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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY LAB

A GUIDE TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY LAB


2nd Edition THOMAS G. RUST. M.Ed., M.A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subject Page

....................................... 1 Epithelium .................................. 2-4 Connective Tissue .......................... 4-14 Skeletal System ........................... 15-24 Muscle Tissue ............................. 25-27 Nervous System ........................... 28-38 Cardiovascular System ..................... 39-41 Lymphatic Organs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-45 Integument ............................... 46-49 Digestive System .......................... 50-72 Respiratory System ........................ 73-75 Urinary System ............................ 76-78
Mitosis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79-91 Embryology .................................. 92


Reproductive System

...................................... 93-94 Eye ...................................... 95-96 Endocrine System ........................ 97-100 Cat Dissection ...........................101-1 13 Fetal Pig Dissection ...................... 1 14-119
Ear
Copyright. @ Thomas G. Rust. 1986 ISBN 0-937029-00-9
'

All rights reserved . No part of this book may be reproduced o r utilized in any form o r by any means. electronic o r mechanical. including photocopying. recording o r by any information storage a n d retrieval system. without permission in writing from t h e author.

Additional copies may be ordered from:

Southwest Educational Enterprises 1071 1 Auldine San Antonio. Texas 78230 (51 2) 342-2297

MITOSIS

----;-

Fig. l a Mitosis in cells of the Whitefish blastula x.s. x430. A blastula is a hollow ball of cells formed by successive mitotic divisions of a zygote (fertilized egg). (See Fig. 92g.)

lb FVophase x1000.

Fig. l c Metaphase x1000.

Fig. Id Anaphase x1000.

Fig. l e Telophase

EPITHELIUM

Fig. 2a Simple squamous epithelium lining Bowman's capsule. Simple cuboidal epithelium in t h e macula densa (kidney) X.S. x430. Also see F i . 4b & 40d.

Fig. 2b Stratified squarnous epithelial cells (human), scraping from t h e lining of the oral cavity w.m. x100.

Fig. 2c Stratified squamous epithelial cells (human), scraping from the lining of the oral cavity w.m. x430.

aas o w ) ' o g ~ x eaqae.13aq? Su!ql 's'x (TPL urn!laql!da ~8umnlo3 pa!Jg~irqsopnasd pa78!~3 pg 'B!d

'ogpx 's-x snS8qdosa aq3 %u!u![ mn!~aq~!da snomenbs pa!j!?eqS qg .S!d

' 0 0 1 ~s x snaeqdosa ' aqa %u!u!l mn!laql!da snomenbs pa!$!ae.13~ e g '

s ~

EPITHELIUM - CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Fg 4a Transitional epithelium from the lining of an i. empty urinary bladder x.s. x430. Surface cells
are usually dome shaped and often binucleate. (Also see Figs. 7& 8r 78d.)

Fig. 4b Simple cuboidal epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney X.S. x430. (Also see Fig. 2a.)

Fig. 4c Reticular fibers in and around the germinal center of a cortical nodule in a lymph node (providing a supporting network) x.s. xlOO (silver stain). (Also see Figs. 5a, 5b, 43a & 43b.)

'OEPX -s-1uopual aq? wroq anssg aA!?aauuoa (asuap) snodq!d pg

-m

( ' ~ E B VEP 'av .sad ass P o w ) 'ogfx 'sxapou q d u ~ A ~ aaInpou ~aa!l-ro~ u! e punode sIIaD JeInayaJ pue sdaqg JreIna!laa qg

-~IJ

'qV 18 eP ' w ' s % ! aas osw) 'ogpx 's'xapou q d a a~u! alnpou ~ ~ea!?doae punom pue u! sdaq!j deIna!laa eg

Fi& 6a

Dense irregular connective tissue in the dermis of skin X.S.x430.

Fig. 6b Adipose tissue

X.S.

xl0.

Fig. 6c Elastic connective tissue in a monkey aorta X.S. x100. (Also see Figs. 40c & 40d.) ,

Fig. 6d Elastic connective tissue in a monkey aorta X.S. x430. (Also seeFigs. 40c & 40d.)

Capsule

matrix

Collagen

m
Fi 8a Fibrocartilage X.S. x430. Fg 8b Fibrocartilage from an intervertebral disc X.S.x200. i.

