Published tor the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation,Washington, O.C.

by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

The achievements of the Soviet Union in the conquest of outer space recorded in the national press from October 1967 to 1970, TASS announcements, press conference reports and articles by leading scientists, have been included in this collection. This collection of articles depicts the main stages of Soviet space exploration during this period, the first automatic docking in space, the launching of the Soyuz manned spacecraft and the space probes Zond and Luna for the moon and Venera for the planets. Material regarding international cooperation and the launching of the Interkosmos satellite have also been included. Data on the launchings of the Kosmos, Molniya and Meteor artificial earth satellite have been given in Tables. The aim of these collections is to show the main phases of the Soviet space program and to acquaint the reader with some of the results of the investigations in space. It is hoped that this material will both enrich our knowledge and prove useful to the scientists and specialists, and all others interested in space exploration.

NASA TT F-785

AKADEMIYA NAUK SSSR Institut kosmicheskikh issledovanii ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR Institute of Cosmic Studies

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CONQUEST OF OUTER SPACE IN THE USSR
OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS BY TASS AND MATERIAL PUBLISHED IN THE NATIONAL PRESS FROM OCTOBER 1967 TO 1970
[OSVOENIE KOSMIGHESKOGO PROSTRANSTVA V SSSR Ofitsial'nye soobshcheniya TASS i materialy tsentral'noi pechati oktyabr', 1967-1970 gg. ]

Editor ACADEMICIAN G. I. PETROV
Nauka Publishers, Moscow, 1971

Translated from Russian

Published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi "973

©

1973 Amerind Publishing Co. Pat. Ltd., Mew Delhi

Translated and Published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, pursuant to an agreement with the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by Amerind Publishing Co. Put. Ltd., New Delhi noooi

Translator: Mrs. Stefania Dhingra General Editor: Dr. V. S. Kothekar

Available from the U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service Springfield, Virginia

Printed at Thomson Press (India) Ltd., Faridabad

CONQUEST OF OUTER SPACE IN THE USSR

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UDC 629.78

The achievements of the Soviet Union in the conquest of outer space recorded in the national press from October, 1967 to 1970, TASS announcements, press conference reports and articles by leading scientists, have been included in this collection. This collection of articles depicts the main stages of Soviet space exploration during this period, the first automatic docking in space, the launching of the Soyuz manned spacecraft and the space probes Zond and Luna for the moon and Venera for the planets. Material regarding international cooperation and the launching of the Interkosmos satellite have also been included. Data on the launchings of the Kosmos, Molniya and Meteor artificial earth satellite have been given in Tables.

Page Intentionally Left Blank

FOREWORD The middle of the twentieth century saw a number of outstanding scientific achievements. Of these the most remarkable was the beginning of exploration in, and the conquest of, outer space. Since the launching of the first Soviet artificial earth satellite, space research has developed at a speed which has had, perhaps, no match in any other field of science and technology. The intensity of space exploration can be judged from the fact that during the first decade of the cosmic era, about 250 spacecraft, with different assignments, were launched in the Soviet Union. Of these, 22 craft, each weighing about 50 tons (including the final stage of the booster rockets), possessed velocity to escape the earth's gravitational pull. At the beginning of the second decade of the cosmic era further outstanding achievements were recorded: the first automatic docking in space, the successful flights of the Venera space probes, the flight around the moon and the recovery of the probe by its re-entry velocity, the prolonged Soyuz flights with their packed scientific program and the construction of the first-ever orbiting space station. The successful flight of the space probe Luna-i6 which brought samples of the lunar-soil to the earth, and the efficient working of Lunokhod-1, the first independent vehicle to investigate the surface of the moon, were important steps in the development of rocket and space technology, and provided scope for a wider study of the universe. These experiments can be compared with the other achievements in the conquest of space, such as the launching of the first artificial earth satellite, the first manned flight in outer space, the first flight beyond the earth's gravitational pull, the photographing of the dark side of the moon and the soft landing on its surface, the direct measurements taken from the depths of the Venusian atmosphere, the first walk of man in open outer space, the transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another and the final triumph, the landing of man on the moon. The technological principles on which the Luna-i6 and Luna-i? space probes were successfully made can be very well applied to other space probes for studying heavenly bodies at distances much greater than the moon. In the last three years, about 200 satellite of the Kosmos series alone have been launched. This is more than the number of satellite launched in the preceding five years. The rate of growth of rocket and space technology has been so rapid, that anything connected with "space" occupies a very special place in

viii

Foreword

modern life (whether in industry, science, politics or the arts) and has a great impact on the progress of the civilization. There is a wide section of the population, particularly the youth as well as the scientists and specialists, interested in the problem of the conquest of space. TASS announcements and reports published in the national press during the period October, 1967 to 1970, have been included in the present edition.* Another collection, containing the reports for the years 1957-1967, is being published simultaneously. The aim of these collections is to show the main phases of the Soviet space program and to acquaint the reader with some of the results of the investigations in space. It is hoped that this material will both enrich our knowledge and prove useful to the scientists and specialists, and all others interested in space exploration.
Academician G.I. Petrov

*Some titles of the TASS announcements have been slightly altered for publication in book form. Certain articles have been reduced and some photographs have had to be omitted because of lack of space. Some photographs are from TASS photo-archives.

CONTENTS

FOREWORD
Introduction i

Country of the Soviets—-Shore of the Universe
The Sky of the Twentieth Century I. Automatic Docking of Soviet Satellite

i
4 13

TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86n\ Orbit TASS Announcement. For the First Time in the World—• Automatic Docking in Orbit TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86 Successfully Completes Flight TASS Announcement. Kosmos-i86 Still in Orbit TASS Announcement. A Great Experiment in Space Completed New Chapter in the Conquest of Space To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR To the Scientists, Designers... TASS Announcement. Kosmos-2i2 in Orbit TASS Announcement. Second Automatic Orbital Docking TASS Announcement. Program Completed Automatic Docking of Satellite Kosmos-sis and Kosmos-sig (TASS)
II. Manned Spacecraft

15 16 17 17 18 19 24 25 26 26 27 28
37

TASS Announcements. Soyuz-3 in Orbit Pilot-Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi's Statement Before the Start (TASS) Radio Message from Soyuz-3 Salutory Telegram to Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi from Party and Government Leaders TASS Announcement. Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 in Orbit Astronaut's Hearty Thanks TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Still in Orbit TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Still in Orbit TASS Announcement. Soyuz-3 Lands Successfully

39 41 42 43 43 46 46 49 50

Contents

TASS Announcements. From the Verbatim Report of the Flight TASS Announcement. On Completion of the Soyuz-3 Flight To the Scientists, Designers... Decree for Award to Comrade G.T. Beregovoi Decree for Award of the Title "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" to Comrade G.T. Beregovoi Press Conference Devoted to Georgii Beregovoi's Flight On the Way to Space Stations (TASS) Gagarin Medal for Soviet Astronaut (TASS) TASS Announcement. Soyuz-4 in Orbit Soyuz-4 Commander, Comrade V.A. Shatalov's Statement Before Launching (TASS) TASS Announcement. Two Soviet Spacecraft in Orbit Statement by the Commander of the Soyuz-5 Spacecraft, Comrade B.V. Volynov Before the Start (TASS) TASS Announcement. The First Orbital Station in the World is Soviet! Greetings from Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 Salutory Telegram from the Party and Government Leaders to Astronauts Reply to Greetings To the People of the Soviet Union To the People of the Socialist Nations TASS Announcement. Separate Flight Again TASS Announcement. Soyuz-4 Lands Safely: Soyuz-5 Still in Orbit Greetings to the Peoples of the World TASS Announcement. New Outstanding Scientific Experiment is Complete Flight Program Fully Accomplished To the Scientists, Designers... To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR Big Victory in Space Decrees for Awards to Astronauts Press Conference Devoted to the Flight of the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 Spacecraft TASS Announcement. Soyuz-6 in Orbit Statement by the Soyuz-6 Commander, G.S. Shonin Before Launching (TASS) TASS Announcement. Spacecraft in Group Flight Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-7, Comrade A.V. Filipchenko Before Launching Greetings from the Spacecraft

51 52 53 54 54 55 61 69 70 73 74 80 81 86 87 87 87 87 88 89 92 93 94 96 97 98 100 104 116 120 122 126 128

Contents TASS Announcement. Soyuz-8 in Orbit TASS Announcement. Group Flight Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-8, Comrade V.A. Shatalov Before Launching To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet Government Salutory Telegram from Party and Government Leaders to Astronauts Reply to Greetings Greetings from the Spacecraft TASS Announcement. Constellation of Soyuz Spacecraft in Orbit Greetings from the Spacecraft TASS Announcement. Heroic Working Day in Outer Space TASS Announcement. The First Welding in Outer Space TASS Announcement. Soyuz-6 Crew Back on Earth TASS Announcement. Soyuz-7 Lands Safely TASS Announcement. Group Flight Successfully Completed TASS Announcement. The Last Circuits To Scientists, Designers and Astronauts. .. TASS Announcement. An Important Step in the Development of Orbital Flight Decrees for Awards to Astronauts Press Conference in Moscow University TASS Announcement. Soyuz-g in Orbit Statement by the Commander of Soyuz-Q, Comrade A.G. Nikolaev Before Launching (TASS) TASS Announcement. June 2 TASS Announcement. June 3 TASS Announcement. June 4 TASS Announcement. June 5 TASS Announcement. June 6 TASS Announcement. June 7 TASS Announcement. June 8 TASS Announcement. June 9 TASS Announcement. June i o TASS Announcement. June 11 TASS Announcement. June 12 TASS Announcement. June 13 TASS Announcement. June 14 Radiogram from Spacecraft TASS Announcement. June 15 TASS Announcement. June 16 TASS Announcement. June 17

xi 128 129 131 132 132 133 133 134 136 137 139 140 142 144 145 146 147 149 154 167 169 171 172 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 182 183 184 185 186 187

xii

Contents TASS Announcement. June 18 TASS Announcement. Soyuz-g Successfully Completes Flight Statement of the Soyuz-g Crew at the Landing Site To Scientists, Designers and Astronauts. .. TASS Announcement. New Step Toward Orbital Stations Soyuz-g: Program Completed Decrees for Awards to Astronauts Press Conference in Moscow University 188 189 189 190 191 193 199 200 211 213 219 220 220 221

III. Lunar Explorations Soviet Artificial Satellite of the Moon TASS Announcement, ^ond-4 in Flight TASS Announcement. Luna-i4 in Outer Space TASS Announcement, ^ond-5 in Flight TASS Announcement, ^ond-5 Flies Around Moon TASS Announcement. Automated Probe £o«rf-j Successfully Returns to Earth at Planet-Escape Velocity After Going Around Moon Automated Probe ^ond-5 Flies Around Moon and Returns to Earth Zpnd-5 Photographs TASS Announcement ^ond-6 in Flight TASS Announcement, ^ond-6 Flies Around Moon TASS Announcement. Probe ^ond-6 Lands From Moon to Earth Next Stage of the Soviet Space Program (TASS) How the Moon's Portrait was Taken Zpnd-6 Photographs TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-75 in Space TASS Announcement. Soviet Automated Probe Luna-15 in a Near-Moon Orbit TASS Announcement. Luna-i5 Continues Flight in Lunar Orbit TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-15 in New Near-Moon Orbit TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna- 75 Completes Flight TASS Announcement. Automated Probe ^ond-j TASS Announcement, ^ond-j Flies Past Moon TASS Announcement. Probe ^ond-j Returns to Earth Automated Probe Zond-y Photographs Moon and Earth (TASS) TASS Announcement. Luna-i6in Flight TASS Announcement. Luna-i6in Near-Moon Orbit TASS Announcement. Soft Landing on Moon

221 222 230 232 232 233 234 237 247 251 256 256 257 258 258 259 259 260 261 266 266 267

Contents TASS Announcement. Start from Moon TASS Announcement. Outer Space Rocket of Automated Probe Luna-16 on its Way to Earth TASS Announcement. Approaching Earth TASS Announcement. Soft-Landing in a Predetermined Area of the Soviet Union TASS Announcement. Results of Automated Probe Luna-i6 To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR To the Scientists and Designers. . . Outstanding Soviet Achievement in Astronautics (TASS) Press Conference Devoted to the Successful Flight of the Automated Probe Luna-16 and Delivery of Lunar Soil to Earth Awards for Success in Outer Space TASS Announcement ^ond-8 in Flight TASS Announcement, ^ond-8 Returns to Earth TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna-17 in Flight TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Luna- ij in NearMoon Orbit TASS Announcement. For the First Time in History TASS Announcement. Lunokhod Continues its Work TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-i Continues to Carry Out a Program of Scientific and Technical Investigations TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-1 Continues its Work TASS Announcement. Program for Lunar Day Completed Lunokhod-1 Maintains Contact with Earth (TASS) TASS Announcement. Lunokhod-1 Starts Program for Second Lunar Day 9 Hours of Continuous Work by Lunokhod (TASS) Lunokhod-1 Maneuvers (TASS) 253 Meters Southward (TASS) 825 Meters Covered (TASS) 1022 Meters Covered (TASS) Moving Southeast (TASS) Another 337 Meters Covered (TASS) Lunokhod-1 Selects Parking Site (TASS) TASS Announcement. Soviet Lunokhod-1 Completes Program for Second Day Specific Features of Soviet Astronautics

xiii 268 269 270 270 271 273 273 275 290 303 304 305 305 306 306 310 310 312 312 313 314 315 316 316 317 318 318 319 320 321 322 325 327

.

IV. Exploration of Distant Planets TASS Announcement. Automated Interplanetary Probe Venera-5 in Flight

xiv

Contents TASS Announcement. Venera-6 will Conduct Scientific Investigations Along with Venera-5 TASS Annoncement. Flight to Venus Continues TASS Announcement. Flight to Venus Continues TASS Announcement. Lenin's Bas-Relief on Venus TASS Announcement. Outstanding Experiment Completed To Scientists, Designers... To the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR Important Step in Understanding the Universe TASS Announcement. Interplanetary Route of Venera-"j Questions to Venus Venera-j Continues Flight (TASS) TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Venera-j Continues Flight TASS Announcement. Automated Probe Venera-j Completes Flight Questions About Venus

328 329 330 331 332 332 334 335 353 354 357 358 359 359 365 367 368 370 371 372 373 374 375 375 376 377 379 379 380 381 382 384 386 386 388 388

V. International Cooperation For the Benefit of Mankind Agreement Between the Government of the USSR and the Government of France Cooperation in Outer Space Experiment in Outer Space (TASS) Cooperation in the Peaceful Conquest of Outer Space (TASS) Advancement of Space Meteorology (TASS) USSR-France: Scientists' Collaboration (TASS) Collaboration Between Socialist Countries in the Field of Space Physics Joint Exploration of Outer Space (TASS) TASS Announcement. Joint Scientific Experiment In Outer Space and on Earth Joint Investigations (TASS) Sky of Our Planet Cooperation Strengthens (TASS) Conference in Varna TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-1 Experiments in 'Orbit of Friendship' Interkosmos-1 Works in Orbit (TASS) TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-2 Interkosmos-2 in Flight (TASS) Collaboration in Space Exploration (TASS)

Contents Collaboration in the Field of Space Meteorology (TASS) Multiple Global Experiment (TASS) TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-3 in Flight Interfcosmos-3 Continues Flight (TASS) Rocket of Peace Interkosmos-3 Continues Flight (TASS) TASS Announcement. Interkosmos-4 in Orbit Interkosmos in Action The Interkosmos "Swallow" 94 Circuits by a Satellite of Friendship (TASS) About Soviet-American Tehnical Talks (TASS) Cooperation in Exploration of Outer Space (TASS) TASS Announcement. Launching of Geophysical Rocket Vertikal-i French Scientists Preparing for Experiment (TASS) VI. Space Monitoring New Experiment in Outer Space 2Ooth Kosmos in Orbit TASS Announcement. Proton-4 in Flight Physicists' Laboratory in Outer Space (TASS) Telescopes on Satellite With Cosmic Velocities in the Atmosphere (TASS) In the Ultralong Wave Band TASS Announcement. Man-Made Constellation in Orbit From the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR VII. Satellite in the National Economy Outer Space Weather Forecasting Service (TASS) Orbita—Communications Through Outer Space (TASS) APPENDIX- i. Kosmos Series Satellite Launches AppENDix-2. Molniya-i Series Satellite Launches AppENDix-3. Meteor Series Satellite Launches

xv 389 390 390 391 392 393 393 394 397 399 400 400 401 402 403 405 407 412 412 415 419 419 422 423 425 427 430 438 443 444

CONQUES T OF O U T E R SPACE IN T H E USSR

INTRODUCTION

COUNTRY OF THE SOVIETS—SHORE OF THE UNIVERSE Ten years have passed since the first Soviet artificial earth satellite declared to the world a new era: the conquest by man of outer space. October 4, 1957 has become a red-letter day in the history of science and technology. The satellite's success made the whole world sit up and take note of the Soviet achievement. This new achievement by the Soviet Union demonstrated the impressive productive capacity, the economic strength and massive creative potential of the socialist system arising out of the October Revolution, and the dramatic progress of Soviet science and technology. In the theses of the Central Committee of the CPSU, devoted to the 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Revolution, it is stated that "the achievements of our science have found their full expression in the investigation and conquest of outer space. Our country has paved the way for its exploration, has launched the first artificial earth satellite and accomplished the first manned flight in outer space. This is a result of the labor, skill and selflessness of the Soviet scientists, engineers, technicians and workers, and the courage and heroism of our glorious astronauts."

Pravda received thousands of letters and telegrams during the first days of the satellite in orbit. Soviet people were thrilled by the news that the daring vision of conquering space had been realized. Sincere compliments were also received from abroad. Todor Pavlov, President of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences wrote, "This development is a gigantic step toward the opening of horizons which formerly had belonged to fantasy." The launching of the earth's artificial satellite was "a great victory for man, a turning point in the history of civilization," according to the leading French scientist, Frederic Joliot-Curie. Not only friends, but also those who could hardly be expected to have any sympathy for the Soviet Union, were forced to acknowledge world supremacy for Soviet science and technology. The New York Times stated: "Even now it is clear that in the annals of history October 4, 1957 will go down as a day of one of the greatest achievements of man." Since then, the Soviet Union has been systematically achieving more and more landmarks in the exploration of space: the first photographs of the dark side of the moon, the first group flight of spaceships, the first womanastronaut, the first walk of man in open space, the first soft landing on the moon, the first artificial satellite of the moon... In short, the Soviet Union has done pioneering work in all the principal directions in the exploration of the universe. This spectacular progress exemplifies the great advantages and creative potentialities of the socialist system. The Soviet Union, the first country in the world to penetrate outer space, continues its victorious advance on all fronts of space exploration. Satellite of the Kosmos series are sending more and more information about our planet and about the physical conditions in near-earth outer space. The space probe Venera-4 is moving steadily towards the earth's nearest neighbor in space. A detachment of Soviet astronauts is getting ready for further achievements. The Soviet Union has in fact become, in the words of the great scientist-designer of the first spacecraft, Academician Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, "the shore of the universe". It is difficult to overestimate the great importance of space research for different fields of human activity. It embraces and enhances the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, metallurgy, automation, electronics, instrument engineering, rocketry and other fields of technology. At the same time this research enriches science with new data about the physical conditions in outer space. It is giving birth to new scientific trends and stimulating development in different fields of knowledge. The conquest of space has also had considerable direct effect on scientific and technical progress. The new technology, new instruments and outfits created for the satellite, space probes and spaceships also find effective use in the daily work of those enterprises which produce only "earthly" things. Meteorological satellite help in making more correct weather forecasts for

longer periods which in turn play an important role in agriculture and a number of other branches affecting the economy. The Molniya satellite enable the direct transmission of telecasts, say, from Moscow to Vladivostok. There is no doubt that the practical output and importance of space research will continue to increase. The Soviet Union has made many efforts towards achieving an international agreement on the exploration of outer space for the benefit of all mankind, and the peaceful use of outer space, the moon and the planets. An agreement, unanimously approved by the UN General Assembly, envisages principles for the study and development of outer space, the moon and other heavenly bodies by different countries. The concluding of this agreement marks a step toward further cooperation and mutual understanding between different countries and their peoples. It will help in the solution of important international problems facing mankind on earth. The 23rd Congress of the CPSU has put before the Soviet space explorers the challenge of continuing the space adventure in the interests of science and progress. They can be expected to honestly fulfill their duty. Today, on the auspicious occasion of the tenth anniversary of the space era, the Soviet people wish them every success.
Pravda, October 4, 1967

THE SKY OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
by Academician B. Konstantinov

The role of science in the life of man increases daily. Our dependence on it and its achievements raises the question of the popularization of science. The main results of scientific studies must be disseminated even if only for the reason that they reflect the outlook of the modern citizen and allow him to keep abreast of the latest thought. K.A. Timiryazev has pointed out that "the chosen, those doing scientific work, must consider the knowledge entrusted to them, as a treasure which belongs to the people." Our scientists do, in fact, devote much attention to the popularization of science by writing books and articles and delivering lectures.

However, in an article, no matter how long, it is impossible to cover all the fields in modern science. An author can only select some fragments from the wealth of scientific research which he considers to be the most important and present them for the judgement of his readers. Today I would invite you to have a look at the sky and see what the canopy of heaven looks like in the sixties of the twentieth century. Let us view the latest discoveries in astronomy and ponder those

mysteries whose secrets science has yet to explain. The inexhaustibility of the sun has always startled man's imagination. Our luminary has been shining with an enviable steadiness for billions of years. The energy radiated by the sun is enormous—about 100 thousand kilowatts per square meter of the surface of the luminary: an entire electric powerhouse on such a small area ! Where does this huge amount of energy come from and what keeps this powerful radiation intact? One of the most brilliant physicists of the last century, Lord Kelvin, tried to answer these questions. At that time, it seemed that all natural phenomena could be explained by the laws of mechanics, and naturally enough Kelvin tried to solve the problem from this point of view. But it turned out that the ordinary mechanical methods of regenerating energy—• such as the heating up of the sun, say, because of the falling of large meteorites or asteroids, or simply because of the slow condensation of the luminary— could not explain such a powerful, constant radiation. So the question remained unanswered. Our atomic age put forward the following hypothesis: thermonuclear reactions are the source of the energy of the sun. In the case of the formation of chemical compounds, for example, when oxygen and hydrogen combine, energy is released when light nuclei combine to form heavier nuclei. In the thirties, it was calculated that the sun can continue to shine with the same intensity for a few billion years, thanks to the presence of large quantities of hydrogen, four nuclei of which combine to form one nucleus of helium. Since then, uncontrolled thermonuclear reactions have been accomplished on earth. One can hope that in the near future we shall be able to control them and build thermonuclear power stations. But in the meantime the nuclear nature of solar energy continues to be only a hypothesis. So far there has been no decisive experimental proof that the sun is a gigantic thermonuclear reactor. Only the study of solar neutrinos—neutral particles which, like photons, do not have rest mass—-could give us such a proof. They are always in motion and highly elusive. In a solid the neutrino can travel over millions of billions of kilometers without "knocking" a single atom. If thermonuclear reactions are really going on in the sun, then a flux of neutrinos must also be generated along with them. And although, according to theoretical estimates, about 60 billion neutrinos are falling on one square centimeter of the earth, it is extraordinarily difficult to catch them. It can be done only by using very large special detectors, having a volume of hundreds of cubic meters. One interaction of a neutrino with a substance—for example, with an isotope of chlorine—takes place in approximately an hour. During the interaction, the chlorine nucleus is transformed into a radioactive nucleus, which is how it is detected. Such equipment is located in deep mines, so that background

interactions do not disturb the location of the neutrinos' traces. During the last ten years in our country as well as abroad, much attention has been paid to the improvement of the methods of locating the neutrino. At present a special neutrino laboratory is being set up in the USSR, which will be situated under a thick layer of rocks in a mountain. Development of neutrino astronomy opens quite interesting prospects. It will help us to have a look deep into the universe and into the stars, and find out what type of nuclear reactions are taking place there. Recently an interesting report has come from the American scientist, Davis. By measuring the flux of neutrinos, Davis found that it is less than the theoretical expectation. On the basis of this scientist's data we can conclude that the temperature in the central regions of the sun is not more than 14 million degrees. Earlier it had been thought that it was 30 million degrees. Further study will show just how correct is the data given by Davis. But if it turns out that the temperature in the middle of the sun really is about 10 million degrees, then the astrophysicists will be back where they started, for it would mean that thermonuclear reactions are not the source of solar radiation. And once again, the same old mystery. The problem of the sources of energy in the universe is the most burning topic of the day. It suddenly arose with the sensational discovery of the QSS heavenly bodies—the so-called quasi-stellar sources. By telescope the QSS look like feeble stars. But in fact their luminance is more than that of an entire galaxy, which has a hundred billion stars. The reason being that the QSS are situated at distances of billions of light years, i.e. at the extreme end of the visible part of universe seen through the telescope. It is startling how the intensity of luminance of a QSS changes within a few months or even within a few days. It means that the QSS is one huge body and not a group of millions of stars, since not all the stars would flicker simultaneously. What kind of a body is it? Where does the energy for such a powerful radiation originate? Various hypotheses including the most fantastic have been suggested. The latest theory that the astrophysicists are inclined to believe, is that gravitational energy is the source of the radiation of the QSS. We have got accustomed to thinking that nuclear energy is the most powerful. Actually this is an illusion, probably born out of the shock of nuclear bomb explosions. Gravitational energy can produce much greater power in the universe. The theory of relativity proves that if the mass of a star is just 20% more than the mass of the sun, it can start condensing, and collapse into a smaller size. During this process the gravitational field of the star increases to such an extent that it does not emit either light or radio waves. That is why collapsed and extinguished stars are known as "gravitational graveyards".

A QSS, whose mass is millions or maybe even billions of times more than that of the sun, should also collapse and be extinguished. But instead it gives light and shines with extraordinary brightness. According to the hypothesis of Academician Ya.B. Zel'dovich, the QSS are collapsed superstars, which attract to themselves the passing radiation and particles of matter. The gravitational force of the QSS is extraordinarily large and they chase—say, a passing meteor—to speeds close to that of light. Huge amounts of energy may be4iberated in the case of such collisions. This energy can reach us in the form of radio and optical waves. Discovery of these startling new bodies in the universe, which go outside the normal framework, is a great stimulus for the development of astronomy. The main way for science to progress is to achieve experimental proof of any theory. When an experiment is proved, theory inevitably moves forward, and as a result, the general picture of the universe becomes clearer. The last decade has shown this. QSS is not the only mysterious object discovered during the last decade. Just some months ago, a report from Britain talked about the discovery of pulsating stars, a peculiar kind of heavenly clock. The first pulsator discovered gave a flash every 1.3 seconds. Many more are known to exist. Another flickers every 0.25 seconds. It is a wonderful phenomenon. Radio signals follow after such short intervals with an intensity that exceeds anything imaginable on earth. The radiation power of the first pulsator, located in our galaxy at a distance of about 10 thousand light years, is only a million times less than all the radiation of the sun. But if we take the "instantaneous power" of the radiation of the pulsator (a flash lasts for less than a thousandth of a second), then it is much more than the power of the sun. At first scientists wondered if these signals could be messages from some extraterrestrial civilization, but they were repeated in different tones and contained no understandable information. It is still not clear how to decipher this mystery of the heavens. There is no scarcity of hypotheses, but not one of them can explain all the phenomena going on in a pulsator. However, this does not prevent us from making practical use of the pulsators. It was found out that the accuracy with which the signals follow these equisignal beacons is greater than that of an ordinary astronomical clock and inferior only to an atomic clock. The periodicity of signals is exact to a ten millionth of a second. It is possible that the navigators of spaceships will correct their watches with the help of the' pulsators. We are living in an epoch when the heavens have seemingly come closer to us. The fact that an object which is situated at a distance often thousand light years can be used as an equisignal beacon, would have appeared to be sensational a few years ago, but today it.is an ordinary discovery. Such achievements as the soft landing on the moon and entry into the atmosphere of Venus, are making us, maybe, complacent. Now probably

only the direct investigation of heavenly bodies can completely startle us and stir the imagination of the people. These investigations are of extreme importance for science also. The historic flight of the space probe Venera-4 gave to astronomers more information about Venus than all the earlier investigations combined. The landing vehicle transmitted signals from the atmosphere of the planet for 93 minutes. Before this practically nothing authentic was known. Information was received about the temperature, pressure and density of the Venusian atmosphere at different heights. Most important, an analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere of this mysterious planet was carried out. It was found that it consists almost entirely of carbon dioxide. In this respect, Venus is not fit for animals, although it is quite good for plants. An analysis of the data on the Venusian atmosphere shows that the electromagnetic waves, including light waves, must undergo a strong refraction. A ray of light, for example, may jump from the surface to the atmosphere like a tennis ball and bounce back. In this way it can go round the entire planet, though of course, it is not all completely reflected and so becomes greatly weakened. To an astronaut standing on an absolutely level surface, it would appear—because of this phenomenon—as if the surface is curved and that he is standing at the bottom of a gigantic bowl. Because of strong refraction, an intensive heat exchange takes place between the different zones of the planet. Consequently, there is no big difference between the equatorial and polar temperatures, as we have on earth, where the difference reaches up to 100 degrees. The absence of temperature differences on the surface of Venus must lead also to the absence of winds, at least in the lower layers of the Venusian atmosphere. The flight of Venera-4 has shown that the temperature and pressure in the lower layers of the atmosphere are very high and approach 270 degrees and 20 atmospheres respectively. For organic life, 270 degrees is decidedly hot. Obviously the forms of life which have developed on earth, do not exist on Venus. Rocket astronomy is still very young, but as you can see, it has already made discoveries of unusual importance. At the same time, no matter how attractive the direct investigations of the solar system planets, no less important are the investigations of the further depths of space with the help of rocket technology. The atmosphere of the earth, like a protective mother, saves us from many harmful cosmic radiations, but she also obstructs scientific research. Taking instruments beyond the limits of the atmosphere enables us to see a more complete picture of the sky. The atmosphere allows entry only to visible light and some radio waves, while gamma-rays, ultraviolet and infra-red radiations remain in their original form only in outer space. There instead of our accustomed gray picture, we suddenly
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see the whole panorama of the sky, shining with all the colors of the rainbow. Each "color" carries with it some new information about the structure of the universe, and the processes going on there.... The results of extra-atmospheric astronomy, which the scientists hope to get in the near future, may radically change our views regarding the origin and evolution of the world. One of the most wonderful discoveries of recent years is indirectly connected with the development of space technology. American radio-physicists, while working out the satellite communication system on 7.3 cm bands, discovered some noise disturbances which they could not eliminate. It turned out that it was outer space making the noise ! All heated bodies, including yours and mine, emit electromagnetic waves. One square centimeter of the human body emits an amount of heat which is only five times less than the heat received by one square centimeter of the earth's surface from the sun. This invisible emission is in the form of electromagnetic waves. And thus, when we turn radio telescopes towards any part of the sky, we can catch electromagnetic radiation which corresponds exactly to heat radiation of a temperature of 3° K. (Zero of Kelvin's Absolute Scale corresponds to minus 273° C.) The so-called "empty space" of the universe is in fact full of it. This discovery evoked great interest among the astrophysicists, since it throws light on the origins of the world of the stars. The question as to which element the universe was born in—whether ice or fire—has been disputed for a long time. Now it seems the fire-worshippers were right! At present we observe a picture of an ever-expanding universe, i.e. all the galaxies are moving away from us. If we reverse the process, we find that approximately 12 billion years ago, the part of the universe we observe in our telescopes was a coagulum of superdense substance. According to the fire theory of the universe, originally the temperature of matter was extremely high. At the same time, the density of radiation was billions of times more than the density of particles of the matter. As the fireball expanded, this radiation could not disappear and the wavelengths of radiations should have increased, as if they were getting stretched. By this time, these "relic radiations" must have turned into short and ultraviolet radio waves. It was precisely these waves that were discovered. Further investigations within the framework of the fire theory of the universe will enable us to open many secrets about its evolution, the origin of stars and galaxies and the formation of chemical elements. In particular, it follows from this theory that at the early stages of development of the universe, matter and antimatter were equal. And the fact that our world is made of ordinary matter, is not a chance happening.

Let me remind you, what is meant by antimatter. In its atoms all the particles are replaced by antiparticles, i.e. they possess opposite characteristics. If, say, a particle is positive, the antiparticle would be negative. When they combine, they are destroyed or, to use the language of physics, they are annihilated and are converted into neutrinos and quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Just half a gram of antimatter, when combined with matter, would give as much energy as the explosion of the atom bomb over Hiroshima. Possibly there are 'antigalaxies' or even 'antistars' in our galaxy, though we don't know yet. It is possible that, say, the well-known nebula Andromeda and the bright star Vega are antiworlds. Howsoever absurd this idea may appear to be, we cannot reject it as unscientific, for the time being. Contemporary astrophysics possesses a rich store of material for the experimental verification of theoretical conclusions and giving us accurate facts. We must get accustomed to the idea that such facts may, in many respects, differ from the usual, settled concepts. Since astrophysics touches upon basic problems of man's outlook, its data can be interpreted in different ways by different philosophical schools. For example, clergymen interpret the theory of expansion of the universe for their own purposes. Since the universe, they say, is expanding from one point, it means that an "act of creation" took place and that the creater is, of course, God. One cannot take such "interpretations" seriously. Nature is cognizable, and science will gradually find out her secrets. At present we do not know what kind of matter was in the superdense form, nor do we know the story of the universe before that. Nor, again do we know what will happen to our world in the future. Maybe it will scatter, or maybe it will collapse into one point. These are the problems that scientists are working on. Maybe elementary-particle physics—the science investigating the finest "bricks of the universe"—will give answers to many questions. This is natural, since the main task of elementary-particle physics and astrophysics is to find out how nature is organized. Sometimes the studies of the macroworld and the microworld come very close. I shall not talk of elementary-particle physics in detail, since it is a separate topic. I shall mention only one interesting hypothesis—yet to be confirmed— which is being discussed at present. Academician M.A. Markov has, on the basis of some general considerations, predicted the existence of very heavy particles at the early stage of evolution of the universe. He calls them maximons, i.e. particles having maximum mass. Remember the stars which collapsed almost into a point. Now scientists are trying to show that these two are the same, that a star and a particle are identical! It is difficult to believe it. But such a possibility is being discussed. I think the investigations in this direction will not be fruitless.

