches the existence of Matter as living one and inert ones and non violence to all the matters is the theme. Professor PC mahalnobis believed the belief on SAT are the ancient basis statistics SAT ASTI< SAT NASTI<SAT ASTI CHA NASTI CHA<SAT ABAKTAM<SAT ASTI CHA ABAKTAM CHA< SAT NASTI CHA ABAKTAM CHA< SAT ASTI CHA NASTI CHA ABAKTAM CHA. For Buddhism, the oldest religion Sankhya founded by Kapila whose name was linked with Kapila Bastu, Gautam Buddhas birth place.Gautam is a Gotro(the community related to the followers of Gautam Muni 550 BC). There was Baiseshiki-Darshan- its founder was Kanada alias Kanavukh alias Uluka. Kana+da means He who gives/invents crops/particle.Kana+vukh ,hungry for crops/particle, Uluka means Owl which seats at the foot of Minerva or Lakshmi and the bird comes out at night only.Ravan vasya is the original doctrine of the Baiseshiki Darshan. Kanada classified the matter into seven categories drabya(thing),goon(quality)karma(workability),samanya(general)bisesh (special),samabai(cohesion) and Abhab(want).Drabya ( a Thing) is of six types Prithvi(Earth),Jal(water) Vayu( Air),Teja(rays), Akash( Sky), kal (Time),Dik(direction),Atma(soul) and Mon(Mind) Out of these, the first five are called Matter(Bhuta-that exists) and the first four are made of Atoms(paramanu). Indus civilization of 2500BC was pre-Aryan and in all sense of interpretation it was Dravidian and based on agro-economy. There were barrages to hold water for irrigation. These barrages were called Britra. The king of Gods, Indra, rinak rodhangsee kritrimani(Rikveda2/15/8)[Indra destroyed the artificial barrages] .Indra hurled his fire emitting missile (Vajro-Thunder) and diminished the urbanized architecture of Harappa in Rik Veda the city was termed as Hariyupia where King of the Gods,Indra, destroyed the descendants of Brichiban to favour his supporter, Abhavarti, son of Chayaman. The Brichiban clan was termed as Asur.This is Rik was named after its writer Vasistha Muni.The ancient Iranian scripture, Avesta, regarded at par with Rik Vedas also contain citation of Asur. Harappa and Mahenjo Daro were the twin capital of the ancient empire, twice of the ancient Egyptian civilization and four times of Sumeruan civilization, It covered an area of 950x700x500 cubic miles extending from Makran to Kathiawar and in north up to Simla according to the Historians comments the study of Indus Civilization.The ancestors of Iranian, known as Aryans, mainly the tribe ignorant of agriculture,invaded taking the help of Indra with his shell Vajra (the thunder) invaded and destroyed the Pura 2

(urbanized dwellings) of Ponees whose way of lifestyle (religion) was marked as Sindhu or Hindu. Ponees had link with panya the merchandise. Aryans won over and the Vedic era started to move forward. According to Sanskrit Pundits Prama means knowledge and Praman means Sources of valid (true) knowledge. Pramanyabad means Theory of validity or truism. So there was swato- Pramanyabad (Theory of Intrinsic Validity) and Parato- Pramanyabad (Theory of extrinsic Validity). The phenomenon that can not be proved practically by mastery was known as Maya- the mystery or the magic. The Vedic rishis (sages) ultimately praised the knowledge of non Vedic scholars in their own style. In Rik Veda, the mystery of MitraVarun, the Asurs, were elaborated .Barun measured space with the help of Sun. The spell or charm of Mitra-Barun circumscribes the moving sun in space. Vedas are four. Contents of each is called as Brahman(wisdom) and the annexure are called Aranyak(Branches) and the notes attached are called as Upanishad( explanation or interpretation). However, the Aranyak and Upanishads are still today regarded as sacred and holy scriptures. The oldest five Upanishads are five in numbers: Aitereya, Brihadaranyak, Chhandogyo, taittiriyo and kouseetaki and they contain parables. GEOGRAPHY : The Puranas and Brahmanas classified the land Surrounded by Sagar (sea) as Dvipa(island) which in reality Expressed the existence of continents, mentioned the Parvatas (Hills/ Mountains).The Buddhism and Jainism also contributed a large section of scientific invention and in look in the Mother Nature, Sakamvari(Bosundhara/Bosumati /Bosumata). In Nepal Mount Everest is called as Sagarmatha( a peak from ocean). MATHEMATICS: The Chandogya Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Vedanga Yotisha, Aitareya Brahmana, Taitteriya Brahman, Satpatha Brahman speaks of Computing (Ganita), Astronomy (Yotish-The study of 5Grahas27Nakshatras-Chandra-12Adityas) and Geometry and Trigonometry (Kalpa).To measure earthen (sun-burnt) Barrages to hold Water for drinking and cultivation, to share the food stuff in Community, to build pyre (alter) for Yajnas (rites of performing worship for a certain purpose).The Number-system went beyond trillions(nyarbuda)-samudra ,Madhya, Anta, and Parardha and between zero and one viz.pal, dando, lahma, nimesh, kshan (24hours/1944000) etc.Units were also marked as Roti, Vori,anjali ,Yojon and tola etc. A few numbers(e.g., 2,3,5,8,9,10) were sacredly maintained 3

