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International Relations, Version 1; 8/17/2011

SCHOOL OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES


Mission Statement: The mission of the School of Undergraduate Studies is to provide exemplary professional undergraduate education, from a biblical perspective, leading to bachelors degree, for aspiring servant leaders in pivotal professions.

Course Syllabus
Course: GOVT 304

Course Title: Introduction to International Relations Semester: winter 08 Session C

Virginia Beach Campus

All students are required to read and have a thorough understanding of the syllabus. Any questions or concerns need to be addressed to the instructor.

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Instructor: Mary Manjikian, Ph.D. Telephone: (757) 482-0148 Local Phone: (757 ) 513 - 5125 Fax: (757) 226 -- 4236 E-mail: mmanjikian@regent.edu Office Hours: on-line or via Pronto Office Location: adjunct

Dear students: Im so happy to be teaching you this semester! Im an adjunct professor in the Government Department and this is my second year teaching here. Im a former Foreign Service officer and I have served in Holland, Russia and Bulgaria. Were a military family and weve also lived in Germany and England. Please feel free to contact me via e-mail or phone at any time with questions and concerns about the course. I look forward to working with all of you. For those of you who are RETURNING students of mine, please read through this syllabus carefully. I have changed some criteria regarding writing style, discussion posting grades and late work. Do NOT skim over these parts of the syllabus assuming you already know how I do things.

COURSE DESCRIPTION Evaluates the conduct of foreign affairs, policy, and relationships between nation-states in the international political community. Students are introduced to the history of the international order as well as to the leading international relations theories of realism, liberal internationalism, neo-conservatism, human rights, and Marxism. Prerequisites: Introduction to Political Science or permission of the instructor or department chairman. Theme Scripture:
Nations are in uproar, kingdoms fall; He lifts His voice, the earth melts. The Lord Almighty is with us; the God of Jacob is our fortress. Psalm 46: 6-7. I choose this scripture because as we take this whirlwind journey together through the history of international relations, its easy to conclude that nothing is certain. Nations are torn apart and put back together. The world is a precarious place. How lucky we are as Christians to have an unshakeable vantage point from which to view the world, to know that our Awesome God saves us!

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: 1. Articulate the three major perspectives used in the analysis of international relations (realism, liberalism and identity) and their underlying assumptions 2. articulate two major methods used in the analysis of international relations (rationalism and constructivism) and their underlying assumptions 3. be able to apply realist, liberalist and identity paradigms in explaining the evolution of the state system, as well as in analyzing current and historical developments 4. articulate three moral approaches (relativism, universalism and pragmatism) and evaluate historic and contemporary policy solutions using these principles 5. describe the structure, norms and rules of international economics and explain how a countrys relative economic capabilities affect its ability to achieve goals in the areas of security, human rights and the environment 6. evaluate and describe the constraints and challenges faced by policymakers today as a result of the evolution of the state system 7. explain globalism and the significance of transnational actors PROGRAM GOALS This course contributes to the fulfillment of the following program goals: INSURES that graduating students will be able to ARTICULATE themselves clearly, concisely and accurately in writing INSURES that graduating GOVT students HAVE AN UNDERSTANDING of diversity

GENERAL INFORMATION Several elements are key to your success in this course. You will need to understand these fully prior to starting the course: 1. All courses require extensive engagement (with other students, the instructor, and with the course materials) as well as timely completion of assignments. Many assignments are due weekly. Thus, keeping up with the schedule is essential to your success. Your personal schedule must allow you to keep up with the due dates for the readings and other assignments. Some work is difficult or even impossible to make up (such as discussion with others), so you must plan your schedule carefully. 2. Be sure you can complete this course in the scheduled period. Grades of Incomplete will be granted only for true emergency situations, not for poor