As you can see, quite "strange" things take place in our sky. Finally I would like to repeat the beautiful words of the materialist writer Anatole France: "The heavens, which were thought to be immovable, have nothing eternal except perpetual change."
Izvcstiya, September 4, 1968

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AUTOMATIC DOCKING OF SOVIET SATELLITE

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT KOSMOS-i86 IN ORBIT On October 27, 1967, at 1230 hours Moscow time, Kosmos-i86 in the series of artificial earth satellite was launched from the Soviet Union. The satellite carried on board special scientific equipment for the further investigation of outer space and for the perfecting of new systems and units in spacecraft design, according to the schedule announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. The satellite's orbit had the following parameters: initial orbital period —88.7min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 235 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 209 km; orbital inclination — 5i.7deg. Besides special scientific equipment, the satellite had on board: a radio transmitter, working at a frequency of 20.008 megahertz; a radio network for the exact measurement of orbital elements; a radiotelemetric system for transmitting information on the working of the instruments and scientific equipment. The equipment installed on the satellite functioned normally. The coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, October 29, 1967

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE WORLDAUTOMATIC DOCKING IN ORBIT

Two satellite in joint flight

On October 30, 1967, a second artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-i88, was launched by the Soviet Union for further investigations of outer space in company with Kosmos-i86 for the perfecting of new systems and units in spacecraft design according to the schedule announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. The satellite's orbit had the following parameters: —• 88.97 min; initial orbital period maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) - 276 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) •— 200 km; orbital inclination —5i.68deg. At 1220 hours Moscow time, for the first time in the world, automatic docking took place between Kosmos-i88and Kosmos-i86, which was launched on October 27, 1967. After the ascent of Kosmos-i88, both satellite, equipped with special systems for orbital rendezvous and docking, carried out a number of complex maneuvers in space. The mutual search, rendezvous and "mooring" were all carried out automatically and the two satellite were firmly docked. All these processes were carried out with the help of special radio and technical means and computers aboard the satellite. Radio and television devices and telemetric systems aboard the satellite transmitted a telecast of the docking and telemetric information to the network on earth. The docked satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 are continuing their joint flight in orbit. According to the telemetric information, all the systems and equipment on board are functioning normally. Soviet scientists, designers and engineers have solved the most complicated scientific and technical problems to make automatic orbital docking of spacecraft possible. This achievement opens new perspectives for the construction of large scientific space stations, capable of carrying out intensive and complex investigations of outer space and the planets. The realization of automatic docking in orbit of two artificial earth satellite is another great success for Soviet science and technology on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the glorious Great October Revolution.
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All systems working exactly as scheduled On October 30, 1967, the docked satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 continued their joint flight for 3 hours 30 minutes, completing the schedule of scientific and technical investigations. The automatic uncoupling of the satellite took place on October 30, at 1550 hours Moscow time on receipt of signals from the earth. The process of uncoupling Kosmos-i86 and Kosmo$-i88 was transmitted to the earth through television and other systems. Some time after uncoupling, the two satellite were put into different orbits with the help of the propulsion systems on board. All the systems which carried out the uncoupling and maneuvering process worked normally. Kosmos-r86a.nd Kosmos-i88, after the successful completion of the program of automatic detection, rendezvous, docking and uncoupling in orbit, continued their separate flights for further exploration of space.
Pravda, October 31, 1967

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT KOSMOS-i86 SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETES FLIGHT On October 31, 1967, Kosmos-i86, on receiving a signal from earth, completed its flight in outer space on its 65th circuit. At 1120 hours Moscow time it made a soft landing in a predetermined area. The scientific assignment, envisaged by the flight program of Kosmos-i86, the automatic docking of two satellite, had been fully accomplished. During all the stages of detection, rendezvous and docking and also during uncoupling and landing, all the modified systems on board Kosmos186, for solving new problems of astronautics, functioned highly satisfactorily. The second satellite, Kosmos-i88, after uncoupling, continued to carry out the space exploration program.
Pravda, November I, 1967

KOSMOS-i88 STILL IN ORBIT Kosmos-i88 after carrying out the first automatic orbital docking and uncoupling with Kosmos-i86, continues in orbit. During this flight, further study of the orientation and motion control

systems and the various power plants and radio complex are being carried out. Kosmos-i88 carried out orientation and maneuvers in outer space on receiving signals from earth. All its systems are functioning normally. The satellite Kosmos-i88 is carrying out the scheduled program and the coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
(TASS) Pravda, November 2, 1967

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT A GREAT EXPERIMENT IN SPACE COMPLETED An important program of experimental investigations with the help of specially equipped artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 was completed on November 2, 1967. The main aim of this experiment was to carry out the automatic docking of two artificial earth satellite and confirm in outer space scientific ideas and design details. The program of the experimental investigations envisaged: launching the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 into orbit and its independent flight for three days; launching of a second satellite Kosmos-i88 into an orbit nearby; rendezvous of the two satellite, automatic docking, joint flight of the coupled complex in orbit, and finally automatic uncoupling of the satellite. During the flight of the "active" satellite Kosmos-i86 from October 27 to October 30, all its systems on board were tested and made ready for the main task of orbital docking. Kosmos-i86 carried out all the planned maneuvers in space. All the systems of the satellite, including the computers, functioned normally. On October 30, Kosmos-i88 was launched into orbit for automatic docking with Kosmos-i86. As the deciphering of telemetric measurements and the study of telecasts have shown, the radio capture of the "passive" satellite Kosmos-i88 took place according to program. Kosmos-i86 maneuvering in outer space with the help of a special propulsion system and making use of the necessary radio network, approached Kosmos-i88 within a distance of 300 meters. As a result of the maneuvers, both satellite were situated in orbits of similar parameters, which enabled the docking to be carried out. The processes of "mooring" and automatic docking were carried out precisely according to the programming of the computer. The rendezvous at a distance of less

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than 300 meters was carried out with the help of low thrust propulsion systems. The whole complex of radio equipment, computers and automatic systems of both satellite functioned perfectly throughout the whole operation of flight, rendezvous, docking and uncoupling. The orbital experiments of the "passive" satellite, Kosmos-i88 continued for two days after the uncoupling and the recovery of Kosmos-i86on earth. During this period Kosmos-i88 maneuvered in orbit and the efficiency of all its systems under different flight conditions was checked. Kosmos-i88 was recovered on earth after the completion of its flight program. The results of the experiment confirmed the correctness of the scientific ideas and design details, enabling the carrying out of the automatic orbital docking. This experiment in space marked another scientific and technical achievement in the development of Soviet science and opens new horizons in the construction of big scientific space stations. The present level of technological progress has shown that the automatic assembling of spacecraft can be carried out in orbit without the participation of man. The successful solution by Soviet scientists, designers and engineers, of one of the most complicated problems of astronautics brightens the prospect for the creation and equipping of scientific space stations, which would ensure further development of rocket and space technology. The automatic docking of two artificial earth satellite is a great new achievement of the Soviet people in the conquest of outer space.
Pravda, November 3, 1967

NEW CHAPTER IN THE CONQUEST OF SPACE

Successful accomplishment of automatic orbital docking of spacecraft

On October 30, 1967, on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Revolution, another outstanding space achievement has been accomplished by the Soviet Union. For the first time in the history of astronautics, an unmanned automatic docking of the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 was carried out in orbit. This experiment was an outstanding Soviet victory in the conquest of outer space and a new chapter in the development of space technology. It is well known that the launching of a payload into orbit round the earth requires a considerable amount of energy. Orbital launching of one
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kilogram load of an artificial earth satellite needs about 50 kilograms of the initial weight of the carrier rocket. Thus, for carrying out the flight of a manned spacecraft with an astronaut for a few days, the carrier must initially weigh a few hundred tons. Manned flight to the planets of the solar system is still more complicated in its energy aspect. This needs the launching of a few hundred tons payload into earth's orbit, while the initial weight would increase up to a few thousand tons. Such carrier rockets, being unique in their design, need a lengthy and complicated processing on the earth as well as during flight. Massive interplanetary stations, which can exist for long periods of time, are required for the exploration of outer space and the solution of a number of scientific problems, astronomical investigations and prolonged medicobiological experiments. These stations can be assembled from separate parts which are launched into orbit by comparatively lighter carriers. Thus orbital docking of spacecraft solves a most important astronomical problem. The docking can be carried out entirely automatically or with the participation of man. Although the participation of an astronaut makes the job easier, in a number of cases automatic docking is essential and it has in fact many advantages. The extended functioning of the future space station will involve continuous supply of fuel stocks and replacement of equipment and personnel. The automatic orbital docking of spacecraft is the best solution for all these requirements. The execution of the docking operation by man greatly complicates the astronaut's work at the control of the spacecraft. The presence of a man on board requires an increase in the weight of the whole spacecraft, since the living conditions and safety of the astronaut have to be ensured. Also, the recovery and relief of the crew has to be ensured. This leads to a decrease in the payload intended for scientific apparatus. Automatization of the processes of rendezvous and docking is imperative for the solution of future problems in the conquest of outer space and is a pressing need today. The task of automatic orbital coupling of objects, moving at a velocity of about 8 kilometers per second, poses great technical difficulties. Just before docking, the spacecraft have to be put into orbits lying in the same plane and having extremely close parameters. Also, it is essential that the relative velocities during the rendezvous should be small, decreasing to a few tens of centimeters per second, at the end of the process, so that the craft couple without collision. The craft must approach each other in particular positions, namely, their docking units must face each other. For automatic orbital docking careful designing and highly developed radio control systems are required. The apparatus must locate the other satellite and establish particular relative velocities and distances. On the basis of this data the command for mutual orientation has to be worked out. In this process of closing up, one of the craft has to be "active". It performs
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the processes of searching, detection, closing up and rendezvous. The other craft is "passive" (Fig. i). It simply orients itself in space in a particular way at the time of docking and serves as a beacon for the "active" spacecraft.
'Kosmos-186" Trajectory of launch ito orbit Kosmos-188"

Orbit of the satellite-' "Kosmos-188"

Orbit of the satellite "Kosmos-186"

Fig. 1. Launching of "passive" satellite into the zone of automatic docking.

When the two satellite are only a few hundred meters apart—-the most important and complicated stage of the work of their guiding apparatus begins. The satellite slowly move toward each other's docking unit (Fig. 2) and mechanical coupling takes place. This leads to a collision-proof firm docking between the bodies of the two spacecraft and the connection of electrical circuits. This is completed with a steady mechanical coupling at the touching units and at the surfaces. Thus after docking, the two satellite should become a single unit and should carry out the flight as a single complex with the same functional tasks. Completely automatic docking offers additional difficulties in its execution. Specialized radio equipment and computers have to be worked out which function as an automatic pilot. The development of such systems even on the earth is very complicated, not to speak of conditions in outer space. Soviet scientists and designers carried out prolonged investigations for the building of new electronic systems and components for rendezvous and docking. In fact most of the work was done on the earth.
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Fig. 2. Automatic satellite Kosmos-186 and Kosmos-188 at the final stage of rendezvous. 1. Docking components; 2. Search antenna and self-guide: 3. Solar batteries; 4. Radio complex antenna.

The automatic experimental satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 were intended for the testing of scientific ideas and constructional details. The following special equipment was put on board both the docking satellite, Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88: — apparatus for the orientation system and automatic motion control; — recoverable power plant for orbit correction and rendezvous; — low thrust engines for orientation and "mooring" at the time of docking; —• apparatus for docking control and the docking units. After the launching of both satellite into orbit, the mutual search was carried out by the guiding radio system, which measured the following parameters of relative motion of the satellite: —• distance between them; —• rate of change of this distance; — angular velocity of the sightline, joining the centers of mass of the two satellite; —• angles between the sightline and the space vehicle axes. The satellite orientation and motion control systems automatically turned the spacecraft about the sightline by switching on or off different power plants in such a way that the sightline shifts parallel to itself in space, while the relative velocity of the satellite changes according to a specially selected guidance law. The guidance law and the order in which the satellite turn,
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were selected in such a way that a definite closing up of the satellite from a definite distance takes place with the minimum expenditure of fuel. The power plant for rendezvous and correction works up to a distance of 300 meters. They are brought still closer by low-thrust engines. This assures a small relative velocity —-of the order of o.i to 0.5 meters per second — and consequently, a collision-proof docking. For the purpose of docking, one of the satellite has an active type of docking unit, i.e. a bar, while the other has a passive type of docking unit, i.e. a cone. The docking cone with a hollow is the target where the bar enters at the final stage of the satellite rendezvous. Kosmos-i86, launched into orbit on October 27, 1967, was "active". For the first three days of the orbital flight, all the systems on board, the power plant and the maneuvering capacity were checked. During flight, orbital corrections were made. On October 29, the orbit was corrected, so that on October 30 it would pass over the launching point. On October 30, at a precisely fixed moment, Kosmos-i88 was launched into orbit. The launching of Kosmos-i88 with certain deviation in coordinates and relative velocity was permissible. The relative shift of the two satellite from now on would be determined completely automatically. They were to locate each other in space, approach and dock. All the main operations for docking were done outside the visual range of Soviet Union territory. Before docking, Kosmos-186 had the following parameters: orbital period — 88.64 minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 180 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 260 km; inclination —• 5 1 .68 deg. When launched Kosmos-i88 had the following parameters: orbital period — 88.97 min; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 200 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 276 km; inclination — 51.68 deg. At the time of the second launching into orbit, the distance between the two satellite was about 24 kilometers, and their relative velocity was about 25 meters per second (i.e. 90 kilometers per hour). The process of detection, rendezvous and docking, as well as the parameters of relative motion of the satellite, were registered by the telemetric system and recorded in the datastorage device in areas outside the zone of radiovisibility. At the end of the first stage of flight after the docking, i.e. at the 4Qth circuit of the satellite Kosmos-i86 and at the first circuit of /Cosmos- 1 88, when the satellite entered the Soviet zone of visibility the whole process of docking was recorded on the basis of telemetric data. The docked satellite were telecasted to the earth. The docked complex continued its flight for 3.5 hours, during which period
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a checking of the systems and electric network on board the satellite was carried out. At 1550 hours Moscow time, a signal to uncouple was given. The process of uncoupling was observed by TV at observation posts. After the signal one could see the clear and smooth process of uncoupling and separation of the satellite, which was followed by a gradual increase of distance between them. Kosmos-i86, after completing its exploration program, soft landed in a predetermined area. Kosmos-188 continues in orbit, carrying out further investigations according to its flight plan. The results of the experiment have fully confirmed the correctness of the scientific ideas and constructional details underlying the successful automatic docking. The automatic orbital docking of earth satellite opens new perspectives for the creation of sophisticated systems in outer space and multipurpose automatic space stations for the exploration of outer space and for interplanetary flights. It is the greatest achievement in the development of space technology. The scientists, designers and workers have dedicated this outstanding Soviet achievement in the field of space research to the 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
Pravda, November I, 1967

To
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU, THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR. We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who took part in the building and launching of the two artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 report to the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, of the successful accomplishment of automatic orbital docking and uncoupling of two spacecraft for the first time in the world. We, with all the Soviet people, are happy that this new, outstanding contribution of our socialist motherland to the cause of outer space exploration has come on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Revolution. The grand success of Soviet science and technology in the conquest of outer space was made possible by the socialist system, the heroic labor of all the Soviet people and the tireless care and attention of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government. We dedicate this new achievement of Soviet science and technology to the 5Oth anniversary of the Soviet system.
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We assure the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, that we shall continue to work in the future also towards the solution of the problems involved in the further peaceful conquest of outer space and shall work hard and selflessly in the name of a bright future, namely, communism!
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations which took part in the creation of the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 and in the accomplishment of the outstanding scientific and technical experiment

Dear Comrades! The Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers and all collectives and organizations, which took part in the building, testing and launching of the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88. This is a new outstanding victory for our Soviet motherland in the peaceful conquest of outer space. The accomplishment of the first automatic orbital docking and uncoupling of artificial earth satellite is a fitting gift for the Soviet motherland on the eve of the 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Revolution. The new victory in the conquest of outer space, as also the successful flight of the space probe Venera-4, speaks much of the impressive development of Soviet science and technology. All progressive people are aware of the great achievements of our nation during the years of Soviet power. These achievements are a result of the selfless labor of the Soviet people, who have transformed our motherland into a major power which is playing a leading role in the progress of the world, within a short historical period. The Soviet people warmly greet the glorious scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who have created the remarkable artificial satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 and have accomplished an unmatched experiment in outer space. Dear comrades, we wish you further success in the noble cause of peaceful conquest of outer space and in fulfilling the tasks put forward by the 23rd Congress of the CPSU.
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, November i, 1967
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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT KOSMOS-2I2 IN ORBIT On April 14, 1968, at 1300 hours Moscow time, another artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-sis, was launched from the Soviet Union. The satellite has scientific apparatus on board for the further exploration of outer space and for the perfecting of new systems and design elements for spacecraft in accordance with the schedule announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. The satellite was launched into orbit with the following parameters: orbital period —88.75min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 239 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 210 km; inclination — 51.7 deg. Besides the special scientific apparatus, the satellite had on board a radio transmitter working at a frequency of 20.008 megahertz, a radio unit for the exact measurement of orbital elements, a radiotelemetric system for transmitting data to the earth about the functioning of instruments and scientific and technical apparatus. The apparatus on board the satellite functioned normally. The coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, April 15, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SECOND AUTOMATIC ORBITAL DOCKING On April 15, 1968, another artificial earth satellite, Kosmos-si^ was launched from Soviet Union for conducting investigations of outer space and for testing new systems and elements in the design of spacecraft in accordance with the schedule announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. The satellite in orbit had the following parameters: — 89.16 min; orbital period — 291 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 205 km; inclination -51.4 deg. On April 14, 1968, at 1321 hours Moscow time, the automatic orbital docking of Kosmos-si^ with Kosmos-sis took place. Kosmos-212 and ICosmos-sij, equipped with special systems and radio devices and computers, carried out mutual detection, rendezvous, and "mooring" and firmly docked with each other. A telecast of the docked spacecraft as well as telemetric information
26

was transmitted to earth by the television and telemetric devices on board. The firmly docked Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-sig satellite are continuing their joint flight in orbit. According to the data transmitted by the telemetric system, the apparatus and systems on board the satellite are functioning normally. This is the second automatic orbital docking of Soviet spacecraft. Automatic decking has great importance in the exploration of outer space.

On April 15, 1968, the artificial satellite Kosmos-2i2 and continued t) orbit docked together for 3 hours 50 minutes. The testing of new systems and scientific and technical investigations were carried out during the joint flight. On April 15, 1968, at 1711 hours Moscow time, the automatic uncoupling of the artificial satellite took place. The television systems on board transmitted to the earth a telecast of the uncoupling process. Soon after the uncoupling, Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig were transferred to separate orbits. All the systems involved in the uncoupling and maneuvering of the satellite functioned normally. The satellite Kosmos-srs and Kosmos-2i3 continue their flight and the exploration of outer space.
Pravda, April 16, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT PROGRAM COMPLETED An extensive program of experimental investigations, carried out by the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-si^ was completed on April 20, 1968. The main task of this program was to perfect an improved system of motion control and design details of the spacecraft for their automatic orbital docking. The program also included the scientific exploration of outer space. As has already been reported, the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-2i2 was launched into orbit on April 14, 1968. During its flight, all the systems on board were made ready for the automatic docking. On April 14, 1968, at 1910 hours Moscow time, a correction of the Kosmos-2i2 orbit was made, so that it should pass directly over the launching point of the Kosmos-2i3 satellite. On April 15, 1968, Kosmos-2i3 was launched into orbit. Kosmos-siz
2?

approached its launching point. The satellite Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-sig on receiving signals from the computer and automatic control devices on board, carried out mutual search, rendezvous and "mooring". Firm mechanical and electrical docking was achieved. The satellite continued their coupled flight for 3 hours 50 minutes to fulfill a program of scientific investigations. During this period both satellite worked as a single research unit. On April 15, 1968, at 1711 hours Moscow time, on receiving a signal from the earth, the automatic uncoupling of the satellite Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig took place. After the uncoupling, the satellite were transferred to separate orbits to continue their flight programs. TV cameras, set on the outer surface of Kosmos-212, transmitted to earth a telecast of the docked spacecraft and the uncoupling operation. During the next few days of flight the working of the systems of satellite was checked up, and the correction of orbits and maneuvers in outer space were carried out. The complex testing of the radio network, orientation and motion control systems as well as the propulsion systems was carried out during the flight. Throughout the flight these systems on both Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-2i3 functioned normally. After completion of the scheduled program of experimental investigations, Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-2i3, on signals from earth, were returned to the ground in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union on April 19 and 20 respectively. The whole complex of operations, including the automatic docking, carried out by Kosmos-ziz and Kosmos-zi^, confirmed the possibility of building orbital stations and interplanetary spaceships.
Pravda, April ar, 1968

AUTOMATIC DOCKING OF SATELLITE KOSMOS-212 AND KOSMOS-2I3 The selfless labor of the Soviet scientists, engineers, technicians and workers, inspired by the grand perspectives of communism, has once again been crowned with success. The satellite Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-2i3 have accomplished automatic docking in a near-earth orbit. The problem of rendezvous, docking and assembly of spacecraft in outer space is one of the most important for the study and further conquest of outer space. There are two possible ways of accomplishing the flight of man to the planets of our solar system. According to one, a spaceship, assembled on
28

earth, is launched into an interplanetary trajectory with the help of a powerful carrier-rocket. The other method is to assemble the spaceship directly in outer space in a near-earth orbit by docking and then guiding it on the interplanetary track. The launching of spacecraft from the earth makes it essential either to limit their size or to create extremely powerful carrier-rockets. Assembly of craft in outer space under conditions of weightlessness enables the avoidance of unnecessary load of the construction, and the most suitable types can be built. What is true of the assembly of spacecraft in orbit is also true of the assembly of large orbital scientific stations for carrying out a wide range of scientific investigations in outer space. The orbital scientific stations of the future will be large spacecraft, with research facilities for scientists for long periods of work in outer space in comfortable conditions. The crew of these stations would have to be replaced periodically. For their replacement it is desirable to utilize special spacecraft which would start from the earth and dock with the scientific station. The necessities for living, rocket fuel and scientific equipment would also be similarly delivered to the station. Orbital stations can also function as a kind of dock for receiving and repairing spacecraft, after their return from flights. These stations can be made bases for assembling parts brought from the earth for constructing spacecraft for long distance interplanetary flights. The method of automatic assembling of craft and stations in orbit will become essential for scientific expeditions to the planets of the solar system and for the direct exploration of these planets with automated spacecraft. For such expeditions it would be advisable to detach the planet ship from the main spacecraft in an orbit as an artificial planet satellite. The explorers can land on the planet in the planet craft. After completion of the work the craft with explorers starts from the planet, approaches and docks with the main spacecraft waiting in a near-planet orbit. This way, it is not necessary for the main craft to land on the planet, which enables a considerable reduction in its weight. For the study of the planets with automated spacecraft this method of docking enables the carrying of scientific material directly from the planet to the main spacecraft, which would deliver it to the earth. It is necessary for helping astronauts who happen to be involved in an accident to perfect the methods of unmanned rendezvous and docking of spacecraft. For example, let us suppose that the devices or the retrorocket for returning a spacecraft to the earth fail and it is not possible to return. A rescue craft must be sent to the craft in trouble, which would approach and then dock and take its crew back to earth. In such cases an automatic docking of the rescue craft with the wrecked
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one is the most suitable, and it would not be necessary to send a special rescue crew into orbit. But for carrying out these tasks it is first necessary to perfect the automatic docking systems.

Automatic orbital docking of artificial earth satellite, moving with a velocity of about 8 kilometers per second (i.e. more than 28 thousand kilometers per hour) is a very difficult technical task. The process of automatic docking of spacecraft in a near-earth orbit consists of the following main steps: — launching of both satellite into the zone where mutual search and "capture" of the satellite by radio-technological means takes place; — automatic rendezvous of the satellite, during which the "active"* satellite, with the help of a power plant for correction, approaches the "passive" satellite up to a distance of 300-400 meters; — automatic "mooring", during which both satellite approach each other with minimal relative velocity until their docking units are touching; —• the docking itself, which is completed by a firm mechanical coupling of the satellite and connection of electric circuits, thus making it a single complex. The launching of the satellite into the zone of automatic rendezvous includes also such preliminary work as the correction of the orbit of the first satellite, calculation of the exact time of launching of the second satellite and its entry into orbit with the required accuracy. Firstly the "active" satellite Kosmos-siz was launched into orbit on April 14, 1968, with the following parameters: inclination — 51.7 deg; orbital height (at perigee) — 210 km; orbital height (at apogee) — 239 km; orbital period — 88.75 min. After a check of the main systems on board and determination of the parameters of the actual orbit, the necessary preparations were made for the correction of the orbit of Kosmos-zis so that it should pass over the launching point of Kosmos-sig. For this purpose a correction signal was given to Kosmos-212 on its fourth circuit. The control system automatically oriented the satellite and switched on the power plant at the fixed moment. As a result of this correction, the orbit of Kosmos-2i2 at the time of the launching of Kosmos-si^ passed over
"That satellite is called "active" which does maneuvring operations in the process of automatic search and rendezvous as distinct from the "passive" satellite which only fulfills the function of following the "active" satellite.
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the launching point as envisaged. Kosmos-sig was launched into orbit the next day, April 15, with the following parameters: inclination — 51.4 deg; — 205 km; orbital height (at perigee) orbital height (at apogee) — 291 km; orbital period — 89.16 min. The timing for the launch of Kosmos-si^ into orbit was selected so that both satellite should be in the rendezvous zone. At the moment of the final stage of the carrier rocket, the distance between the satellite in. orbit was about 5 kilometers and their relative velocity was of the order of 30 meters per second (i.e. 108 kilometers per hour). Immediately after Kosmos-213 entered the orbit, mutual search of the spacecraft with the help of radio systems started. The search ended with a perfect "radio capture". The performance of the systems of both satellite during their rendezvous was registered and transmitted to earth by telemetric systems. The telemetric information from the satellite enabled us to watch from earth the maneuvering of Kosmos-2i2, the changing of its original orbit and rotation in space. When the distance between the two satellite was a few hundred meters, the low-thrust engines were switched on. With the help of these engines the "mooring" was effected. During this process the distance between the two satellite continued to decrease and their relative velocities decreased to about 0.1-0.2 meters per second. The automatic search, rendezvous and "mooring" (Fig. 3) were carried out over the territory of the Soviet Union, in the zone of radio visibility of ground control. The firm docking—mechanical coupling and connection of electric circuits—was accomplished outside Soviet territory over the Pacific. Information during this period of the completion of docking was received through short-wave radio channels. The docking was carried out 47 minutes after the launching of Kosmos-2i3, i.e. at 1321 hours Moscow time. In the next circuit, when the satellite returned to the ground control zone of radiovisibility a telecast of the firmly docked satellite was received on earth. This telecast was transmitted by a TV camera fixed on Kosmos-2i2. One could clearly see the solar batteries of Kosmos-si^, its body and certain parts of construction in the TV photographs. The joint flight of the docked satellite lasted for 3 hours 50 minutes. During all this period the satellite worked as a single unit mechanically as well as electrically. During the docked flight, the working of the systems and assemblies on board was checked and found to be working normally. After completion of the scheduled program the uncoupling of the satellite was carried out on receiving a signal from the earth on April 15, 1968, at

Rendezvous

"Kosmos-212" before the launching of "Kosmos-213"

j' I

Docked satellites

Fig. 3. A schematic diagram of the automatic rendezvous and docking of the satellite Kosmos-212 and Kosmos-213.

1711 hours Moscow time. The process of uncoupling took place over the territory of the Soviet Union and was viewed on TV. Soon after uncoupling, the satellite were transferred to separate orbits, where they continued their flight for four more days. During their further flight both satellite changed their orbits a number of times, and carried out orientation and maneuvers in space. Scientific investigation were also carried out by apparatus on board. After the completion of their research program the satellite were returned to earth on April 19 and 20, 1968. Thus, in a prolonged experiment for a number of days, the working of the whole complex of systems and devices for automatic rendezvous, "mooring" and docking of satellite, complicated maneuvering in orbit and landing in a predetermined area, was checked up. The different systems for the launching of spacecraft into the automatic rendezvous zone for docking can be divided into three groups: — simultaneous launching of the spacecraft from two launching pads and their entry into the area of automatic rendezvous. In this case the process of rendezvous starts immediately after the satellite's ascent and the separation of the satellite from the last stages of the carrier-rockets; — sequential launching of spacecraft into orbit from one or two launching

pads. Here the orbit of the first satellite is selected in such a way that the path of its flight should pass approximately over the launching point of the second satellite. The launching time of the second satellite is so chosen that it directly enters the automatic rendezvous zone; — sequential launching of spacecraft into orbits lying in the same plane. The craft move for some time in separate orbits and then are launched into the automatic rendezvous zone with the help of a number of corrections in the orbit. The selection of one particular system for the launching of spacecraft into the automatic rendezvous zone depends upon the flight program. For the launching of Kosmos-sis and Kosmos-zig the system of sequential launching was selected and the automatic rendezvous was carried out immediately after the ascent of the second spacecraft into orbit as an artificial earth satellite. This system permits great accuracy of launching since the position of the first satellite is determined exactly by the preliminary trajectory measurements. It was envisaged that both the carrier-rockets would be launched from the same launching site with an interval of one day between the two launchings. During the orbiting period of the first satellite, the parameters of its orbit gradually changed because of many factors. The main factors included the atmospheric deceleration and the effect of the earth's oblateness. Also the orbital height of the first satellite in the rendezvous zone changed. For ensuring minimal deviations between the orbital heights of Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-2i3, the carrier rocket of Kosmos-si^ was equipped to attain the required orbital height. The launching of the carrier-rocket was made by a special device, which exactly sustained the computed launching time, taking into account the deviations in the distance between the two satellite along the orbit. Kosmos-2i2 was launched on April 14, at 1300 hours and Kosmos-2i3 on April 15, at 1234 hours Moscow time. One of the most important systems on board both satellite was the orientation and motion control system. This system carried out the damping of the initial angular velocities of the satellite after separation from the carrierrocket, orientation of the solar batteries toward the sun, orientation of the fore-and-aft axis of the satellite along the orbit velocity vector, and the orbit corrections. The systems on board carried out mutual search of the satellite, rendezvous, "mooring", delivery of retrothrust for leaving the orbit and stabilization during the process of leaving the orbit. The system consisted of amplifying and transforming devices, computers, sensors and slave mechanisms. The amplifying and transforming devices and computers are meant for processing the information received from the sensors and formation of a
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steering signal for the slave mechanisms. The sensors in the system are: — angular velocity sensors, i.e. gyroscopic instruments, which measure the components of angular velocity of the satellite for leading the damping and control signals into the control system; — photoelectric sun-position indicator, which generates signals for the detection of the sun and its "capture", and then turns the satellite around on its axis, perpendicular to the plane of the solar batteries, and other sensors of the orientation system; — free gyroscopes, which generate signals necessary for the stabilization of the satellite during the process of delivery of corrective or retro thrust; — integrator of linear accelerations, which acts for the forming of the signals for motor shutdown when the required increase in velocity has been attained; — radio location apparatus for search and detection, which carried out mutual detection of the satellite, generates signals necessary for mutual orientation of the satellite, and for the determination of the distance between the satellite, velocity for the change of the distance, angular velocity of the line joining the satellite (sightline) and the angles of mutual orientation. The slave mechanisms of the control system consist of rendezvous and corrective power plant, and "mooring" and orientation engines. The rendezvous and corrective power plant has comparatively a larger thrust and is envisaged for thrust application a number of times. The "mooring" and orientation engines are low-thrust jet engines, which have a relay-impulse mode of functioning. The rendezvous and corrective power plant works during the process of orbit correction at the stage of rendezvous and leaving the orbit. The low-thrust engine works during orientation, stabilization and "mooring" of the satellite. The analysis of telemetric measurements showed that the control systems of the satellite functioned normally. The docking process took place as follows: After the entry of the second satellite into orbit, and mutual radio "capture", and after the turning of the satellite into the necessary position with respect to the sightline, the process of automatic rendezvous started. The computers received from the radio detection devices information about the distance between the satellite, rate of change of this distance, angular velocity of the sightline, and the angles between the sightline and the constructional axes of the satellite. They also received information about the angular velocities of rotation of the satellite. On the basis of this information the maneuvering of the active satellite was calculated and carried out, while the passive satellite was put in the required position.
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The process of automatic rendezvous of the satellite continued till the distance between the satellite was 350 meters. The relative velocity of the satellite at this time was of the order of 2 meters per second. At this moment the process of automatic "mooring" of the satellite began. At the time of "mooring" the satellite were stabilized with respect to the sightline in such a way that their docking units faced ea,ch other while the mutual roll attitude remained within the particular 'mrntsv'SHOHf'«<••;"?. : ;' , . • ; ; • ' • The "mooring" ended with the mechanical coupling of the satellite. When the satellite touched each other, the relative displacement of the axes, of the docking units did not exceed 0.4 meters, while the relative velocity was of the order of 0.1-0.2 meters per second. The docking units have shock absorbers which ensured a careful and shockproof mechanical coupling. After the alignment, the satellite were brought closer till the butt joints coincided. Meanwhile the plug joints were connected, and electric connection between the spacecraft was established. The automatic functioning of the docking units at the time of docking and uncoupling was provided by special sensors, computers and control instruments. On receiving the signal for uncoupling, the mechanical coupling was unlocked and the satellite separated because of the reaction of the springs. After uncoupling, the satellite continued in orbit according to the flight program. During the flight, which continued for a number of days, scientific investigations as well as the testing of satellite devices, and systems were carried out. Throughout the flight, the radio devices, power plants and computers on board functioned normally and reliably. After the completion of the scheduled program of experimental and scientific investigations, the satellite Kosmos-2i2 and Kosmos-2i3, on a signal from the earth, were returned to the earth in a predetermined region in the Soviet Union on April 19 and 20 respectively. The descent and landing systems of both satellite functioned normally. The whole complex of operations, especially the automatic docking, carried out by the artificial satellite Kosmos-zis and Kosmos-sig, is a big new step towards the creation of orbital stations and interplanetary spacecraft. (TASS)
Praada, April 21,1968

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II
MANNED SPACECRAFT

Page Intentionally Left Blank

TASS ANNOUNCEMENTS SOTUZ-3 IN ORBIT On October 26, 1968, at 1134 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz~3 spacecraft entered into orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the help of a powerful carrier rocket. The spacecraft is piloted by Soviet citizen, Pilot-Astronaut Colonel Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, Hero of the Soviet Union, and Honored Test Pilot of the Soviet Union. Reliable two-way radio communication has been established with the spacecraft. The craft transmits at frequencies of 15.008 and 20.008 megahertz. Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi reports that he is feeling well. The Soyuz-3 spacecraft was launched into an orbit close to the planned one, and has the following parameters: orbital period—88.6 minutes; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee)—225 kilometers; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee)—205 kilometers; orbital inclination—-51 degrees 40 minutes. The systems on board the Soyuz-3 are functioning normally. Pressure and temperature are within the prescribed limits. Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi has begun the flight program. The spacecraft Soyuz-3 continues in orbit. During the process of launching as well as during flight, the astronaut carried out all the operations envisaged
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by the program. He reported in detail about the functioning of the systems on board. Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is feeling well. On the first circuit, Soyuz-3 carried out rendezvous with the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2. In the first stage the craft were brought to a distance of 200 meters by an automatic system. After that the operations for rendezvous were carried out by Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi manually. The Soyuz-2 was launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite on October 25, 1968, for carrying out joint experiments with the manned spacecraft Soyuz-3- The initial parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-2 were: orbital period—88.5 minutes; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee)—224 kilometers; minimum distance from the earth (atperigee)—185 kilometers; orbital inclination1—51.7 degrees. A telecast was transmitted from Soyuz-3According to the telemetric measurement data, the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. Temperature and pressure are within the prescribed limits.

