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Nutrition Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in

the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. While government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician", the field is supported by many high-level academic programs, up to and including the Doctoral level, and has its own voluntary certification board. Professional associations, and peer-reviewed journals, e.g. the American Society for Nutrition and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics, the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways: the sequences of biochemical steps through which substances in living things change from one form to another. Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions being at varying levels in particular foods. Carnivores consume more nitrogen than carbon while herbivores consume less nitrogen than carbon, when an equal quantity is measured. The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat.

The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream to feed the cells of the body. Except in the unborn fetus, the digestive system is the first system involved. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the lumen of the digestive tract. These digestive juices break chemical bonds in ingested molecules, and modulate their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods. Unabsorbed matter, along with some waste products of metabolism, is eliminated from the body in the feces. Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all material excreted and eliminated from the body (in urine and feces). Comparing the food to the waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed and metabolized in the body. The effects of nutrients may only be discernible over an extended period, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. The number of variables involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still slowly evolving. In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven favorable for one's health compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods. In particular, the consumption of whole-plant foods slows digestion and allows better absorption, and a more favorable balance of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar. Regularly scheduled meals (every few hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent or haphazard ones, although a recent study has also linked more frequent meals with a higher risk of colon cancer in men. Types of Nutrients There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats, fiber, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram. though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class of dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material

such as cellulose), is also required. for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact reasons remain unclear. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogencontaining amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation. Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins. Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water(both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates were believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-sugar levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. This, however, is not accurate. Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) are digested very slowly, while many complex carbohydrates are digested at essentially the same rate as simple.

Fat A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation. There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. Saturated fats (typically from animal sources) have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature (such as butter or lard), while unsaturated fats are typically liquids (such as olive oil or flaxseed oil). Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance. Protein Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair). They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair). The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance). As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds). About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance). A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

It is possible to combine two incomplete protein sources (e.g. rice and beans) to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions. Sources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis. The amino acids remaining after such conversion are discarded. Minerals Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources (such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells). Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter. Macrominerals Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day are, in alphabetical order (with informal or folk-medicine perspectives in parentheses):

Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally (for muscle and digestive system health,

bone strength, some forms neutralize acidity, may help clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions)

Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health) Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed

increases flexibility, increases alkalinity)

in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt. Excessive sodium consumption can deplete calcium and magnesium, leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.

Sulfur, for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins (skin, hair, nails, liver, and

pancreas). Sulfur is not consumed alone, but in the form of sulfur-containing amino acids

Trace minerals Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are, in alphabetical order:

Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes. Animals cannot biosynthesize Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase Chromium required for sugar metabolism Iodine required not only for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, but probably, for other important organs as

B12, and must obtain this cobalt-containing vitamin in the diet

breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc. (see Extrathyroidal iodine); for this reason iodine is needed in larger quantities than others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals

Iron required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins Manganese (processing of oxygen) Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases Nickel present in urease Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) Vanadium (Speculative: there is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and

has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is required for some lower organisms.)

carbonic anhydrase Vitamins As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: it can be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of UVB radiation.) Certain vitamin-like compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine, are thought useful for survival and health, but these are not "essential" dietary nutrients because the human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds. Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which may have desirable properties including antioxidant activity (see below); however, experimental demonstration has been suggestive but inconclusive. Other essential nutrients that are not classified as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids (see above), and the minerals discussed in the preceding section. Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.[27] Excess levels of some vitamins are also dangerous to health (notably vitamin A), and for at least one vitamin, B6, toxicity begins at