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planning. The policy for grades of Incomplete can be found in the School of Undergraduate Studies Catalog, found online. 3. You must have continuous access to a working and dependable BROADBAND Internet provider as well as reliable e-mail software that can send and receive attachments. You must also have access to Microsoft Word 2000 or later for writing assignments. A microphone and headset may be useful, since I have added audio scenesetter mini-lectures to each weeks materials. I also use the voice tools with instant messaging so Im happy to chat with you on-line as well. BLACKBOARD INFORMATION Blackboard has five primary purposes in our courses: (1) to provide a means for students to receive timely information about the course in general, assignments, grades, and announcements from the instructor; (2) to promote thoughtful interaction between the instructor and students and among students themselves as they work through course materials; (3) to provide a means for students to complete quizzes and other forms of evaluation; (4) to enhance the learning process by providing a variety of materials; and (5) to enable students to check their grades. Students complete their weekly assignments as posted in Blackboard. Students are expected to check the Announcements section of Blackboard each week beginning two weeks before the start of the course. Students must keep their e-mail address current in Blackboard; they are expected to check their Regent e-mail daily to ensure timely receipt of messages from the professor. If you have technical problems with Blackboard and/or are not able to log in, please contact the Help Desk/IT department. You can e-mail the Help Desk at: helpdesk@regent.edu or call at (757) 226-4076. RESOURCES University Library Virginia Beach, VA; Washington, D.C.; and distance education students are expected to make use of the wide variety of services and resources provided by the Regent University Library as they conduct research for written assignments and other projects assigned in this course. See a list of online services provided for undergraduate students at the following web address: http://www.regent.edu/general/library/subjects/professional_studies/. Students should explore what library services are available in their local area, particularly from public libraries, and determine where they are able to inter-library loan materials that are not held in their local library system. Students can search the Library Catalog for texts at

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http://library.regent.edu. The library cannot loan out books that are currently on reserve for courses. Washington, D.C., and distance education students: Books and articles can also be requested from the Regent University Library. See the Librarys Distance Education page at http://www.regent.edu/general/library/services/ILL/home.cfm for more information. Books are loaned out for a six-week period, and students must return them by UPS or Federal Express at their own expense before the loan period is over. Generally, there is no cost for the articles, although students may incur some expense if the library encounters unusual costs obtaining them. Reference assistance is available by e-mail at refer@regent.edu or students may contact Marta Lee, Distance Education Librarian, at martlee@regent.edu. Virginia Beach students: Reference assistance is available by calling the Library Reference Desk toll-free at 1-888-249-1822, by e-mail at refer@regent.edu, or students may contact Harold Henkel, School of Undergraduate Studies Librarian, at harohen@regent.edu. Academic Support To enable students to succeed, Regent University makes available to all students a number of resources, including the University Writing Center (go to www.regent.edu/admin/stuserv/writingcenter), math tutoring (see www.regent.edu/csd), and other resources. More information is available in the School of Undergraduate Studies Catalog and on the Regent University website (http://www.regent.edu/general/catalog/). Students are invited to make use of these resources. REQUIRED MATERIALS FOR THIS COURSE Students are responsible for acquiring the following books and materials for this course by the time the course begins: Henry Nau, Perspectives on International Relations: Power, Institutions and Ideas (CQ Press, 2007). ISBN 1-1933115-46-3. The Political Science Student Writers Manual (Dubuque, IA: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2006), Gregory M. Scott and Stephen M. Garrison [ISBN 0-13-189259-2].

The School of Undergraduate Studies has partnered with the Regent Bookstore to have textbooks available for purchase for all students, including distance students. Items may be ordered using the secured online catalog found at www.regentbookstore.net. Additional materials (e.g., PowerPoint files, quizzes, media, and the like) may be found

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on Blackboard. Students are responsible for the information and materials distributed through Blackboard and, for on-ground students, in class. You are required to write two book reviews during this course. You may choose from a variety of books on a number of topics. More information about the book review assignment is found in the Week Zero Course Materials. You do not need to purchase the books in order to write the book reviews, though you may wish to do so. The books are not available at the bookstore, but may be purchased via amazon.com or borrowed from the Regent library. Some of the selections are also available as e-books through the Regent Library, and may be read on-line at no charge. COURSE REQUIREMENTS To succeed in this course, students are required to: 1. Consistently attend and participate in the class. Your attendance and participation are important means for the instructor to assess your skills, quality of thought, and growth as a student. The attendance policy and procedures are described below. Requirements for your participation in Blackboard discussions important both for your learning and for your instructors evaluation of your progress in the courseare described below (see Requirements regarding Blackboard Discussions). 2. Pay close and timely attention to reading assignments and other assigned work. You are responsible for preparing assigned readings carefully by the date listed on the schedule below and to complete tests, projects, and other assignments by the date listed. Out of fairness to all, late assignments are penalized as described below under Late Assignments. 3. Carefully follow course policies and procedures regarding writing, academic honesty, submission of assignments, formatting, and other matters, as specified below or through Blackboard. Since following directions is a crucial skill for university graduatesand since the smooth operation of our course depends on all of us meeting each others expectationsadherence to policies can positively or adversely affect a students grade. 4. Writing: All papers and essays at Regent University must follow the writing style format required by the degree specialty for which they are being written. The writing style to be used in this course is the APSA AuthorDate system. Requirements are found in Chapter Four, Citing Sources in your Political Science Student Writers Manual. Requirements regarding Blackboard Discussions Discussion questions for this course are posted in Blackboard. Unless otherwise instructed, the parameters for a students postings are 200-300 words (please keep the word count in this range). The purpose of these parameters is to promote writing that is both thorough and concise. The instructor will post questions and activities weekly. Discussion questions will be posted in advance. Since not everyone will see things