Commander of the Soyuz-3 spacecraft. Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.

Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi is successfully carrying out program of experiments and research.

the

scheduled

The spacecraft Soyuz-3 completed five circuits of the earth by 1845 hours Moscow time. In regular radio contact with earth, Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich stated that the flight program was being successfully carried out. He is feeling well. The systems on board the Soyuz-3 are functioning normally: pressure in the spacecraft cabin is 760 mm Hg and the temperature is 17°C. In accordance with the program, solar orientation of the spacecraft was carried out. On the fifth circuit Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi shifted to a compartment adjoining the astronaut's cabin, meant for scientific investigations and for the astronaut's rest-periods. From 1918 hours on October 26 to 0516 hours on October 27, the spacecraft Soyuz-3 will orbit beyond the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During this period Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi will rest.
Pracda, October 27, 1968

PI LOT-ASTRONAUT G.T. BEREGOVOI'S STATEMENT BEFORE THE START Before leaving for space in Soyuz-3, Pilot-Astronaul Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi said: "Dear Comrades and Friends! "The conquest of outer space continues successfully. The automatic docking of Soviet satellite in a near-earth orbit has been successfully accomplished. The historical space probe flights of Venera-j and %ond-5 have been completed. These outstanding new achievements of Soviet science and technology are a result of the creative boldness and heroic labor of our people. "I have been given the great honor of carrying out a flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-3- This new space flight will be carried out on the eve of the 5 ist anniversary of the Socialist Great October Revolution. We dedicate this flight to this auspicious occasion. I am eager to carry out this honorable task for my motherland. I assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Soviet Government and our people that I shall make every effort to fulfill the tasks entrusted to me. "Till we meet again on our native earth, dear friends!" (TASS)
Pravda, October 27, 1968
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Biographical notes

Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi was born on April 15, 1921, in Fedorovka, a village of Karlovka district in Poltava province. He spent his childhood in the town of Yenakievo. After finishing the 8th class of the middle school, Georgii started working at the Yenakievo Steel Plant. Since his youth Georgii had been interested in aviation. After completing the course at the local aeroclub, he joined the Lugansk School for Military Pilots in December 1938. Georgii Timofeevich has served in the Soviet Air Force for thirty years. From the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War he was with the field forces. He took part in field operations in fighter aircraft on different fronts. In August 1943, Georgii Timofeevich joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In October 1944 he was honored with the title of the Hereof the Soviet Union, for his courage and heroism displayed in the battles against the Nazi army of occupation. After the war Georgii Timofeevich finished the Higher Officer's School and also the course for test pilots. In 1956 while continuing his work as a test pilot, he finished the Red Banner Air Force Academy (now named after Yu.A. Gagarin). Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi worked as a test pilot from 1948 to 1964. In 1961 he was awarded the title of "Honored Test Pilot of the Soviet Union." In 1964 he was taken into the detachment of astronauts. Georgii Timofeevich is a Hero of the Soviet Union and has been decorated with a number of orders and medals. Georgii Timofeevich is married. His wife, Lidiya Matveevna, born in 1929, studied in the History Faculty of the Moscow State University and is now working as a history teacher in a secondary school. Their son Viktor is a student, and daughter Lyudmila is studying in school. Comrade Beregovoi's father was a worker in railway communications and died in 1950. His mother, Mariya Semenona, born in 1898, is living with the family of her son.
Pravda, October 27, 1968

RADIO MESSAGE FROM I am reporting to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and to the Soviet Government that the flight is continuing normally.
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The maneuvering and rendezvous with Soyuz-s has been successfully carried out. Mood is fine. Warmly thank the Central Committee of the Party and the Soviet Government for the faith shown in me. The flight is continuing according to program. Carrying out scientific experiments. Systems are working fine. Condition is excellent.
Pilot-Astronaut G. Beregovoi Piauda, October 27, 1968

SALUTORY TELEGRAM TO ASTRONAUT G.T. BEREGOVOI FROM PARTY AND GOVERNMENT LEADERS Dear Comrade Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi: On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you on a successful start of the flight and for the completion of the operations of maneuvering and rendezvous of spacecraft in a near-earth orbit. The whole nation is watching your flight with unabated attention. We affectionately embrace you and wish you a'safe landing. Till we meet on earth!
L. Brezhnev, N. Podgornyi, A. Kosygin Pravda, October 27, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT -s AND SOYUZ-3 IN ORBIT Today, on October 27, 1968, at 0516 hours Moscow tune, the spacecraft Soyuz-3 piloted by Pilot-Astronaut Comrade Beregovoi entered the zone of radiovisibility of the Soviet Far-East observation posts during its I3th circuit of the earth. The tracking system on earth again established direct radio contact with Comrade Beregovoi after a ten-hour interval. Georgii Timofeevich reported that he had rested well, was cheerful and that all the spacecraft systems were functioning excellently. At 0430 hours Moscow time he began the program for the second day of the flight. Comrade Beregovoi slept in a special compartment, designed for carrying out investigations and for rest. He slept well. After getting up he did some physical exercises and had breakfast. His appetite was good.
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The medico-biological control system confirmed that the astronaut is in good health. While sleeping he had a smooth pulse rate of 56-60 per minute while the breathing rate was 16 per minute. At present his pulse rate is 64-66 per minute. According to the telemetric data there is no change in his cardiogram. His organism is adjusted to the conditions of space flight. There is a normal pressure of 780 mm Hg and a temperature of 21° G in the cabin. The observation posts in the Soviet Far-East received a clear telecast of the astronaut from the spacecraft. While orbiting over the territory of Vietnam, Comrade Beregovoi conveyed a salutory message to the heroic people of Vietnam: "From the spacecraft Soyuz-3 I send hearty greetings to the courageous Vietnamese people, who are heroically fighting against the American aggressors for freedom and independence." On October 27, Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi has to carry out a big program of scientific investigations. Radio communications are being maintained with him.

The Soyuz-3 spacecraft continues in orbit. At 1056 hours Moscow time; Soyuz-3 completed its i6th circuit around the earth. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi, during a session of radio communications, reported that he has completed all the scientific experiments which were to be carried out during this period. In particular, he took observations of the luminous particles, photographed cloud and snow covers of the earth, and the day and dusk horizons of the earth. At the end of the session Beregovoi reported: "The flight is normal and no complaints about the working of the systems. Feeling excellent."

Soyuz-3 continued in orbit for the second day. The scheduled program of scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments and investigations was fulfilled. During the flight a large number of maneuvers were carried out at the time of its rendezvous with the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2, by using automatic and manual controls. For changing the orbit of Soyuz-3 Comrade Beregovoi independently carried out the spacecraft orientation in outer space and switched on the power plant. During the first 24 hours, the astronaut observed the sky and the earth both with and without optical instruments. He took photographs of the cloud and snow covers of the earth as well as the visible earth-horizon. Along with the prescribed schedule of work and rest, Comrade Beregovoi
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took food, did physical exercises, shifted to the adjoining compartment of the spacecraft and slept there for seven hours. Comrade Beregovoi had constant radio contact with the earth. He reported to the Party and government leaders about the flight and conveyed greetings to the people of our planet. An analysis of the telemetric medical data confirmed that the astronaut was in good physiological condition. Blood circulation and respiration at the time of launching into orbit, during the changeover to the condition of weightlessness and during the course of flight in orbit were in conformity with flight conditions. The astronaut's organism got accustomed to the flight conditions in a short time. There were no deviations from normal in the electro-cardiogram, seismo-cardiogram and the pneumogram. Psycho-physiological analysis of the astronaut's actions while carrying out complicated scientific and technical experiments, functional tests, radio conversations as well as observations during the telecasts, revealed that Comrade Beregovoi had retained his large working capacity. Soyuz-3 continues in orbit, Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is successfully carrying out the scheduled program of space research. Steady radio contact is being maintained with him.

On October 27, at 1850 hours Moscow time the spacecraft Soyuz-3 Soyuz-s completed 22 and 38 circuits around the earth respectively. During the day, maneuvering (by automatic as well as by manual devices) was carried out according to program. After the rendezvous the spacecraft separated into orbits having the following parameters: For Soyuz-3'orbital period •—• 88.6 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 252 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 179 km; orbital inclination — 51.7 deg. For Soyuz-2: orbital period — 88.4 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —-231 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 181 km; orbital inclination —51.7 deg. During the day television broadcasts showing the astronaut at work were transmitted. In the course of the flight the astronaut carried out experimental investigations and took observations.
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Comrade Beregovoi is in good health. His pulse rate is 63 per minute and his respiration rate is 16 per minute. All the systems of Soyuz-3 and Soyuz-2 are functioning normally. The pressure in the cabin of Soyuz-3 is 785 mm Hg while the temperature is 23° C. From 1850 hours on October 27, up to 0448 hours on October 28, Soyuz-3 will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During this period Comrade Beregovoi will rest in the adjoining compartment.
Pravda, October 28, 1968

ASTRONAUT'S HEARTY THANKS Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi conveyed this message from Soyuz-3 '• "I heartily thank the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government for its warm greetings and good wishes. I shall make every effort to complete my task successfully."
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi Pravda, October 28, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOTUZ-3 STILL IN ORBIT
On October 28, 1968, at 0448 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3—during its agth circuit of the earth—entered the zone of radiovisibility of the observation posts in the Soviet Far-East. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi shifted from the compartment where he had slept, to the spacecraft cabin, where a session of television and radio communications was held with him. According to information received from Soyuz-3 tne astronaut is in good health and all the systems on board are functioning normally. After 25 minutes of physical exercise and breakfast, Comrade Beregovoi prepared himself for the program for the third day.

According to program, on October 28, 1968, Soyuz-s landed in a predetermined place in the Soviet Union. On receiving a signal from the earth, at 1025 hours the retrosystem was switched on. At 1051 hours the spacecraft entered the dense atmospheric layers, made a guided re-entry with aerodynamic control and landed on the earth. The spacecraft descended on a
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parachute, making use of the soft-landing system at the touchdown. During its flight Soyuz-2 fulfilled the scheduled program of working the spacecraft systems as well as of joint maneuvering and rendezvous with Soyuz-3At 1200 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed 33 circuits of the earth. All the spacecraft systems continue to function normally. Pressure and temperature are being maintained within the prescribed limits. Comrade Beregovoi is feeling well. The astronaut continued to conduct planned scientific experiments, namely, visual observation of the cloud cover of the earth and observation of the starry sky. On the 33rd circuit he noticed three regions of forest fires and in the equatorial region he clearly saw thunder building up. A steady two-way radio contact is being maintained with the astronaut. Meanwhile Soyuz-3 continues in orbit. On October 28, 1968, at 1215 hours Moscow time another telereport was made by Comrade Beregovoi from Soyuz-3 during the 34th circuit of the earth.

Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi during the flight (TV photograph).

Millions of TV viewers watched the astronaut describing the arrangements in the cabin and in the adjoining compartment for scientific research and for rest.
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The internal structure of the cabin, the control panel with which the astronaut controls the spacecraft and the layout of handles for control, instruments and windows were shown to the TV viewers. The astronaut demonstrated weightlessness by releasing the portable TV camera from his hand, which floated freely in the cabin. With the help of the TV camera, the viewers could observe the same scene as the astronaut through the spacecraft windows: the earth with contours of seas and oceans, and cloud covers. Astronaut Beregovoi continues to conduct scientific and technical experiments, working the control, lifesaving and thermal control systems. Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is in good health. All the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally.

On October 28, at 1923 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed 38 circuits of the earth. In accordance with the program for finalizing the Soyuz-3 spacecraft systems, Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi carried out in 36th circuit orientation of the spacecraft in space with the help of manual control and switched on the engine. On completion of this maneuver the astronaut orientated the spacecraft with respect to sun using the solar batteries and achieved its stabilization in this position. The parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-3a f ter this maneuver are: orbital period — 88.8 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 244 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) - 199 km; inclination — 51.7 deg. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi ate according to a prescribed diet and had a good appetite. His ration consisted of food-stuffs of full nutritional value. For example, on the third day his lunch consisted of Caspian roach, chicken fillet, biscuits, cocoa with milk, and prunes. Judging from the telemetric information and his own report and observations made during the TV transmissions, Georgii Timofeevich is in good health and is feeling well. During the whole of the third day his pulse rate was within 63-68 per minute and his respiration rate was within 12-15 per minute. From 1830 hours on October 28, to 0430 hours on October 29 Soyuz-3 will be orbiting beyond the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During this period Comrade Beregovoi will rest in the compartment adjoining the control cabin.
Pravda, October 29, 1968
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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOYUZ-3 STILL IN ORBIT On October 29, 1968 at 0728 hours Moscow time, when Soyuz-3 was passing over the territory of the Soviet Union, normal radio contact with the Pilot-Astronaut was re-established and a TV broadcast was made from the spacecraft cabin. Trajectory measurements were carried out and telemetric information was received. All the systems of the spacecraft Soyuz-3 are functioning normally. During the session of radio contact Beregovoi described the working of the spacecraft systems and his own condition in the words: "Every thing is excellent." Comrade Beregovoi conveyed from Soyuz-3 his greetings to Soviet Youth: "Heartily greet all members of the Young Communist League, boys and girls of our motherland on the glorious jubilee—50 years of the Leninist Young Communist League of the Soviet Union".
Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi

On October 29, at ion hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed its 48th circuit around the earth. Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel G.T. Beregovoi has now been in space for three days. During this period the astronaut has carried out a big program of scientific and technical experiments and a number of orientations and maneuverings of the spacecraft by using manual and automatic systems. Throughout the flight the astronaut carried out a fixed regime for the day, according to which the prescribed work was alternated with rest, physical exercises and meals. An analysis of the medico-biological data shows the astronaut's maintenance of a high working capacity, activeness and quick adaptability to space flight conditions. For example, the astronaut's pulse rate at the time of the launching of Soyuz-3 into orbit was 102-103 per minute while after some time it came down to 75 per minute. At the end of the first day and afterward the pulse rate never exceeded 65, and it came down to 52 per minute during sleep. The respiration rate also became stabilized. All the lifesaving systems are functioning normally: the spacecraft cabin temperature varies from 17 to 2i°C and the pressure is around 800 mm Hg. During the period of the flight, the astrophysical observatories and geophysical stations in the country registered an increase in solar activity. However the solar radiation levels measured in the compartments of the spacecraft correspond to the estimated ones and do not exceed the limits safe for the astronaut. Comrade Beregovoi is feeling well and his working capacity remains at a high level.
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Pilot-Astronaut Comrade Beregovoi continues to carry out the scheduled program of research and is maintaining steady radio contact with the earth. On October 29, 1968, at 1437 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed its 5ist circuit around the earth. Radio and television sessions with the astronaut are being maintained during the day. On the 5oth circuit, the astronaut made one of his usual reports from the space. In this report he narrated in detail his observations of the starry sky, and the relative positions of the sun, moon and constellations. Afterwards he demonstrated how the food and water were kept in the spacecraft compartments and demonstrated their use. The astronaut next showed the viewers around his cabin, and in the adjoining compartments. The large size of these compartments and the rational layout of the equipment enables the astronaut to work and to rest freely. He narrated his impressions about the sensation of weightlessness. He said, "Such swimming is very pleasant and gives great enjoyment." Astronaut Beregovoi carried out a number of investigations, envisaged by the program. In particular, he carried out experiments on working out astro-orientation and accomplished orientation of the spacecraft with the manual control system. The state of health and mood of the astronaut is good. All the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. On October 29, 1968, at 1903 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3 completed its 54th circuit around the earth. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi completed the program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments envisaged for the day. According to the telemetric information and the astronaut's reports, all the systems on board Soyuz-3 are functioning normally. Pressure and temperature in the compartments are within the normal limits. The state of health and mood of the astronaut are good. At 1808 hours Moscow time Soyuz-3 went out of the Soviet radiovisibility zone. The astronaut has shifted from his cabin to the adjoining compartment where he will rest.
Pravda, October 30, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOTUZ-3 LANDS SUCCESSFULLY On October 30, 1968, at 1025 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-3, piloted by

astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, landed in a predetermined area of the Soviet territory. As in the case of Soyuz-2, the descent of Soyuz-3 was guided with the use of aerodynamic control. For the guided descent, an orientation of the spacecraft in the required direction was made in space. The braking engine worked for 145 seconds, thus giving the spacecraft the necessary impulse for deceleration. After this the spacecraft started to leave the orbit. Then the landing vehicle was separated from the spacecraft and was turned with the help of the descent control engines for an orientated re-entry into the dense atmospheric layers. During the flight of the landing vehicle in the atmosphere, the control system was giving orders for the necessary orientation of the spacecraft to ensure an accurate landing in a predetermined area in Soviet Union territory. At the final stage the parachute system was brought into service and when the landing vehicle was very near the earth, the engines for soft-landing were switched on. Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi feels well after the landing. At the landing site he was met by his friends and some correspondents. The spacecraft Soyuz-3 was in orbit for four days. The program of scientific and technical investigations conducted by Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi was successfully completed.
Pravda, October 31, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENTS FROM THE VERBATIM REPORT OF THE FLIGHT
At 0408 hours on October 30, 1968, a new working day in outer space started for Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi. As usual, after waking up, Comrade Beregovoi did some physical exercises, took breakfast and started work. On the 6 ist circuit, radiotelemetric information on the normal working of the spacecraft systems and the parameters of orbit was received from Soyuz-3During the radio communication session the astronaut reported that the systems on board the spacecraft were working normally. A steady radio contact is being maintained with the astronaut.

On October 30, the usual radio communication session with Soyuz-3 was held from 0708 hours to 0720 hours. Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi reported that all the spacecraft systems were functioning normally, the temperature and pressure were within the pres5'

cribed limits and that he continues to carry out the scheduled program of scientific experiments and investigations. Comrade Beregovoi is in good health. As before he retains his high working capacity.
Prai'da, October 31, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ON COMPLETION OF THE SOTU^-3 FLIGHT As has already been reported, Soyuz-g, piloted by Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, after a four-day flight in a near-earth orbit, landed in the vicinity of the town of Karaganda, at 1025 hours Moscow time, on October 30, 1968. Comrade Beregovoi told his friends, correspondents and sport commissars who received him, that he was feeling well. He held a high opinion of the technical equipment of Soyuz-3Afterward Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi arrived at the cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup and for a report to flight officials about the fulfillment of the program of spacecraft testing and the investigations carried out. Soyuz-3 made 64 circuits of the earth. During this period, a number of maneuvers using different methods of orientation were carried out by the spacecraft in orbit. Rendezvous with the spacecraft Soyuz-s was accomplished twice and many testings of the spacecraft systems were carried out during the flight. A large numberof scientific investigations and observations were completed. In particular, observations of the earth, starry sky, and the heavenly bodies; photography of the cloud and snow covers, daytime and dusk horizons of the earth; detection of typhoons and cyclones, study of the brightness of the earth; and the psycho-physiological investigations of the working capacity of the visual analyzer were carried out. Throughout the flight, Comrade Beregovoi was in good health: his pulse rate was within 62-76 per minute and the respiration rate was 12-18 per minute. Judging from the telcmetric measurements, radio conversations and observations on TV, Comrade Beregovoi's working capacity remained at a high level throughout the flight. The lifesaving system functioned normally and maintained comfortable conditions in the spacecraft cabin. Regular radio-contact was maintained with Comrade Beregovoi during the flight. The astronaut transmitted some TV reports from the spacecraft describing the equipment and working conditions on board a spacecraft during flight in a near-earth orbit.
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The most important results of the flight of the Soyuz-3 were the perfecting of the processes of maneuvering and rendezvous with the help of different orientation and flight control systems, an appraisal of the convenience of working with the spacecraft equipment and the perfecting of astro navigational elements. Important technical data about the functioning of all the spacecraft systems during orbiting, maneuvering and during landing on earth has been received. Experimental investigations conducted by the astronaut carry great importance for the development of manned spacecraft technology and for astronauts conducting scientific work at orbital stations, which in turn have scientific and economic value for the nation. The results of the Soyuz-3 flight are being processed and studied.
Pravda, October 31, 1968

To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations which took part in the success of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-3 flight in outer space and in carrying out the operations of maneuvering and rendezvous with spacecraft Soyuz-2 in orbit, and to the Soviet astronaut, Comrade Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi.

Dear Comrades! A new achievement of Soviet science and technology in the history of the conquest of outer space has been recorded on the eve of the 513! anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The launching of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and the spacecraft Soyuz-3, piloted by astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, has enabled us to carry out a number of new scientific and technical experiments and investigations necessary for the further study and conquest of outer space. After the successful completion of the scientific and technical investigations and experiments in the near-earth space, the spacecraft were recovered on the earth in a predetermined area with great accuracy. The spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 built by our scientists, designers, engineers and workers, completed their tasks under complex space flight conditions. Throughout the flight all the apparatus and systems of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 worked efficiently and reliably. The Soviet people are proud of the new achievement of our motherland in the conquest of outer space and of Comrade G.T. Beregovoi's feat. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear Comrade G.T. Beregovoi, for the
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successful completion of the flight and fulfillment of the responsible task entrusted to you. We heartily congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers—all those who took part in the construction of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Sqyuz-j and in the successful accomplishment of their flights. Glory to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers—builders of the wonderful spacecraft! Glory to the valiant Soviet astronauts! Glory to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the inspirer and the the organizer of all the triumphs of the Soviet people!
Pravda, October 31, 1968 Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, FOR THE AWARD OF THE ORDER OF LENIN AND SECOND "ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION, PILOT-ASTRONAUT COMRADE G.T. BEREGOVOI For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-3 spacecraft and for courage and heroism displayed during the flight, Hero of the Soviet Union, PilotAstronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is awarded the Order of Lenin and a second "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal; a bronze bust of the Hero is to be erected at his birth place.
-V. Podgornyi

Kremlin, Moscow, November i, 1968 Pravda, November 2, 1968

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON CONFERMENT OF THE TITLE "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE G.T. BEREGOVOI For accomplishing a space flight in Soyuz-3, Soviet citizen, Hero of the Soviet Union, Comrade Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi is awarded the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR."
JV. Podgornyi

Kremlin, Moscow, November, i, 1968 Pravda, November 2, 1968

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR

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PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO GEORGII BEREGOVOI'S FLIGHT The whole world watched with great interest the flight of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3, the latter piloted by Pilot-Astronaut Georgii Beregovoi. The press conference of Soviet and foreign journalists, held on November 5, in the auditorium, of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, speaks of the unabated interest of the people in this new achievement of Soviet science and technology. The press conference was inaugurated by Academician M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. M.V. Keldysh referred to some of the landmarks in the cosmic era. About 11 years ago, before the historic first artificial earth satellite was launched on October 4, 1957, outer space seemed to be unknown, mysterious and inaccessible to mankind. At that time it was not clear what kind of meteorite hazards or radiational conditions existed in outer space, or what were the chances of survival of living organisms in the weightless state. Also unclear were the ways for the solution of many important scientific and technical problems concerning space flights, such as the assurance of thermal conditions in the craft, power supply, problems of radio communications and information transmission, and problems of recovery of space vehicles to the earth. The flights of the artificial earth satellite and then the long distance space vehicles, gradually solved such problems one after another. In 1959, the Soviet space probe Luna-2 reached the moon for the first time. In February, 1966, the space probe Luna-g made a soft-landing on the moon and the first information about the surface of the moon was received. The flight of the space probe Venera-4 which reached the planet Venus last October made the first direct measurements of the parameters of the atmosphere there and was of great scientific importance. Academician M.V. Keldysh further stated that the recent flight of %pnd-ij had opened new prospects before space science. Having orbited round the moon on September 18, %ond-5 returned to earth with planet-escape velocity and splashed down in the Indian Ocean. The flight of %ond-5 is an important step in the further development of long-distance space exploration. Fundamental scientific information was received with the help of automated space vehicles. The first flight of Yurii Gagarin in the spacecraft, satellite Vostok. started the era of penetration of man into outer space. The prospects of the astronaut's practical work in outer space were further increased by the extravehicular operations carried out by Aleksei Leonov. Next the scientist gave an appraisal of the importance of the latest experiment. He stressed that the new great step in the further conquest of outer
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space was the flight of Soyuz~3 piloted by Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi and that of the automatic spacecraft Soyuz~3 which was used for experiments on rendezvous and maneuvering of the two spacecraft. M.V. Keldysh pointed out that the spacecraft of the Soyuz series possess great potentialities for maneuvering in outer space, which in turn has great importance in solving several different problems. These spacecraft are equipped with the automatic docking system which was twice demonstrated by pairs of spacecraft in the Kosmos series. The Soyuz has a special compartment for carrying out scientific research. The spacecraft equipment and systems assure its smooth re-entry with great accuracy. The scientist stated that the construction of the Soyuz spacecraft was only possible because of the whole process of Soviet space science and because of the high level of industry, which has been achieved during the years of Soviet power. In conclusion, M.V. Keldysh said that G.T. Beregovoi had accomplished a large program of scientific research during his flight in Soyuz-g. The marvelous thing was that along with geophysical, astronomical and medico-biological investigations, the astronaut observed typhoons, cyclones and forest fires also. Artificial earth satellite are already being used for radio communications, weather forecasts, navigation and other purposes. Manned space flights open new, wider prospects for the practical use of outer space. This is characteristic of the present stage of the development of astronautics. The heroic flight of Pilot-Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi is a new step in the conquest of outer space. The president announced that the USSR Academy of Sciences had awarded the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Medal to G.T. Beregovoi for his achievement in Soyuz-3- There was a burst of applause and M.V. Keldysh presented the medal to the hero. Then astronaut K.P. Feoktistov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Hero of the Soviet Union, spoke. He talked about the construction of the Soyuz type spacecraft, designed for scientific and technical investigations in orbit as earth satellites. He said that flights up to 30 days can be carried out in the Soyuz. One can also remain in ordinary dress without a spacesuit during the flight. The orbital compartment has scientific apparatus, control and communication equipment and portable TV camera etc. The compartment has 4 windows. The re-entry vehicle is designed to accommodate crew at the time of launching the spacecraft into orbit, maneuvering and descent. The outer surface of the vehicle, continued K.P. Feoktistov, has a special heat insulation cover to save the body from aerodynamic heating during descent. Because of this cover and the internal heat insulation of

Pilot-Astronaut Beregovoi and the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. M.V. Keldysh.

the spacecraft (which also helps in sound insulation), the cabin temperature at the time of landing does not exceed 25-30° C. Inside the vehicle has apparatus fitted for re-entry control, radio network for communications and lifesaving equipment. The parachute system is accommodated in a special container. The body is fitted with jet engines for the descent control system and soft-landing engines. The pilot has the spacecraft control panel in front of him. There are three windows in the body of the re-entry vehicle. The scientist pointed out that the principle of descent by aerodynamic control has been used in the construction of the re-entry vehicle. This permits the decrease of the acceleration force acting on the astronaut during the atmospheric phase of the descent to 3-4 units (as compared to 8-10 units during ballistic descent). Thanks to the descent with aerodynamic control not only is the acceleration force reduced, but the accuracy of landing of the vehicle is also considerably increased. In case of emergency, ballistic descent is also possible. After deceleration of the vehicle in the atmosphere during descent, the deceleration parachute opens at a height of about 9 kilometers and then the main parachute, with which the landing is carried out, opens.

