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# AN INTRODUCTION TO P-ADIC NUMBERS AND APPLICACTIONS

K. OSKAR NEGRON Abstract. p-adic numbers, which are produced by completing the eld of rational numbers using the p-adic norm, non-Archimedean, instead of the traditional Archimedean norm, play a fundamental role in modern number theory. This brief lecture will introduce the audience to p-adic numbers from a topological perspective.

1. Introduction Denition 1.1. A vector space X is said to be a normed space if to every x X there is associated a nonnegative real number ||x||, called the norm of x, in such that (1) ||x + y|| ||x|| + ||y|| x, y X (2) || y|| = || ||y|| if y X and scalar (3) ||x|| > 0 i x = 0 Note we refer to this type of norm as Archimedean norm. Denition 1.2. Every normed space may be regarded as a metric space, where we denote the metric as d such that d(x, y) := ||x y|| where d has the following properties (1) 0 d(x, y) < (2) d(x, y) = 0 i x = y (3) d(x, y) = d(y, x) x, y (4) d(x, z) d(x, y) + d(y, z) Note we call (4) the Triangle inequality. We denote the Metric Space as (X , d). Denition 1.3. (Non-Archimedean Norm) We say the norm is non-archimedean in a normed space X i the addition property holds: ||x + y|| max{||x||, ||y||} x, y X . N.B. this satises the triangle inequality. Denition 1.4. (Non-Archimedean Metric Norm) We say the metric norm is non-archimedean in metric space (X , d) i the addition property holds: d(x, z) max{d(x, y), d(y, z)} x, y, z X Note, we call this property the Strong Triangle Inequality. Proposition 1.5. The following states are equivalent: ||.|| is non-archimedean
Key words and phrases. p-Adic, metric spaces, topology of p-Adic numbers. I give thanks to my father for pushing me this far and Always supporting me. Also I give thanks to Dr. Ibragimov who has introduce me and guided me in this particular eld.
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K. OSKAR NEGRON

||n|| 1 for every integer n Proof. The proof can be found in [Kat, pg. 11-12] Denition 1.6. (Ultrametric-Space) Consider a norm space X with as metric d, i.e. a metric space denoted as (X , d), as d : X X R. We dene an Ultra-metric space as a metric space but with with the metric also following the property in denition 1.4. Denition 1.7. In any metric space, the open ball with center at x and radius r is the set Br (x) := {y : d(x, y) < r}. The closed ball with center at x and radius r is the set Br (x) := {y : d(x, y) r} 2. p-Adic Integers Denition 2.1. (p-Adic Ordinal) We dene the p-Adic ordinal of x, r, as ordp (x) := max{r : pr | x} 0 x Z and a xed p P. This means is for x Z we have dened the ordinal of x, r, to be the highest order of p that divides x. Notice that if ordp (x) = n pn | x but pn+1 does not divide x. Denition 2.2. Let x = ordp (a) ordp (b).
a b

x Q and a, b Z

## b = 0, then notice that ordp (x) =

Denition 2.3. We have dened the p-adic norm of x Q by |x|p = pordp (x) , if x=0; 0, x=0.

Remark, notice that |.| can only take up a discrete set of values, {pn , n Z} {0}. Proposition 2.4. x, y Q {0} ordp (x y) = ordp (x) + ordp (y)
c c Proof. () Let x = a and y = d then ordp ( a d ) = ordp ( ac ) = ordp (a c) ordp (b d) = b b bd ordp (a) + ordp (c) ordp (b) ordp (d) = ordp (a) ordp (b) + ordp (c) ordp (d) = ordp (a/b) + ordp (c/d) = ordp (x) + ordp (y) ()If ordp (x) = n and ordp (y) = m x = pn r and y = pm s where p does not divide r and s that p does not divide r s then x y = pnm rs and pn+m | xy. Thus ordp (x y) = n + m as expected.