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identically, students are to review one anothers postings in order to further their insight and learning. This is an important benefit of dialogue. For each week in which a dialogue is scheduled, students will post one original response and at least one additional response to another students posting. To do well in the online discussions, students will want to cite appropriate examples/principles from the texts and Scripture. Often students will not have enough words in a post or will not reference texts, appropriate Scripture, etc. and needlessly lose points in their grade. The first post is due by midnight on Sunday, January 13. Late posts result in a loss of participation points. If you want to share short posts of encouragement and support, use the discussion board tool for this. Note that the expectations for quality work in the Blackboard group discussions differ from the minimal requirements for attendance. REQUIREMENTS FOR WRITTEN WORK: Unless otherwise noted, weekly written assignments are to be between 250-500 words. I will not grade you down for exceeding this limits, or for writing too little. However, it is extremely unlikely that you can thoroughly answer any of the written assignments for this course in less than 250 words. Book reviews may be up to 1000 words. COURSE PROCEDURES Submission of Assignments All assignments for this course should be submitted via the assignment link in that weeks course materials. When saving your document, the file name should include your last name. After you have submitted your materials, they will appear next to that assignment in your gradebook. Please make sure that they have been submitted properly. If you have problems, please contact Tech Support, not the instructor. Every assignment must have a header which contains your name, the name of the class and the assignment. To do that, you will need to know how to use the Header and Footer option under the View button in Microsoft Word. You WILL lose 5 points if you do not have a header on your assignments. Use of additional sources: This course contains relatively few supplemental readings. In addition, you will not be doing much outside research or using a lot of outside sources for your essays. I intentionally structured this course this way because: 1. Our textbook truly provides an exhaustive introduction to the field of international relations. Simply becoming familiar with all the concepts in the book and learning to APPLY them should keep you very busy without including any extra work.

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2. I am more interested in how well you APPLY the information from your text and how you EXPRESS these ideas using proper English than I am in assessing your research skills. I would urge you to spend your time outlining, writing and rewriting your essays and making sure youre APPLYING the material in the textbook rather than wowing me with your research abilities. (There will be time for that later, in your upper-level courses.) 3. If you DO choose to seek out additional relevant information in contributing to the discussion, in arguing with your classmates, or in submitting your essays and assignments, please bear the following in mind: Additional sources cited need to be relevant ACADEMIC sources (i.e. Foreign Affairs Journal, not CNN.com). The best place to find ACADEMIC sources is through the Regent University Library on-line database not through a random Google search. From your Regent University homepage, choose the Libraries header from the choice bar, then choose the search databases option. Your Regent password will allow you access to the databases. Academic Premier is a simple, easy to use choice for finding relevant articles by means of a key word search. If you are unclear about how to use the library databases for accessing academic articles, please visit (or call) the Regent University Library help desk. If you took a short on-line introduction to library databases as part of your orientation, you may want to spend some time reviewing those materials prior to the start of this course. Late Assignments Every student may request ONE grace period for a late assignment, allowing them to submit the assignment up to one week late without penalty. The grace period must be requested at least twenty four hours PRIOR to the assignments actual due date ALL assignments for the first half of the course MUST be submitted in order to access the midterm. ALL assignments for the whole course MUST be submitted in order to access the final exam. Mid-terms and finals MUST be taken within the time limits set out in this syllabus. Emailing Your Instructor The subject line of all e-mail messages related to this course should include the course number (e.g., GOVT 304). Following these directions enables the professor to identify quickly the student and course, facilitating a timely response. Students should always include their first and last name at the end of all e-mail messages. Because instructors often need to reach students, all students are required to keep their mailing address, e-mail address, and telephone numbers up to date in GENISYS.