Just before landing, at a height of about one meter, the gunpowder retro-rockets operate for soft-landing. Besides the main parachute system, the re-entry vehicle has an extra parachute system, which operates in case of any fault in the functioning of the main system. Special automatic machines control the whole complex of landing devices. The re-entry vehicle is equipped with radio systems for detection after landing. These systems help in direction finding in the parachuting region even after landing or splashing. The instrument and assembly compartment accommodates the main equipment working during orbital flight, and also the power plant of the spacecraft. The equipment is contained in a sealed portion of the compartment. The unsealed portion contains a liquid jet power plant, which is used for maneuvers in orbit, as well as for the descent of the spacecraft. This power plant has a duplicate. The thrust of each is 400 kilograms. Depending on the flight program and on the corresponding refuelling of the power plant, the Soyuz can carry out maneuvers up to a height of 1,300 kilometers. He went on to say that the spacecraft Soyuz-s and Soyuz-3 had the task of improving the automatic spacecraft systems and equipment, particularly, the automatic rendezvous system, also to give a finishing touch to the manual control regimes of the spacecraft and to carry out scientific and technical experiments. The flight program was fully carried out. The correctness of the technical solutions which formed the basis of this new type of manned spacecraft intended for research in a near-earth orbit, was confirmed. Next, O.G. Gazenko, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, addressed the press conference. He said that the vast scientific information received through the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 was being processed and the results would be published in detail in special scientific journals. But even now one could make some preliminary conclusions about the medico-biological investigations. These investigations served the scientific and practical purposes of checking the health and working capacity of the astronaut, as well as the lifesaving systems during flight. A preliminary analysis of the telemetric information affirms the efficiency of the lifesaving systems during the flight. As has already been reported in TASS announcements, the hygienic conditions in the spacecraft compartments were maintained at a prescribed level. Thus, the general pressure varied between 755 and 830 mm Hg while the partial pressure of oxygen was 200 mm Hg. The temperature and humidity of air were also maintained within comfortable limits. The scientist stressed that the flight program was made keeping in mind the usual "earthly" rhythm of life. The astronaut took food, did physical exercises, worked and took rest approximately at the same time as he used
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to on the earth. There was a wide variety of food, rich in. food value and vitamins (2,600 large calories per day). O.G. Gazenko pointed out that Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi was well prepared for the action of dynamic factors during flight. During the active phase of the spacecraft's entry into orbit some increase in the respiration rate and the pulse rate was adequate for the acting acceleration forces. Thus the pulse rate was about 100 per minute, while the respiration rate was about 30. At the time of changing over to the orbital phase of flight, the astronaut clearly felt the emergence of the state of weightlessness, and an increase in the pulse rate was noticed. But during the first few circuits Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi's organism got completely adjusted to the flight conditions. During the remaining days of flight, the pulse and respiration rates were approximately the same as on earth. There were no noticeable changes in the electro-cardiogram or in the seismo-cardiogram. The astronaut was feeling well and had a good appetite. The dynamics of the recorded physiological parameters reflected the normal periodicity during 24 hours. The astronaut enjoyed good sleep also. Different working operations and physical loads were accompanied by adequate reactions of the physiological systems of the organism. The maintenance of a high working capacity enabled the astronaut to carry out successfully an exhaustive program of scientific and technical experiments. Great attention was paid to radiation protection. The solar activity observation system included astrophysical observatories and heleophysical stations, situated indifferent regions of the Soviet Union, which were regularly making optical, magnetic and radio observations of the sun. The dose received by the astronaut due to primary cosmic radiation and trapped radiation was as predicted and of no danger to the astronaut. The scientist revealed that the detailed clinical and physiological checkups after the flight did not show any substantial change in the astronaut's state of health. Only a moderate and temporary decrease in some functional characteristics of the cardiovascular system, a minor feeling of overall exhaustion and a loss of about 2 kilograms in weight were recorded. The journalists welcomed with a big ovation Twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi as he mounted the rostrum. His story of his ride to the stars was heard with great interest. He said that after the entry of the spacecraft Soyuz-3 into orbit, the program envisaged rendezvous with Soyuz-2 and joint maneuvering. Moreover, the approach up to a distance of 200 meters was to be carried out automatically, but further rendezvous and maneuvers were to be carried out with the help of manual control. G.T. Beregovoi further said that even at the stage of automatic rendezvous
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he saw Soyuz-2, and had the chance of controlling the operation of the automatic machines after the completion of the maneuver. Twice the rendezvous was carried out according to the flight program with great accuracy. The astronaut mentioned the exceptionally high qualities and maneuvering performance of Soyuz-3, as well as the high reliability and efficiency of the functioning of the automatic systems and the manual control. He stressed that as a test pilot he was extremely satisfied with the potentialities of the spacecraft. It is easy to control and submits easily to the will of the astronaut. The processes during dynamic conditions are controlled in a simple and infallible manner by a well-planned indicator system on the control panel. The astronaut mentioned that Soyuz-3 is a spacecraft of new type and has many more potentialities than the Vostok or Voskhod. 11 differs from them not only in being much bigger in size and layout, but also in the design of the spacecraft systems. The flight of this type of spacecraft greatly increases the prospects for solving different astroiiautical problems. The astronaut added: "Throughout the whole flight I had steady and reliable radio contact with the earth, which was carried out on different wave bands. "While in orbit, I received a congratulatory radio telegram from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, which deeply touched me, I can't express my gratitude for those kind and warm words which I received when I was on board the spacecraft. My motherland, having sent me to outer space, did not forget me for a single moment. "The TV programs I transmitted during the flight illustrating the craft and its features gave me great pleasure. TheTVsystemsfunctioned accurately. For example in a session after conducting experiments on the observation of heavenly bodies, I demonstrated the schematic drawing of the passage of stars from the spacecraft log. My colleagues on earth, who received this telecast, were quite satisfied with it. During the flight, the feeling of great distance between us was completely lost. We had intimate talks when I showed them the graphs and schematic drawings. Only sometimes my colleagues on earth requested me to slightly change the position of the logbook before the TV camera lens. It was felt as if we were sitting together and discussing. "The spacecraft's re-entry was guided, with the use of aerodynamic control, and the landing was in a predetermined region. "Before descent, I carried out the spatial orientation of the spacecraft with the help of the manual control system and then switched on the program of automatic descent. The retro-system stopped working exactly at the
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prescribed time after imparting the necessary thrust. The spacecraft entered the dense atmospheric layers. While passing through them the system for guided descent was switched on. "The landing was carried out with the help of the parachute systems, and when very close to the earth, the engines for soft-landing were put into action. How accurate the landing was, can be judged from the fact that before getting out of the vehicle I saw through the window the smiling face of a man from the search squad. A helicopter was waiting for me near the landing site." G.T. Beregovoi continued, "Finally I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and to the Soviet Government for the faith shown in me by permitting me to carry out this space flight. "Please permit me once again to convey my sincere gratitude to the great Soviet people and to the Communist Party, which brought me up, educated me and gave me the opportunity to become a test pilot in aviation and then in space. I am extremely thankful to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who created the wonderful Soyuz-3 spacecraft. I am thankful to my fellow-astronauts and to all others who trained me and helped me accomplish the flight. "I, being a son of the multinational Soviet people, am happy that I could carry out the task entrusted to me by my motherland. For the cause of progress, peace and happiness, I am ready to carry out any task given to me by the Party, government and people." The scientists, engineers, designers, technicians and workers dedicated the flight of the spacecraft Sqyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 to the 515! anniversary of the Great October Revolution. Afterward, the astronaut and the scientists answered questions put by the journalists. (TASS)
Pravda, November 6, 1968

ON THE WAY TO SPACE STATIONS The Soviet scientists and designers have marked the occasion of the 5151 anniversary of the Great October Revolution with a new achievement in the conquest of space. The flight of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and the manned spacecraft Soyuz-3, piloted by astronaut Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi, has been accomplished successfully.
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During the 4-day flight of Soyuz-3 a number of maneuvers \vcre carried out with the help of automatic and manual control systems. Twice, rendezvous with the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 was carried out. A complete set of tests for spacecraft systems in the course of flight has been accomplished. A large number of scientific investigations and observations of the starry sky, the earth and the stars, photography of the cloud and snow covers of the earth and of the earth horizon during daytime and at dusk, observations of typhoons and cyclones, and some medico-biological investigations in spaceflight conditions were carried out. The flights of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 constitute an important step toward the perfecting of manned spacecraft which can maneuver and toward the building of space stations for scientific and economic purposes. The Soyuz type spacecraft signify a new stage in the development of manned space vechicles. The two living compartments (astronaut's cabin and the compartment for scientific research and rest), reliable spacecraft systems, economical power plants, a variety of scientific equipment, and big spatial maneuvering potentialities, enable the Soyuz spacecraft to carry out an extensive program of complex investigations. The Soviet space program in the field of manned flights is marked by a series of successive stages. The first manned space flight of Yurii Alekseevich Gagarin in the Vostok demonstrated the feasibility of manned space flight. The 25-hour flight by German Stepanovich Titov gave valuable information for the preparation of longer manned space flights which followed. The first group flights by the Soviet astronauts A.G. Nikolaev and P.R. Popovich, and V.F. Bykovskii and the first woman astronaut V. V. Tereshkova, proved the possibility of a prolonged manned spaceflight fora number of days. In the process of these flights an extensive program of medico-biological and scientific investigations was carried out and information for the perfecting of space technology was received. A new achievement was the creation of the multiseatcr Voskhod spacecraft. The flight by the Pilot-Astronaut V.M. Komarov, Scientist-Astronaut K.P. Feoktistov and Doctor-Astronaut B.B. Egorov demonstrated the new potentialities of Soviet space technology. This outstanding experiment enabled the study of the working capacity and reciprocity in a group flight of astronauts who were specialists in science and technology. It also enabled the carrying out of various physico-technical and medico-biological investigations in space. During the second multiseater Voskhod-2 flight, for the first time in the history of mankind, astronaut A.A. Leonov carried out extravehicular operations, thus proving the possibility for astronauts to stay and work in free space. For the first time in the history of astronautics, an automatic docking of

two artificial earth satellite Kosmos-i86 and Kosmos-i88 was carried out on October 30, 1967. On April 15, 1968, this experiment was successfully repeated by the artificial satellite Kosmos-212 and Kosmos-zi^. In these ways the most complicated scientific and technical problems were brilliantly solved. The operations in the Soyuz program are meant for the further study of near-earth space. They also envisage a big program of scientific and technical investigations, and afterwards, the building of inhabited space stations. The scientific and technical tasks which can be carried out with the help of Soyuz spacecraft are: —- allround investigations of the earth and its atmosphere, for more successful solutions to astrophysical, geophysical and space navigational problems; — study of problems concerning the conditions that prevail in near-earth space (high vacuum, weightlessness, radiation) for scientific and practical purposes; — study of the sun, stars, planets and their satellite. The capacity of the Soyuz spacecraft to maneuver in outer space, approach another space vehicle and maneuver in its vicinity, has great importance in the creation of scientific stations directly in orbit by assembling independent parts launched into orbit.
Design of the Spacecraft Soyuz

While designing the spacecraft, special attention was paid to the creation of suitable conditions for the astronaut's working and living at the time of launching, orbiting and descent. The perfected construction and equipment of the spacecraft and its high maneuverability give it great potential for use as a long term scientific laboratory in outer space. The Soyuz consists of the following main compartments (Fig. 4): orbital compartment (Fig. 5), which is a scientific laboratory for the astronaut to conduct scientific research and for rest; pilot's cabin-cum-landing vehicle (Fig. 6) is intended for the launching of the crew into orbit and recovery on earth; instrument-cum-equipment compartment, containing apparatus and equipment of the main spacecraft systems and power plants. The orbital compartment is situated in the front portion of the spacecraft and is connected with the landing vehicle by a hermetic hatch. The large size of the working compartment of the spacecraft (up to 9 cubic meters) assures the astronaut's comfort while working and while resting. Behind the landing vehicle is the instrument-cum-equipment compartment. During the launching into orbit, the spacecraft is protected from the reaction of aerodynamic and thermal loads by the nose fairing, which is dropped after passing the dense atmospheric layers.

Fig. 4. Soyuz-3 1. orbital compartment; 2. access hatch; 3. astronaut's cabin; 4. astronaut's working place; 5. resting place; 6. instrument-cum-equipment compartment: 7. solar batteries

Fig. 5. Orbital compartment of the Soyuz.
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Fig. 6. Landing vehicle of the Soyuz.

The orbital compartment is a room, a sort of laboratory, suitable for working. Here the astronaut can carry on scientific research, do the necessary physical exercises and eat. The compartment contains outfits for the astronaut's work, rest and sleep. The control and communication equipment, portable TV camera, movie and photographic cameras and scientific apparatus are arranged at the working place near the windows in the zones where they can be easily operated. Depending on the tasks of a particular flight, the composition of the scientific apparatus can vary. The compartment has four windows, through which the scientific observations and photographs are taken. The orbital compartment has, besides the equipment for special radio communications, an all-wave radio for receiving programs from radio stations on the earth. The astronaut transmits the telecast of the internal structure of the compartments and the surroundings outside with the help of a portable TV camera. The results of the observations are either recorded on the dectaphone or in the spacecraft log. The cabin body is hermetic. On its outer surface there is a special heat insulation layer for protecting it from intensive aerodynamic heating during descent. Because of this outer heat insulation layer on the landing vehicle and because of the internal heat insulation layer in the cabin, which also helps in sound insulation, the temperature in the cabin at the moment of landing does not exceed 25-3O°C. In the cabin there is an easy-chair for the astronaut. The astronaut's position in the chair and his position with respect to the acceleration forces, as well as the modelling of the chair according to the astronaut's body, enable the astronaut to endure high acceleration forces. The radio equipment for communications, instruments for descent control and the lifesaving system are fitted in the astronaut's cabin. The main parachute system and the emergency parachute system are accommodated in a special container. The jet engines of the control system and engines for softlanding are fitted on the case. Directly in front of the pilot is the spacecraft control panel. The instruments for the control of the operations of the spacecraft systems and assemblies, navigational equipment, TV screen and key switches for the control of the systems, are arranged on the control panel. Next to the panel an optical sighting device is fitted on a special window. On the sides of the chair there are two levers for spacecraft control. The right one is for the attitude control around the center of mass, while the left one is for changing the linear velocity of the spacecraft at the time of maneuvering. On the left and right sides there are windows for visual observations, motion-picture filming and photography. The spacecraft equipment ensures the possibility of a completely autonomous flight and piloting of the spacecraft without any participation of the ground control system.

The containers with water and food products are installed in the astronaut's cabin. In the upper part of the landing vehicle there is a door for the astronaut's entry into the orbital compartment of the spacecraft. During all the phases of flight, the normal atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature are maintained in the pressurized cabin with the help of thermal control and regenerative systems. Thanks to the hermetic construction of the spacecraft, the astronaut can remain in the cabin in ordinary flight dress without any spacesuit. The cabin-cum-landing vehicle of the Soyuz has a number of advantages over the cabins of the earlier spacecraft. The shape of the landing vehicle provides thenecessary aerodynamic lift during the motion in the atmosphere. Here the motion is controlled by changing the magnitude of the lift. The descent trajectory and the use of the aerodynamic control makes it possible to reduce the acceleration forces acting on the crew at the downward trajectory, to 3-4 units (as compared to 8-10 units in the ballistic re-entry of the earlier vehicles). The re-entry control is affected not only by the magnitude of the lift, but also by the direction of the overall aerodynamic force acting on the vehicle. Thus there is a possibility of maneuvering in the atmosphere with regard to height as well as direction of flight, which increases the accuracy of the vehicle landing. In case of an emergency, ballistic reentry is also possible. During descent from the orbit, after atmospheric deceleration of the vehicle, the deceleration parachute comes into operation at a height of about 9 kilometers. Then the main canopy of the parachute opens upon which the landing is carried out. Just before landing, at a height of about one meter, the gunpowder braking engines for soft-landing start functioning. Thus the velocity at the time of landing does not exceed 2-3 meters per second. A special automatic system controls the landing devices. For the detection of the vehicle after landing, there are radio systems which carry out the direction finding during the parachuting phase and after the landing or splashing. The radio devices operate in different wavebands which enables detection from various distances by ground aviation and fleet stations. The instrument-cum-equipment compartment is for containing the main equipment and power plant, which work while the spacecraft is orbiting. The apparatus and the equipment are accommodated in a sealed instrument compartment, inside which the conditions necessary for normal functioning of the apparatus are maintained. It contains the assemblies of the thermal control system, common power system, apparatus for long-distance radio communications and radio telemetry, and instruments for the orientation system and for computer control. In the unsealed part of the compartment there is the liquid-propelled jet engine system used for maneuvers in orbit as well as for the descent. This system has two motors (main and duplicate), each
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having a thrust of 400 kilograms. It must be noted that the motor system of the Soyuz spacecraft enables maneuvering up to a height of 1,300 kilometers. For orientation and moving of the spacecraft during maneuvers, there is a low-thrust power plant. Outside the equipment compartment there are sensors for the orientation system. Solar batteries with a useful area of 14 square meters, and the main antenna and feeder devices of the spacecraft radio system—which ensure radio communications with ground control—are fitted on the instrumentcum-equipment compartment.
Main systems on board the spacecraft

The system for orientation and motion control is one of the main systems of the spacecraft. It carries out spatial orientation of the spacecraft, stabilization at the time of operation of the motors and control during the processes of orbital corrections, rendezvous with other space vehicles and maneuvering near them. The system can be operated automatically as well as manually. It consists of: a number of orientation sensors and an optical sighting device for orientation by the astronaut, gyroscopic instruments and electronic computer units for control, radio technical devices for detection and guidance at the time of rendezvous, and the system of actuating organs, i.e. low thrust engines. In order that the solar batteries are illuminated all the time, there is provision for their solar orientation with the rotation of the spacecraft around its axis to the sun, at a rate of a few degrees per second. The apparatus on board gets power from the central power system. The TV system on board has 4 cameras (2 in the spacecraft compartments and 2 outside) which ensure a high quality standard TV broadcast (625 lines with 25 frames per second), capable of relaying directly into the TV network on the earth. During the flight of Soyuz-g astronaut G.T. Beregovoi more than once conducted TV reports while in orbit. He made use of the portable camera for showing the arrangements in the spacecraft and also depicted the earth through the windows. The Soyuz-3 is fitted with an automatic docking system which was tested twice during the flights of the Kosmos satellite and was found to be fully reliable. The systems on board the spacecraft can be controlled by the astronaut from the panel, as well as automatically by signals from the earth. The multi-channel telemetric systems of the spacecraft enable the transmission of a large amount of information. During the flight of the spacecraft outside the ground control, radiovisibility zone, the gauging information is accumulated in the spatial data-storage device and is transmitted to the earth during the next session of radio communications.
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The lifesaving systems' complex creates the necessary physiological and hygienic conditions for the crew on board. The air regenerative system contains stocks of alkali metals which absorb carbon dioxide and at the same time generate oxygen. This system functions automatically and maintains in the living compartments the same gas composition as on the earth. The same system absorbs other harmful ingredients exhaled by the astronaut into the atmosphere. The temperature regime in the spacecraft compartments is maintained by the thermal control system. It ensures not only the required temperature, but also the necessary humidity in the spacecraft compartments where the astronaut lives. For this purpose, the heat transfer devices, simultaneously with the temperature control, condense the excessive moisture contained in the atmosphere of the living compartments and collect it in special moisturecollectors. The astronaut can change the temperature level and humidity in the compartments according to his wishes.
Medico-biological maintenance

Active participation by the astronaut in control necessitated the widening of the astronaut's training program. For training in approximately the same conditions which prevail during flight, special simulators were built. The regime of the astronaut's work and rest during the flight of the Soyuz-j, was based on the continuity of a cycle (sleeping-waking), which corresponded to the normal day and night on the earth. About 8 hours were set apart for sleep. The astronaut used to sleep in the orbital compartment tied to a sofa, so as not to "float" in the state of weightlessness. After getting up, the astronaut would do different physical exercises for 25 minutes. G.T. Beregovoi's meals for a day consisted of breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper. Regular medical control of the astronaut's health during the flight was accomplished with the help of the telemetric system. In case of need, the astronaut could make use of the first-aid outfit on board. The construction of the Soyuz ensures the safety of the crew from cosmic radiation.
Joint action of spacecraft in orbit

As is well known, first Soyuz-2 was launched into orbit on October 25. On October 26, at 1134 hours Moscow time, when Soyuz-2 was passing over the area of the cosmodrome, Soyuz-3 piloted by astronaut G.T. Beregovoi, was launched into orbit. After its separation from the carrier rocket, Soyuz-3 carried out radio search of Soyuz-2 and then the process of rendezvous started. After an automatic approach up to a distance of 200 meters, the further closing up was carried out under the astronaut's control. After the comple68

tion of this operation, the spacecraft departed up to a distance of 565 kilometers and then again approached close. When the spacecraft approached close for the second time, G.T. Beregovoi took photographs of Soyuz-2 and measured the parameters of the relative motion of the two spacecraft. After the completion of the joint experiments, the spacecraft Soyuz-2 was recovered on the earth. Soyuz-3 continued its independent flight according to the envisaged program for perfecting the systems and equipment on board. During this period the astronaut tested the different processes of spacecraft orientation and carried out maneuvers in orbit by putting the power plants into operation. Regular TV broadcasts were transmitted from Soyuz-3 during its flight. G.T. Beregovoi himself transmitted TV reports. Soyuz-3 successfully completed its flight on October 30, after fulfilling the scheduled program of investigations. After decelerating, the landing vehicle was separated from the spacecraft. It made a guided re-entry into the atmosphere, using aerodynamic control, and made a soft-landing in a predetermined area. The joint flight of the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2 and manned spacecraft Soyuz-3, piloted by astronaut G.T. Beregovoi, was successfully completed. It confirmed the correctness of the technical principles, forming the basis of the construction of this new type of spacecraft, which has wide maneuvering potentialities. The rationale of its construction and reliability of the systems on board were proved. The processes of orbital maneuvering with automatic and manual control were perfected. New important data were received as a result of the scientific and technical experiments conducted. The flights of the spacecraft Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 denote anew step toward the perfecting of manned maneuvering spacecraft and toward the building of orbital stations.
(TASS) Pravda, November 17, 1968

GAGARIN MEDAL FOR SOVIET ASTRONAUT The Council of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) decided at a meeting in Paris to award the Gagarin Gold Medal to the Soviet astronaut, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi. As is well known, this medal, instituted in honor of the first man in outer space, is now awarded by the FAI every year for the best performance in the conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes. Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi is the first recipient of the Gagarin Medal.

Simultaneously, the FAI awarded a gold medal to Academician S.V. Il'yiishin for his contribution to the development of aviation. The certificate of honor was also awarded to the team of the designing bureau, headed by Academician A.N. Tupolev. The Council has decided to award the "Kosmos" gold medal to the crew of the U.S. spacecraft Apollo-8. Earlier, A. Nikolaev, P. Popovich, V. Nikolaeva-Tereshkova, V. Komarov, K. Feoktistov, B. Egorov and A. Leonov had received this medal.
(TASS) Pravda, May 6, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOTUZ-4 IN ORBIT Today, January 14, 1969, at 1039 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-4 spacecraft was launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite by a powerful carrier-rocket. The spacecraft is piloted by Soviet citizen, Pilot-Astronaut LieutenantColonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov. The orbital parameters of Soyuz-4 are close to those calculated, viz: orbital period —88.25 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) -225 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) - 173 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. A steady two-way radio contact has been established with Soyuz-4Communications from the spacecraft are transmitted at a frequency of 20.008 megahertz. According to Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov's report and the telemetric measurement data, he is in good health. The systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally and are maintaining pressure and temperature within the prescribed limits. Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov has started working 011 the flight program.

The Soyuz-4 continues its flight. Steady radio contact has been maintained with Lieutenant-Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov since the
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Commander of the Soyuz-4 spacecraft, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.

launching and entry into orbit. He reported that he felt well during the launch, and that the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. The astronaut has begun to work on the flight program and carried out the sun orientation of the spacecraft. Comrade Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov is feeling excellent. According to the astronaut's report and the telemetric data, all the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. TV observation of the astronaut's condition and his actions is being carried out. The reception from the spacecraft to the earth is good. The launching of the carrier-rocket with Soyuz-4 was relayed through the central TV network. The flight of Soyuz-4 continues.

Soyuz-4 completed 3 circuits around the earth at about 1500 hours Moscow time on January 14. During a normal session of radio communication with Soyuz-4 LieutenantColonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov reported that he had completed the flight program experiments and scientific investigations envisaged for the first three circuits. In the course of manual orientation, the spacecraft accurately carried out all the maneuvers and its solar batteries were exactly directed toward the sun, which ensured a normal power supply for its systems. Comrade Shatalov conducted observations of the cloud layers and of the earth's surface. He also transmitted a TV report from the spacecraft. The quality of the TV broadcast was good. During the second circuit Vladimir Aleksandrovich ate with a good appetite. The Pilot-Astronaut is feeling well. The pulse rate is 66 per minute, and respiration 18 per minute. During the second circuit, the astronaut shifted to the orbital compartment for conducting experiments. The systems on board the spacecraft Soyuz-4 are functioning normally: the pressure in the cabin is 800 mm Hg and the temperature is ig°C. Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov continues to carry out the scheduled program of experiments and research.

On January 14, at 1800 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-4 completed four circuits of the earth. During the usual session of radio communications with the earth, PilotAstronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov reported that the flight program was being fulfilled successfully. According to his report and telemetric information, the astronaut is feeling well. The systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. As envisaged in the flight program, the astronaut carried out orientation of the spacecraft during the fourth circuit, while on the fifth circuit he carried out the correction of orbit for Soyuz-4 with the help of the power plant. The orbital parameters after correction are as follows: orbital period — 88.75 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 237 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 207 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. TV broadcasts from the spacecraft continued. In these broadcasts Comrade Shatalov spoke about the construction of the astronaut's cabin and its equipment. The spacecraft Soyuz-4 W'U remain outside the zone of Soviet radiovisibility from 1816 hours, January 14 to 0412 hours, January 15.

The astronaut will rest from 2000 hours on January 14 to 0300 hours on January 15.
Pravda, January 15, 1969

SOYUZ-4 COMMANDER, COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV'S STATEMENT BEFORE LAUNCHING Dear Comrades and Friends! Already two months have passed since my colleague and friend Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi accomplished a 4-day flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-3It is a great honor for me to continue the experiments in these wonderful Soyuz spacecraft. I am eager to fulfill this honorable task delegated to me by the motherland. Departing for this long journey, I assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government that I shall devote all my strength and knowledge to fulfilling the tasks entrusted to me. Goodbye, dear friends! See you soon on the earth! (TASS)
Pravda, January 15, 1969

Biographical notes

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov was born on December 8, 1927 in the town of Petropavlovsk in Severe-Kazakhstan district. He spent his childhood in Leningrad. Since childhood Vladimir had been interested in aviation. He completed the Special Air Force School and the school for the initial training of pilots. In 1945 he joined the Kachinsk Air Force College as a student. After completing the college, Vladimir Aleksandrovich worked as an instructor pilot. In 1953 he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the same year he was admitted to the Red Banner Air Force Academy, which he successfully completed in 1956. After the completion of his studies at the Academy, V.A. Shatalov worked at key positions in the aviation wing of the Soviet Army. In January 1963, Vladimir Aleksandrovich was admitted to the detachment of astronauts.
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When the spacecraft Soyuz-3 was launched, Shatalov was a double for Georgii Timofeevich Beregovoi. Vladimir Aleksandrovich is married. His wife Muza Andreevna who is a Ph. D. in agriculture, works in the USSR Ministry of Agriculture. The Shatalovs have two children. Igor' is a student in the tenth grade, while daughter Elena is studying in the fourth grade. The astronaut's mother Zoya Vladimirovna and father Aleksandr Borisovich are pensioners. Earlier the father worked on the railroad where he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor in 1943.
Pravda, January 15, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT TWO SOVIET SPACECRAFT IN ORBIT On January 15, 1969, at 1014 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-5 with a crew of three astronauts on board, was launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite. The following Soviet Pilot-Astronauts are on board the spacecraft : Commander of the spacecraft, Lieutenant-Colonel Boris Valentinovich Volynov and crew members—Space Engineer Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, and Research Engineer LieutenantColonel Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov. The spacecraft was launched into a precalculated orbit with the following parameters : orbital period — 88.7 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) - 230 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 200 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. After the launching of Soyuz-5 into orbit, its commander, Boris Valentinovich Volynov, established two-way radio contact with the earth and the second spacecraft Soyuz-4As reported by Comrade B.V. Volynov, he and the members of the crew are in good health. The temperature and pressure in the spacecraft compartments are normal. The commanders of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, Comrades Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Boris Valentinovich Volynov have reported that they have started working on the program of joint experiments in outer space.
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Commander of Soyuz-5. Boris Valentinovich Volynov.

On January 15, at 0412 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4 while making its 13th circuit around the earth, entered the radiovisibility zone of the Soviet Far-East observation posts. Thus began a new working day for Comrade Vladimir Altksandrovich Shatalov in outer space. After doing physical exercises and taking breakfast according to schedule, the astronaut checked the spacecraft systems, regulated the clock and began work on the program for the second day's flight. In particular, he conducted observations of the luminous particles, and took photographs of the cloud and snow covers of the earth, and of the day and dusk horizons of the earth. A session of radio communications with the astronaut was conducted. According to the data transmitted from the spacecraft, Comrade Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov is in excellent condition. Arterial pressure and
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pulse are normal. His organism is well adjusted to the conditions of space flight. At 0900 hours Moscow time, on January 15, 1969 Soyuz-4 had completed its 15th circuit around the earth. The astronaut's second working day continues successfully. After rotating the spacecraft with the help of the manual control systems to orientate the solar batteries toward the sun for the recharging of the chemical sources of current, and after reporting the success of this operation, Comrade Shatalov continued the experiments envisaged by the program. It included observation of the cloud and snow covers of the earth and of geological and geographical objects on the earth's surface.

Space Engineer of Soyuz-5, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.

As scheduled, the radio and TV broadcasts were held from the spacecraft cabin. A TV report was transmitted also from the orbital compartment, where the astronaut conducted experiments and rested. According to the information received from the spacecraft, the pressure, humidity and the temperature in the cabin and orbital compartments are normal. Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov is in excellent health and feeling fine.

The Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 spacecraft continue in their orbits. At 1300 hours Moscow time on January 15, 1969, Soyuz-4 had completed its 18th circuit of the earth, while Soyuz-5 had completed its second. The commander of Soyuz-4, Comrade V.A. Shatalov reported that he had observed the entry of Soyuz-5 into orbit. Comrade B.V. Volynov, commander of Soyuz-5, carried out manual sunorientation of the spacecraft and afterward took observations of the heavenly

Research Engineer of Soyuz-5, Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov

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bodies. Space Engineer A.S. Eliseev and Research Engineer E.V. Khrunov took still and cine pictures of the cabin interior. Comrade B.V. Volynov conducted a TV report from the astronaut's cabin and orbital compartment. During the telecast, Engineer Khrunov introduced the other members of the crew of Soyuz-5 and also showed the place of work of each astronaut. The observation posts received a clear TV broadcast from the spacecraft. The reports from Soyuz-5 are transmitted at a frequency of 15.008 megahertz. The spacecraft crew conducted scientific investigations according to the program. The crew members ate according to the prescribed diet for the day. As reported by the crew commanders the temperature and air pressure in the compartments of both Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 were normal. At 1730 hours Moscow time on January 15, 1969, Soyuz-4 nad completed 21 and Soyuz-5, 5 circuits of the earth. According to the work schedule, the crew moved from the astronaut's cabin into the orbital compartment and carried out the envisaged program of experiments and scientific investigations during flight. Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov carried out medical investigations. He took observations of the earth's horizon and its brightness. In the radio communications the commander of Soyuz-4 reported that he was happy to learn about the launching of Soyuz-5 carrying his friends into orbit. He remarked that any job is easier with a friendly team. The crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-5 took cine pictures of the inside of the astronaut's cabin and performed an extensive program of scientific investigations. In particular, they observed the heavenly bodies in an oriented position, studied the passage of radio waves through the ionosphere, carried out medical investigations and took observations of geological and geographical features on the earth's surface. Research Engineer Khrunov took navigational measurements. The crew members of Soyuz-5 congratulated all who had built their spacecraft. According to the telemetric data and the reports from Comrades Shatalov and Volynov, all the systems continue to function normally. The astronauts are all in good health and feeling fine. They are all eating with a good appetite. Their food includes dehydrated products and normal food, such as soup "Kharcho", chicken fillet, chocolate and different juices etc. The flights of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 are we'l safeguarded by ground and control measurement assemblies. A network of observation posts is spread throughout the Soviet Union, right from its European border up to the Pacific. These observation posts—equipped with devices for trajectory and
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telemetric measurements, television broadcasts and communications, radio stations for giving commands and other equipment for control and observation—are continuously receiving and processing the information from the spacecraft and are in direct touch with the crews. The scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences Morzhovets and Nevel' in the Bay of Guinea, and Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov in the northwest Atlantic are also taking part in control and measurement work.

On January 15, 1900 hours Moscow time Soyuz-4 completed its 22nd and Soyuz-5, its 6th circuit around the earth. After checking the working of the systems on board, the Soyuz-4 commander, Shatalov, will move to the orbital compartment to rest. The work of the first day's program on Soyuz-5 is near completion. B.V. Volynov carried out manual orientation of the spacecraft. After that, the power plant was switched on and the spacecraft shifted to a new orbit with the following parameters : orbital period — 88.92 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 253 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 211 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. During a telecast from the Soyuz-5, the astronauts demonstrated the state of weightlessness. All the systems are functioning perfectly. The astronauts are feeling well. After an intensive working day the crew will move to the orbital compartment to rest. The flights of Soyuz-4 an^ Soyuz-5 are continuing successfully. From 2000 hours on January 15 up to 0400 hours on January 16, the crew of both spacecraft rested. After performing a set of physical exercises, toilet hygiene and breakfasting, the astronauts entered upon another day's work program. As reported by commanders Shatalov and Volynov, and supported by the telemetric measurements, all the systems of both spacecraft are functioning normally. The temperature and pressure in the compartments are being maintained within the prescribed limits. All the astronauts are feeling well. The scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations continue.
Pravda, January 16, 1969

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STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF THE SOTUZ-5 SPACECRAFT, COMRADE B.V. VOLYNOV BEFORE THE START Dear Comrades and Friends! Soviet space science and technology are gradually solving the most difficult problems of space research. Yesterday we saw off Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov on his space journey. Today, my Comrades, Pilot-Astronaut Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov and myself, have the great privilege of carrying out a spaceflight in the multiseater Soyuz-5We are proud that we have been entrusted with this mission in the peaceful conquest of outer space for the progress of humanity. On behalf of the crew of Soyuz-5, I assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Government and people, we shall faithfully carry out the responsible task entrusted to us by our motherland. Till we meet again on the earth, dear friends! Goodbye! (TASS)
Pravda, January 16, 1969
Biographical notes

Boris Valentinovich Volynov was born on December 18, 1934 in Irkutsk. Boris completed his secondary school in Prokop'evsk and then went to aviation school. From 1956, after completing Volgograd Air Force College, Boris Valentinovich served in the Air Force wing of the Soviet Army. In 1958 he became a member of the CPSU. He started his training as an astronaut in 1960. Having successfully completed training, he was a double for Valerii Bykovskii in 1963 and for Georgii Beregovoi. In 1968 Volynov, while continuing his main work, completed the Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy. Boris Valentinovich is married. His wife Tamara Fedorovna is a metallurgy engineer by profession and works at a machine-tool plant. The Volynovs have two children : Andrei, born in 1958, and Tat'yana, born in 1965. Boris was left without a father at an early age. He was brought up by his mother Evgeniya Izrailovna, a doctor by profession, now on pension.

Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev was born on July 13, 1934 in the town of
Ho

Zhizdra in Kaluga district. He spent his childhood in the outskirts of Moscow, where his family was living. After finishing secondary school Aleksei joined the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical College in 1951 and completed it successfully. While working in a design bureau, Aleksei Stanislavovich defended his thesis for the Kandidat of Technical Sciences degree in 1967. From 1966 Eliseev started training as an astronaut. In 1967 he became a member of the CPSU. Eliseev's wife, Larisa Ivanovna, works as an engineer in a design bureau. Their daughter Elena is eight years old. The astronaut's mother, Valentina Ivanovna, holds a degree of Doctor of Chemical Sciences, and works as a professor in the Institute of Physical Chemistry under the USSR Academy of Sciences. Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov was born on September 10, 1933 in Prudy, a village in the Volovsk region of Tula district. Evgenii finished the seven-year school and agricultural school. From a young age he was interested in aviation. Evgenii completed the Army Aviation School and in 1953, became a student of the Aviation College. After completing college Evgenii Vasil'evich served in the Air Force wing of the Soviet Army. In 1959 he became a member of the CPSU. He joined the astronauts' detachment in 1960. While undergoing training, he was a double for Aleksei Leonov. In 1968, -Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov completed the Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy with distinction. Evgenii Vasil'evich is married. His wife Svetlana AnatoPevna, born in 1939, is working as a teacher in a secondary school. The Khrunovs have a son, Valerii, born in 1959. The astronaut's mother, Agrafena Nikolaevna, is a pensioner.
Praoda, January 16, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT THE FIRST ORBITAL STATION IN THE WORLD IS SOVIET!
Morning

On January 16 at 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4 and Sqyuz-5 completed their 32nd and I5th circuits respectively around the earth. During the 3ist circuit the commander of Soyuz-4 V.A. Shatalov carried out medical investigations and observed the luminous particles.