Theorem 2.5. For all x, y Q we have that (1) |x|p = 0 i x = 0 (2) |x y|p = |x|p |y|p (3) |x + y|p max{|x|p , |y|p }

P-AIDIC ANALYSIS

Proof. The rst property is obvious. The second property follows directly from 2.4. For the c third one if either x, y = 0 then its trivial. Assume hat x, y = 0. Let x = a and y = d then b x + y = ad+bc and bd ordp (x + y) = ordp (ad + bc) ordp (bd) min{ordp (ad), ordp (bc)} ordp (b) ordp (d). If ordp (ad) > ordp (bc) then {ordp (ad), ordp (bc)} ordp (b) ordp (d) = {ordp (a) ordp (b)}. If ordp (bc) > ordp (ad) then {ordp (ad), ordp (bc)} ordp (b) ordp (d) = {ordp (c) ordp (d)}. So min{ordp (ad), ordp (bc)} ordp (b) ordp (d) = min{ordp (a) ordp (b), ordp (c) ordp (d)} So, |x+y|p = p
ordp (x+y)

= p

## max{pordp (x) , pordp (y) = max{|x|p , |y|p }

3. Topology of p-Adic Numbers Denition 3.1. An ultrametric eld is said to be complete if it is complete as a metric space, that is, every Cauchy sequence in X converges to an element of X . Note that the strong triangle inequality implies that a sequence {an } in X is a Cauchy sequence i |an an+1 | 0 for n . As a consequence, over a complete ultrametric eld a series (ai ) i=1 converges if and only if |ai | 0 for i . Like all metric spaces, an ultrametric eld X may be completed, its completion X again an ultrametric eld with absolute value obtained from that of X by continuity. Proposition 3.2. If b Br (a, r), then Br (a, r) = Br (b, r). Every point of a ball is its center. Proof. Let x Br (b, r). Then by assumption, |a b|p < r, |b x|p < r, and therefore by Strong Triangle Inequality, |a x|p = |a x + b b|p = |(a b) + (b x)|p max{|a b|p + |b x|p } < r; B(b, r) B(a, r). Since |a b|p < r for b to lie in B(a, r) is identical with that for a to lie in B(b, r), we obtain B(a, r) B(b, r) which implies that the balls coincide. Proposition 3.3. The sphere S(a, r) is an open set in Qp . Where S(a, r) := {x Qp : |x a|p = r Proof. Let x S(a, r) < r. Let y B(x, ). Then, |x y|p < |x a| = r |y a|p = |x a| = r, which means that y S(a, r). Proposition 3.4. The open balls in Qp are both open and closed. Proof. Can be found in [Kat, pg 55] Proposition 3.5. Two balls in Qp have a nonempty intersection i one is contained in the other. Proof. Can be found in [Kat, pg 56]

K. OSKAR NEGRON

Proposition 3.6. The sphere S(a, r) is both open and closed. Proof. Can be found in [Kat, pg 56] 4. p-Adic Functions Denition 4.1. A function f : Zp Qp is called continuous at the point a Zp if for each > 0 there exists a > 0 such that |x a|p < implies |f (x) f (y)|p < for all x Zp . A function f : Zp Qp is called continuous if it is continuous at all points a Zp . A function f : Zp Qp is uniformly continuous if for each > 0 there exists a > 0 such that |x y|p < implies |f (x) f (y)|p < for all x, y Zp Denition 4.2. A function f : Zp Qp is called locally constant if for each x Zp a neighborhood Ux x, i.e. a ball of radius pm for some m N centered at x, Ux = {y Zp : |x y|p < pm , such that f is continuous on Ux . Acknowledgements The author would like to give thanks to his father for pushing him this far and for Always supporting him. Also he gives thanks to Dr. Ibragimov whom introduced him and guided him in this particular eld. References
[Mun] [Kat] [Ked] [Ru2] [Ru1] J. R. Munkres. Topology 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2000. S. Katok. p-adic Analysis Compared with Real, American Mathematical Society, Providence, 2007. K. S . Kedlaya. p-adic Dierential Equations, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010. W. Rudin. Functional Analysis. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973. W. Rudin. Principles of Mathematical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953.