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AQUAPONICS

BY M.NANDINI S. SARANYA B.E. (AIE) ANNA UNIVERSITY

11/13/2010

CONTENTS
              

INTRODUCTION BASICS HISTORY WORKING SYSTEM DESIGN PLANT GROWTH REQUIREMENTS NUTRIENT DYNAMICS WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL METHODS OF AQUAPONICS DAY TO DAY OPERATION FISHES AND PLANTS GROWN ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION REFERENCES

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INTRODUCTION
Aquaponics is the integration of Hydroponics and Aquaculture This bio-integrated food production system involves the symbiotic cultivation of plants and animals in a recirculating environment

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BASICS
 Aquaculture

is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish for food, ornamental purpose, for feed ingredients and aquatic plants  Hydroponics means cultivation of plants in a nutrient rich solution rather than in soil

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Contd
In Aquaponics, nutrient rich effluent from the fish tanks is used to fertilize hydroponic production beds In turn the Hydroponic beds function as a biofilter, stripping off ammonia, nitrates, nitrites. Thus the clean water is recirculated back into the fish tanks

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WORKING
The basic principle of aquaponics is to put waste to use. Here is the step-by-step process Fish living in aquaponic tanks excrete waste and respirate ammonia into water Ammonia is toxic to fish in high concentrations, so it has to be removed from the fish tanks Ammonia-laden water is processed with helpful types of bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) which converts ammonia into nitrate and this is used as plant fertilizer
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Contd
The roots of the plants absorb nitrates, which act as nutrient-rich plant food These nitrates, which come from fish manure, algae and decomposing fish feed, would otherwise build up to toxic levels in the fish tanks and kill the fish But instead, they serve as fertilizer for the plants. As the plants consume the nutrients, the water is purified

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Contd
Aquaponics is the ideal answer to a fish farmer s problem of disposing of nutrient rich water and Hydroponic growers need for nutrient rich water

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Aquaponic system
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PLANT GROWTH REQUIREMENTS


For maximum growth, plants in aquaponic systems require essential nutrients like carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus Maintaining high DO levels in the culture water increases root respiration, root growth and transpiration Climatic factors-Production is best in regions with maximum intensity and daily duration of light Optimum water temperature-24C Protection from strong winds in outdoor aquaponic systems
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NUTRIENT DYNAMICS
Normally TDS of 200 to 400 ppm or EC of 0.3 to 0.6 mmho/cm will produce good results since nutrients are generated continuously Nitrate is the predominant nutrient in aquaponic systems High nitrate levels promote vegetative growth but inhibit fruiting. Nitrate levels can be controlled by regulating the cleaning frequency of the filter tanks
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WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS


Critical water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, pH, chlorine, etc. Changes in water quality are due to -Stocking density of fish -Growth rate of fish -Feeding rate and volume and -Related environmental fluctuations
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PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL


Pesticides should not be used to control insects in plants Therapeutants should not be used for fish parasites and diseases Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management must be used These include  Biological control methods(resistant cultivars, pathogens antagonistic organisms)  Traps and  Manipulation of the physical environment
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Contd
Parasitic wasps and lady bugs can be used to control white flies and aphids Caterpillars are effectively controlled by spraying with bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterial pathogen specific to caterpillars Fungal root pathogen (pythium) encountered in summer dissipate in winter in response to lower water temperature
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METHODS OF AQUAPONICS
 There are different configurations of aquaponic systems  The common components are fish tank and plant bed  The variables include filtration and plumbing components, the type of plant bed, amount and frequency of water circulation and aeration  Three methods of aquaponics are  Nutrient Film Technique  Media filled bed  Raft culture
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Nutrient Film Technique, Media filled bed (barrel and rectangular type) and Raft culture
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Nutrient Film Technique


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Media Filled Bed


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Raft culture

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DAY TO DAY OPERATION


An aquaponic system is not difficult to maintain but there are daily and periodic tasks that must be done to ensure a healthy system Fish feeding Plant seeding and harvesting Observation and monitoring Fish harvesting Water quality testing Cleaning filters and system
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Plant seeding and harvesting

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RECOMMENDED FISHES AND PLANTS GROWN IN AQUAPONICS


FISHES GROWN Generally warm, fresh water fishes which can tolerate crowding will do well in aquaponic systems Tilapia is the fish species most commonly cultured Cat fish, largemouth bass, asian sea bass, rainbow trout, common carp, koi carp, silver perch, golden perch, yellow perch, murray cod, ornamental fishes like angel fish, guppies, swordfish, and mollies One species reported to perform poorly is hybrid striped bass 11/13/2010

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Contd
PLANTS GROWN Plants that do well in any aquaponic system depend on the density of the fish tanks and the nutrient content of the fish waste Leafy greens and herbs such as lettuce, spinach, basil and mint are best to cultivate Vegetables like bell peppers, beans, peas, cucumbers and tomatoes can also be cultivated Plants that do not respond well are potatoes and carrots. Without soil, these crops are hard to harvest
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ADVANTAGES
Reduces usage of water (<1% of the water used for traditional farming) Reduced fertilizer and eliminates the pesticide use Reduces erosion by eliminating the need to plough the soil Uses 70% less energy than traditional farming

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Contd
Eight to ten times more vegetable production than farming in the soil Reduced running costs Production in arid regions and on water limited farms, since it is a water re use system Crops are less susceptible to attack from soil borne diseases The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products
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DISADVANTAGES
Initial expense for housing, tank, plumbing, pumps and grow beds Some installations rely on technology and environmental control to achieve recirculation and water temperature Pipe blockage and electrical failure leads to the failure of the system

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CONCLUSION
Aquaponics is a working model of sustainable food production Ecological interaction between the fish, plants and their environment are studied in this system Produces safe organic food year round As this conserves priceless water resource, Aquaponics will be one of the major methods of food production in the coming centuries
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REFERENCES
o James E. Rakocy, Michael P. Masser and Thomas M. Losordo (November 2006), Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Aquaponics Integrating Fish and Plant Culture , report published by Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC Publication no. 454). o John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate (2003), Aquaculture and Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, Blackwell publishing company, pg. 155-157. o Nelson,R.L.and John S. Pade (1985), Aquaponic Food Production- raising fish and plants for food and profit, pg. 27-28, 93-95, 109-114.
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Contd
Raymon Van Anrooy (2001) Marketing Opportunities for Aquaculture products in the lesser antilles report published by Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Steve Diver (2005), Aquaponics Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture , a publication of ATTRA. www.attra.ncat.org

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Contd
WEBSITES 1.www.aquaponics.eu/aquaponics.htm updated on Sep 15th 2009 2.www.aquaponics.com updated on Aug 27th 2009 3.www.aquaponicsjournal.com/articleEvolution.htm updated on Jul 9th 2009 4.www.backyardaquaponics.com/further%20information.htm updated on Aug 2nd 2009 5.www.eponline.com/articles/65636/ updated on Sep 23rd 2009 6.www.compostguy.com/aquaponics-resource-page/ updated on Jul 7th 2009

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Contd
7. www.cropking.com/aqua.shtml updated on Aug 18th 2009 8.www.fao.org/docrep/006/y492ie/x4921e07.htm updated on Jul 4th 2009 9.www.friendlyaquaponics.com/index.html updated on Sep 28th 2009 10. www.greenfest.comau/node/317 updated on Jul 21st 2009 11.www.treehugger.com/files/200712/aquaponics-the.php updated on Aug 12th 2009

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THANK YOU

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