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On the 32nd circuit, after orientation of Sqyuz-4 by the manual control system, the power plant was switched on. The spacecraft shifted into a new orbit with the following parameters : orbital period — 88.85 min > maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 253 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 201 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. During this period the crew of Soyuz-5 carried out a set of scheduled experiments and investigations under the guidance of their commander B.V. Volynov. Space Engineer Eliseev continued his observations of geological and geographical features on the earth's surface and of heavenly bodies and also took navigational measurements. Research Engineer Khrunov carried out medical investigations and studied the passage of radio waves through the ionosphere. The commanders of the spacecraft reported that all the astronauts are feeling excellent, and that the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. The spacecraft continue in orbit.

Docking of spacecraft

On January 16, 1969, at 1120 hours Moscow time, manual docking was successfully carried out by the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5- The docking took place over Soviet territory, during the 34th circuit of Soyuz-4 and the 18th of Soyuz-5. Before docking the crew checked all the systems on board (Figs. 7 and 8) and reported back to earth. At 1037 hours the automatic rendezvous df the spacecraft began (Figs. 9 and 10), and the distance between the spacecraft was reduced to 100 meters. Next, V.A. Shatalov, Soyuz-4 commander, changed over to manual control, and maneuvering the spacecraft carried out "mooring" with Soyuz-ff. After "mooring" (Fig. 11), the spacecraft mechanically captured each other, and were coupled by electric circuits. All the systems functioned normally during the processes of rendezvous, "mooring" and docking. Thus for the first time in the world an experimental space station was assembled and started functioning in orbit as an artificial earth satellite. This space station now had four compartments for the crew, which provide facilities for carrying out a large number of experiments and investigations, and have comfortable conditions for work and rest. There is an internal telephone link between the compartments.

Fig. 7. The Soyuz with its active docking unit.

Fig. 8. The Soyuz with its passive docking unit

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Fig. 9. A diagram showing the rendezvous of the Soyuz spacecraft.

Fig. 10.

Rendezvous of the Soyuz spacecraft.

Fig. 11.

"Mooring" of the Soyuz spacecraft. The space station is assembled.

For accomplishing the further flight program, the orbiting space station was oriented by the commander of Soyuz-5. The rendezvous and docking operations were relayed to earth by the telecameras on the outer surface of the spacecraft. Pilot-Astronaut Shatalov reported that all the systems aboard the space station are functioning normally. The parameters of microclimate inside the compartments are within the prescribed limits. The astronauts are feeling well. The crew of the space station continue the program of experimental work. Steady radio contact is being maintained with the astronauts. The experimental space station continues in orbit.
Unprecedented experiment

On January 16, 1969, the crew of the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, while continuing their docked flight in orbit, carried out an outstanding new experiment in outer space. During the 35th circuit, Pilot-Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev, members of the Soyuz-5 crew dressed themselves in spacesuits and made an exit into open space through the door of the orbital compartment. After carrying out a number of scientific experiments and taking some observations in space, Eliseev and Khrunov went over and entered the orbital compartment
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of Soyuz-4- There they took off their spacesuits and occupied their new working places along with spacecraft commander V.A. Shatalov. The operations outside the spacecraft and the changeover to another spacecraft were carried out by the astronauts in spacesuits which had a new self-contained regenerative type lifesaving system. Astronauts Eliseev and Khrunov remained together in open outer space for about an hour. For the first time in the world two astronauts had moved from one spacecraft into another. This experiment creates the basis for such operations in outer space as crew replacement for long-term orbital space stations or rescue of spacecraft crew in case of accident. The TV systems on board transmitted to the earth the preparations of the astronauts for their exit into space. The whole process was viewed on the ground. The exit of astronaut E.V. Khrunov from the spacecraft, his work in open space and transfer to the other spacecraft took place over South America and was registered by the outside cinecamera. Astronaut Eliseev's exit from the spacecraft, his work in open space and transfer to the other spacecraft took place over Soviet territory and was transmitted to the earth by the TV camera. Steady contact between the astronauts was maintained during the exit operations and transfer to the other spacecraft. The commanders of Sqyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 reported that all the astronauts are feeling well. The systems functioned perfectly and enabled the accomplishment of all the operations. Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continue in orbit docked together and the program of scientific investigations continues successfully.
Pravda, January 17, 1969

GREETINGS FROM AND SOYUZ-5
Kremlin, Moscow

From the Soyuz-4 an(i Soyuz-5 spacecraft we are reporting to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and to the Soviet Government : the flight is continuing normally; the docking and the transfer of astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev from Soyuz-5 to Soyuz-4 have been carried out successfully. We are feeling well. Our mood is excellent. We heartily thank the Central Committee of Lenin's Own Party and the Soviet Government for the great trust shown in us.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov

Salutory telegram from the Party and Government leaders to the astronauts, Comrades Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov Dear Comrades! On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and Council of Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you for carrying out the maneuvers, rendezvous and docking of the Soyuz spacecraft, and for the successful transfer of astronauts A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov from Soyuz-5 to Soyuz-4. This outstanding achievement confirms the great potential of Soviet science and technology. All the Soviet people are proud of you and wish you successful completion of your task. We warmly embrace you, and look forward to meeting you on earth.
L. Brezhnev, N. Podgornyi, A. Kosygin

REPLY TO GREETINGS We sincerely thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, for their warm greetings and concern for us. We are feeling well. We assure them that the work entrusted to us by our motherland will be fulfilled.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov

TO THE PEOPLE OF THE SOVIET UNION From the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5we warmly greet the great Soviet people, valiant builders of communism.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov

TO THE PEOPLE OF SOCIALIST NATIONS From the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5
we

warmly greet the

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working people of socialist countries. Let the friendship and cooperation between our peoples grow and prosper.
Astronauts : Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev, Khrunov Pravda, January 17, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SEPARATE FLIGHT AGAIN As has already been reported, on January 16, at 1120 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5docked, thus forming an experimental space station flying in a near-earth orbit. During the flight, two astronauts E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev moved from, one spacecraft to another and made the first space transfer in history. During the flight and exit operations into open space, scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations and experiments were conducted. After moving to the other spacecraft, the astronauts occupied their new working places. They carried out experiments on the control of the orbital station, and checked the reciprocity of the systems. The orbit of the first experimental space station had the following parameters : orbital period — 88.85 min; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 250 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 209 km; orbital inclination — 51 deg 40 min. During a radio communications session the commander of the space station Comrade Shatalov reported that the rendezvous, docking and transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another were carried out strictly according to program. At the time of transfer the astronauts worked efficiently and confidently. On January 16, at 1555 hours Moscow time, the linked spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 were undocked. They are now continuing their flights separately. As reported by the spacecraft commanders and according to the telemetric data, all the astronauts are in good health. The systems are functioning normally. The pressure and temperature inside the spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed limits. The program of scientific and technical experiments and investigations in outer space is being successfully carried out by the spacecraft. After undocking, Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continued their flights. The crew of both spacecraft are carrying out their programs successfully.
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The new members of the Soyuz-4 crew, Khrunov and Eliseev, adjusted themselves well to their working places. They checked the functioning of the systems and carried out observations and experiments according to the flight program. After completing their program of experiments in open space, the astronauts are feeling well. They said they had no difficulty and carried out the transfer confidently, since all these operations had been mastered during their training on earth, which had included flights in aircraft-laboratories in the condition of weightlessness. At 1830 hours Moscow time, Khrunov and Eliseev retired to the orbital compartment for rest. Shatalov will rest in the spacecraft cabin. Soyuz-5 commander Volynov, after completing his program at 1830 hours Moscow time, moved to the orbital compartment to sleep. The telemctric data and the astronauts' report agree that the crew are feeling fine and the systems functioning normally. The group flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continues. At i 732 hours Moscow time the spacecraft went outside the Soviet radio visibility zone.
Pravda, January 17, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOYUZ-4 LANDS SAFELY: SOTUZ-5 STILL IN ORBIT Today, January 17, 1969, at 0953 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4, piloted by its commander Comrade Shatalov and crew members Eliseev and Khrunov, after completing its scheduled space flight landed in a predetermined area in Soviet territory, about 40 kilometers northwest of Karaganda. The astronauts are feeling well. Before descent the crew of Soyuz-4 packed the scientific apparatus and photographic materials in the landing vehicle. Then they fastened themselves to their seats. The commander of the spacecraft carried out manual orientation and at a particular moment the landing program was put into action. At a predetermined point the braking engine was switched on, which gave a definite impulse; the orbital velocity was decreased and the spacecraft moved into a descending trajectory (Fig. 12). After the braking engine had been switched off, the landing vehicle with the astronauts was separated from the orbital compartment. The landing vehicle made a guided descent through the atmosphere with the use of aerodynamic control. It reached the predetermined landing area, where the parachute system and soft-landing engines provided for a smooth landing. Back on earth, the astronauts Shatalov, Eliseev and Khrunov were met by the search group, friends, sport commissars and journalists.

Fig. 12. Sketch showing the landing of the Soyuz.

The flight of Soyuz-4 had been successfully completed. Meanwhile Soyuz-5 continues its flight. Astronaut Volynov is carrying out the scheduled operations of the flight program. He is feeling excellent. The spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
Circuit after circuit

Today, January 17, 1969, at 0333 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 entered the radiovisibility zone of the Soviet Far-East observation posts. After a refreshing sleep and having completed a required set of physical exercises and toilet hygiene, the astronauts had breakfast with good appetites. After that they checked the condition of the systems, regulated the clock and entered upon their work for the third day of the flight program. The spacecraft commanders carried out a number of experiments and took observations and photographs according to program. Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev recorded the results of their transfer and work in open space in the spacecraft logbook. The spacecraft commanders reported that all the members of the crew are feeling fine and that the spacecraft systems are functioning normally.

The group flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 continues successfully. At 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-4 nad completed 48 and Soyuz-5, 32 circuits of the earth. The crew of Soyuz-4 took cine photographs, carried out experiments as per the flight program and transmitted reports from the spacecraft. The commander of Soyuz-5 tested the control systems and carried out orientation of his craft. The systems are functioning normally. Pressure, temperature and relative humidity in the living compartments are within the prescribed limits. The astronauts are in excellent spirits. Regular radio contact is maintained with them. The quality of the communications is good. The astronauts of both spacecraft are in a jolly mood and are talking and joking together.

On January 17, at 1400 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed 35 circuits around the earth. On the successful completion of the Soyuz-4 flight) Sqyuz-5 commander Volynov conveyed his greetings to his comrades, Shatalov, Khrunov and Eliseev and also to the builders of the wonderful Soyuz spacecraft. Comrade Volynov reported that he maintained radio contact with Soyuz-4 right till its landing. Continuing in orbit, Comrade Volynov tested the spacecraft systems, carried out scientific investigations and made the necessary records in the logbook. According to his daily routine, the astronaut had dinner. He is feeling fine and in excellent spirits. The systems on board are functioning normally: pressure in the cabin is 815 mm Hg, temperatute is 18.5 C. The flight continues.

On January 17 at 1830 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed its 38th circuit. Spacecraft commander Volynov carried out orientation with the manual control system. On the 36th circuit he put the propulsion system into action for correction of the orbit. After correction, the parameters of the orbit are as follows: orbital period - 88.6 min; maximum distance from earth (at apogee) - 229 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) - 201 km; orbital inclination 51 deg 40 min.
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During the third day of flight, Volynov carried out the scheduled program of tests and scientific and technical investigations. TV broadcasts were conducted from the astronaut's cabin and the orbital compartment. Astronaut Volynov described the different scientific instruments, demonstrated the state of weightlessness and showed the earth through the windows of the orbital compartment. According to the astronaut's reports and the telemetric data, all the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. Boris Valentinovich is feeling excellent: his pulse rate is 60 per minute, and respiration rate 15 per minute. After supper the astronaut is resting in the orbital compartment. The flight of Soyuz-5 continues.
Pravda, January 18, 1969

GREETINGS TO THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD
Soviet astronauts V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov, during their group flight, conveyed the following greetings: To the people of Australia We send our best wishes to the people of Australia. To the brotherly people of Vietnam Wish you new successes in the building of Socialism, in your struggle for the freedom, independence and unity of Vietnam. To the people of Asia From outer space we send our sincere best wishes to the people of Asia for success in building independent nations. To the people of China We send our greetings to the great Chinese people. We believe in lasting friendship between the Soviet and Chinese peoples. To the people of Latin America We convey our good wishes for the success of the people of Latin America
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in their struggle for independence and freedom from imperialistic slavery.
To the people of U.S.A.

From the Soviet spacecraft we send our friendly greetings to the people of U.S.A.
To the people of Europe

On behalf of the crew of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 we send our good wishes for prosperity and the strengthening of peace.
To the people of Africa

We greet the freedom-loving people of Africa and wish them success in their struggle for the strengthening of national independence and social progress.
Pravda, January 18, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT NEW OUTSTANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT IS COMPLETE On January 18, 1969, at iioo hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5, piloted by astronaut B.V. Volynov, after fulfilling its scheduled flight program, made a soft-landing in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union, about 200 kilometers southwest of Kustanai. The astronaut is feeling well. For leaving orbit, the braking engine was switched on at a precalculated moment. After the braking engine had finished its work, the landing vehicle carrying the astronaut, separated from the orbital compartment. After braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system and soft-landing engines provided a smooth descent and landing of the vehicle in the landing area. On the earth, astronaut B.V. Volynov was received by the search group, friends, sport commissars and journalists. The flight of Soyuz-5 has been successfully completed. The complete program of scientific experiments and investigations by the two spacecraft Soyuz-4 an(i Soyuz-5 nas been accomplished.
More and more circuits

On January 18, astronaut B.V. Volynov's working day started at 0130 hours Moscow time.
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After doing a set of physical exercises, toilet hygiene, and taking breakfast according to the daily chart, the astronaut checked the spacecraft systems. Then he began the program of scientific and medico-biological investigations for the fourth day of flight. At 0311 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 during its 45th circuit entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone. According to the telemetric data and the reports of the astronaut, the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. The astronaut is feeling excellent. The flight of the spacecraft goes on.

On January 18, at 0900 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-5 completed its 48th circuit. After turning the spacecraft manually for sun orientation, and making a report of this operation, the commander continued carrying out experiments. These included observation of cloud and snow covers of the earth and geological and geographical features on the earth's surface. According to the data from the spacecraft, the pressure, humidity and temperatures in the cabin and orbital compartment are normal. Pilot-Astronaut Volynov is feeling well and continuing the flight successfully.
Pravda, January 19, 1969

FLIGHT PROGRAM FULLY

ACCOMPLISHED

The group flight of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 has been successfully completed. As has already been reported, on January 14-15, 1969 Soyuz-4 an(i Soyuz-5 were accurately launched into precalculated orbits as artificial earth satellite. After completing their flight programs Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 returned to the earth on January 17 and 18, 1969 respectively. The crew consisted of Commanders Shatalov and Volynov, Space Engineer Eliseev and Research Engineer Khrunov. The spacecraft's landing vehicles carrying the astronauts landed exactly in the predetermined areas. All the astronauts were in good health after landing. Pilot-Astronauts Shatalov, Volynov, Eliseev and Khrunov have been taken to the cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup. The Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 spacecraft have accomplished three-day flights in a near-earth orbit. A number of extremely important scientific and

technical experiments have been carried out during the course of the group flight. The first functioning experimental space station was established as an artificial earth satellite. The space station had four compartments which enabled many scientific investigations, observations and experiments to be carried out. The parameters of the microclimate in the compartments—pressure, temperature, humidity and atmospheric gas composition—corresponded to earth conditions. There was a telephone link between compartments. During the rendezvous, "mooring" and docking operations, the systems for automatic and manual control were put to a practical test and were found to be highly reliable. During the flight of the inhabited space station, the orientation of the whole complex and its stabilization in the oriented position were successfully carried out. An outstanding experiment was the transfer of two astronauts—-Research Engineer Khrunov and Space Engineer Eliseev—-from one spacecraft to another via open space. Astronauts Khrunov and Eliseev, dressed in special spacesuits, were in open space for about an hour. They carried out a number of assembly, photographic and filming operations, and scientific observations and experiments. They also delivered some newspapers, telegrams and letters from the earth to Soyuz-4Spacesuits equipped with a new self-contained regenerative lifesaving system provided conditions for the normal functioning of the human organism in open space. Throughout the transfer process, regular TV and radio contact was maintained between each of the astronauts and ground control. A large number of scientific investigations, observations and experiments were accomplished. In particular, the principles of navigation were perfected, observations of geological and geographical formations on the earth's surface and cloud and snow layers were carried out, investigations of the brightness of the earth and stars, and the detection of cyclones and typhoons were conducted. In an extensive program, medico-biological research on the influence of space flight on the human organism was carried out. Throughout the flight, medical control of the astronauts' state of health was carried out. An analysis of the medical telemetric information, received while the crew was conducting complicated experiments, the radio conversations and the observations at the time of telecasts confirm the high working capacity of the astronauts at all stages of the space flight. Constant radio contact was maintained with Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5- Regular TV broadcasts and reports were transmitted from the spacecraft. The quality of telecasts was good. The control and measurement complex, including the ground control
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posts and scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences ensured the simultaneous control of both spacecraft and regular contact with them. The successful completion of the flight tasks by the crew and their efficient actions at all stages of flight were the result of a well-organized, purposeful, preliminary training which provided a complex of training equipments which closely simulated all the elements and operations of space flight. The search and rescue complex enabled the quick detection and evacuation of the astronauts. The main results of the flight are: — successful accomplishment of maneuvers, detection, rendezvous, "mooring" and docking of die spacecraft; — creation of an inhabited experimental space station in orbit; — transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another—an experiment which has provided the basis for such operations in outer space as the supply of goods, repair and assembly work, replacement of crew of manned orbital stations or their rescue in case of emergency; — overall testing and checking of systems, assemblies and components of the spacecraft under the conditions of individual flight and as part of an experimental space station; —- carrying out of a large number of scientific and technical and medicobiological investigations, observations and experiments. The results of the flight of Soyuz-4 and Sqyu^-5 are of great importance for the further perfecting of space technology and will be used for the development of manned orbital stations for the nation's scientific and economic purposes.
Prauda, January 19, 1969

To The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations which took part in the preparation, launching and successful accomplishment of the docking of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 and the first transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another in the course of flight. To The Soviet astronauts, Comrades Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.

Dear Comrades! In the conquest of outer space, the beginning of the year 1969 is marked by a great new achievement in Soviet science and technology. After the successful launching of the interplanetary space probes Venera-5 and Venera-6

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the wonderful space flights of four Soviet Soyuz spacecraft have been successfully accomplished. The spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 commanded by astronauts V.A. Shatalov and B.V. Volynov, carried out mutual detection, maneuvering, "mooring" and docking in orbit. After accomplishing docking, astronauts E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev, in spacesuits fitted with self-contained lifesaving systems, left Soyuz-5 and entered Sqyuz-4 via open space. Afterwards the spacecraft were undocked and returned to the earth in predetermined areas on completion of their flight programs. Throughout the flight, the apparatus and systems on board functioned perfectly and ensured the successful completion of the scientific and technical program. The heroic crew of both spacecraft completed all their tasks. This experiment in outer space, achieved for the first time in the world, has great importance for the further development of manned space flights and for the construction of orbital stations, which will enable the solution of a wide range of scientific and economic problems of national importance. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev, for the successful accomplishment of the space flight and for carrying out such a complicated and responsible task. We congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations, which took part in the preparation, launching and accomplishment of the docking of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 and of the first ever transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the course of a flight. Glory to the Soviet astronauts, blazing new trails into outer space! Glory to the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, building new spacecraft! Glory to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which inspires and organizes all the victories of the Soviet people!
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, January 19, 1969
To

THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION, PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR

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We heartily thank you for your warm greetings on the completion of our space flight in the spacecraft Soyu^-4 and Soyuz.-5. We express our brotherly gratitude for the great faith you have shown in us during the space flight. We assure the Leninist Central Committee of the Communist Party, our Soviet Government and all the Soviet people that while we are alive, we shall devote all our energy, knowledge and experience to the prosperity and strengthening of our beloved country.
Pilot-Astronauts: V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, E.V. Khrunov, A.S. Eliseev Pravda, January 20, 1969

GREAT VICTORY IN SPACE Soviet people have a feeling of great satisfaction and happiness. An important new victory has been achieved in outer space. Valiant PilotAstronauts Vladimir Shatalov, Boris Volynov, Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei Eliseev have successfully completed an outstanding scientific and technical experiment: mutual search, maneuvering, "mooring" and manual docking of two Sqyuz spacecraft have been accomplished in the course of the flight. For the first time in the history of space flight, astronauts A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov moved over from one spacecraft to another through open space. After successfully completing the complicated and responsible mission entrusted by their motherland, the space heroes returned safely to earth. The Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR and the Council of Ministers, USSR, have warmly congratulated the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations, which took part in the preparation and accomplishment of the remarkable scientific and technical experiment, and our valiant astronauts for their successful completion of the space mission. The great victory in outer space has been received enthusiastically throughout the country. It fills the hearts of Soviet people with pride and calls forth their patriotic urge to contribute further to the welfare of the motherland and for the strengthening of her might. The new Soviet achievement in the conquest of outer space has been welcomed with a feeling of great satisfaction in the allied socialist countries and by all progressive people all over the world. The Polish newspaper "Trybuna Ludu" has characterized the establishment of the first orbital
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space station as "one of the most important achievements in the history of astronautics". Not only the proletarian papers, but also the bourgeois press has commented on the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-Swith such appreciative epithets as "a glance into the third millennium", "grand success of the Soviets", "unprecedented walk by astronauts from one spacecraft to another" etc. Scientists of many countries and the world community have stressed that the heroic deed of the four astronauts and the brilliant success of Soviet science and technology open new horizons in the field of astronautics. The experiment carried out for the first time in the world, has great importance for the further development of manned space flights and for the construction of orbital space stations which will help in solving a wide range of scientific and economic problems of national importance. These space stations will help in deepening our knowledge of the universe, provide for more active study of our own planet and help arrange its resources in the service of mankind. The Soviet people have the satisfaction that it was their own country which opened these new prospects for the conquest of space. Again it shows the great productive power of the socialist system and the potentialities of Soviet science and technology. Our achievements in space reflect the great social, economic, cultural and scientific transformations, accomplished by the Soviet people after the Great October Revolution. The Soviets have proved to the world that they can tackle the most daring projects successfully. Following the path shown by the Communist Party, the Soviet Union—the first country to lead the way into outer space—-is confidently achieving its systematic program of investigation and practical use of outer space. Eleven years have passed since the beginning of the space era, when the first Soviet artificial earth satellite was launched, and more than seven years since the first flight to outer space was accomplished by a communist, Yurii Gagarin. This is a short period, but how much has been achieved! Within less than two weeks, our country has sent two automated space probes to cover hundreds of millions of kilometers and smoothly enter the atmosphere of Venus, and conducted the flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5These remarkable achievements have been made possible by the outstanding quality of Soviet science and technology, the experience of our talented working class and the deep knowledge and technical boldness of our designers, scientists, engineers and technicians. The Soviet space program is characterized by a breadth of scientific pursuit, innovation, and a deep anp organic relationship with present and future needs of science and the national economy. When the Soviet people consider the great contribution of their motherland to the conquest of outer space and see their country leading the rest of the world in science and technology, their attention is at once

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directed toward the Communist Party—the inspirer and organizer of all these victories. Only communists could recognize the great potentialities and genius of the founder of astronautics, K.E. Tsiolkovskii who did not achieve recognition by Czarist Russia. Lenin's Party took care of the great scientist and created the conditons for his fruitful labor and that of his followers. The Party led the selfless battle of the Soviet people for the creation of a first-rate socialist industry, on the basis of which our space flight program which amazes the world today, became possible. The party fostered millions and millions of dutiful patriots, faithful to communist ideas, from whom astronautics can select its personnel. The crew of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 started their bold space journey with the name of Lenin in their hearts. Their courageous and skillful work in outer space was entered in red letters in the records of the National Labor Shift, devoted to the centenary of Lenin, founder of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government. With their work on the earth and on their way to the distant worlds in space, the Soviet people are accomplishing more and more glorious deeds in the name of a great aim—-communism.
Pravda, January 20, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOT-ASTRONAUT V.A. SHATALOV For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred on the commander of the Soyuz-4 spacecraft, Pilot-Astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgomyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969
IOO

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOTASTRONAUT B.V. VOLYNOV For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred on the commander of the Soyuz-5 spacecraft, Pilot-Astronaut Boris Valentinovich Volynov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOTASTRONAUT A.S. ELISEEV For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the orbital flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred on Pilot-Astronaut Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969
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DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PILOTASTRONAUT E.V. KHRUNOV For the successful completion of a space flight and for carrying out the first-ever transfer of astronauts from one spacecraft to another during the orbital flight of the spacecraft Sqyuz-4 an(l Sqyuz-5, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred on Pilot-Astronaut Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen Comrade Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE B.V. VOLYNOV For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-5 spacecraft, the title of
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"Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen, Comrade Boris Valentinovich Volynov.
JV. Podgorryi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE A.S. ELISEEV For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred on Soviet citizen, Comrade Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR" TO COMRADE E.V. KHRUNOV For accomplishing a space flight in the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, the title of 'Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR' is conferred on Soviet citizen, Comrade Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov.
N. Podgorryi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, January 22, 1969 Pravda, January 23, 1969

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A PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO THE FLIGHT OF THE SOYU^-4 AND SOYUZ-5 SPACECRAFT The earthly orbit of our astronauts'passes through the Conference Hall of the Moscow State University. Traditionally the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of External Affairs, USSR, organize the press conferences of our space heroes in this hall. The attraction on January 24 is the brilliant success of four astronauts—Vladimir Shatalov, Boris Volynov, Aleksei Eliseev and Evgenii Khrunov. Hundreds of Soviet and foreign journalists living in Mosow have come to the Moscow State University to hear a first-hand account of the working of the first-ever space station, and of the transfer of astronauts in space. It is 3 p.m. The space comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov, outstanding Soviet scientists and astronauts come to the Presidium. Academician M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy of Sciences opens the press conference devoted to the launching and docking of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and to the first-ever transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another during orbital flight.
Speech by Academician M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy of Sciences

Comrades! Ladies and Gentlemen! Between January 14 and 18 a complicatedscientificand technical experiment was successfully carried out in a near-earth orbit. On January 14, the Soyuz-4 spacecraft, piloted by astronaut Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, was launched. On January 15, another spacecraft, Soyuz-5, was launched with a crew consisting of astronauts Boris Valentinovich Volynov, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev and Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov. During the course of the group flight the spacecraft carried out maneuvers. On January 16, the spacecraft automatically approached to a distance of about 100 meters, when astronaut Shatalov switched over to manual control and carried out "mooring". After this, the mechanical "capture", firm docking and connection of the electrical circuits of both spacecraft took place. Thus, the first-ever experimental space station was created in orbit as an artificial earth satellite. During the flight of the space station, Research Engineer Khrunov and Space Engineer Eliseev performed an outstanding experiment. Wearing spacesuits they went out of the Soyuz-5 spacecraft into open space, checked the docking units and verified the feasibility of assembly operations in open space. They carried out visual observations and took photographs and films. The astronauts remained in open space for about an hour, after which they en104

tered the second spacecraft, Soyuz-4- Afterward, the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 were undocked and continued to orbit separately. On January 17, Soyuz-4 landed on earth followed by Soyuz-5 on January 18. The program of the new test flight was successfully completed, much interesting scientific information was collected and a large number of experiments were carried out. A big step has been taken toward the conquest of outer space. Since October 4, 1957—when the first artificial earth satellite was launched—the complexity and significance of experiments in outer space have gradually increased. Yurii Gagarin's flight in April 1961 laid the foundation for the conquest of outer space by man. To accomplish this the most complicated scientific and technical problems had first to be solved. In 1965, for the first time a man made an exit into open space. This was the Soviet astronaut, Aleksei Leonov. Space flights were further developed by the American Gemini spacecraft. On these for the first time manual docking with the Agena rocket was carried out. In 1967 and 1968 automatic docking was successfully carried out twice by the artificial earth satellite of the Kosmos series. In October 1968, the joint flight of the Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3 spacecraft with Pilot-Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi on board, carried out experiments for search, rendezvous and maneuvering in space. Now, the first assembling of an experimental space station in orbit and the experiment for the replacement of crew have been accomplished. The space station consisted of four compartments for the crew, with good conditions for work and rest, and was equipped with different outfits. This space flight opens great prospects for carrying out various prolonged investigations in outer space on a permanently functioning space station, and makes it possible to send scientists to these stations for a definite period. The experiments of the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 spacecraft have great importance also for the preparation for future expeditions to other planets, since it is more rational to carry out these expeditions by docking a few vehicles in space. A wide and multipurpose program of study for the conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes is being systematically realized in our country. It covers different methods of space research, including the use of automated probes for those regions of the universe which are far away and difficult to reach, and enables us to get a large amount of radiotelemetric and TV information about the physical processes going on in these regions. The automated probe Luna-g enabled us for the first time to have a close look at the surface of the moon, while the successful flight of Venera-4 in October 1967 enabled us to make the first direct measurements in the atmosphere of this mysterious planet, which is situated at a distance of more than 70 million kilometers from the earth. At present our automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are on their way to this planet to continue the atmospheric investigations started by Venera-4. The probe ^ond, which enables automatic as well as manned space flights to distant places and
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makes re-entry with escape-velocity, has been created and successfully tested a number of times. There are a lot of things unknown about the moon and other planets which can be studied by automated probes, while for a number of problems, long-term research by scientists and specialists of different fields is essential. Orbital stations will be widely used for astrophysical, geophysical, meteorological and other investigations, and may serve as a platform for man's entry deep into space. They will enable scientists to get closer to the objects of their study, and will considerably aid observations, which can be conducted over long periods. Orbital stations will undoubtedly be used in solving national economic problems. The successful flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 has solved the most important problems connected with the creation of-these stations. This wonderful experiment is a great victory for Soviet science and technology and reflects the high level of development of our industry. The heroic flight of comrades V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, A.S. Eliseev and E.V. Khrunov is an important stage in the conquest of near-earth space, and ultimately of the further regions of outer space. M.V. Keldysh informed the press that for carrying out the flight and docking of the two spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, and for the first-ever transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another during flight, the USSR Academy of Sciences had awarded the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medal to Pilot-Astronauts V.A. Shatalov, B.V. Volynov, E.V. Khrunov and A.S. Eliseev. M.V. Keldysh handed over the medals to the astronauts to the accompaniment of a big ovation from those present in the hall. Speech by V.A. Shatalov Comrades! Friends! Ladies and Gentlemen! On January 18, the flight program of the two spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 was fully accomplished. The flight program envisaged : —• distant approach of the spacecraft, rendezvous, manual "mooring" and docking, for establishing an experimental space station; — transfer of two astronauts from one spacecraft to another through open space, and accomplishment of a number of experiments and assembly tasks; — testing of spacecraft systems during flight, especially for docking, rendezvous and transfer of astronauts; — conducting a series of scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments during single, group and joint flights.
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The Soyuz-4 was launched on January 14, 1969, at 1030 hours Moscow time. After entry into orbit, I checked the functioning of systems and started manual orientation of the spacecraft with the solar batteries towards the sun. After this operation the spacecraft, like a gigantic gyroscope, would remain in a sun-orientated position, providing electric power for the spacecraft systems from solar energy. The state of weightlessness has already been described a number of times. I would simply point out that for clear, accurate and coordinated actions, one needs time for the organism to get accustomed to this unusual condition. I got accustomed to it after 3-4 hours of the flight. During the initial circuits I had to carry out the correction of the spacecraft orbit so that it passed through the in-orbit launching point of Soyuz-5 after 24 hours. For this purpose I orientated the spacecraft and switched on the corrective engine at a calculated moment, after which the spacecraft entered a new orbit. On the first day of the flight, besides orbit correction I carried out a number of experiments connected with the observation and photography of the earth's surface, meteorological conditions on the earth and the earth's horizon, and took astronomical observations. For conducting the experiments I left the spacecraft cabin and moved over to the orbital compartment. Next day, January 15, while passing over the Baikonur region I observed the launching of Soyuz-5 from its exhaust trail. The second stage of the flight—rendezvous and orbital docking—started after the successful entry of Soyuz-5 mto orbit. The spacecraft Soyuz-4 and Seyuz-5 carried out a number of maneuvers using manual control, approaching from a distance of more than 1,000 kilometers. When the spacecraft were a few kilometers away, the automatic rendezvous system started functioning. On signals from this system, the rendezvous-cum-corrective propulsion system on Soyuz-4 was Put into operation a number of times. During this the spacecraft approached with a variable velocity, depending upon the distance between them. I controlled the automatic approach through instruments, as well as visually through the optical sightlines and TV set. At the time of rendezvous of Soyuz-5 the docking unit was orientated toward Soyuz-4. At a distance of 100 meters, Boris Volynov and I changed over to the manual spacecraft control. While controlling the spacecraft, we maintained their necessary mutual orientation. I changed the velocity of approach depending upon the distance between the spacecraft. Near the shores of Africa, at a distance of 7-8 thousand kilometers from Soviet territory, our spacecraft approached each other to about 40 meters and carried out hovering operations. At this distance Boris Volynov and I carried out some maneuvers, changing the relative position of the space107

craft and taking photographs of each other. We continued the further closing up of the spacecraft, and accomplished docking in the zone of direct TV contact with the earth. We could see this process on our TV screens. To avoid collision, the relative velocity at the moment of touching was reduced to a few tens of centimeters per second. The "mooring" of Soyuz-4 with Soyuz-5 took place at this very low relative velocity. During the process of "mooring" the bar of the docking unit of Soyuz-4 entered the hollow of the cone of the Soyuz-5 and mutual mechanical "capture" took place. After that, further constriction and connection of the electric circuits took place. In this way the first space station was assembled and started functioning in orbit. The space station had four living compartments with a total volume of 18 cubic meters. All the compartments were connected by telephones. Comfortable conditions for the crew to work and rest were maintained in the compartments : temperature of the air could be regulated between 15 and 25°C, the relative humidity was of the order of 40-70% and pressure was 760-800 mm Hg. Composition of the atmosphere inside the craft was same as on the earth i.e., oxygen 21 % and the rest, nitrogen. The content of carbon dioxide was less than one per cent. Two compartments of the space station could be used as locked chambers enabling the astronauts to move out into open space. The testing of the locking system took place in the course of the actual flight on January 16, 1969, when two crew members of Soyuz-5, Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei Eliseev, put on spacesuits and moved over through space to Soyuz-4The transfer was guided visually with the help of TV and optical sighting devices. Telephone contact was maintained with the astronauts throughout the operation. After the transfer the astronauts handed me newspapers with material about the flight of Soyuz-4, and letters from friends and relatives. I was very happy to meet my comrades in outer space and was glad to read about my flight in the newspapers. The flight center did not intend the space station to continue for a long time, and after three circuits of joint flight, a signal was given from the control panel for the undocking of the spacecraft. The assembly and flight of the experimental space station has provided material necessary for establishing scientific research stations to exist for long periods. The future orbital stations will require crew replacement, supply of goods and scientific equipment, assembling and dismantling of structures and despatch of scientific material to the earth. Many elements of these operations were worked out during the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5. In the course of further flight I again had to act as an instructor, this time not of an airplane but of a spacecraft! By turn Evgenii Khrunov and Aleksei
jo8