to keep on multiplying and dividing and doing square root , cube root and methods of Arithmetic as algebra was not there. Kharosthi and brahmi numerals can claim same status as of Babylonian numerals. Brahmagupta and BhaskaraII used yavat-tavat (simple),varga(quadratic),Ghana (cubic)and Varga-varga (biquadratic) samikaran/samakran/sadrisikaran (equation). Indian (Hindu/Jain/Buddhist) months are named by the Names Stars(Nakshatra) and the dates are named by the names of Planets and Moon except Sombar-Monday & Rabibar-Sunday. Zodiacs are named after the constellation of stars. CHEMISTRY :People of the Indus Valley Civilization (c2500-1800 BC) were skilled in employing a wide range of chemical processes. The glazed pottery found in Mohenjo-daro represents Indian origin. Quartz with clay was used to make the body of the pot and the glaze was made of a fusible silicate(sodium silicate made from fusing soda with sand). Seals found in the excavations had glazes made of a fused mixture of powdered cornelian and soda, oxides of manga nese copper and iron were used for making colored faience. Brown glazed pottery articles, both slip-glazed and paintglazed, were the common varieties. The Indus Valley people used lime, gypsum and sand as constituents of mortar. They employed gypsum cement as plaster for houses, By the process of casting and forging copper, Tin and the alloy bronze, the Indus Valley people manufactured tools of all varieties, weapons, domestic utensils, statuettes, bangles, finger-rings, ear-rings, amulets, wires and rods. Gold and Silver were used for jewels and ornamental vessels. Silver was extracted from an argent ferrous lead ore. A gold-silver alloy, Electrum, was found in Mohenjo-daro. A large variety of minerals and ores were used, for making ornamental beads, pendants and other kinds of jewels. Lollingite and Leucopyrites were utilized for the preparation of Arsenious oxide arsenic. white lead was possibly utilized for Plasters, eye-salves and paints. The art of dyeing cotton with the red coloring matter of madder root.Post-Harappan People (c1800-1500BC) knew the use of iron implements long before the advent of Aryan. Vedic period (c1500-600BC) referred the use of gold , silver , Copper, Bronze, tanning of Hides for making slings, headstrings, reins and whips, natural vegetable coloring , SomaRas (brewing alcoholic drinks). 4

Post-vedic period (c600BC-800AD) forms the most flourishing and fruitful age as far as it concerns the development of the science of chemistry in ancient India. Ayurveda is the science of Pharmaceuticals-reminds the inherent knowledge of Asvin (Kumar)Twins, In Ramayana there is several stories of such magical power of plants and stones. One is popular Visalyakarani. Salyakarani means surgery. The Charak, Susruta, Bharadwaj, Dhanvantari. Ayush-vidya, the Elixir of life, comprises knowledge on holy matters significantly mentioned in the sacred samhitas of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains.There was intrinsic relation between Life and Matter. The compilation of Astango started from the period from 500BC to 500AD.These are Kayachikitsa (therapeutics), Salyachikitsa (major surgery) salakya tantra (minor surgery), Bhutavidya (demonology), kumarabhrtya tantra (pediatrics), Agada tantra (toxicology), Rasayana tantra (geriatrics), Vajikaran tantra (virilification). Charaka samhita diagnosed the diseases on the basis of tri -dhatu (physiological elements) Dosas (Humors) vayu (Gaseous elements) pitta (fiery elements) kapha ( liquid Element).These dosas are related to three gods respectivelyVayu,Sun ,Varun and are also subjective to Gunas(mental type)-Sattva(Saintly) Rajas(Regent) & Tamas (other dark). Much of ancient and medieval chemistry has been generally called Alchemy which was also closely associated with philosophical thought and alchemical practices in India were looked upon aids to divine union. In other civilizations the twin objectives of alchemy were (i) discovery of Philosophers Stone (Parasmoni) and (ii) discovery of elixir of life. Prior to 1860. Chemistry used to be taught in Medical Colleges as a help to the study of medicine. There are several more things to know to learn and to understand about Mahabharata or the entirety of Indian subcontinent. In some other context that can be published.