ATTENDANCE POLICY It is critical for on campus students to attend all class sessions and for online students to participate in discussion boards on time in order to accomplish learning outcomes.

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In addition, Regent University is required to maintain accurate attendance records by the U.S. Department of Education. Two (2) attendance units will be recorded every week for all courses (any number of credits) for each student: Online students will have two (2) Blackboard discussion board postings each week equal to sixteen (16) total attendance units for each course. Any missed or late posting will result in one (1) less attendance unit recorded (i.e. one lost/missed attendance unit.) On-campus students will have two (2) class hours each week counting toward the sixteen (16) total attendance units for each course. Any missed portion of one class hour will result in one (1) less attendance unit recorded (i.e. one lost/missed attendance unit) with a maximum of two (2) lost each week. Any online or on campus course may have more than (but will not have less than) sixteen (16) total discussion board postings or class hours within the course; however, only 16 total (postings or class hours) are used for recording attendance (2 each week). For online students, any two each week may be used to calculate attendance for each student. However, for both online and on-campus students, the postings beyond the 16 units can positively or adversely affect the course grade since they reflect students quality of thought and engagement with the course. See Method of Evaluation, below. For five (5) or less missed attendance units a faculty member will deduct at his or her discretion up to five (5) percentage points (5%) for each missed attendance unit from the students final grade. For six (6) or more missed attendance units a faculty member may deduct at his or her discretion up to ten (10) percentage points (10%) for each missed attendance unit from the students final grade. Because class absences and missed discussion board posting deadlines sometimes result due to extenuating professional or personal situations, faculty members may, at their discretion, offer a student an opportunity to gain back some or all of the lost percentage points through whatever means are appropriate to the situation. However, the recorded loss of the attendance unit will not be altered in the records, even if a student makes up the missed class/work and related grade points. These attendance percentage point deductions may be in addition to and separate from any lost participation points that an individual professor may also deduct for a missed class/assignment.

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ACADEMIC HONESTY Students are on their honor to complete assignments with honesty and integrity. Academic dishonesty involves intentionally or unintentionally stealing the intellectual property of others. Students are expected to be familiar with the universitys policy on academic integrity found in both the University Student Handbook and School of Undergraduate Studies Catalog (http://www.regent.edu/general/catalog/) and to follow it. As an academic and Christian community, Regent University takes seriously the call for integrity and penalizes breaches of of academic integrity. COURSE SCHEDULE The schedule below includes the due dates for all assignments in this course. It is recommended that you place this Course Schedule in a convenient place and refer to it each week of the course. You need to follow it closely, as late assignments are subject to a grade reduction. Students are expected to spend fourteen to seventeen hours of class work per week (to include online work, homework and study time, and, for onground students, in-class time) for a three-credit hour class. All courses use group discussion questions on Blackboard. Postings cannot be made up once the week is over, as the rest of the class will have moved on to the next topic. The academic week runs from Monday until Monday. For this semester, the schedule will be as follows: Week 1: January 7-14 Week 2: January 14-21 Week 3: January 21-28 Week 4: January 28-February 3 Week 5: February 3-10 Week 6: February 10-17 Week 7: February 17-24 Week 8: February 24-March 2 Postings to the on-line discussion should be made by FRIDAY midnight of each week for your initial post, and SUNDAY MIDNIGHT for your final post. The weeks discussion will be considered closed as of Sunday midnight and your posts after that will not be graded unless you have made prior arrangements with me. (See my section on late work.) Essays and assignments are due by Sunday midnight of each week. After that, you will lose 1 point (on a 20 point scale) for each day that it is late after that. Your first book review is due by February 3 and your second is due by March 2. Please note that you will not be permitted to take the midterm or final if you still have outstanding work. (A zero will be entered as your grade and the exam will be closed to you. I will only clear the grade once you have spoken with me about missing work and we have come to an agreement.)