Eliseev occupied the commander's seat and controlled the spacecraft. I must say that the spacecraft reacts obediently to every movement of the control points, and takes up the required position very easily and exactly. My comrades also noted that the control of the spacecraft was very similar to the control in the training simulators on earth. After undocking, it was much easier for me to work now that my friends were there along with me. They shared the duties which I had carried out alone during my solo flight. First, Aleksei Eliseev and Evgenii Khrunov recorded in the spacecraft logbook their impressions about the transfer, working of the spacesuits, self-contained lifesaving systems and the locking system. After that, Eliseev checked the working of the systems on board in detail, while Khrunov began experiments and observations. On the 46th circuit we started preparing for the descent. We had to pack all the scientific instruments and data, photographs and films in special containers. After a thorough checkup of the orbital compartment we moved over to the cabin, and I started the prelanding orientation of the spacecraft. At 0911 hours on January 17, 1969 the propulsion system was switched on; the spacecraft obediently left the orbit and started moving toward the earth. The entry into the earth's atmosphere was first felt when the acceleration forces started gradually increasing. Afterward we saw flames through the windows. At a height of about 10 kilometers, the parachute system was put into operation. Slightly swinging on the parachute we descended toward the earth. When we were close to the earth, the soft-landing engines started functioning and thus we made a smooth landing. While descending, a twoway contact was maintained with an aeroplane and a helicopter of the search group observing our landing. A helicopter approached us and we were received by the search group, sport commissars, correspondents and friends. I am glad to have justified the faith of my motherland in me. I heartily thank all the scientists, engineers, designers, workers and testers, who took part in the construction of the Soyuz spacecraft and helped make this joint flight possible. Thank you. Speech by B.V. Volynov Comrades and friends! Ladies and Gentlemen! As you already know from the press reports, on January 15, 1969, at 1014 hours Moscow time, the Soyuz-5, with three astronauts on board was
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launched into orbit as an artificial earth satellite. I was commander of the spacecraft, with Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, my space engineer, and Lieutenant Colonel Evgenii Vasil'evich Khrunov, my research engineer. The crew had to carry out a wide program of scientific investigations, the main part of which were : — rendezvous and docking of spacecraft; — establishment of an inhabited experimental space station; — exit of two astronauts into open space, followed by their entry into another spacecraft, Soyuz-4. The scheduled program has been fully carried out. After a space flight lasting for three days, during which more than 49 circuits of the earth were made, Soyuz-5 safely landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union, 200 kilometers northwest of Kustanai. The flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5ha.s once again shown that the ingenuity of the Soviet scientists and designers, the experience of the engineers and technicians, and the skillful hands of the workers are capable of creating the ideal spacecraft. We are extremely thankful to them. We started the full program at the moment of launching. All the members of the crew endured the active phase well. After separation from the carrier-rockets, we checked the condition and functioning of the spacecraft systems and established contact with the earth and with the commander of Soyuz-4, Vladimir Shatalov. This contact was maintained throughout the flight. As envisaged by the flight program, on the fifth circuit after carrying out manual orientation, I switched on the propulsion system and corrected the orbit for rendezvous with Soyuz-4 at a predetermined point. On January 16, as a result of exact maneuvering, our spacecraft entered the zone of action for automatic rendezvous. At 1037 hours the automatic rendezvous of the spacecraft started. When the distance between the spacecraft was 100 meters, Vladimir Shatalov and I changed over to manual control. After "mooring", a firm docking took place and the electric circuits were connected. An experimental space station was thus created in orbit. The spacecraft as well as the space station was controlled from the astronauts' cabin. All the instruments for controlling the spacecraft systems, as well as the astronauts' seats are accommodated in this cabin. Besides the cabin, there is an orbital compartment in the spacecraft, which is a well-equipped scientific research laboratory where we conducted scientific and medico-biological experiments and observations, and took photographs. Here one could also perform the physical exercises made necessary by being in a state weightlessness for a long of period.
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The orbital compartment acts as a locked chamber at the time of exit into open space and re-entry into the spacecraft. Because of this locked chamber the astronauts had no need to wear spacesuits all the time. After docking, the next important task was the exit of Research Engineer Khrunov and Space Engineer Eliseev into open space and their transfer to the Soyuz-4For the purpose of transfer the astronauts had to wear spacesuits. In all earlier flights, the spacesuits had been put on before launching. During this flight, for the first time, the spacesuits were put on in the spacecraft. I helped the astronauts in putting on the spacesuits and knapsacks, and checked their readiness for the space walk. Our thorough training before the flight helped us to carry out all these operations exactly. Before their exit, I oriented the orbital station and stabilized it. After confirming the functioning of the locking system, the good health and mood of my comrades, I gave the signal for their exit. We and Vladimir Shatalov observed through the optical sighting device and the TV camera the actions and condition of the astronauts coming out of their craft, and were ready to give necessary instructions, if required. The astronauts walked and performed work outside the spacecraft in the spacesuits fitted with a self-contained generative type lifesaving system. After conducting a number of scientific experiments and observations in space, Khrunov and Eliseev entered the orbital compartment of Soyuz-^. After completing the checking of the spacecraft systems, on January 16, at 1555 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft were undocked and each of them continued their separate program of scientific investigations. In Soyuz-5 I carried out the correction of orbit and orientation of the spacecraft with respect to earth and sun. The spacecraft is obedient to the instruments of control and is a wonderful mechanism for the further investigation of outer space. The list of scientific observations included medico-biological experiments, investigation of the earth and observation of the earth's atmosphere. In accordance with the flight program, on the 4gth circuit the spacecraft left orbit. The descent was normal, and landing was made in a predetermined area. Immediately after landing I was met by the search group, correspondents and friends. I am thankful to the Soviet people, the Communist Party and the Soviet Government for the faith shown in me to accomplish the Soyuz-5 flight. Thank you.
Ill

Speech by E.V. Khrunov Dear Comrades! Ladies and Gentlemen! I shall try to describe briefly my work as Research Engineer of the Soyuz-q. and Soyuz-5 and give my impressions of the flight. My duties included carrying out a number of scientific experiments, observations and investigations. One of the main experiments in the flight program was the space walk and transfer from one spacecraft to another, during which we had to carry out a number of tasks and observations. They included: checking of the locking system, an appraisal of the potentialities of the spacesuits and the self-contained lifesaving system, assembly in open space, inspection of the exterior of the spacecraft, observation of the earth and heavenly bodies, photography and filming. While in the spacecraft, I looked after the "mooring", docking and mechanical coupling operations to establish the single unit experimental space station. I worked on astronavigational equipment, and studied the passage of radio waves in different bands through the ionosphere. We carried out medico-biological experiments and investigations. I must say that Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 are excellently equipped spacecraft, with provision for a large number of different scientific observations and experiments. And in future, the possibilities of using these spacecraft for solving scientific problems will increase even more. They will carry out flight in the docked state forming an orbital station which can stay in orbit as an artificial earth satellite as long as required. In accordance with the flight program, the first-ever experimental space station existed only for a few hours. But it was an important experimental flight which gave the key to many practical problems connected with communication between compartments and with the testing of instruments, equipment, power supply and the control and orientation systems. These problems were completely solved within the period of the flight program. The program did not envisage a longer flight of the docked spacecraft at this stage, although it could have been extended. How did we shift from one spacecraft into another? On January 16, Soyuz-4 was on *ts 35fh circuit, Eliseev and I came out of the cabin into the orbital compartment and started putting on our spacesuits. Soon the spacecraft commander joined us and helped us in putting on the helmet, gloves and knapsack with self-contained lifesaving system. Exactly at this time the TV broadcast was on and we were told that we were being seen clearly on the earth. The orbital compartment in the Soyuz spacecraft serves not only for carrying out scientific observations and for taking rest but also as a locking chamber.

Thus when Boris Volynov went back to his seat in the cabin and closed the hermetic hatch, we checked the hermetic nature of the spacesuits and the working of the lifesaving system, and informed the commander of Soyuz-5 that we were ready to go. The commander switched on the mechanism for opening the hatch. I was the first to leave. The hatch opened and the spacecraft was filled with sunlight. I saw the earth, its horizon and the black sky, and had the same feeling as before a parachute jump. It was the anxiety that sportsmen have at "the start," which lasts for a few seconds. Then the normal rhythm of work, to which I was now accustomed because of the long training on earth, took over and I could think only of my work. I went out of the spacecraft easily and had a look around. Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 presented a wonderful scene. Even the smallest parts on their surfaces were visible. They were shining brightly, reflecting the sunlight. Just in front of me was Soyuz-4, very similar to an aircraft : the large, long, spacecraft looked like the fuselage and the solar batteries, the wings. The space station, at this moment, was over South America. Having enjoyed this wonderful scene—-the shining spacecraft with the earth and black sky in the background—I started walking toward the region of the docking unit, where there was a cinecamera fitted on the outer surface of Soyuz-5, which filmed the "mooring" and docking of the spacecraft. Let me explain exactly how I "walked". We, living on the earth, normally conceive walking as a movement by the feet. In the state of weightlessness it is not possible to "walk"—in the ordinary sense of the word—since on the surface of the spacecraft, there is no support under the feet, and therefore no force to hold you on the surface. Even on the earth, while we were under training, we found that for moving in outer space, for "walking" from one place to another in the spacecraft, the best way to move i s . . . on your hands, making use of the fixed handrails. Thus, holding the handrails, I approached the cinecamera. Holding the handrail with one hand, I took off the camera from the cantilever and found out its electric supply joint with the other hand. Afterward, in the same way, "on hands", I moved on the surface of the space station into the compartment ofSqyuz-4- With half of my body remaining outside, I took observations of the earth's horizon, checked the working of the orientation engines, communicated with the spacecraft commanders and Aleksei Eliseev, picked up the "Salyut" camera from the orbital compartment and took some photographs of the spacecraft. When we entered the Soviet radio communication zone I took the cinecamera which I had removed from the Soyuz-5 cantilever while crossing over, and hung it on a special cantilever near the hatch of the orbital compartment of Soyuz-4 and switched on the power supply. Now this camera was

recording the exit of Aleksei Eliseev and his transfer from Soyuz-5to Soyuz-4 through open space. I must say that it is not so easy to conduct operations of taking movie film and mounting the cine camera and also to take photographs by an ordinary camera in outer space. During the course of Eliseev's transfer, I watched and maintained contact with him. Then Eliseev and I, on a signal from the commander, entered the orbital compartment of Sqyuz-4, closed the hatch, switched on the booster, made the pressure normal and took off our spacesuits. Shatalov came out to our compartment and we met warmly, hugged each other and passed on the letters from his relatives and the morning newspaper of January 15 with the TASS announcement about his flight on Soyuz-4Thus the transfer from one spacecraft to another was over. This experiment showed that it is possible to carry out in outer space operations such as the replacement of the crew of space stations, assembly of equipment and rescue of the crew of spacecraft, victims of some accident in orbit. I must remark on the exceptionally fine working of the self-contained lifesaving systems. We were out in open space for about an hour. We felt extremely well. Ventilation in the spacesuit is good. We didn't feel any overheating. Pulse and respiration rates were normal. The window of the hermetic helmet did not mist over. The lifesaving source was not fully exhausted. We could have stayed in open space for a much longer period. The success of the experiment on moving over from one spacecraft to another was due to our excellent training on earth. Eliseev and I had carried out dozens of flights in the flying laboratory, which reproduces the state of weightlessness in actual flight. We were well prepared for carrying out each and every operation of this experiment, and did not come across anything unexpected in outer space. On January 16, 1969, the spacecraft were undocked. The separating of the spacecraft was an unforgettable sight! We are anxiously waiting for the cinefilm of that scene. After completing the transfer, a large number of scientific observations and medico-biological experiments were conducted in orbit. The results of these investigations and observations are being worked out and will be published in due course. The next day, January 17, we landed. The commander of Soyuz-4 has already spoken about this. I would just add that the observations of the functioning of the systems of Soyuz-4 were conducted right up to the moment of touching the earth. The observations affirm the high accuracy and reliability of all the systems, assemblies and instruments of this remarkable machine. The spacecraft landed in a predetermined area and the search group helicopter immediately flew over to us.
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We were given warm clothing and flew to Karaganda and from there to the cosmodrome. Thus ended our space flight. Thank you!
Speech by A.S. Eliseev

Comrades! Friends! Ladies and Gentlemen! The main duties of the space engineer of the Soyuz spacecraft was the control and analysis of the working of all the systems. What more can be said about the Soyuz spacecraft? A Soyuz spacecraft is a comfortable space laboratory suitable for conducting different scientific experiments as well as for taking rest. Equipment layout in the spacecraft cabin and in the orbital compartment provides good conditions for the crew to work during the flight. The working places of the members of the crew have been worked out in accordance with the duties assigned to each astronaut. The spacecraft is easy to handle. The control and orientation systems function well. The arrangement of the control knobs is convenient. The experiment on the establishment of an orbital space station has proved the possibility of orientation and control of the whole station from the pilot's cabin of Soyuz-4 as well as Soyuz-5. The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartment— pressure, temperature, humidity and gas composition of the atmosphere— corresponded to those calculated and one can firmly say that the lifesaving systems functioned well throughout the course of the flight. The communication system provided a steady radio contact with the earth at all stages of flight. Just after the launching of Soyuz-5 into orbit, radio communications were established between Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5 also. During the joint flight there was a telephone connection between the spacecraft compartments. TV broadcasts were transmitted from the space station. The quality of broadcast was good. The equipment layout in the orbital compartment makes it possible to carry out different scientific and technical experiments. The window of the orbital compartment enables us to see a large portion of the surrounding space. The equipment for everyday life creates comfortable conditions for resting. I would like now to talk in some detail about the problems of docking and transfer. Putting on a spacesuit in the state of weightlessness is much simpler than on the earth, since the spacesuit, because of weightlessness, takes its own form and is worn without much difficulty. The spacesuit is comfortable. The flexibility of the joints is good and enables us to carry out different assembly jobs in outer space. Ventilation in the spacesuit and heat exchange

is such that we did not feel hot while working and moving. The window did not mist over. Throughout the process of transfer steady communications were maintained between Khrunov and myself, and with the commanders of the spacecraft and the earth. The plan to transfer through open space and not through a tunnel was not a matter of chance. This experiment is very important for carrying out jobs on the assembly of still bigger space stations. Inspection from outside will be necessary for carrying out different assembly and dismantling jobs. The locking systems of both spacecraft functioned very well. The hatch for exit from the orbital compartment into open space, as well as the hatch connecting the orbital compartment and the spacecraft cabin, are perfectly hermetic. Before and after the space walk the members of the crew worked in the orbital compartments without spacesuits, in ordinary flight dress. During the period of the space walk the pressure in the orbital compartments was zero. Both the commanders were working in their seats in the cabins and were separated from outer space by only the thickness of the hatch. But the high standard of technology provided complete safety for the astronauts. This experiment, carried out for the first time in the world, has great importance for the further development of manned space flights and for the creation of orbital stations, and will enable us to solve a wide range of scientific and economic problems of national importance. The group flight of Soyuz-4 and Scyuz-5 with its scientific and technical experiments has yielded a large amount of valuable material. With this, our space technology will be able to take a big step forward in the conquest of outer space. Thank you. At the end of the conference, the astronauts and M.V. Keldysh replied to a large number of questions.
Izuestiya, January 24, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOYUZ-6 IN ORBIT Today, October 11, at 1410 hours Moscow time, a rocket-carrier with the spacecraft Soyuz-6 was launched in the Soviet Union. At 1419 hours the spacecraft Soyuz-6 was introduced with great accuracy into a precalculated orbit as an earth satellite. The Soyuz-6 is piloted by Lieutenant-Colonel Georgii Stepanovich Shonin
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and Space Engineer Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov, Kandidat of Technical Sciences. The spacecraft crew has to carry out an extensive program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments, which includes: — overall checking and testing of the systems on board, and the improved design of the Soyuz spacecraft and rocket complex; — further perfecting of the systems for manual control, orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft during complex flight regimes, and testing of autonomous navigation devices; — taking a large number of scientific observations, photography of geological and geographical features on the earth and investigation of its atmosphere, for the purposes of national economy; — scientific investi tions of the physical characteristics of near-earth space;

Commander of Soyuz-6—Georgii Stepanovich Shonin
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— conducting medico-biological investigations on the effect of space flight on the human organism. During the course of the space flight, experiments will also be conducted on the methods of welding of metals in high vacuum and in the state of weightlessness. Steady radio and TV communications are being maintained with the crew. The spacecraft commander Comrade Georgii Stepanovich Shonin reported that the members of the crew were feeling well. Normal conditions are being maintained in the astronaut's cabin and in the orbital compartment. The pressure, temperature, humidity and gas composition of the atmosphere are the same as on earth. Astronauts Shonin and Kubasov have begun tl.J.r work on the flight program.

At 1656 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, manned by astronauts Shonin and Kubasov, completed its second circuit of the earth. According to the trajectory measurements, the spacecraft's orbit has the following parameters: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 223 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) —• 186 km; orbital inclination —• 51.7 deg; orbital period — 88.36 min. The spacecraft commander, Georgii Stepanovich Shonin reported that the crew is fulfilling the scheduled flight program. After deployment of the solar panels of the spacecraft, Comrade Shonin carried out manual orientation with respect to the sun. Then the crew began scientific experiments. A TV broadcast was transmitted from the spacecraft during the flight. The communications with the spacecraft are regular. Broadcasts are held on five channels on short and ultrashort wave bands. The systems on board Soyuz-6 are functioning normally. Pressure in the spacecraft cabin is 770 mm Hg and the temperature is 22°C. The astronauts are feeling well. In a radio communications session the commander Lieutenant-Colonel Shonin stated that the crew is continuing its work. The astronauts checked the parameters of the different spacecraft systems. Simultaneously, medical experiments and observations, and photography of geological and geographical features on the earth were carried out. According to the medical telemetric information, the astronauts are feeling
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Space Engineer of Soyuz-6—Valerii Nikolaavich Kubasov.

extremely well and retain their high working capacity. At 1800 hours Comrades Shonin and Kubasov ate dinner with good appetites. According to the flight program, Pilot-Astronaut Shonin carried out orientation of the spacecraft and put the propulsion system into operation at 2008 hours. As a result of the impulse, orbit correction was carried out. During the correction process Comrade Shonin achieved stabilization of the spacecraft with the help of the manual control system. The radio communications with the spacecraft are steady. The lifesaving systems are functioning normally. From 2200 hours on October n to 0740 hours on October 12, Soyuz-6 will be orbiting outside the Soviet radio visibility zone. The astronauts will rest after supper.
pravda, October 12, 1969

STATEMENT BY THE SOTU^-6 COMMANDER, G.S. SHONIN BEFORE LAUNCHING Dear Friends! Today the crew of our spacecraft Soyuz-6 will continue the investigations started by Soyuz-3, Sqyuz-4 and Soyuz-5Each flight of the Soviet astronauts into outer space is the result of the creative labor of the Soviet scientists, designers, engineers and workers—the builders of the spacecraft. We are happy that we have been given the honor of carrying out this new Soyuz-6 flight. We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government that we shall fulfill the tasks entrusted to us by our motherland. Goodbye! Till we meet again on earth!
(TASS) Pravda, October 12, 1969

Biographical notes

Lieutenant-Colonel Georgii Stepanovich Shonin was born on August 3, 1935, in the town of Roven'ki, Lugansk district. He spent his childhood in Balta, a town in Odessa district. Here he completed the seven-year school and became a member of the Leninist Young Communist League of the Soviet Union. In 1950, Georgii joined Odessa Special Aviation School. In 1953 he became a student of the Order of Lenin Navy Aviation College. After successfully completing this college, he served in the aviation wing of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet from 1957. Afterward he served in the Northern Fleet. G.S. Shonin became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1957. After joining the astronauts' detachment Georgii Shonin successfully completed his training and mastered the construction of spacecraft. In 1968, while continuing his main job, he completed the Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy. In January 1969 he was the double for B.V. Volynov, commander of Soyuz-5. Georgii Shonin's father, Stepan Vasil'evich died at the front during the Great Patriotic War. He was brought up by his mother, Sof'ya Vladimirovna, who is an accountant by profession.
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Georgii Stepanovich's family consists of his wife, Lidiya Fedorovna, a fourteen year old daughter Nina and an eight year old son Andrei.

Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov was born on January 7, 1935, in Vyazniki, a town of Vladimir district. After completing his secondary school in 1952, Valerii joined Moscow Aviation Institute. After successfully completing the Institute, Valerii Kubasov started working in a design bureau. He successfully defended his thesis for the degree of Kandidat of Technical Sciences. In 1968, V.N. Kubasov became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Valerii Kubasov went through the full training course for astronauts. He was the double for A.S. Eliseev.

Commander of the Soyuz-7—Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko.
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Valerii Nikolaeviclvs wife, Lyudmila Ivanovna also completed the Aviation Institute and works as an engineer. Their daughter Katya is three years old. The astronaut's father, Nikolai Ivanovich, and mother, Tat'yana Ivanovna, are pensioners.
Pravda, October 12, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SPACECRAFT IN GROUP FLIGHT Continuing the program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments with the Soyuz spacecraft, Soyuz-7, was launched on October 12, 1969, at 1345 hours Moscow time.

Space Engineer of the Soyuz-7—Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov.
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The crew of the spacecraft consists of the commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko, and engineers Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov and Lieutenant-Colonel Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko. The commander, Comrade Filipchenko, reported that entry into the orbit was normal. All the astronauts are feeling well. The systems on board are functioning normally. The task of Soyuz-7 is to conduct a number of scientific and technical experiments and investigations in near-earth space, in particular: — maneuvering in orbit; — navigational investigations jointly with Soyuz-6 in group flight; — observation of heavenly bodies and the earth's horizon, determination of actual brightness of the stars, measurement of illumination by the sun, and other scientific experiments. The crew of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 have established a reliable two-way radio contact. On October 12, during its I3th circuit, Soyuz-6 entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone. During the radio communications session Comrade Shonin reported that the astronauts had slept for 8 hours and felt rested. After getting up, they did a set of physical exercises. Before and after the physical exercises they carried out medical checkup of one another. Afterward, Comrades Shonin and Kubasov had breakfast, checked the condition of the spacecraft systems and started the program of experiments and observations for the second day of the flight. Steady radio communications are being maintained with Soyuz-6. At 1039 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6 completed its i4th circuit. During a radio communications session Shonin said that the program for the second day of the flight was being successfully carried out. The astronauts were working out methods of autonomous navigation. Comrade Shonin orientated the spacecraft in the direction of selected navigational heavenly bodies with the help of the manual control system. Space Engineer Kubasov made angular measurements with respect to typical stars manually as well as with the space-borne navigational devices. On the basis of these measurements he determined the position of the spacecraft and the parameters of its orbit. Analysis of the medical telemetric information received during the first day of flight, showed that the organism of both astronauts quickly adjusted to the state of weightlessness. The pulse and respiration rates, arterial pressure, electrocardiogram, and seismogram are within the normal physiological limits. For example, Shonin's pulse rate during the first circuit was 80 per minute and Kubasov's 90 per minute. During the 4th circuit this
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Research Engineer of the Soyuz-7—Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko.

frequency was 64 and 69 per minute respectively, while during sleep it was 50-60 per minute. The general condition of the astronauts is good. According to the telemetric data, normal conditions are being maintained in the cabin and the orbital compartment: temperature is 2i°C, pressure is 775 mm Hg and the relative humidity is 48%. Astronauts Shonin and Kubasov are continuing their work according to the flight program.

Soyuz-7, launched into an orbit of the earth on October 12, completed its second circuit at 1633 hours Moscow time. The parameters of its orbit are: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) 226 km;
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minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) - 207 km; orbital inclination - 51.7 deg; —- 88.6 min. orbital period By this time the parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-6 were as follows: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) - 230 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 194 km; orbital inclination — 51.7 deg; — 88.6 min. orbital period After noting the technical characteristics of the systems the crew carried out the operations of orientation and manual turning of the spacecraft. The commanders of both spacecraft reported that all the systems were functioning normally. Research Engineer V.V. Gorbatko and Space Engineer V.N. Volkov investigated the surface of the windows to study the micrometeoric erosion of their surfaces. They also took observations of the earth's surface and, afterwards, conducted medical investigations. The crew of Soyuz-6 continues to work according to the group flight program. Commander Shonin put the initial data into the automatic control system of the spacecraft and regulated the clock. Space Engineer V.N. Kubasov took photographs of the earth's surface from the cabin including the coastal line of the Caspian Sea, the Volga Delta, large tracts of forest and the cloud cover on the planet. All the astronauts are feeling well. The lifesaving systems maintain comfortable conditions of work in the compartments. Steady radio contact is being maintained between the spacecraft and earth.

At 2100 hours Moscow time on October 12, Soyuz-6 completed 21 circuits, while Soyuz-J completed five. The two commanders, Shonin and Filipchenko, reported that a large amount of work had been completed during the day. The crew carried out manual orientation, turning of the spacecraft, maneuvers in orbit, took observations of the earth's surface and conducted other experiments. In the TV broadcasts during the periods when Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-J passed over Soviet territory, Shonin and Filipchenko introduced the members of their crew to the TV viewers. Pilot-Astronauts V.N. Kubasov, V.V. Gorbatko and V.N. Volkov spoke about their duties. The quality of the TV broadcasts was good. All the systems on board, including the lifesaving system, are functioning perfectly. All the astronauts are feeling excellent. It should be noted how
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quickly the crew got accustomed to space flight conditions and found their usual rhythm of activity. This was due to their training on earth. From 2300 hours on October 12 to 0600 hours on October 13, when the spacecraft will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone, the astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 13, 1969

STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF SOTU^-7, COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO BEFORE LAUNCHING Dear Comrades and Friends : Yesterday we saw off our comrades Shonin and Kubasov for their space journey, and today we ourselves are starting for the depths of space in Soyuz-?. Our country is carrying out the systematic investigation and conquest of outer space, and we are proud that we are making our contribution to this noble cause. We heartily thank the Central Committee of our Party, and our Government for the faith shown in us. We assure them that we shall devote all our energy and knowledge to carrying out the tasks before us. Till we meet again!
(TASS) Pravda, October 13, 1969 Biographical notes

Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko was born on February 26, 1928, in Davydovka, a village in the Voronezh district. In, 1942, Anatolii completed the seven-year school in. Ostrogozh.sk. In 1943, he started working in a factory, where he specialized as a turner, and became a member of the Lenin Komsomol. Anatolii's interest in aviation brought him to Voronezh Air Force School. After getting his school-leaving certificate in 1947, he joined Chuguevsk Aviation College and finished with distinction. Since 1950, Anatolii Filipchenko has been serving in the aviation wing of the Soviet Army. In 1952 A.V. Filipchenko became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1961 he completed the Air Force Academy by correspondence.
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In the astronauts' detachment, Anatoli! Filipchenko mastered the Vostok, Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft and fully completed the flight courses and medico-biological training. He prepared for flight as a double for Vladimir Shatalov. Anatolii Vasil'evich's family consists of his wife, Elizaveta Aleksandrovna, and two sons, twelve year old Aleksandr and eight year old Igor'. The astronaut's father, Vasilii Nikolaevich, was a member of the CPSU since 1918. He fought for the Soviets, worked for the Party for many years, and took part in the Great Patriotic War. He died in 1955. The astronaut's mother, Akulina Mikhailovna, is a pensioner.

Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov was born on November 23, 1935, in Moscow. He spent his childhood years in a family of aviators. In 1953, after finishing secondary school, Vladislav joined Moscow Aviation Institute. After successfully completing the Institute, he started working as an engineer in a design bureau. In 1965 V.N. Volkov was admitted to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the team of astronauts, Vladislav Volkov successfully went through the training for space flight and passed all the technical and medico-biological tests with distinction. Vladislav Nikolaevich is married. His wife, Lyudmila Aleksandrovna, works as an engineer having also completed the Institute. Their son Vladimir is eleven years old. The astronaut's father, Nikolai Grigor'evich is an aviation design engineer. His mother, Ol'ga Mikhailovna, also worked in aviation for a number of years.

Viktor VasiPevich Gorbatko was born on December 3, 1934, in the VentsyZarya settlement in Krasnodar region. He spent his childhood in Kuban', where all his family lived. After completing secondary school, Viktor joined the Air Force School for primary training in 1952. Next year he joined Bataisk Military Aviation College. Since 1956, after finishing college, he has been serving in the aviation wing of the Soviet Army. In 1959 he was accepted by the aviation wing party organization as a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Since he was admitted to the astronauts' detachment, Viktor Vasil'evich has been preparing for space flight. He received good training as double for E.V. Khrunov. In 1968, while continuing his main job, he completed the N.E. Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy.
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The astronaut's parents are of peasant stock. His mother, Matrena Aleksandrovna, is a pensioner. His father is dead. Gorbatko's wife, Valentina Pavlovna, is a doctor. They have two daughters, Irina, aged twelve and Marina, nine.
Pravda, October 13, 1969

GREETINGS FROM THE SPACECRAFT

To the people of Asia
From the Soyuz spacecraft we send our good wishes to the people of Asia for success in their developing economy and in building independent national states.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko To the brotherly people of Vietnam

We send our brotherly greetings and good wishes to the courageous people of Vietnam for success in your heroic struggle for the freedom and independence of your country.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko To the people of Australia

Flying over Australian territory we send our good wishes to the people of Australia.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko Pravda, October 13, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOTUZ-8 IN ORBIT On October 13, 1969, at 1329 hours Moscow time, the third Soviet spacecraft, Soyuz-8, was launched into orbit in accordance with the general program of manned space flights. The spacecraft is piloted by a crew consisting of commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, and engineer, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut
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of the USSR, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev. Both of them took part in the Soyuz-4 and Soyuz- j flights in January earlier this year. In the course of the group flight, it is planned to carry out a number of important scientific and technical tasks which include: —- simultaneous complex scientific investigations in near-earth space; —• final touches to the complicated system of control for the group flight of three spacecraft simultaneously; — joint orbital maneuvering to solve a number of problems connected with manned space flights. Comrade Shatalov reported that the astronauts were feeling well. Reliable radio contact is being maintained between the three spacecraft. This is the first time that a group flight of three spacecraft, carrying seven astronauts on board is being carried out. The program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments will give new information about near-earth space and will help to perfect space technology and its application for scientific and economic purposes.
Pravda, October 14, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT GROUP FLIGHT The new working day for the crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 started on October 13, at 0600 hours Moscow time. According to the data received from the spacecraft, the parameters of microclimate in the compartments are within the prescribed limits. The state of health and mood of all the astronauts is good. Arterial pressure and pulse rates are normal. After their physical exercises and breakfast, the astronauts checked according to schedule the systems. During the communications session, the clock was regulated and the astronauts began their work on the program for the second day of group flight. At 1020 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6 had completed 30 and Soyuz-7, 14 circuits. According to the working program planned for the third day of the flight, Soyuz-6 commander Shonin and engineer Kubasov worked on the method of visual astro-orientation with the help of stars of the fourth and fifth magnitudes. This work will help in determining the exact position of a spacecraft in outer space without having to use devices on the earth. The crew of Soyuz-7 took observations and photographs of the earth's
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surface and the daytime and dusk horizons, as well as work on perfecting the methods of autonomous navigation. Radio and TV broadcasts were transmitted from the spacecraft. Medical data received through telemetric channels and the results of mutual checks by the members of the crew of the two spacecraft show that all the astronauts are adjusting well to the complex effects of space flight factors and are maintaining a high working capacity. The gas composition of the atmosphere, pressure, temperature and humidity in the living compartments of the spacecraft are being maintained at a level providing comfortable working conditions. The group flight of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 continues.