levels not far above the required amount. Deficient or excess levels of minerals can also have serious health consequences Water Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces, sweating, and by water vapour in the exhaled breath. Therefore it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 68 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.However the notion that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced to a credible scientific source. The original water intake recommendation in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods." More recent comparisons of well-known recommendations on fluid intake have revealed large discrepancies in the volumes of water we need to consume for good health. Therefore, to help standardize guidelines, recommendations for water consumption are included in two recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) documents (2010): (i) Food-based dietary guidelines and (ii) Dietary reference values for water or adequate daily intakes (ADI).[32] These specifications were provided by calculating adequate intakes from measured intakes in populations of individuals with desirable osmolarity values of urine and desirable water volumes per energy unit consumed. For healthy hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2.0 L/day for adult females and 2.5 L/day for adult males. The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity. Pregnant and breastfeeding women require additional fluids to stay hydrated. The EFSA panel proposes that pregnant women should consume the same volume of water as non-pregnant women, plus an increase in proportion to the higher energy requirement, equal to 300 mL/day. To compensate for additional fluid output, breastfeeding women require an additional 700 mL/day above the recommended intake values for non-lactating women. For those who have healthy kidneys, it is somewhat difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. While overhydration is much less common than dehydration, it is also possible to drink far more water than necessary which can result in water intoxication, a serious and potentially fatal condition. In particular, large amounts of de-ionized water are dangerous.

Nutrients Macronutrients Calories Simple carbohydrates


Excess Obesity, diabetes mellitus, Obesity, disease

Starvation, Marasmus none

Cardiovascular disease diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular disease Obesity, Cardiovascular

Complex carbohydrates micronutrient deficiency Protein Saturated fat Trans fat Unsaturated fat Micronutrients Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Niacin Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Omega 3 Fats Omega 6 Fats Cholesterol Macrominerals kwashiorkor none none fat-soluble deficiency

(high glycemic index foods) Rabbit starvation, Ketoacidosis (in diabetics) Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease


Obesity, Cardiovascular disease

Xerophthalmia and Night Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair Blindness Beri-Beri Skin and Corneal Lesions Pellagra Pernicious Anemia Scurvy Rickets neurological disease Hemorrhage Bleeding, Cardiovascular Disease none none Osteoporosis, Hemorrhagic Hemorrhages, stroke, reduced loss)

dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects diarrhea causing dehydration Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation) Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)

glycemic control among diabetics Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer Cardiovascular Disease tetany, Fatigue, spasm, nausea, depression, vomiting, increased confusion, constipation, urination, vomiting,


carpopedal laryngospasm, arrhythmias

cardiac pancreatitis,

Magnesium Potassium

Hypertension Hypokalemia, cardiac

kidney stones Weakness, nausea,

impaired breathing, and hypotension Hyperkalemia, palpitations

Other nutrients Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals. These substances are generally more recent discoveries that have not yet been recognized as vitamins or as required. Phytochemicals may act as antioxidants, but not all phytochemicals are antioxidants. Malnutrition Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. Although there are more organisms in the world who are malnourished due to insufficient consumption, increasingly more organisms suffer from excessive over-nutrition; a problem caused by an over abundance of sustenance coupled with the instinctual desire (by animals in particular) to consume all that it can. Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can, paradoxically, lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis,[56] and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan

argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today. Good Nutrition & its Effects on Blood Glucose Food is the fuel and energy source for our bodies. Food cannot be used for energy until the body changes it into a simple sugar called glucose. Our blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to every cell throughout the body. Without glucose, cells do not have the energy to work. Glucose needs help to get inside each of the cells in our body. The helper that carries glucose inside the cells is called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. For a person with diabetes, food is changed into glucose just as it is in those without diabetes. For those with Type I Diabetes, however, the body does not generate a sufficient amount of insulin to control the glucose level. For those with Type II Diabetes, the body does not respond correctly to insulin (insulin resistance), and does not allow it to carry glucose into the cells. In both cases, the glucose that is not able to get into the cells builds up in the blood. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to diabetic complications. Good nutrition entails eating a variety of different foods in combinations that provide both necessary nutrients and good blood sugar control. Good nutrition also means limiting your fat and cholesterol intake. Food contains nutrients and energy. The nutrients in our food supply form the building blocks of the body. Food also contains energy, which is measured in calories. Calories come from carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol. Good nutrition means getting the calories we need for energy and the nutrients we need for proper growth. Variety, balance, and moderation are keys to good nutrition. When young children are given a balanced variety of healthy foods, with moderate amounts of fat, sugar, and salt, they are learning good nutrition habits that can help lower the risk of overweight, heart disease, and even diabetes. How much should we eat? Logically, the key to maintaining your weight is watching the amount of food you eat. For good diabetes control, you must be consistent from day to day. Plan your day to be sure that you eat the right foods, in the right portions, at about the same times every day. Here are several examples of what constitutes a serving size: 1 slice of bread 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal 1/2 cup cooked rice or pasta