.*----.. in lacunae
" W J

"-.I

Fig. 8c Elastic cartilage X.S. x100. (Also see Fig. 94c.)

Fg 8d Elastic cartilage X.S. x430. (Also see Fig. 94c.) i.

'0001X 'sx auoq 3mdwos u! (uoagso) ura3s-A~ UR!SJ~ARH

36

'a

'o&px ' S X auoq ~ 3 8 d w 0 3U (suoagso) swa~sksU~!S.I~ARH q .! 6

CONNECTIVE TISSUE - BONE

Fig. 10a Bone marrow and compact bone X.S. x100.

Hemopolet~c tissue

Fig. 10b Bsne n ~ a ~ ~ r o wcompact bone X.S. x430. and

Fig. 10c Attachment site of a tendon to bone x.s. x40.

~ 0 1 *ST ( a w l s )sa3s1) luaudolamp auoq papuoq30pu~ 311 '& x

-0px 's'l (ahas Xysa) aualudolanap auoq ~ ~ ~ p u o q a o p u a1 -%u 81


'00 1x 's'l (a%sls X1)sva) luamdola~apauoq IBapuoqJopua q11

'm

CONNECTIVE TISSUE - BONE

'opx 'sx (~aa81) l n y s ~ aql u! uo!~em.~oj auoq snouelqmauxsrauI ~ ' 511 ! ~ J

'ogpx 'KX (Alma) [[nys aqa u! u o ! ~ e u r ~ o ~ snouejrquxamelJu1 qt.1 'S!d auoq

'opx 'sx (4.rea) llnqs aqa u! UO!~ULUJOJauoq snousaquramelauI

egI . 8 ~

N t ~ u rol)hil w.m. x 1000. Ttrc n u c ~ l t ~ r ~ s t traa n1;lny 1ot)t.s arrd is ~)olynlorptricin tht~sc, cclls. ('ytol)la.sn~icg r a r ~ u I ( arcx f a i ~ r t l y i s ~ t ) l ( ~ . ~s v

Fig. l 3 t )

Fig. 1 4 a

H u m a n hlootl w.ni. ~ 1 0 0 0'Thv c y t o l ~ l a s m the, nc,rltrol)hil . of s t a i n s only I'aintly a n d is clifficult to srr in t his 1)hoto.

Fig. 13c

1,yrnl)hoc.yt c w . m . s 1000. T h c nrlc,lor~\ ~ i s u a l l )t a k v s 11p80 :)Out, 01'thc~(.(lII.

.
Eosinophil w.m. ~ 1 0 0 0 . 'I'tlc. g r ; ~ n u l ( ~ n t hc, is cytopl;~snrwill s t a i n r d . Fig. 13d Fig. 13c H a s o p h i l w.m x 1 0 0 0 . Thcl d a r k g r : ~ n u l c ~ s in the* c.ytoplasn1 will s t a i n a d a r k hlrle~ r nr~rt)lc*. o

1
F ~ KI.+ I

,.*

r ~ ~ . o r r il(y n i p t ~ o c y it( , l ( ~ r ~ k c ~ n rT : ~t.~ , i tr pat ic'rrt dicvi 4 tl;rys ;iI't(.r t h i s s ; ~ r r ~ r ) l ( sW ; I ~

Fig. 14g

M o n o c y t r w.m. ~ 1 0 0 0 . Monoc,ytc,s a r c often 111) t o 2x t trc. size o f o t h e r WTK"s a n d c.onlmonly trav(s :I horse* shot, sh;ipt,tl nuclcus.

F g 14h E r y t h r o c y t e s (live) i.
w.m. x430. The biconcave shape is easily seen.

Blood typing illustration. (This person had type "A" blood.) "A" antibody (typing serum) was added to the drop of blood on the left side and "B" antibody was added to the right. Agglutination occurred on the left side between the "A" antibodies and the "A" antigens on the person's RBC's.