At 1630 hours Moscow time Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 34, 18 and 2 circuits respectively. The crew of Soyuz-8 on entering the orbit, checked the spacecraft systems and carried out sun-orientation and turning of the spacecraft. Colonel Shatalov began his duties as chief commander of the group flight. The parameters of the orbit of Soyuz-8 are as follows: maximum height above the earth (at apogee) — 223 km; minimum height above the earth (at perigee) — 205 km; orbital inclination — 51.7 deg; —-88.6 min. orbital period In accordance with the flight program, on the 32nd circuit the Soyuz-6 commander inserted the initial data into the systems on board to carry out maneuvers. The propulsion system was switched on, and the spacecraft entered a new orbit. By this time astronauts Filipchenko, Volkov and Gorbatko on Soyuz-7 had carried out a large number of scientific, technical and medical investigations and observations. According to the program for geological and geographical investigation, they photographed particular portions of the earth's surface, registered the extent of the snow layer, measured the illumination of the earth by the sun and brightness of the stars, and took a large number of observations and photographs of the daytime and dusk horizon of the earth and different cloud formations. Comrade Filipchenko carried out manual orientation of Soyuz-7 with the help of optical devices and special instruments. During the second circuit, the crew of Soyuz-8 had their breakfast. The astronauts on Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 had dinner. The breakfast for the crew of Soyuz-8 consisted of steak, Borodino bread, chocolate and black currant juice. The dinner for Shonin and Kubasov on Soyuz-6 included dried fish,
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pate, chicken, bread and prunes. The dinner for Filipchenko, Volkov and Gorbatko on Soyuz-? consisted of meat puree, veal, bread and fancy pastries. All seven astronauts are feeling excellent. The group flight of the three Soviet spacecraft continues. On October 13—the first day of the group flight of the three spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8—the methods and techniques of simultaneous control of three spacecraft were tested and worked out. Work was done on the further improvement of the cooperation between the flight control center and the ground tracking stations, communication centers and spacecraft. All the information received by the coordination and computation center is continuously being processed. The data confirms the high efficiency of the selected system of flight control. The crew of the spacecraft maintain communications between themselves and the earth. They are working on the scientific, technical and medicobiological research program. In particular, the crew of Soyuz-6 conducted medico-biological investigations; the crew of Soyuz-7 took observations and photographs of heavenly bodies, and the horizon on the sunlit and shady sides of the earth in different bands of the visible spectrum; the crew of Soyuz-8 conducted investigations on the polarization of sunlight reflected by the atmosphere. As reported by the commander of the group flight, Colonel Shatalov, and confirmed by the spacecraft crew commanders, the astronauts are feeling well. After a strenuous working day, the astronauts rested.
Pravda, October 14, 1969

STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF SOYUZ-8, COMRADE V.A. SHATALOV, BEFORE LAUNCHING Dear Friends! At this moment there are two Soviet spacecraft with five of our courageous astronauts already in outer space. Soyuz-8 will be launched after a few minutes. The group flight of three Soyuz spacecraft will enable us to conduct a number of important scientific and technical experiments in outer space. We dedicate this flight to a great jubilee—the birth centenary of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin, the founder of our Party and of the first government of workers and peasants in the world. Today our crew is leaving for outer space in a Soyuz spacecraft for the second time and we have no doubts about the successful outcome of the flight. On behalf of the crew of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8, we assure the

Soviet people that we shall accomplish the honorable task entrusted to us by our motherland. We heartily thank the Leninist Central Committee and the Government for giving us this great honor. Till we meet on earth! Goodbye!
Pravda, October 14, 1969

To THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU, THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, AND THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT

On behalf of the crew of the Soyuz spacecraft, we are reporting to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet USSR and the Soviet Government. At present three manned spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 are successfully participating in a group flight in near-earth space. Seven Soviet astronauts are working on an extensive program of scientific and technical investigations, observations and experiments. Our friendly space collective is confident that the program of space research will be fully accomplished. Our mood is excellent. We are feeling fine. We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR and the Soviet Government for the faith shown in us.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov, Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev

Salutory telegram from the Party and Government leaders to the astronauts—Comrades Georgii Stepanovich Shonin, Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov, Anatoli! Vasil'evich Filipchenko, Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov, Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev

Dear Comrades! On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, we heartily congratulate you on the successful group flight of the spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8.
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It is for the first time in the history of the conquest of the outer space, that there are three manned spacecraft together in a near-earth orbit. This outstanding achievement in the field of astronautics is another proof of the high level of development of Soviet science and technology and of the inexhaustible creative potentialities of the Soviet people. The whole nation wish you successful completion of the task and safe landing. We embrace you and are waiting to meet you on earth.
L.I. Brezhnev, N.V. Podgornyi, A.N. Kosygin

REPLY TO GREETINGS We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, for their warm greetings and concern for us. The task entrusted by our motherland will be accomplished.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov, Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev Pravda, October 14, 1969

GREETINGS FROM THE SPACECRAFT To the people of the Soviet Union From the Soyuz spacecraft we warmly greet the great Soviet people, builders of a communist society. We wish our people glorious feats of labor and new achievements on the eve of the great occassion—the birth centenary of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Volkov, Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev

To the people of socialist countries From the Soyuz spacecraft we send warm greetings to the working people of socialist countries. Let the friendship and cooperation between our peoples grow and prosper!
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev
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To the people of Africa

From the Soyuz spacecraft we send our good wishes to the people of developing countries for success in their struggle against imperialism and for the further strengthening of national independence.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev To the people of Latin America

We send our good wishes to the people of the Latin American countries for their success in their struggle for freedom and independence.
Astronauts: Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko, Shatalov, Eliseev Pravda, October 14, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT CONSTELLATION OF SOTU^ SPACECRAFT IN ORBIT The group flight of three Soviet manned Soyuz spacecraft continues successfully. At 0830 hours Moscow time, on October 14, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 completed 45, 29 and 13 circuits respectively. The working day has started for the seven Soviet astronauts. In the morning radio communications session, the group commander V.A. Shatalov reported that all the astronauts were feeling well after their rest. The spacecraft crew did physical exercises, accompanied by a medical checkup, and then had breakfast. After checking the systems, the astronauts began the flight program for the day. Soyuz-6, Soyuz-? and Soyuz-8 have been together in outer space for about 24 hours. The group flight of the three manned spacecraft is continuing strictly according to flight program. The crew are successfully carrying out the scheduled program of investigations, observations and experiments. Simultaneous execution of joint experiments at different points in near-earth space has been started, the results of which will provide useful data for space travel. The crew of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-8 took observations and photographs of cloud formations, cyclones, the moon and stars with the horizon in the background.
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They also estimated the illumination of our planet on the shady and sunlit sides. Soyuz-6 commander Colonel V.A. Shatalov performed a number of maneuvers using manual control. The Soyuz-7 crew carried out manual orientation of the spacecraft for conducting experiments including photography of areas of the Caspian Sea, and perfecting the elements of space navigation. Continuing the medico-biological investigations, the astronauts studied the effect of space flight factors on the human organism. With the help of different functional probes and psycho-physiological tests, the state of the astronauts' organism and their working capacity was tested. Analysis of the medical data, radio conversations and TV observation during the flight showed the crew to be well and retaining a high working capacity. Ground tracking stations situated on Soviet territory, and the scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, Morzhovets, Nevel', Bezhitsa, Dolinsk, Ristna, Kegostrov and Borovichi are continuously receiving data from the spacecraft and maintain an uninterrupted contact with the crew. The group flight of three Soviet spacecraft with seven astronauts on board has now been continuing for more than 24 hours. On October 14, 1969, at 1600 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 50, 34, and 18 circuits respectively. At the beginning of the second day of the joint flight, the crew of all the three spacecraft checked the functioning of the automatic and manual control systems. The possibility of carrying out manual orientation with the help of an optical sighting device at dusk and in the shady area of the earth was determined. The accuracy of the manual vector velocity orientation was checked with the help of sensors and a local vertical plotting device. The pressure in the living compartments is within 790-820 mm Hg. Temperature—2O-24°C. Relative humidity—-54-57%. The three scientific space laboratories continue to work in close cooperation according to a unified plan. A steady two-way radio contact is maintained between each spacecraft and the earth. The astronauts are feeling well. Colonel Shatalov, commander of the group, conveyed on behalf of all the astronauts deep gratitude to the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who created these wonderful vehicles. In accordance with the scheduled program, the group carried out a
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number of maneuvers to perfect the systems. As a result of these maneuvers, Soyuz-7 and Scyuz-8 approached each other, observed, photographed and filmed each other to determine the visibility of objects at different distances. Simultaneously, the possibility of exchanging information with the help of light signals and visual optical devices was also studied. This information is necessary for solving a number of problems for the perfecting of autonomous operations of long-term orbital laboratories. Besides these experiments, the crew of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 conducted a large number of medical investigations and studied the effect of micrometeoric erosion on windows and the optical systems of the spacecraft. The crew of Soyuz-6 carried out a number of experiments and investigations, including perfecting the methods of visual orientation with the help of the stars, autonomous navigation, study of the polarization of sunrays and different medico-biological investigations. During the flight, a number of TV broadcasts on the work of the astronauts while conducting experiments were transmitted. A steady two-way radio contact is being maintained between space and the ground control. All the systems are functioning normally. The astronauts are well. When the spacecraft travels outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone the astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 15, 1969

GREETINGS FROM THE SPACECRAFT
To the scientists, designers, engineers and workers—builders of the Soyuz spacecraft Dear Friends! We send our hearty greetings and express our deep gratitude for creating such wonderful spacecraft. Wish you new successes in your creative work. Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov, Eliseev To the people of the United States of America Soviet astronauts send greetings and best wishes to the American people. Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko, Eliseev
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To the people of Europe

From the Sqyuz spacecraft we send greetings to the people of the European countries. We wish further strengthening of peace and mutual understanding between people.
Astronauts: Shatalov, Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov, Gorbatko, Eliseev Pravda, October 15, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT HEROIC WORKING DAY IN OUTER SPACE The group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 continues. On October 15, the new working day for the group started early—at 0530 hours Moscow time. The astronauts woke up fresh and in a good mood. After doing the physical exercises and medical checkup, they occupied their working places and began the flight program. After noting the temperature, pressure and gas composition in the compartments from the control instruments, and after checking the systems, the commanders of Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-7 reported to the group commander that they were ready for joint scientific and technical experiments. At 0650 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft entered the radiovisibility zone of the Soviet ground tracking stations, and established communications with the flight control center. Ground control sent them instructions for the systems and the necessary initial data for the next day's flight. After breakfast, the astronauts began scientific and technical experiments. According to the flight program, within the next few hours the crew have to observe different portions of the earth's surface in mountainous regions, watch the spreading of cloud and vertical formations over the Pacific and Atlantic, and study the reflective power of large tracts of forest and desert. By 0800 hours, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-j and Soyuz-8 had completed 61, 45 and 29 circuits respectively. According to the autonomous navigational measurement data, the commanders continue their intermaneuvering, using the manual control systems. Medical investigations including the study of the functioning of external breathing, optical analyzer, and vestibular apparatus were also carried out on Soyuz-6 by conducting standard tests. Moreover, geological and
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geographical regions of the earth's surface and the development of cyclones were observed and photographed. The operational activities were checked and devices for reflecting information, perception and impellant reactions were appraised. The crew of Soyuz-7 checked the systems on board, observed the shining particles and the dynamics of their motion, plotted curves of the functioning of the orientation and motion control systems, and took photographs of the starry sky in the direction opposite to the sun. Astronauts Shatalov and Eliseev on Soyuz-8 watched the maneuvering and turning of Soyuz-7 toward the sun, studied the visual capacity of the operator and investigated solar radiation with the help of a special instrument. Telemetric data about the state of health of the astronauts testified to their good health and high working capacity. All the astronauts had a smooth pulse rate of 60-70 beats per minute. The parameters of air in the spacecraft cabins were normal. The group commander, V.A. Shatalov, reported that all the spacecraft systems were functioning normally. Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel P.R. Popovich, who was present at the flight control center, conveyed greetings to the astronauts from relatives and told them that everything was fine at their homes, and that their families wished them successful completion of their task and a safe return home. On October 15, at 1530 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 66, 50 and 34 circuits respectively. The seven Soviet astronauts continue the group flight program. The crew worked on the improvement of piloting technique, necessary for future space laboratories. The astronauts carried out a wide range of maneuvers with the help of manual control and space-borne navigational devices. Soyuz-7 an(i Soyuz-8 approached each other to a distance of about 500 meters which made it possible for their crew to observe each other visually and communicate with the help of light signals. Through the windows, the astronauts could clearly distinguish the solar panels and other structural details. The rendezvous of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 was observed and recorded by the crew of Soyuz-6. In the field of physical investigations, experiments were conducted for determining the composition of cosmic ray beams. Also the processes taking place in the upper layers of the terrestrial ionosphere were studied. In a radio communications session the spacecraft commanders, on behalf of their crew, thanked their relatives for the warm greetings. The astronauts are well. The systems are functioning accurately. The flight is continuing according to schedule.
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On the afternoon of October 15, the astronauts performed more scientific and technical experiments and observations. Work was done on the improvement of methods of measuring the parameters of the atmosphere, and the processes taking place in it were studied with the help of scientific apparatus fitted on the spacecraft. During operational communications with ground control posts, the crew reported meteorological data on the condition of cloud covers, budding cyclones and changes in the condition of snow in the mountainous regions of the Soviet Union. At a fixed time the astronauts had dinner. The menu included liver pate, chicken, table bread and fruit candies. After dinner and a short rest, the astronauts continued their work according to program. On October 15, 1969, orbital maneuvering was carried out. Soyuz-6 and Soyuz-8 in turn approached Soyuz-J up to a distance of a few hundred meters. All the rendezvous maneuvers were carried out with the help of manual control on the basis of data from the space-borne autonomous navigation devices. As a result, valuable material required for the working out and construction of new systems for autonomous control was collected. Astronauts Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Shatalov and Eliseev have displayed a high level of operational activity by accurately carrying out all the maneuvers. This was only possible because of their thorough training on earth. The ground tracking stations reported that the group flight was clearly visible in the sky at night. The parameters of the spacecraft orbits are very close to each other. On an average, these parameters are: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee)—225 kilometers; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee)—200 kilometers; orbital period—88.6 minutes; orbital inclination—51.7 degrees. All the planned scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments were accomplished. The pressure, gas composition, temperature and humidity in the living compartments of the spacecraft are normal. All the astronauts are in good health and are feeling well. At 2030 hours, the spacecraft moved out of the Soviet radiovisibility zone. After supper, the astronauts will rest.
Pravda, October 16, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT THE FIRST WELDING IN OUTER SPACE The crew of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 rested from 2120 hours on
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October 15, to 0500 hours on October 16. According to the telemetric data, the astronauts slept peacefully. The parameters of the microclimate in the compartments and the cabin's pressure, temperature, humidity, and the gas composition of the atmosphere were similar to those on earth. After waking up, the astronauts performed the set exercises, ate breakfast with a good appetite and checked the systems. After entering the zone of Soviet radiovisibility, the spacecraft commanders regulated the clocks and reported that all the astronauts were well and ready for the day's program.

On October 16, at 1100 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 completed 79, 63 and 47 circuits respectively. The crew members carried out a planned program of scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations. They also worked on the further improvement of methods of manual maneuvering in orbit. The crew of Soyuz-6, consisting of Lieutenant-Colonel G.S. Shonin and Space Engineer V.N. Kubasov, carried out experiments in welding in outer space. The main aim of these experiments was to determine the special features of the welding of different metals. As has been reported earlier, Soyuz-6 is fitted with unique technological equipment, for the study of different methods of metal welding under the conditions of high vacuum and weightlessness. The welding equipment is fixed in the orbital compartment, while the control panel for the welding process is in the astronaut's cabin. Before starting to weld, the commander closed the hatch in the cabin, and during the 77th circuit opened the orbital compartment. After a high vacuum was established in the compartment, Comrade Kubasov switched on the welding equipment. Several varieties of automatic welding were carried out. Then the orbital compartment was sealed and the space engineer took the samples of welding into the astronaut's cabin. This is a unique experiment of great importance in science and technology for working out methods of welding and assembly in outer space.
Pravda, October 17, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOYUZ-6 CREW BACK ON EARTH On October 16, 1969, at 1252 hours Moscow time, after successfully completing the space flight program, Soyuz-6, carrying astronauts Shonin and Kubasov, landed in a predetermined region in Soviet territory, about
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180 kilometers northwest of the town of Karaganda. The astronauts feel well. For leaving the orbit, the commander performed manual orientation, and at a precalculated moment switched on the descent program. After the operation of the motor, the landing vehicle carrying the astronauts was separated from the spacecraft. The landing vehicle descended along a guided trajectory, making use of aerodynamic control. After braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system came into action, while the engine for soft-landing ensured a smooth touchdown. On the earth, the astronauts were met by the search group, friends, sport commissars and journalists. The flight of Soyuz-6 has been successfully completed. The results obtained carry great scientific and technical importance.

Circuit after circuit

At 1700 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 67 and 51 circuits around the earth respectively. The crew of the spacecraft checked the systems and continued the scientific and technical experiments and investigations. In particular, the astronauts took observations of the starry sky and the earth—visually as well as with the help of optical instruments. They photographed the cloud and snow covers on the earth as well as the visible earth horizon. The astronauts ate dinner according to the daily routine. In the radio communications session the crew commanders said that all the astronauts were feeling fine and in excellent mood. The commanders of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 congratulated Georgii Stepanovich Shonin and Velerii Nikolaevich Kubasov on their safe landing.

After the successful landing of Soyuz-6, the crew of Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 continued to work strictly according to the program of scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations. During the 4Qth and 5ist circuits, the commander of Soyuz-8, V.A. Shatalov, performed two orbit corrections manually, to test the autonomous control system. The crew of Soyuz-7 continued investigations of the earth's atmosphere and cloud covers. While passing over the southern hemisphere, the astronauts observed thunderstorms a number of times. The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartment are
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normal: pressure—790mm Hg, temperature—2O°C, and relative humidity— 40%. The astronauts are in good health and cheerful mood. The pulse rate is within 60-76 beats per minute and respiration is 18-22 per minute. On October 16 at 2011 hours, the spacecraft left the Soviet radiovisibility zone. After making the necessary notes in the spacecraft logbook, the astronauts will have supper and go to bed.
Pravda, October 17, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT -? LANDS SAFELY Today, October 17, 1969, at 1226 hours Moscow time, after completing the program of experiments, Soyuz-j with its crew, Comrades Filipchenko, Volkov and Gorbatko, landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union, 155 kilometers northwest of Karaganda. The astronauts are feeling well after the landing. For the descent to earth, the orientation of the spacecraft was performed and the braking engines were switched on at a precalculated moment. After the braking engines had finished their work, the compartments of the spacecraft were separated, and the landing vehicle carrying the crew started descending along its trajectory towards the earth. After aerodynamic deceleration and guided re-entry, the parachute system came into action in the atmosphere. The engines for soft-landing provided a smooth touchdown. At the landing site, the astronauts were warmly welcomed by the search group, sport commissars, friends and journalists. The astronauts informed them that they were feeling well. The medical checkup at the landing site showed that all the astronauts had reacted well to the conditions of space flight and that their physiological functions had re-adjusted on returning to normal conditions. Thus the flight of Soyuz-7 has been completed successfully, and the crew consisting of Filipchenko, Volkov and Gorbatko, has completed the scheduled program of scientific, technical and medico-biological research. Meanwhile Soyuz-8 continued in orbit.
Circuit after circuit

On October 17, at 0607 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone. By this time Soyuz-7 had completed 76 circuits and Soyuz-8, 60.
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Commanders Filipchenko and Shatalov, by turn, established radio communications with the earth and reported that the astronauts had rested well. After waking up, the astronauts performed physical exercises and ate breakfast. According to the telemetric data and as reported by the spacecraft commanders, the systems on board are functioning normally. All the astronauts are in good health. The pressure, temperature and relative humidity in the living compartments are within the prescribed limits. After checking the systems and regulating the clocks, the crew began the flight program for the day. On October 17, at 1030 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 had completed 79 and 63 circuits respectively. The crew of Soyuz-7 continued working on the perfecting of methods of autonomous navigation and manual orientation of spacecraft. Comrade Shatalov and Eliseev, in Soyuz-8, conducted medical investigations, photography and filming of geological and geographical features on the earth's surface, and the cloud cover of the earth. All the spacecraft systems are functioning normally. Telemetric data is received from the spacecraft, making it possible to appraise the working of all the instruments and the state of the astronauts' organisms. During a radio communications session at 1040 hours, the astronauts transmitted from Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 felicitations to the Ukrainian people on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the day they freed themselves from the Nazis. On October 17, at 1500 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-8 had completed 66 circuits around the earth. According to the data from the coordination and computations center, the parameters of the spacecraft orbit are as follows: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 256 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) —• 190 km; orbital inclination — 51.7 deg; — 88.85 min. orbital period During a TV broadcast at the beginning of the 67th circuit, the astronauts stated they are working on the perfecting of new methods of autonomous navigation for independently determining orbital parameters. They observed a big cyclone in the region of Africa. The astronauts warmly greeted the crew of Soyuz-7 on ^ts sa-fe return to earth.
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Telemetric information and the reports by Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev speak of the normal functioning of the instruments and devices on Soyuz-8. The astronauts' recorded physiological parameters are normal. On October 17, at 2100 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-8 had completed 70 circuits around the earth. On the basis of the experiments conducted on autonomous navigation, the astronauts calculated the parameters of the orbit of their spacecraft. These parameters coincide with the data of the coordination and computation center. The astronauts observed big cyclones in the Atlantic, southeast of Cuba and southwest of England. They also took photographs of a typhoon near the shores of America. Ground tracking stations are maintaining a steady radio contact with the spacecraft. During the 68th and 6gth circuits the astronauts transmitted TV reports from the astronauts' cabin and the orbital compartment. From 1950 hours on October 17 to 0550 hours on October 18, Soyuz-8 will be orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone. After supper, Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev will rest.
Pravda, October 18, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT GROUP FLIGHT SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED Today on October 18, 1969, at 1210 hours Moscow time, after completing the flight program, Soyuz-8, piloted by the commander of the spacecraft group, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov, and Space Engineer, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev, landed in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union, 145 kilometers north of Karaganda. For leaving orbit, the commander, Shatalov, performed orientation of the spacecraft with the help of the manual control system, and put into action the descent program at a precalculated moment. After the braking engine had finished its work, the landing vehicle carrying the crew was separated from the spacecraft. The landing vehicle moved along a guided trajectory with aerodynamic control. After braking in the atmosphere, the parachute system came into action. The engines for soft-landing ensured a smooth touchdown of the vehicle. On earth, the astronauts were warmly greeted by the search group, sport
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commissars, friends and journalists. The astronauts are in good health. They are feeling excellent. Thus the group flight of three Soviet spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 is over.
Pravda, October 19, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT THE LAST CIRCUITS On October 18, at 0550 hours Moscow time, while accomplishing its yyth circuit, Soyuz-8 re-entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone. Thus began a new working day in outer space. After refreshing sleep, and having performed the set of physical exercises and eaten breakfast with a good appetite, Pilot-Astronauts Shatalov and Eliseev checked the condition of the systems, regulated the clock and made the necessary notes in the spacecraft logbook. In a radio communications session, the commander reported that the crew was ready to continue the scientific investigations and experiments. The astronauts are feeling well. The systems on board are functioning normally. The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed limits. On October 18, at 1000 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-8 had completed 79 circuits around the earth. While the spacecraft was orbiting outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone, an experiment was conducted for establishing communications between the flight control center and the spacecraft through the ship Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, sailing in the Atlantic Ocean, and the communications satellite Molniya-i. The experiment was successful and the communications were steady. Reporting to the earth about the investigations, the astronauts stated that, near the shores of Kamchatka in Sakhalin region, they watched and photographed a powerful cyclone. A 'space press conference' was held during one of the radio communication sessions. Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev replied to questions put by the correspondents of TASS and the Ail-Union Radio. The astronauts are well and the spacecraft systems are functioning normally.
Pravda, October 19, 1969
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To

The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the preparation and successful accomplishment of the group flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8.

To
The Soviet astronauts, Comrades Georgii Stepanovich Shonin, Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov, Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko, Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov, Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev. Dear Comrades! The group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 an(i Soyuz-8, lasting for several days, has been successfully completed. Seven Soviet astronauts have carried out an extensive program solving important practical problems, necessary for the perfecting of manned spacecraft technology and for the creation of orbital stations. The crew of the spacecraft carried out joint scientific observations and experiments, gained valuable experience in working out the problems of autonomous navigation and control of several spacecraft in group flight. At all stages of the flight, from launching till landing, the Soyuz spacecraft's equipment and systems all showed a high degree of accuracy and coordination in their working. The group flight has demonstrated the further progress of Soviet space science and technology. It has shown the productive power of the creative labor of the scientists, engineers, and workers of our country. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades G.S. Shonin, V.N. Kubasov, A.V. Filipchenko, V.N. Volkov, V.V. Gorbatko, V.A. Shatalov and A.S. Eliseev, on the successful completion of the flight and accomplishment of this important and responsible task. We congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all collectives and organizations who took part in the preparation, launching and tracking of the flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8. Dear comrades, we wish you more successes in your work for the creation of new space technology for the noble cause of the conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes.
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, October 19, 1969
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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AN IMPORTANT STEP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORBITAL FLIGHT
As has already been reported on October n, 12 and 13, 1969, for the first time the Soviet Union launched three spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 into a near-earth orbit. The crew on board consisted of commander of Soyuz-6, G.S. Shonin, and Space Engineer V.N. Kubasov; commander of Soyuz-7, A.V. Filipchenko, with Space Engineer V.N. Volkov and Research Engineer V.V. Gorbatko; commander of Soyuz-8, V.A. Shatalov, and Space Engineer A.S. Eliseev. All the ground services, including the launching complex, control center, and ground tracking and communication stations ensured accurate flight. The whole program in outer space lasted for seven days, while each spacecraft was in outer space for five days. Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 after fully carrying out the program of scientific and technical experiments and investigations, landed in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union on October 16, 17 and 18 respectively. The landing was performed with great accuracy. The spacecraft crews were taken to the cosmodrome for a post-flight medical checkup and rest. The following main tasks were carried out during the flight: checking and flight-testing of the systems for an improved Soyuz design; improvement of the systems of manual control, orientation and stabilization in orbit and checking of the autonomous navigation devices; intermaneuvering of the spacecraft in orbit for solving a number of problems concerning manned spacecraft; perfecting of the system for the simultaneous control of a group of three spacecraft; scientific observation and photography of geological and geographical features on the earth, as well as investigation of its atmosphere, for working out methods of applying the data for the national economy; composite investigations in near-earth space with three spacecraft participating; scientific and technical experiments, including the testing of different methods of welding in the conditions of space vacuum and weightlessness; and medico-biological investigations for a further study of the effect of space flight factors on the human organism. During the process of orbital maneuvering, a number of times the parameters of the orbits were changed. The spacecraft approached each other, remained at distances where they could see each other, and departed in predetermined directions. One of the important tasks of the flight program was the perfecting of the coordination between the spacecraft group and the ground control and measurement stations situated in different regions of the Soviet Union and aboard the scientific research ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, Morzhovets, Nevel', Bezhitsa, Dolinsk, Ristna,

Kegostrov and Borovichi, sailing in different parts of the world. The telecommunication satellite Molniya-i was included in the system for the transmission of command and measurement data. The results of the joint flight of the Soyuz spacecraft confirmed the high efficiency of the control system used. The wide program of scientific investigations included the determination of methods of using manned space systems for the needs of the national economy. For this purpose, experiments were conducted on the study of peculiar geological regions for the possible exposing of beds of raw minerals. The astronauts determined the extent of the spread of the snow cover and ice. With the help of special instruments they conducted experiments on the characteristics of reflection by large tracts of forest, desert and other parts of the earth's surface. During the flight the astronauts did a good deal of photography and filming of land masses, oceans and the cloud cover of the earth. The crew simultaneously carried out astrophysical observations and experiments. In particular, the polarization of the sun's rays reflected by the atmosphere was determined, the illumination of the sun was measured and experiments were conducted for finding out the actual brightness of stars. A unique scientific and technical experiment conducted during the flight was the carrying out of welding jobs in outer space. Welding equipment was fitted on Soyuz-6 and the welding was done automatically, controlled from inside the spacecraft. This experiment is a great achievement of Soviet science and technology, and opens prospects for welding and assembly jobs in outer space. According to the program of medico-biological investigations, the characteristics of the human organism under outer space conditions were studied. The gas and energy transformation, as well as the functional condition of external respiration and blood circulation while doing different types of jobs, were studied. The lifesaving systems for the astronauts provided comfortable living conditions in the compartments of the spacecraft. Regular medical checks were taken throughout the flight. The training of the astronauts both individually as well as in a group, led to the faultless performance of duties by each member of the crew. Throughout the flight, the astronauts retained a high working capacity, good health and cheerful mood. A number of times TV broadcasts were made by the astronauts from the spacecraft. In these broadcasts, the astronauts spoke to the TV viewers about the progress of the flight, the equipment in the spacecraft and about the experiments taking place. All the spacecraft landed along guided descent trajectories, making use of aerodynamic lift. The acceleration forces during the phase of re-entry were
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small. The landing vehicle touched the earth with almost zero velocity, thanks to the use of special engines for soft-landing. The data received as a result of scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations i? being processed and will be published in due course. The group flight of three Soviet spacecraft with seven astronauts on board is a great new achievement of Soviet science and technology. An important step has been taken in the development of orbital flights and the application of manned spacecraft systems for solving national economic and scientific problems.
Pravda, October 19, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOTASTRONAUT COMRADE G.S. SHONIN For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon the commander of Soyuz-6, Pilot-Astronaut, Georgii Stepanovich Shonin. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgomyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOTASTRONAUT COMRADE V.N. KUBASOV For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred
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upon Pilot-Astronaut Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOTASTRONAUT COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon the commander of the spacecraft Soyuz-7, Pilot-Astronaut Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
JV. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOTASTRONAUT COMRADE V.N. VOLKOV For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon
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Pilot-Astronaut Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvedza" medal.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," TO PILOTASTRONAUT COMRADE V.V. GORBATKO For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon Pilot-Astronaut Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvedza" medal.
M. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND "ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," PI LOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR, V.A. SHATALOV For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Sqyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the second "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to the

commander of the Soyuz-8 spacecraft, "Hero of the Soviet Union," PilotAstronaut of the USSR, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov.
ff. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadzc Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND "ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION," PI LOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR, A.S. ELISEEV For the successful accomplishment of the group flight of the Soyuz-6, Sqyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the second "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to "Hero of the Soviet Union," Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO COMRADE G.S. SHONIN For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-6 spacecraft, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Georgii Stepanovich Shonin.
JV. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

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DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR/' TO COMRADE V.N. KUBASOV For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-6 spacecraft, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO COMRADE A.V. FILIPCHENKO For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-7 spacecraft, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow .October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOTASTRONAUT OF THE USSR/' TO COMRADE V.N. VOLKOV For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-j spacecraft, the title
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of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO COMRADE V.V. GORBATKO For accomplishing the space flight in the Soyuz-J spacecraft, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR
M. Georgadze

Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, October 22, 1969 Pravda, October. 23, 1969

PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW UNIVERSITY Yesterday, in the auditorium of the Moscow State University in Lenin Hills, a press conference was held. It was devoted to the successful accomplishment of the group flight of Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft. At the meeting were the Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Heroes of the Soviet Union, G.S. Shonin, V.N. Kubasov, A.V. Filipchenko, V.N. Volkov, V.V. Gorbatko and Twice Heroes of the Soviet Union, V.A. Shatalov and A.S. Eliseev. The press conference was opened by Academician M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
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Speech by Academician M.V. Keldysh

On October 18, the group flight of three Soviet spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 was completed. During the course of the flight an extensive program of scientific and technical experiments was carried out. As you already know, Soyuz-6 with Comrades Georgii Stepanovich Shonin and Valerii Nikolaevich Kubasov on board, was launched into an orbit of the earth on October n. Next day, Soyuz-7 with Comrades Anatolii Vasil'evich Filipchenko, Vladislav Nikolaevich Volkov and Viktor Vasil'evich Gorbatko on board, was launched. After another 24 hours, the third spacecraft, Soyuz-8 was launched carrying two Heroes of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov and Aleksei Stanislavovich Eliseev, who were travelling to outer space for the second time. Thus started the first-ever flight of three spacecraft orbiting the earth. One of the main tasks of this group flight was the creation of an extensive system in which the spacecraft pilots coordinated their flight with the help of a wide range of automatic devices, including different equipment for control, reception communication, and for processing information. Besides the Soyuz spacecraft, in this coordination system, were also the ground command and measuring complex, scientific research ships situated at different places in the oceans of the world, and the telecommunication satellite Molniya-i. The astronauts carried out checking and testing of the spacecraft systems, worked the manual control, orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft in orbit, and checked the autonomous navigation devices. A number of times intermaneuvering of spacecraft was carried out, to solve several problems concerning the perfecting of the complex manned spacecraft system. Experience achieved as a result of this new experiment will help in the creation of manned orbital systems in the near future. This group flight was in accordance with the Soviet program for the systematic study of near-earth space with the help of manned spacecraft of the Soyuz series. As you remember, during astronaut Beregovoi's space flight, the design and systems of the Soyuz spacecraft were tested in the process of maneuvering while approaching the unmanned spacecraft Soyuz-2. This year in January, during the flight of Soyuz-4 and Soyuz-5, the docking of the first experimental orbital space station was accomplished. In the group flight of three Soyuz spacecraft, which lasted a number of days, problems concerning the creation of manned orbital space systems and the perfecting of coordination between spacecraft during a wide range of maneuvering in a near-earth orbit were solved. The availability of two compartments in the Soyuz spacecraft (the astronauts' cabin and the compartment meant for scientific investigations and for rest) made it possible to carry out a varied program of scientific research.
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This program included a number of experiments on the study of geologically characteristic areas of the earth's surface and work on how to interpret this data, experiments on the determination of the reflection characteristics of different regions of the earth's surface when seen from outer space, photography and filming of land masses, oceans and cloud covers of the earth, and their spectro-photometry. An extensive complex of medico-biological experiments on the astronauts' organism and their working capacity under different flight conditions was carried out. The experiments conducted in Soyuz-6 on the study of different methods of metal welding under conditions of high vacuum and weightlessness, are of great importance. The welding of thin sheets of building material— stainless steel and titanium—was accomplished; cutting of stainless steel, titanium and aluminum was carried out, and the behavior of drops of liquid metal and the welding tub under the conditions of weightlessness was studied. The scientific and technological data obtained is at present being analyzed in detail. The Soviet Union's program of study for the conquest of outer space and the heavenly bodies includes a wide range of investigations in the interest of science and our national economy. This program envisages a combination of different technical means. For an initial reconnaissance penetration into still insufficiently explored and almost inaccessible regions of outer space, we have been using and shall continue to use automated probes, which enable us to carry out investigations at great distances from the earth under quite difficult conditions for long periods of time and with comparatively less expenditure. The effectiveness of such probes was demonstrated, for example, by flights to Venus, when the space vehicles, after travelling for four months, penetrated into the atmosphere of this planet and made important measurements of its characteristics—chemical composition, temperature and pressure. Heavy automated probes, including those which can be recovered, and manned spacecraft, will be used for detailed and extensive study of the earth, heavenly bodies and physical processes in outer space. Examples of such stations are the satellite of the Kosmos series, the physical laboratories Proton, recoverable stations /^onrfand the manned scientific and technical laboratories Soyuz. In the Soviet space program, the problems in the construction of prolonged orbital stations are being overcome. These stations will help solve basic problems of physics, geophysics and astrophysics. Simultaneously, they will make use of outer space for the practical benefit of mankind. They will enable us to make a more rational use of the resources of the earth and understand better geology, meteorology, agriculture, forestry, sea fishing, geodesy and oceanography. These stations will play an important role in the flights to the planets of the solar system and in the conquest of the further
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regions of outer space as well. The flights of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft signify an important step in the conquest of outer space. I am glad to announce that the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences has recorded the outstanding services of Twice Heroes of Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Comrades Shatalov and Eliseev, who were earlier awarded K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medals in the field of investigation and conquest of outer space, and has awarded K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medals to Heroes of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Comrades Shonin, Kubasov, Filipchenko, Volkov and Gorbatko.