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Week One: Central Questions in International Relations (January 7-13) Read Nau, Introduction and Chapter 1 (pp. 1-42); ALSO Writers Manual, Ch. 1 Choose your first book review topic and ORDER your books Discussion: Prepare and post your discussion posting using the WORLDVIEW you have been assigned via e-mail Essay: Submit Simulation. Found on-line at Week One Assignments Quiz: Take ten question diagnostic quiz on Chapter 1 and Introduction. Work is due by Sunday, January 13, midnight, EST. Your first posting should be up by Friday, so as to allow sufficient time for online discussion. Week Two: State and the State System (January 14-20) Read Nau, Ch. 2 & 3 Discussion: The Christian Worldview and the 3 Perspectives Essay: World War One and the Shadow of the Future Quiz: Take ten question quiz on Chapter 2 and 3. Work is due by Wednesday, January 16. Week Three: World War Two and the Cold War (January 21-7) Read Nau, Chapters 4 & 5. Also, additional article on comparing and contrasting Discussion: The role of Ideology in the Cold War Quiz: Take ten question quiz on Chapter 4 and 5. NO ESSAY. Work on your book review. Work is due by Wednesday, January 23. Week Four: After the Cold War and the Democratic Peace (January 28-Feb. 3) Read Nau, Chapter Six and Conclusion, pp. 393-401 Discussion: The 3 perspectives and their views on terrorism Essay: Is democracy, as Francis Fukuyama suggests, the end of history? Discuss. Quiz: There is no quiz on this weeks readings. These readings will however be covered on the midterm. Take Mid-term this week and participate in on-line study session Book review due this week You will NOT be permitted to take the mid-term unless all outstanding work has been submitted! Work is due by Wednesday, January 30.

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Week Five: Globalization and the World Economy (February 4-10) Read Chapter 7 & 8 Discussion: Explaining American Economic Dominance Written: The Protestant Work Ethic as an explanation for American economic dominance Quiz: Take quiz on Chapters 7 & 8. Work is due by Wednesday, February 5. Week Six: Trade and Foreign Investment (February 11-17) Read Chapter 9 & 10 Discuss: Why do you think that domestic governance is generally so important to a countrys economic standing? Written: This week you will be analyzing The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (September 17, 2002). This document has become known as the Bush Doctrine and a link is provided on-line under the assignment tab. You are to write one paragraph each, analyzing his: view of history, views on economic cooperation, views on defensive alliances and cooperation and views on economic development and foreign aid. Decide overall which perspective best describes this doctrine (Realist, Liberal or Identity). Then, for each paragraph, discuss how the views in this section depart from or support a particular perspective. Quiz: Take quiz on Chapters 9 & 10 Work is due by Wednesday, February 13. Week Seven: Development and Foreign Aid (February 18-24) Read Chapter 11 & 12 Discuss: Do you think that oil is an advantage or a curse for the Middle East? If it is a curse, how can Middle Eastern economies be encouraged to diversify. No essay. Work on your book review Quiz: Take quiz on Chapters 11 & 12. Work is due by Wednesday, February 20. Week Eight: Ethnic Conflict and the Environment (February 25-29) Read Chapters 13 & 14 Take final exam. Participate in the on-line study session. There is no quiz this week.

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Discussion: Is it possible to have overarching solutions to ethnic conflicts e.g. always partition the warring groups or always pursue constitutional solutions? Or does this type of conflict necessitate individualistic responses? Essay: How should countries react to the threat of pandemics? Should they pursue it as an issue of national security, like realists would suggest, or as an issue of global welfare, like identity perspectives advocate? Work is due by Wednesday, February 27. ASSIGNMENTS for GOVT 304, Introduction to International Relations WEEK Week One: Jan. 7-13: READ Student Writers Manual, Chapter One, pp. 1-24 Nau, Introduction and Chapter One Nau, Chapter Two and Three Nau, Chapter 4 & 5 Additional article on comparing and contrasting Nau, Chapter 6 and Conclusion DISCUSS Please use the worldview you have been assigned via e-mail TURN IN Quiz 1 (diagnostic) Simulation (essay) ORDER YOUR BOOKS for your first book review

Week Two: Jan 14-20 Week Three: Jan. 21-7 Week Four: Jan. 28-Feb. 3

Christian Worldview and the Three Perspectives The Role of Ideology in the Cold War 3 perspectives on terrorism On-line study session