Fig. 14i

SKE1,E:'I'AL SYSTEM

Fig. 16a Rr lfih Human skull. A c'oronal s u t u r e H Coronoid process C Kthmoid I ) Kxternal acoustic, ~nc'atus I< Frontal F Sphenoid ( 1,acrirnal
-

H I .I K I. M h '

Mandible Mandibular rondyle Mandibular (Glenoid) fossa Maxilla Mastoid process Nasal Parirt :t1

C) Squamosal suturcL
-

1'
-

St yloid proccss

Q Superior orhital lissr~re

R Tvmporal S Zygomat ic ( Malwr ) T Zygornat ic procc,ss of ten~y)or;~l

SKELETAL SYSTEM
18

SKELETAL SYSTEM

20

1Dens

l ndnqtoid

L
foramen
Transverac process

process

Superior

Fig. 20a Cervical vertebrae: A-Atlas, B-Axis, C-typical cervical vertebra, inferior surface, D-typical cervical vertebra, superior surface. (The two small holes in the body held wires in the articulated skeleton.)

'

Inferior

--ticula~ facet

1
Dmi-facet f o r head of r i b

,emi-facet f o r head of r i b

1Transverse process

articular

1Vertebral
foramen

. r t i c u l a r facet

Fig. 20b Thoracic vertebrae: A-lateral surface, B-inferior surface, C-superior surface.

& x u arr or-

articular face1

nd phalar Im"" -'

process

I3rdI dphalanx istan

Fig. 21b

Left hand, dorsal aspect.

li.9 '..
malleolus

i . l r .
Fig. 21c S e c t i o ~ ~ r u U I ~ ~ ~ I I I LFILLUI.

Fig. 21d

Right foot, dorsal aspect.

SKELETAL SYSTEM

22

a d i a1

Fnoid
avitv

ossa

1( internal)l e- ~ ~i o n d v c
-X.u*~*

Superior

I(lateral

Head

11nf erior angl


. . -

Fig. 22a Scapula.

Fig. 22b Right elbow region, articulated, anterior view.

Less

t-,ilCero

Fig. 22c Right shoulder region.

F I ~zza .

~ ~ g elbow region, aisart~culated. h t

uperior

Fig. 23a Right elbow region, posterior.

Fig. 23c Right knee region, anterior.

i l i a c crest

Ilium

r'lg. z4a Male pelvis, anterior view. (Coccyx missing o n t h ~ specimen.) s

r'lg. Z 4 D YelvIs, posterlor mew. Anterior superior spine

. i n f Arnitoerr i so r~ i n t 1 e

schial spine Fosterior superior spine


Fig. 24c Female pelvis, anterior view. Notice the flared crest of the ilium, and the larger opening in the center of the pelvis.

1i n f e r i o r s ~ i n l
Fig. 24d 0 s Coxa.

MUSCLE TISSUE
26

I:,

'opx 's'x uo!l8ue8 ~ O O J ~ssrop pus p ~ o ~su!ds qf3Z 3!,4 J

' i r

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Fg 30a Motor neurons in gray matter of spinal cord x.s. x430. (See Fig. 29b.) i.

Fig. 30b Dorsal root ganglion X.S.x430. (See Fig. 29b.)

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cn
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a Ld ' a a'

a '

r n

C f n
"

8"

EE * a'

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Sii

NERVOUS SYSTEM

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Fig. 33a Myelmated nerve fiber, teased w.m. x430.

Fi. 33c Pacinian corpuscle in thick skin

X.S. x40. Pacinian corpuscles are also present in viscera.

Fig. 33d Pacinian corpuscle X.S. x100. This receptor is sensitive to pressure.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

34

- -

rmal

papillae

Fig. 34b Meissner's corpuscle 1.s. x430. (Also see Fig. 47c.)

)If ory bull act

P I '
Optic tract varolii

Inerve

iriuumsvs-y

t YT I

Spinal cord

6
Fig. 34d Sheep brain, ventral view.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

' 0 0 1 ~ (usmnq) xa1.103 lolqala3 'sx

3 ~ .%M g

' 0 0 1 ~ (usmnq) x w o 3 lsrqala=) s ~ 'Q 'sx g

NERVOUS SYSTEM

38

(la) From

( 4a) Toright lung

(40)

Toleft lung

From l e f t

body

Fig. 39a Diagram of human heart circulation. (Use the numbers and follow the path of circulation through the heart.)

Fig. 39b Sheep heart dissection 1.s. x l .