1 cup of raw, leafy vegetables 1/2 cup of non-leafy vegetables 1 medium apple 1/2 cup of cooked/canned fruit 1/2 cup of fruit juice 1 cup of milk or yogurt 1.5 ounces of natural cheese 2 ounces of processed cheese 2-3 ounces of cooked meat, poultry, or fish In addition to eating healthily, it is crucial to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water. Start your day out with an eight-ounce glass of water, and continue to drink water throughout the day. Water dilutes the blood and therefore has some degree of influence on lowering your blood sugars. Family Flavonoids Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) Isothiocyanates Monoterpenes Organosulfur compounds Saponins Capsaicinoids Sources Berries, herbs, Possible benefits vegetables, General antioxidant, oxidation of LDLs, prevention of arteriosclerosis and heart disease General antioxidant, prevention of arteriosclerosis and heart disease, easing symptoms of menopause, cancer prevention [42] cancer prevention

wine, grapes, tea Soy, red clover, kudzu root Cruciferous vegetables Citrus peels, essential oils, atmosphere[43] Chives, garlic, onions Beans, cereals, herbs All capiscum (chile) peppers

herbs, spices, green plants, Cancer prevention, treating gallstones cancer prevention, lowered LDLs, assistance to the immune system Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Antioxidant, cancer prevention, Anti-inflammatory Topical pain relief, cancer prevention, cancer cell apoptosis

DIET DURING PREGNANCY There are many foods and drinks which are consumed by pregnant women to support their pregnancy. From many foods and drinks which can be chosen as options of diet for pregnant women, orange juice is one gift of

nature which is safe to be consumed by pregnant women, of course in the right portion and dose. It has some nutritional which can be found by only juicing this round-shaped fruit. Vitamin C is one nutritional which can be found inside the orange juice. It is not only functioned as antioxidant which can keep the body of the mother stay in a good condition, it is also a source of ferrum which is important for pregnant women. It contains ocidium folicum, which can lower the risk of getting spine and brain diseases for the baby. It contains calcium which is good for the growth of the fetus. Besides vitamin C, it also contains vitamin B6 which is important to produce hemoglobin which has function to deliver oxygen to the whole part of the body of the mother and the baby. The last is that it contains magnesium which is able to produce energy for the mother. Pregnant women are suggested to consume orange juice a glass every day. It will be better if they consume a home-made orange juice than the instant/packaged orange juice, because it does not contain any preservatives which can harm the health of the mother and the health of the baby if it is too much consumed. Pregnant women, who undergo stomach disease such as heartburn, are not suggested to consume it everyday because it will not be good for their stomach. It will be ok if they consume it occasionally. DIET FOR INFANT (INCLUDE BREST FEEDING) What is it? Infant nutrition means making sure your baby is getting enough nutrients during his first year. Nutrients are calories, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals. Making sure your baby has good nutrition can protect him against disease. It also helps him stay healthy as he grows older. Every infant is different. Your baby may need more or less of the items in each food group and may also need a special diet. Your baby needs regular check-ups to make sure he is growing properly. Consult your caregiver or dietitian if your child is not gaining weight. They can help you if he has trouble nursing or is not eating enough formula each day. Talk with your caregiver if your baby has diarrhea or vomiting, or can not take breast milk or formula for more than 1 day. This may mean that they are not able to digest the feedings you are giving them.