Essay: World War One and the Shadow of the Future Quiz on Chapter 2 & 3 Work on book review Quiz on Chapters 4 & 5

Week Five: Feb. 4-10 Week Six: Feb. 11-17 Week Seven: Feb. 18-24 Week Eight: Feb. 25-29

Nau, Chapters 7 & 8

Nau, Chapters 9 & 10 Nau, Chapters 11 & 12 Nau, Chapters 13 & 14

Essay: Is democracy the end of history? Mid-Term Book Review One Explaining Essay: The Protestant work American ethic and American economic Economic dominance Dominance Quiz on Chapters 7 & 8 Domestic Essay: Analysis of the Bush Governance and Doctrine Economic Standing Quiz on Chapters 9 & 10 The Resource Quiz on Chapters 11 & 12 Curse Work on Book Review Online study Essay: Reacting to the Threat session of Pandemics Ethnic Conflict: Final Exam Universalistic and Particularistic Solutions

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METHOD OF EVALUATION The final grade for the course will reflect mastery of course content and quality of thought as expressed in: Activity Essay Quizzes Discussion posts Book Reviews Mid-term Final TOTALS Point Value 6@2.5 points each 6@2.5 points each 8@2 points each 2@7 points each 20 points 20 points Total 15 points 15 points 16 points 14 points 20 points 20 points 100 points

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GRADING The following grading system is followed in the School of Undergraduate Studies: Grade A AB+ B BC+ C CD+ D DF Percentage 93100 90-92 87-89 83-86 80-82 77-79 73-76 70-72 67-69 63-66 60-62 0-69 Quality Points 4.00 3.67 3.33 3.00 2.67 2.33 2.00 1.67 1.33 1.00 0.67 0.00 Meaning of Grade Superior

Good

Letter grades indicate the following:

A AWork of Satisfactory superior quality in all areas. Work Poor displays a mastery of Failing course content at the highest level of attainment appropriate for the undergraduate level: outstanding quality of thought; excellent understanding of the course content and demonstration of skills associated with the course; a creative and critical engagement with the material; and an ability to analyze and evaluate the knowledge and ideas that shows talent for undergraduate work. Work shows practical or personal application of course content in specific assignments, as appropriate. The grade for such work will vary from A to A- according to the quality and quantity of the work. B+ B BStrong performance demonstrating a high level of attainment appropriate for the undergraduate level: high quality of thought; solid understanding of the course content and demonstration of skills associated with the course; an engagement with the material that shows good comprehension of the subject; and an ability to analyze and evaluate the knowledge and ideas in the course. Work shows practical or personal application of course content in specific assignments, as appropriate. The grade for such work will vary from B+ to B- according to the quality and quantity of the work.

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C+ C CSatisfactory performance demonstrating an adequate level of attainment appropriate for the undergraduate level: competent quality of thought; acceptable understanding of the course content and demonstration of skills associated with the course; an engagement with the course that shows adequate ability to analyze and evaluate; and adequate comprehension of the subject. Work shows practical or personal application of course content in specific assignments, as appropriate The grade will vary from C+ to Caccording to the quality and quantity of the work. D+ D DMarginal performance demonstrating a minimal passing level of attainment appropriate for the undergraduate level. The students work indicates poor quality of thought and poor comprehension of course content. Work shows practical or personal application of course content in specific assignments, as appropriate. F Unacceptable performance. The students work indicates major deficiencies in learning and reveals little or no understanding of course content. This grade denotes either unacceptable performance in spite of some effort, or failure to complete the assigned work.

STUDENT COURSE EVALUATION Students have the opportunity to provide feedback throughout the course through email, telephone, and on-campus appointments. Near the end of the course, students will complete an anonymous online course evaluation form. Since the results contribute to improving course design and presentation, it is important that students be honest and constructive in their evaluations. Students will receive an e-mail reminder from the University when it is time to complete these evaluations. Please take time to provide this input. Students can access the online evaluation system at: http://eval.regent.edu/regent/survey/students.cfm . If you have questions about the online evaluation please contact evaluation@regent.edu. This syllabus is subject to change without notice. Regent University, School of Undergraduate Studies 1000 Regent University Drive, Virginia Beach, VA, 23464 Phone (888) 718-1222 2006 Regent University, All Rights Reserved.