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
anterior)
LnnOPLDBS art ibry

40

arteries-

veiris

v eRight l e ntric

Fig. 40a Sheep heart, ventral view.

Fig. 40b Sheep heart, dorso-lateral view.

k:yv-

Lumen

~ternal elastic membrane


I (laminae)
2i

I
I
Fig. 40c Aorta (elastic artery) wall X.S.x100.

E itic l membranes

Fig. 4Od Aorta (elastic a r t e r y ) wall X.S. x430. The elasticity enables the artery to withstand the higher blood pressures coming directly from t h e ventricle. The endothelium is simple squamous epithelium.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - LYMPHATIC ORG

LYMPHATIC ORGANS

nermlnal

cente-

Fig. 42a Lymph node x.s. x40.

Germinal cente-

Fig. 42b Lymph node, cortex x.s. x100.

Fig. 42c

Lymph node, detail of cortical nodule and peripheral zone X.S. x430.

LYMPHATIC ORGANS

vtes

'"""I

Fig. 44b Spleen (dog)


I

X.S.

x40.

l m ~ h a t l c heath) s

T
artery

Fig. 44d Spleen (human) x.s. x100.

INTEGUMENT

46

gland

Fig. 46b Skin and hair 1.s. x100. The Arrector pili muscle "erects" the hair in animals for insulation against cold and/or to appear larger during fights. In humans, the erected hair produces a fold of skin in front of it - the "goose bump."

Fig. 46c Thin akin, layers of the epidermis X.S. x430.

t-y!!;,,:. .
I .

+, ?%
\

: $3; . .
.'
<+

-A&--8

4. t
--.
F

t,. .-,..:. 7
.

I d 3 . ' .

1,

-.-

,.

,Y: !

- . - .: .
J
5
-+

,
,

r -

Fig. 4%

Hair follicle, tangential section x430.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Fig. 50b Tongue (monkey), fungiform papilla 1.s. x40. Fungiform papillae often contain taste buds on the surface.

Fig. 50a Tongue (monkey), Niform papillae 1.8. x100.

Fig. 50c Tongue (monkey), circumvallate papilla 1.s. x40.

ib. ,

..

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

a a ann I - T ~ A ~ T ~ s

(P@3UTd?E]

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Serous glands (acini 1

Connective
tisane

Salivary ducts

Fig. 54a Parotid gland (cat) x.s. x100. Notice that the acini are all serous (protein producing). The acini produce the enzyme salivary amylase and other proteins.

Serous I ( a c i ngland us)

Fig. 54b Parotid gland (cat) X.S. x430.

Fig. 54c Parotid gland x.s. x430. (Special stain used to show the secretory granules which produce the digestive enzyme salivary amylase.)

( 3 9 ' b osw) .paqm?a~ ' 9 2 ass aunnurap snoias aql q q snup8 sno3nur aql a3!-+o~ ~ 'OEPX 's'x (mwnq) pus@ mpq!pu~wqng qgg . 8 ~

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

56

Fig. 56a Sublingual gland x.s. x100. The sublingual gland consists mostly of mucous acini. Compare with the submandibular (Fig. 56a) and the parotid (Fig. 5 4 a )

Fig. 56b Sublingual gland x.s. x430.

Mixed secretory uni e pa.",., d a n d x.s. x1000. Note the sei , demilune attached to the mucous acinus. (Also see r'lg. 55b.) The myoepithelial (basket) cells are contractile and help move the secretions into the ducts.

Fig.., c ,

...

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

-I

Circular muscle (skelec-l '

'm g i tudinal .--1sclelayer (skeletal)

Fig. 68a Upper esophagus x.s. x40.

Ftg. 68b Lower esophagus

X.S. x40. Notice that the outer muscle layers in the upper esophagus contain skeletal (voluntary) muscle, while in the lower esophagus these layers are smooth (involuntary). This allows you to initiate swallowing voluntarily and then allow the lower esophagus to take over and fmish the job without further effort on your part by involuntary peristalsis.

--

I)IGESTIVE SYSTEM
60

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

62

intestinal glands

Fig. 62a Junction of the stomach and duodenum 1.s. x40.Notice the abrupt change from gastric to duodenal mucosa and the sudden appearance of Brunner's glands in the submucosa.