The lists below shows the amounts of breast milk, formula, and food that most infants up to 1 year of age need. This feeding plan provides 8 to 15% protein, 35 to 55% fat, and 30 to 50% carbohydrate. This also gives the right amount of calories and protein that your baby needs Try giving one new food to the baby only once every 2-3 days, so you can tell if they digest each one well. When trying new foods that are dry or chewy, such as peanut butter, cheese, or dried beans, watch your infant closely to make sure they don't choke. Serving Sizes: Use the serving size list below to measure amounts of food and liquids. 1-1/2 cups (12 ounces) of liquid is the size of a soda-pop can. 1 cup (8 ounces) of food is the size of a large handful. 1/2 cup (4 ounces) of food is about half of a large handful. 2 tablespoons (Tbsp) is about the size of a large walnut. 1 tablespoon (Tbsp) is about the size of the tip of your thumb (from the last crease). 1 teaspoon (tsp) is about the size of the tip of your little finger (from the last crease). DAILY SERVINGS FOR AN INFANT DIET Breast milk or infant formula: Breast milk or infant formula are the only nourishment needed by most healthy babies until they are 4-6 months old. Cow's milk or other dairy products should not be given until at least one year of age. Your baby's kidneys cannot handle the high protein and mineral content well until that age. 0-3 months: 18-32 ounces 4-6 months: 28-40 ounces 7-9 months: 24-36 ounces 10-12 months: 18-30 ounces Cereals and other starchy foods: Rice infant cereal is the only grain suggested before six months of age. Other cereal grains such as wheat, barley, and oats can be given after 6 months of age. 0-3 months: None 4-6 months: 1/4-1/2 cup cereal (mixed) 7-9 months: 1-2 1/2 cup servings, including mashed potatoes, pasta, rice, breads, crackers, toast, rolls, soft muffins 10-12 months: 3-4 1/2 cup servings Fruits 0-3 months: None 4-6 months: 1/4-1/2 cup, pureed 7-12 months: 1/2-1 cup pureed, canned, or soft fresh fruits, such as bananas Juices

0-4 months: None 5-8 months: 1/4-1/2 cup 9-12 months: 1/2 cup Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, cooked dried beans, peanut butter 0-5 months: None 6-8 months: 1-2 Tbsp pureed 9-12 months: 1/4-1/2 cup (include cottage and regular cheese, fish, eggs, small pieces of tender meats, or chopped meats.) Plain yogurt 0-5 months: None 6-12 months: 1-2 Tbsp/day after 6 months of age Water: Most infants get the water they need from breast milk, formula, or juices. In very hot climates though, they may need 1/2 to 1 cup a day to make up losses. 0-5 months: Not needed except during very hot weather, or if baby has diarrhea. 6-12 months: As often as infant will drink. SUPPLEMENTS FOR INFANTS: Check with your doctor or caregiver before giving supplements on the list below to your baby. Their needs will depend on their diet. Iron From 4 to 12 months infants need about 1 milligram (mg) per kilogram (2.2 pounds body weight), or 10 mg per day at the most. Include all formulas and cereals in daily iron intake. Vitamin D May be needed if baby is not exposed to sunlight. 300 IU per day for 0-6 months 600 IU per day for 6-12 months Fluoride May be needed if water supply is low in fluoride. Check with you care giver for dosage of fluoride and the name of the product to buy. Vitamin B12 May be needed by babies of vegan (strict vegetarian) mothers. Check with your caregiver for the dosage and the product to buy.

DIET FOR CEDENTRY LIFE The today sedentary is leading lifestyle to some and serious poor future diet health that problems many when teenagers they become follow adults.

According to statistics, between 14% and 17% of children and teenagers in the United States are suffering from obesity. We know that two of the factors that have led to this increasing problem are our sedentary lifestyles and "sick" eating habits. I say "sick" eating habits, because many of us eat in a way that is literally making us and our children sick. So, as a parent, you need to realize that you have a responsibility to help positively influence your child's or teenager's attitude towards a healthy, active lifestyle as well as good eating habits. It is obvious that many parents do not take this matter seriously enough, and because of this many teenagers are going to end up being adults who suffer some very serious but preventable health problems. Hence, responsible parents need to give thought to the future health and fitness of their children now by considering how their exercise or lack of it, and diet are affecting their health now.

Because we know for certain that the combination of a lack of physical activity and lousy eating habits cause teenage obesity, we need to think about how to combat this. There are a huge number of teenagers, and even younger children, that spend hours sitting in front of the television watching movies or TV shows, using cell phones and listening to music on their iPods, etc. These types of activities are sedentary activities and do nothing to keep the bodies of young people healthy and in good physical condition.