Brunner s
f*l anrils

Fig. 62b Duodenum X.S. x40. Brunner's glands are found only in the duodenum and produce mucus (a protection against ulceration) and alkaline secretions (to neutralize the acidic bolus from the stomach).

63

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Fig. 63a Duodenum X.S. x40. Cells at the base of the intestinal glands divide frequently to form cells that migrate up the villi to replace exfoliated surface cells.

Fig. 63c Jejunum x.s. x40. The plica circulares is a large

Fig. 63d

Villus 1.s. x430.

fold of mucosa.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

'OPX 'S'X

UO[03 399

'ad

-001x 's.x qpuadds mJofiiaA qgg 'ad

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

I nodule

Lymphoidl

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

p$!Y:

I"""
propr~a

Fig. 68b Anal canal X.S. x430.

entral
& bile d u c t )

Fig. 70a Liver (pig) x.s. x 100.

Fig. 70b Liver,center of lobule x.s. x430.

Fg 70c Liver, portal triad (artery, vein &bile duct) x.s. x430. i.

Fig. 70d Liver, bile canaliculi x.s. x430. Special staining technique used to illustrate the canaliculi.

acini

rn

Langerhans produce several hormones including insulin.

73

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Suetentacular

Fig. 73a O f c o y mucosa x.s. x100. latr

Fig. 73b Trachea and esophagus X.S. x40.

F'ig. 73c Tracheal wall(monkey) xs. x100.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Goblet

Ciliated

Fig. 74a Trachea, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells 1,s. x430. These cells are found lining the respiratory passages (mucous membranes of nose, trachea and bronchii). The goblet cells produce mucus which catches dirt particles and the cilia beat and drive the dirt-laden mucus to the back of the throat where it is swallowed. Smolung paralyzes these cilia. The smoker must then cough to remove the mucus in his lung passages.

kelet

nuscle

-...
F'ig. 74c

Diaphragm X.S. x1W.

URINARY SYSTEM

76

I(region)

ILA
L -

URINARY SYSTEM

78

REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM

82

w w a s aql jo %og lnoqe dn sayreux pue (uraads aql saqsynou qa!qfi) asoaany u qa!a p!nU au!lreyp ya!q3 B saanpord a ~ a ! s a ~ ! pu!uras a u - 0 0 1 'sx ala!san pu!urag q ~ w

-a

REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM
84

REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM
86

REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM

Fig. 88d Uterus, endometrium x.s. x100. Proliferative phase. Notice t h a t t h e uterine glands are relatively straight.

Fig. 88c Uterus, endometrium x.s. x40. Menstrual phase, 1st - 5th day. The entire stratum functionalis degenerates and is shed. The stratum basalis will give rise to the new stratum functionalis in the next cycle.

Fig. 88e Uterus, endometrium X.S. x100. Secretory phase. Notice how the uterine glands are highly coiled and have a sawtooth app e a r a n c e . T h e s e c r e t i o n is high in glycogen.

REPRODUCTORY SYSTEM

arteries IUmbilicalj

Fig. 90c Umbilical cord X.S. x40.

Fig. 921 Gastrula w.m.x100.

Fg92m i.

Bipinnaria larva of starfish w.m. x100.

.IX Y-YS e J O ae11nduIe p u e s~susa ~elnar!a!u~agpee .@,g

-001-x a l q ~ o ~ s ,aql jo sum? aql jo auo q 8 n o ~ q l uo!qDas s s o ~ 3 qg6 P!J

EYE

Fig. 98b Pineal gland 1.s. x40.The amount of brain sand increases with age.

ENDOCRINE GLANDS
100

CAT

Fig. 102a Superficial muscles of the shoulder and back.

I
Em

Fig. 102b Superficial neck and jaw muscles.

~ a 3 e p p!paw 'sapsnw wae aaddn daaa 9601'Bu s

.amjans ~tapaw 'sal3snur ma= aaddn ppgaadns 8601 'SU

CAT

fizcensor carpi (radialis longus

1 Radial 1nerve J
L

Fig. 104a Muscles of the forearm, medial surface.

IBrachialls 1

Extensor carpi radialis

~adiall nerve

t r i c e p s , cut
Fig. 104b Muscles of the forearm, lateral surface.

'Map p~a?81 '@!q7 aq?d sapsnur daaa 9901 '%M o

ill-

Sartorius 1

rn

Fig. 106a Superficial muscles of the thigh, medial view.

107

CAT

Fig. 107a Muscles of the lower leg, lateral view.

Fig. 107b Muscles of the lower leg, medial view.

CAT

Fig. lO8b Deep muscles of the chest and scapula, medial surface.

CAT

E"el
0 k d Q) k*

asp
ad'
91
C &3
Q,

Q,

CAT

Fig. 116 Fetal pig, ventral view. (Dissection courtesy of Stephen Davenport.)

Fig. 118a Veins of the thoracic and neck regions. (Photo courtesy of Stephen Davenport.)

Fig. 118b Veins of the abdomen.

cnr

.-\,

Ind
Axons ............28,31.33.37. 47 Azygous vein ..................111 Cartilage (hyaline) .............. 7 Cartilage ...............7.8.11. 12 Cartilage (fibrous)............... 8 Cat dissection ............ 101-1 13 Caudal artery. ................ 110 Caudal vena cava ........ 115. 118 Caudofemoralis........ ..... 105 . Cavernous sinuses ............ 84 Celiac artery .................. 110 Cell membrane ............. 1.2. 6 Cells of Leydig ............. .79. 80 Cementum .................... 52 Central arteries (penis)......... 84 Central artery (spleen).......... 44 Central canal .................. 29 Central vein ............... .69. 70 Centriole ........................1 Cephalic vein................. 118 Cerebellum ............. 34.35. 38 Cerebral cortex ............ .36. 37 Cerebrum (human)............. 36 Cerebrum ................. .34. 35 Cervical vertebrae ...... .15.19. 20 Chief (principal)cells ........... 99 Chief cells ................. .60. 61 Chondrocyte.............. .7.8. 73 Chordae tendinae ............. 39 Chorion .......................90 Choroid layer .............. .95. 96 Chromophobes ................ 98 Chromosomes ...................1 Cilia .................... 3.73. 74 Ciliary muscle ............. .95. 96 Ciliary process................. 96 Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium ...... 3.73. 74 Circular furrow ................. 50 Circular muscle bundles ....... 78 Circular muscle fibers.......... 87 Circular muscle............ 57.58. 60-62.65-67 . . Circular smooth muscle ....... .59, 64.89. 91 Circumvallate papillae ......... 50 Clavicle .................15.19. 22 Clavobrachialis........... 102-104 Clavotrapezius ............... 102 Coccyx ................. .15.19. 24 Cochlea ............. .. .93. 94 Cochlear duct ................. 93 Cochlear nerve ................ 93 Coeliac artery ............ 115-117 Collagen fibers .............5.6. 8 Collecting tubules ......... .76. 77 Colloid (thyroid fallicles) ........ 99 Colloid in vesicle .............. 97 Colon .............65.66.109.110. 113.114.116. 119 Columnar (glandular) epithelium ................... 66 Common carotid artery .... 116-118 Common iliac vein ........ 111. 118 Compact bone ........... .9.10. 21 96 Cones ...................... Connective tissue papilla ....... 89 Connective tissue sheath ....... 48 Coracobrachialis ............. 108 Coracoid process. ............. 22 Cornea ..................... 95. 96 Corneal epithelium......... .95. 96 Cornified epithelium ........... 50 Cornu ......................... 19 Corona radiata ................ 86 Coronal suture.............. 16. 17 Coronoid fossa ................ 22 Coronoid process .............. 16 Corpora arenacea ............. 98 Corpora quadrigemina ..... .34. 35 Corpus albicans ............... 86 Corpus callosum............... 35 Corpus cavamosa urethrae .... 84 Corpus cavernosa ............. 84 Corpus luteum............. .85. 86 Corpus spongiosum............ 84 Cortex (hair) ................... 48 Cortex (kidney) ................ 76 Cortex (lymph node)........ .41. 42 Cortex (thymus)................ 45 Cortical labryinth .............. 77 Cortical lymphatic nodules .................. 41-43 Corticle nodule ................. 5 Costal cartilage ............. 15. 19 Costocervical artery........... 110 Cribriform plate ................ 18 Crista ampullaris .............. 94 Crista galli..................... 18 Crown ......................... 53 Crus of penis ................. 112 Crypts (seminal vesicle) ........ 83 Crypts of Lieberkuhn ....... . 62-68 Cuboid ........................ 21 Cuboidal epithelium ........... 99 Cumulus oophorous ....... .85. 86 Cuneiforms.................... 21 Cupula ........................ 94 Cuticle ........................ 48 1 Cytoplasm .......................