Teenagers and children are overwhelmed with ads for the latest junk foods and sugar filled drinks. Next time you are out on a week or weekend evening; take a drive by the local convenience store or fast food joint. You may find that it is largely populated with young people hanging out and filling their bodies with really lousy food and beverages. When these kinds of eating habits are combined with a sedentary lifestyle, teenagers end up putting on weight and getting into a position where they may face really serious health problems as adults. However, physical illness is not the only thing that a lack of physical activity, poor diet and the resulting obesity cause. There are very real emotional and psychological problems that many teenagers face because of the social stigma that is associated with being fat. Because they are obese, many teenagers are unable to participate in the same activities as their classmates. They may also be made fun of for being overweight. The result is that many teens end up at home, alone and without any friends. They spend their time watching TV or movies and snacking. The result is more weight gain, more isolation, and more feelings of being alone, disliked and, in the end, depression. It is like being caught in a powerful vortex that just sucks the individual

in until it becomes extremely hard, maybe even impossible to get out of on one's own. Therefore, it is very clear that parents bear a serious responsibility when it comes to helping to influence children to be more physically active and to develop healthy eating habits from a young age. Remember, that obese children and teens are much more likely to become obese and unhealthy adults.

If you are a parent you need to take action now to help your child or teenager avoid a sedentary lifestyle and poor diet, and ensure that her or he has a bright, healthy and active future as an adult! DIET FOR OLD AGE A mans dietary needs undergo various changes from childhood to old age. If adequate nutrition and a wellbalanced diet is essential in the younger years, old age requires far more care towards dietary matters. Ayurvedic masters maintain that people can live longer, be healthier and ultimately have a better quality of life if their nutritional needs are adequately met. Elderly people can be categorised in three groups: the working elderly, the frail elderly and those with chronic diseases. Each of these groups has different nutritional needs. The first group requires a balanced diet plan to keep it active and fit whereas in the later groups, though the intake of the quantum of food decreases, the requirement of many nutrients remains unaltered. Therefore, for old people it becomes all the more important to take an adequate amount of all the nutrients within their decreased energy levels. There are many factors which come in the way of proper nutrition of old persons. This includes the impaired physical status like poor mobility, loss of teeth or non-use of dentures, physiological conditions of malabsorption or maldigestion of food and certain pathological stages like psycho-neuro disorders and wasting diseases. Social factors like poverty, alcoholism and lack of family support also influence the nutritional scenario of the old people. Elderly persons suffering from chronic ailments should be aware of the fact that it is possible that some of the drugs they take may interfere with the absorption of some of the nutrients in the diet. Regular use of diuretics deplete many of the essential nutrients, which makes them to be supplemented. Prolonged and unsupervised use of hard laxatives, whether herbal or otherwise, also hampers the process of absorption. Continuous use of some of the special or restricted diets can also lead to nutritional problems. For example, a low protein diet may lead to protien malnutrition and muscle wasting, and a low salt diet can result in the poor intake of nutrients secondary to the lack of taste and food apathy. Ayurveda views that while making a diet plan for the elderly, the foremost point to be kept in mind is that with the advancement of age, the capacity to digest large meals often decreases. Old persons should opt for

light and easily digestible food, and if required the number of meals can be increased as per the individuals acceptance. Since hypertension and cardiovascular problems are present in most of the elderly persons, the intake of heavy and fried items and other energy-rich food and sweets and starches should be minimised. There is gradual demineralisation of bones in old age. To compensate its losses, an adequate amount of calcium intake should be ensured. Depending upon individual suitability, old people need a reasonable quantity of milk, fresh fruits, green leafy vegetables and a digestible amount of cereals. A balanced diet not only meets their requirement of vitamins and minerals but also helps in maintaining the immunological strength. Many diseases can be managed or reduced in prevalence by eating the right food in right proportions. Ayurveda believes that good ahara (diet) must fulfil two criteria. First, it should furnish the appropriate levels of all nutrients to meet the physiological and biochemical needs of the body at all stages of life. Secondly, the diet must also be devoid of the excess of any nutrient that increases the risk of disease CONCLUSION