B
Basal cells (ductusdeferens) ... 82 Basal cells (epididymis) ........ 81 Basal cells (sebaceous gland) . . 49 Basal layer .................... 46 Basement membrane .......73. 80 Basilar membrane ............. 93 Basket cell nuclei .............. 38 Basket cell .................... 56 Basophil ...................... 14 Basophils ..................... 98 Biceps brachii ........... .103. 108 Biceps femoris ................ 105 Bicuspid valve .................39 Bicuspid ...................... 18 Bifid spine ..................... 20 Bile canaliculi ................. 70 Bile duct .................. .69. 70 Bipinnaria ..................... 92 Bipolar neurons ................ 96 Blastula ..................... 1. 92 Blind spot ................. .95. 96 Blood sinusoid................. 10 Blood typing .................... 14 Blood ......................... 14 Bone collar ..................... 11 Bone marrow cavity. primitive ....11 Bone marrow .................. 10 Bone (primitive)................ 13 Bone ........................ 9-12 Bowman's capsule ....... 2.77. 78 Bowman's glands ..............73 Bowman's space ..............78 Brachial artery ............ 110. 117 Brachial vein ............. 111. 118 Brachialis .................... 104 Brachiocephalic artery .... 110. 116 Brachiocephalictrunk ......... 117 Brachiocephalic vein........... 111 Brachioradialis ............... 104 Brain (human) ................. 35 Brain (sheep) .............. .34. 35 Brain sand ....................98 Breast .............. ...... 91 Broad ligament ................ 87 Bronchiole ..................... 75 Bronchus ...................... 75 Brunner's glands ........... .62. 63 Bulb .......................... 46 Bulbourethral gland ....... 112. 119

D
Deep circumflex artery ........ 117 Deep femoral artery ....... 110. 117 Demi-facet .................... 20 Demilune ...................55. 56 Dendrites............... 28.30. 37 Dens .......................... 20 Dense connective tissue ........ 5 Dense irregular connective tissue ........................ 6 Dental papilla ................. 51 Dentin ...................... 51-53 Dermal papillae ........ 34.47. 48 Dermal tissue sheath .......... 48 Dermis ............6.13.33.46-49. 84. 94 Descending convoluted tubules ......................77 Developing tooth........... .51. 53 Diaphragm ........... .74.109. 115 Diaphysis ..................... 12 Digastric ..................... 102 Distal collectingtubules .... . 76-78 Distal convoluted tubules ................ 4.77. 78 Dome-shaped cells ............ 78 Dorsal (posterior)root .......... 29 Dorsal artery .................. 84 Dorsal root ganglion ....... .29. 30 Dorsal vein .................... 84 Dorsum sella .................. 18 Ductus arteriosus............. 116 Ductus deferens ... .79.81.112. 119 Ductus epididymis ............. 81 Duodenum ................ .62. 63

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C
Calcaneous ................... 21 Calcified matrix .................11 Canaliculi ...................... 9 Canine teeth ...................18 Capillary ......................27 Capitate.......................21 Capitulum .....................22 ............. 100 Capsule (adrenal) Capsule (chondrocyte) ........7. 8 Capsule (hypophysis) .......... 97 Capsule (kidney)...............77 Capsule (lymph node)...... .41. 42 Capsule (parotid) ..............53 Capsule (pineal gland) ......... 98 Capsule (thyroid) ..............99 Cardiac glands ................59 Cardiac muscle................ 25 Cardiac stomach .............. 59 Carotid canal ..................18 Carpals .......................15 Carpus ........................21 Cartilage (elastic) ............8. 94

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E
Ear (external)..................94 Efferent lymphatic vessels ...... 41 Egg ........................... 92 Elastic artery ..................40 Elastic cartilage .............8. 94 Elastic connective tissue ........ 6 Elastic fibers .................5. 8 Elastic laminae ................. 6 Elastic membranes ............40