Accompanied by thunderous applause, M.V. Keldysh presented the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medals to the astronauts. The next person on the rostrum was the commander of Soyuz-8, V.A. Shatalov.

Speech by V.A. Shatalov

The following main tasks were put before the crew of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spacecraft. —• complex investigations of near-earth space, as well as observation of the surface of the earth from three points in outer space simultaneously; —• observation and photography in the interests of meteorology and geophysics, of typhoons, cyclones, cloud formations, geological and geographical regions and the snow cover. —• the improvement of a group flight system of control; —• intermaneuvering of spacecraft in orbit by using data from autonomous navigational measurements and manual control, to improve the manned space systems. In addition, we had to do: —overall testing of the improved systems of the latest Soyuz rocket and space complex; —-a large number of scientific observations and investigations, which included observation of heavenly bodies and the earth's horizon, determination of the actual brightness of stars, and measurement of the illumination of the earth's surface by the sun; —• medico-biological investigations for the further study of the influence of space flight factors on the human organism. All these tasks were completed by the crews. For us, the most responsible tasks were intermaneuvering and coordination between the crews of the three spacecraft and flight control centers as well
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as with the communication stations on land and sea. More than 30 maneuvers were carried out in orbit. It should be noted that we were given much more opportunity of using manual control than previous crew. Before carrying out a maneuver, we would determine the parameters of the orbit, calculate the magnitude of the corrective impulses and their directions. The maneuver was carried out according to this data. Our spacecraft would approach each other to a distance from where we could see one a lother. At this distance the crew would determine the parameters of relative motion, distance, velocity of approach and angular velocity of the sightline. The task of the Soyuz-8 crew was to decrease the angular velocity by making use of the propulsion system for rendezvous and correction, and then approach Soyuz-J to within a few hundred meters. At this time the crew of Soyuz-J was carefully observing our spacecraft. We carried out all the necessary operations and successfully accomplished the rendezvous. Next, similar maneuvers were carried out by Soyuz-6 which approached Soyuz-J to within a few hundred meters. The coordination between the spacecraft consisted of the following: —• while approaching within visual limits, the space engineers of Soyuz-J and Soyuz-8 measured the necessary parameters of relative motion. The measurement data were compared, and Aleksei Eliseevpassed me the direction of orientation of the spacecraft and the time of functioning of the propulsion system. I carried out the necessary turning by switching the motors on and off. Accurate and well-coordinated work by the two crew and uninterrupted communication between us, enabled us to accomplish the maneuvers for the rendezvous with a minimum fuel expenditure. As a result of manual maneuvering and autonomous navigation devices, many solutions were reached for improved group flight coordination. The most significant results of maneuvering were as follows: — new information has been received regarding the optimal maneuvers for rendezvous with the help of autonomous devices for the determination of the dynamics of relative motion of the approaching spacecraft, as well as methods of coordination between crew; — a large amount of statistical data on fuel expenditure for the different maneuvers with different methods of orientation has been obtained; — extensive material regarding the most rational distribution of control between man and the automatic machines while carrying out different obs has been obtained. As you know, the group flight of three spacecraft was accomplished for the first time. It was made possible by an exceptionally accurate coordination between the land and sea stations, flight control center and the spacecraft crew. Throughout there was a steady two-way communication and we could always get information from the earth, even when outside the radiovisibility
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zone of the communication centers. We received this information from other spacecraft which happened to be near these centers at that moment, or through the telecommunication satellite Mainly a-1. In conclusion, I must add that the potentialities of the Soyuz spacecraft to carry out maneuvers are far from exhausted. The Soyuz and its systems have been thoroughly tested and possess high operational and technological efficiency. It can be used as a space laboratory for all kinds of experiments. Already a 'ot of interesting work regarding the study of near-earth space has been carried out in the Soyuz.

Next, V.N. Kubasov, the space engineer of Soyuz-6, spake:

Speech by V.N. Kubasov I, as space engineer, took part in the welding experiments in outer space. Today, the development of astronautics has already put before our scientists and designers problems connected with the construction of big orbital stations for the fitting of interplanetary spaceships from parts delivered into orbit. In the future we will have the problem of repairs of space vehicles which have been in outer space for a long time. This work involves the welding of metals. Our crew carried out welding experiments in open space conditions. These experiments were prepared by the E.O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding under the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. While preparing for the experiment a lot of research work was done which helped find out the main characteristics of welding in outer space conditions, namely, weightlessness, high vacuum and a big temperature drop. On the basis of this research, the autonomous welding machine, "Vulkan" was constructed. It weighs about 50 kilograms and consists of the following main units: the welding assembly, with the working organs of the welding equipment, and a rotating table with samples of metals to be welded; instrument assembly with power supply unit; shielding case, for covering the welding assembly; panel for remote control. The "Vulkan" provides for three ways of welding: pinched arc (by low temperature plasma); electron beam; and melting electrode. The welding assembly of the "Vulkan" was fitted in the orbital compartment of Soyuz-6 and the panel for remote control was fitted in the spacecraft cabin. The following is the order in which the experiment was conducted. Before starting the welding work, spacecraft commander Georgii Shonin closed the cabin entry hatch and then opened the seals of the orbital compartment. Then I operated the welding apparatus using all three methods of welding

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in turn. The welding was controlled by a light signal panel, and on the earth by telemetric data. On the completion of the experiment, the orbital compartment was again sealed. The pressure in the landing vehicle and the orbital compartment was equalled, the entry hatch was re-opened and I entered the orbital compartment. I carried out the manual operations for welding, while Georgii Shonin filmed the proceedings. Then the "Vulkan" machine was dismantled and, along with the samples, taken from the orbital compartment into the landing vehicle. The materials of the experiment are being studied and the results will be published later. But even now we can draw certain conclusions. This experiment has shown that in principle it is possible to weld metals by melting, under the space conditions of weightlessness and vacuum. The data had confirmed the theory worked out for welding technology in outer space. This data will be used for the further improvement of the welding machines. The success of this welding experiment in outer space opens new horizons for carrying out construction and assembly work in outer space.

Then the commander ofSoyuz-6, G.S. Shonin spoke.

Speech by G.S. Shonin I shall speak about some of the crew preparations for launching, the endurance factors, and descent phases. The crew occupies its working places in the spacecraft two hours before the start. This time is devoted to the checking of the spacecraft systems and the communication system. The systems on board are checked in a particular order, in accordance with the countdown profile of the rocket and space complex. The checking of the systems of all three spacecraft went without fault. Five minutes before firing the crew are fixed to their seats with the fastening system. The moment of launching passes with only a few vibrations of the spacecraft being felt. Then gradually the acceleration forces start increasing. The separation of the stages and ignition of new stages of the carrier-rocket is felt by the change in the acceleration force. The separation of the stages of the carrier-rocket is accompanied by a swarm of shining particles, which can be seen clearly through the windows. Throughout the launching phase the overloading was small and did not give any trouble. The changeover to the state of weightlessness did not cause any unpleasant feelings. At this moment we were busy watching the opening of the antennas
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and solar batteries. After entry into orbit, we checked the systems and then started work on the very full flight program. The crew of all the spacecraft worked according to a very efficiently planned program. On the Both circuit we finished the evacuation preparations and occupied our seats in the landing vehicle. We were to land using manual control. Before switching on the descent program, I oriented the spacecraft first along the local vertical and then along the track. At a fixed moment I switched on the descent program and controlled the passage of the command. The engine was switched on for 146 seconds and then cut. As a result of the braking impulse, the orbital velocity of the spacecraft decreased and entered the flight trajectory toward the earth. After a few minutes, the separation of the orbital and instrument-cum-assembly compartments from the landing vehicle took place, and the re-entry control system started functioning. This system turned the landing vehicle along the tangent, so that it could enter the earth's atmosphere at a definite angle. As we went deeper into the atmosphere, the acceleration forces gradually increased. The guided re-entry considerably decreased these forces and increased the accuracy of landing. If the value of these forces on the Vostok spacecraft was about 9 units, in the landing vehicle of the Soyuz they did not exceed 3-4 units. At a height of about 10 kilometers we heard the hatch cover of the parachute container open, and then followed a little jerk—the deceleration parachute had opened. After a short stabilized descent, the main parachute system started functioning. Its opening was also accompanied by a small jerk stronger than the first. After the opening of the main parachute, we started swinging quite vigorously, since there was a strong wind in the landing area. We didn't see the earth approaching as it was covered with clouds. Once we had passed the clouds we saw the earth and got ready to land. The engines for soft-landing were switched on and our vehicle landed smoothly. Throughout the phase of re-entry—except during the intensive braking in the atmosphere—-we had regular communications with the earth. After the opening of the main parachute, the air-borne radio beacon was switched on, and aeroplanes and helicopters of the search and rescue group started moving toward us. They watched our landing. After landing, we opened the hatch, and came out one by one, and fell into the arms of those who had come to receive us.

The commander of Soyuz-j, A.V. Filipchenko was the next to speak.

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Speech by A.V. Filipchenko

As has already been said, the crew were provided with ample opportunities for manually controlling all the spacecraft systems. The instruments for control, indication, and signalling on the instrument panel, enabled us to determine the position of the spacecraft over the earth at any moment and appraise the parameters of all the systems, namely, relative parameters of approach between the spacecraft; parameters of the lifesaving systems in the living compartments; voltage in the circuit; parameters of the pncumohydraulic systems of the rendezvous and corrective engines, orientation engines, guided descent engine and other systems. The control was accomplished with the help of two key-type commandsignalling devices placed on both sides of the instrument panel. The control could be accomplished in two ways, either by inserting a program from the panel or manually. On this flight, basically the second method of control was used. The following instruments were used for manual orientation of the spacecraft in a given direction for the sun-orientation of the spacecraft. There were shade indicators near the windows on the outside. First, detection of the sun was carried out and then the exact orientation was accomplished. For orientation with respect to the velocity vector, the ionic sensors with corresponding indicators were used. The orientation of the spacecraft on the illuminated side of the earth was carried out with the help of the optical sighting device. This has two fields of vision, the external for the orientation of the spacecraft with respect to the local vertical, i.e. with respect to the longitudinal and transversal axe of the spacecraft and the internal for orientation with respect to the track. The sighting device could remain in two positions. For orientation toward the earth, it was fixed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the spacecraft, while for rendezvous maneuvers within visual distances, it was transferred parallel to the axis of the spacecraft. The spacecraft was controlled with the help of four different engines: (a) The rendezvous-corrective engine was used for maneuvering in orbit. It also functioned as a braking engine at the time of descent. This engine was switched on and off manually, simply by pressing a button. It could also be controlled automatically. (b) The low-thrust engines were used for turning the spacecraft with respect to the center of mass, while orientating it in a particular direction. They were controlled by handles which turned the spacecraft on any axis. (c) The engines of third type were also meant for turning the spacecraft with respect to the center of mass. They were used for small forward
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motions of the spacecraft, necessary for intermaneuvering and were situated at a small distance from each other. (d) The engines of the guided descent system are fitted directly in the landing vehicle. With their help, the programed turnings of the spacecraft before entering the thick layers of the atmosphere (as well as the heel control and stabilization with respect to other axes during the flight) were carried out. The spacecraft is highly responsive and reacts to the slightest movement of the handles. The experience gained on the flight has enabled us to collect a sufficiently large amount of material about manual control, including much about the operative activity of astronauts. This material will be used to create new manned space systems.

The research engineer of Soyuz-7, V. V. Gorbatko, next spoke.

Speech by V.V. Gorbatko The Soyuz has already received the well-earned appreciation of all astronauts who have tested and flown in her. It is well known that to work efficiently a man must have enough rest and sleep. In the Soyuz there is a sofa for the crew's rest and sleep. If you want to know how we slept in outer space, imagine yourself tied inside a sleeping bag. We tried to use the sofa. So as not to "float" during sleep, we had to tie ourselves with special belts. In this position sleep was somewhat similar to that on earth. Although we were given 8 hours sleep according to the program, we used to sleep a bit less—about 6-7 hours. This rest was quite sufficient. After it we felt fresh and ready for work. And now about the food during the flight. The daily 'space ration' of each astronaut was meant for four meals. The average caloric value of the food for a day was 2,600 large calories. There was a good variety of food. These were the usual natural products: meat (beef tongue in jelly, chicken, roast-beef), milk products (coffee, cocoa), confectionery (sweetmeats, candied fruits), bread (table bread, Riga bread, Borodina bread) and different fruit juices. The conditions in the spacecraft are quite comfortable. During the period of flight the pressure in the spacecraft compartments was maintained within the limits, 750-800 mm Hg. The relative humidity was 40-70%. In other words, the parameters of the artificial atmosphere in the orbital compartments were close to those on the earth. The temperature was maintained at about 20° C, but the thermal regulation system could regulate the temperature according to the crew's wishes.
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During the flight, we had to carry out a number of medico-biological experiments for the further study of the adjustment of the human organism to space flight factors, specially to the state of weightlessness. We checked the respiration rate and loss of energy while carrying out different operations in the state of weightlessness, measured the arterial pressure and pulse rate, studied the effect of measured physical loads on the magnitude of the arterial pressure. As in earlier flights, the effect of weightlessness on the vestibular apparatus was studied. Much attention was devoted to the study of those psycho-physiological functions which affect the quality of work performed. These investigations were carried out on special instruments, built for space. They have provided us with valuable experimental data about such functions as memory, attention, and distraction. Moreover, different impellant reactions, and the permeability of the visual and impellant analyzer were studied. Finally, I would like to add that Soyuz is a modern, multipurpose spacecraft designed for solving a wide variety of economic and scientific problems. Many thanks to the creators of these wonderful spacecraft.

Next, space engineer of Soyuz-?, V.N. Volkov, mounted the rostrum.

Speech by V.N. Volkov

Various methods of space navigation were worked out during the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 flight. Some were based on the determination of the position of the stars with respect to the earth's horizon, and others on the determination of the position of spacecraft with respect to ground reference points. For these measurements, the spacecraft were equipped with astroorientators, automatic star sensors, sextants, optical instruments for recording the ground reference points, and other equipment. The navigation experiments conducted in the group flight can be divided into two groups: flight-testing of different navigational instruments, and perfecting the methods of autonomous navigation. In the first group of experiments, the possibilities of observation and identification of navigational reference points were studied, the characteristics of accuracy of different measuring instruments were determined, and the transparency of the windows was estimated. The evaluation of the accuracy of the navigational instruments was carried out by measuring the known angular distances between the stars. These measurements were carried out with the help of the stars—Spica, Aldebaran, Deneb Antares and others, with the help of the sextant and also with the
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help of automatic astro-orientators. The specialists are interested in the possibility of observing the stars during flight over the illuminated side of the earth. Our observations showed that on the illuminated side of the earth, the stars of first and second magnitude are clearly visible. Through the windows of the orbital compartment and the landing vehicle, we identified stars and constellations. In the experiments of the second group, a series of navigational measurements were carried out, and all the parameters of the orbit and the elements necessary for the maneuvering of the spacecraft were determined. Here, the angular distance between the stars and the earth and moon horizon, the orbital period, and height of the spacecraft above the earth's surface were measured, and the coordinates of the spacecraft and the moments of its passing over the ground reference points, were determined. The parameters of motion were calculated on the basis of different logarithms. The results of these calculations coincided well with the data of the ground complex for the trajectory measurements. The experiments showed that the crew had carried out its navigational task with accuracy in a short period of time. The performance of the navigational task by two spacecraft simultaneously enabled us to accomplish with one corrective impulse an approach from a distance of tens of kilometers to 500 meters. The further approach and maneuvering were carried out on the basis of the measurements of the parameters of relative motion of the spacecraft. Besides conducting navigational measurements and observations, I had to carry out the control of the spacecraft with the help of the manual system of orientation, which was fitted in the orbital compartment. The spacecraft is exceptionally responsive and very accurately reacts to the smallest movements of the control handles. The experiments conducted have shown that the adopted methods of autonomous navigation assure the accomplishment of the prescribed maneuvers in space.

The space engineer of Sqyuz-8, A.S. Eliseev was the last to speak.

Speech by A.S. Eliseev

One of the important sections of the flight program of the three manned spacecraft consisted of the following scientific investigations: the study of geological and geographical features on the earth's surface; study of the spectral intensities and contrasts of the earth's surface in the visible range
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of the spectrum; meteorological investigations; spectro- and photo-metry of the earth's horizon. In the course of the flight, photographs of some selected areas of the Soviet Union, including those well known in their geological aspects, were taken by the three spacecraft. Simultaneously, these areas were aerophotographed by a group of airplanes from different heights. Comparison of these photographs with the work of the geological, geobotanical and other expeditions will enable us to work out methods for using the outer space photographs for solving different geological and geographical problems connected with the geological mapping and study of the earth's natural resources. Simultaneously with the photography of the selected areas, the study of the spectral intensities and contrasts of the earth's surface in the visible range of the spectrum was carried out. Investigations of different kinds of surfaces (snow cover, desert, sea, large forest tracts, steppe region, etc.) will enable us to classify them into types on the basis of the spectral intensity. Results of these investigations are required for the selection of optimal conditions for the photography of different geological and geographical features, as well as for working out methods of identifying different types of surface from photo materials, TV broadcasts and spectral measurement data. The crew carried out a series of meteorological investigations, in particular the emergence of different cloud formations and typhoons. Their development and movements were observed from the three spacecraft. The crew of Soyuz-8 photographed the earth's horizon in different ranges of the visible spectrum. The intensity characteristic of the horizon will enable us to get information about the aerosol structure of the atmosphere, intensity characteristics of the cloud cover, and other optical characteristics of the planet. I would like to mention a scientific and technical experiment, the communications session between Soyuz-8 and the control center, through the Soviet telecommunication satellite Molniya-i. It was carried out when the spacecraft was situated outside the Soviet zone of radiovisibility. The communications from the control center were transmitted to the "Orbit" system, to the telecommunication satellite Molniya-i, and then through the ship, Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov, to the crew. On these lines, a steady two-way radio contact was established. This scheme enables us to considerably increase the period of centralized communications with spacecraft. This is specially important for the flights of our spacecraft, since a considerable portion of their flight passes outside the zone of radiovisibility of the command stations situated in Soviet territory. After the speeches, the astronauts and scientists replied to journalists' questions.
(TASS) Pravda, November 5, 1969
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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT -3 IN ORBIT On June i, at 2200 hours Moscow time, a rocket carrying the Soyuz-9 pacecraft was launched in the Soviet Union. The spacecraft entered orbit of the earth at 2209 hours. The crew consists >f the commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer Vitalii

Fig. 13. Launching of the Soyuz.
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Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, Kandidat of Technical Sciences. During this space flight the crew of Soyuz-g has to carry out an extensive program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments, the most important among them being: —• medico-biological investigations of the effect of space flight factors on the human organism in a near-earth orbit; —• scientific observation and photography of geological and geographical features, mainland and water surfaces in different regions of the globe, for purposes of the national economy; — observation, investigation and photography of atmospheric formations, and of the snow and ice covers of the earth, for meteorological forecasting; —• scientific investigations of the physical characteristics, phenomena and processes in near-earth space; — further perfecting of the manual and automatic systems of control, orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft and testing of the autonomous

Commander of Soyuz-9. Andriyan Grigorevich Nikolaev.
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navigation devices in different regimes of flight. Steady radio and TV communications are being maintained with the crew. As reported by the commander, Comrade Nikolaev, the phase of entry into orbit passed normally. The astronauts are feeling well. Normal living conditions, similar to those on the earth, are being maintained in the spacecraft compartments. Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov have started work on the flight program.
Pravda, June 2, 1970

STATEMENT BY THE COMMANDER OF SOTU^-g, COMRADE A.G. NIKOLAEV, BEFORE LAUNCHING Dear Comrades and Friends! Today, the crew of our Soyuz-g spacecraft is starting a space journey to continue the conquest of outer space in the interests of the nation's economy, science and technology. In our country, the conquest of outer space is being carried out systematically. In the Soyuz-g spacecraft we hope to accomplish the next stage of scientific and technical investigations and observations. We shall do everything necessary for the success of the mission assigned to us. Goodbye, comrades! Till we meet on earth! (TASS)
Pravda, June 2, 1970

Biographical notes

Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev's first space flight was in 1962, in Vostok-^. After the flight, Hero of the Soviet Union Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev took an active part in the training of astronauts. For some years, he was himself preparing for this space flight. Let us remind you of some of the main landmarks in the life of Andriyan Nikolaev. He was born on September 5, 1929, in Shorshely, a village of Chuvash, ASSR. After completing technical school and Frunze Air Force College, Andriyan Nikolaev served in aviation. Since 1957 Nikolaev has been a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1968 he finished the N.E. Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy. Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev is a Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the
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Space engineer of Soyuz-9, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov.

RSFSR, and does a lot of social and political work. The family of the astronauts Valentina Vladimirovna Nikolaeva-Tereshkova and Andriyan Grigor'evich consists of a six year old daughter, Elena.

Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov was born on July 8, 1935 in Krasnoural'sk, a town in Sverdlovsk district. Vitalii's childhood and schooling were in the town of Sochi. In 1953, after completing secondary school, Vitalii Sevast'yanov joined the Moscow Aviation institute. In 1959, Vitalii Ivanovich completed the Institute and started working in a designs bureau. Soon he joined as a research scholar in the Moscow Aviation Institute, and successfully defended his thesis for the degree of Kandidat of Technical Sciences.
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In 1963, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Engineer Sevast'yanov completed the full training program for space flight in the detachment of astronauts. Vitalii Ivanovich's wife, Alevtina Ivanovna, completed Leningrad State University and works in a scientific research institute. Their daughter, Natasha, is seven years old.
Pravda, June 2, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 2 At 0512 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g had completed five circuits around the earth. In a radio communications session, the commander, Comrade Nikolaev, reported that the crew has adjusted well to the conditions of weightlessness and is carrying out the flight program. During the first circuit, Nikolaev had a pulse rate of 94 beats per minute, and Sevast'yanov—92. The respiration rate of both astronauts was 18 per minute. The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft cabins are: temperature—23°C, pressure—765 mm Hg. According to the trajectory measurement data, the parameters of the orbit during the third circuit were: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —• 220 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 207 km; orbital period —• 88.59 rnin; — 51.7 deg. orbital inclination The working day for the astronauts is over. From 0600 hours to 1400 hours Moscow time, the astronauts will rest. During this period Soyuz-g will be outside the Soviet zone of radiovisibility.

At 1833 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 14 circuits. The astronauts have completed the flight program for the first day. On the 5th circuit, the commander, Comrade Nikolaev carried out the maneuver of manual orientation after which the corrective engine was switched on. As a result of this, the spacecraft entered a new orbit on the I4th circuit with the following parameters:
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maximum distance from the earth ( at apogee) — 267 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) —• 213 km; orbital period —• 89.05 min; orbital inclination — 51.7 deg. While carrying out the flight program for the first day, Comrade Nikolaev observed and photographed geological and geographical features on the earth's surface. Comrade Sevast'yanov analyzed the impurities on the windows caused by the working of the engine. He also determined the size of particles and different objects near the windows. Moreover, the luminous effect s caused by the working of the engines were observed. Comrade Nikolaev has started experiments connected with the place of man as an element of the control system in different dynamic operations. The astronauts ate at scheduled times. They eat four times a day: breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper. After dinner, the astronauts rest for some time. Before going to bed, the measurements of the arterial pressure were carried out, and the results of the day's work were recorded in the spacecraft logbook. From 0600 hours to 1600 hours, the spacecraft was outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone. At 1400 hours the second working day for the astronauts began. In one of the radio communication sessions, greetings from the American astronaut, Neil Armstrong, were conveyed to the crew of Soyuz-g. Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov thanked him for the good wishes. Steady two-way radio communications are being maintained with Soyuz-g. The communications from the spacecraft are being transmitted at frequencies of 15.008, 18.06 and 20.008 megaherz. The quality of TV broadcasts is good. The information received from the spacecraft is being processed.
Pravda, June 3, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 3 On June 3, at 0630 Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed its 22nd circuit. At the end of the second day the crew retains a high working capacity, and is feeling well. The temperature, pressure and relative humidity in the spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed limits. During the I7th circuit after manual orientation, orbit correction was carried out. After correction, the spacecraft entered an orbit with the following parameters:
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maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —• 266 km: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 247 km; orbital period — 89.5 min; —• 51.7 deg. orbital inclination After the day's work the crew had a medical checkup and went to the orbital compartment to rest. Soyuz-Q will remain outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone till 1525 hours Moscow time. On June 3, at 1824 hours Moscow time, Sqyuz-g completed 30 circuits. For the third day, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov are carrying out a program of scientific and technical experiments and investigations during the space flight. The astronauts rested well and, after waking, did a set of physical exercises. The astronauts' day started at 1400 hours Moscow time, With special pleasure Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov shaved in the orbital compartment and then had breakfast. The breakfast consisted of hot coffee, sandwiches and sublimated food in edible containers. After breakfast, the astronauts began the program of scientific, technical and medico-biological investigation and control operations. On the 2gth circuit two medical experiments were carried out. In particular, the arterial pressure before and after physical loading, and while carrying out different working operations, were measured. The level of arterial pressure was measured with the help of a tonometer. Simultaneously, the pulse and respiration rates were measured. The measured physical loading was given with the help of an expander and was checked visually. For the experiment, one of the astronauts did the filming while the other stretched the expander thirty times per minute, with a force of about ten kilograms. Moreover, the astronauts checked the change in the contrast sensitivity of the vision apparatus while working at the instruments. When the spacecraft was in the equatorial region, Space Engineer Sevast'yanov conducted experiments on radio communications on short waves with some ground tracking stations. The spacecraft crew conveyed hearty greetings to the scientists, designers, engineers and workers—all those who had created the Soyuz. According to the telemetric information, Nikolaev's pulse rate is 69 per minute, while Sevast'yanov's is 62. The respiration rate of both astronauts is 12 per minute. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the crew. The flight continues.
Pravda, June 4, 1970
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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 4 On June 4, at 0620 Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 38 circuits. For the flight program of the third day, the astronauts conducted observations of the heavenly bodies, and experiments on astronavigation with the help of optical devices on board, and observed the relief of selected portions of the earth's surface. The astronauts also carried out investigations on the sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus to the state of weightlessness. According to the commander's report and confirmed by the telemetric data, the systems on board the spacecraft are functioning normally. Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov are feeling well and their mood is excellent. The crew retains a high working capacity. Hygienic parameters in the spacecraft compartments are within the prescribed limits. After completing the flight program for the day, the crew carried out a medical checkup and went to the orbital compartment to rest. Up to 1530 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft will remain outside the Soviet radiovisibility zone. On June 4, at 1815 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-Q completed its 46th circuit. At 1528 hours Moscow time, when the spacecraft entered the Soviet radiovisibility zone, the first communications session of the fourth working day started. The commander reported that both astronauts had slept soundly and peacefully. Their health and mood ;s good. Continuing the program of scientific and technical experiments, Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov worked on the improvement of the equipment for carrying out manual orientation with the help of the stars. When the spacecraft was situated in the shadow of the earth, space engineer Sevast'yanov identified the star Vega, and using the manual system of orientation, brought the star into the field of view of the sensor with the help of the optical sighting device. In the star sensor, the command to "capture the star" was formulated. According to this, the spacecraft commander accomplished stabilization of the spacecraft on the gyro instruments. During this time, astronaut Sevast'yanov measured the height of the star above the horizon with the help of the sextant. During the flight, the astronauts also carried out a number of medical experiments and investigation?. According to the telemetric data and their own reports, the astronauts retain a high working capacity.
Pravda, June 5, 1970

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE5 The crew of Soyuz-g is continuing its orbital flight for the fourth day. On June 5, at 1507 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 60 circuits. The working day for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov lasted 16 hours. The technical and medical experiments were alternated with periods of eating, rest, and physical exercises. One of the technical experiments conducted during the 48th and 4gth circuits was checking the accuracy of the single-axis orientation of the spacecraft with the calculation of gravitational and aerodynamic perturbations. Astronaut Nikolaev manually oriented the spacecraft in such a way that the transversal axis of the spacecraft, passing through the solar battery panels, was directed toward the sun. Then he turned the spacecraft in this direction. Afterward, the attitude of the spacecraft was maintained automatically with the help of the angular velocity sensors and orientation engines. During the experiment, the movement of the image of the sun on the screen was filmed. During the next circuits, Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov carried out experiments for the determination of the orbital parameters. For maintaining their working capacity and strenuous activity in the state of weightlessness, the astronauts twice during the day did various physical exercises lasting for 50 minutes. During this process, they recorded the pulse and respiration rates. As reported by the spacecraft commander, the pulse rates were as follows : before the physical exercises, Nikolaev—68 and Sevast'yanov—64 beats per minute, and after the exercises, 88 and 90 per minute, respectively. In a radio communications session, the astronauts said they were feeling well, in good mood and maintaining high working capacity. From 0600 hours Moscow time, after completing the day's program, the astronauts rested in the orbital compartment. In order to test the accuracy of some new radio technical systems for trajectory measurements, between the 4gth and 52nd circuits, orbit parameters were measured by Soviet tracking stations. According to these measurements, the orbital parameters of Soyuz-Q during the 5Oth circuit were as follows : maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —• 261.064 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) - 241.638 km; orbital period — 89.398 min; orbital inclination — 5!-722 deg. On June 5, at 1353 hours Moscow time, the first radio communications

session for the fifth day of flight started. Spacecraft commander Andriyan Nikolaev reported that the crew had rested well and had started work on the program for the day.
Pravda, June 6, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 6 The fifth working day for astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov lasted sixteen hours and ended on June 6 at 0500 hours Moscow time. During the day, the crew carried out planned scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments and investigations. In particular, the humidity in different parts of living compartments was measured with the help of checking and measuring instruments. During the 65th and 66th circuits, an experiment for determining the accuracy of single-axis orientation of the spacecraft in the regime of passive turning was carried out. In a radio communications session, the astronauts spoke about the observations and photography of the earth's surface. Space engineer Vitalii Sevast'yanov reported that he had observed a tropical storm on the illuminated side of the earth. Here, the waves of the shore surf could be seen very well. Andriyan Nikolaev narrated about his interesting observations and the filming of the surface of the earth and its horizon in the region of the terminator—-the boundary between day and night. On previous days the astronauts had photographed the cloud cover of the planet. They also observed cyclone and thunderstorm phenomena. The astronauts said that they sleep in the orbital compartment in sleeping bags. According to the astronauts, these bags are very comfortable. The conditions in the rest compartment are comfortable with a temperature of 24°C. The pressure and relative humidity are similar to those on the earth. The astronauts usually slept well for about eight hours, without dreams. After waking up, the astronauts felt fresh and active. They are in good mood and have a high working capacity. Andriyan Grigor'evich and Vitalii Ivanovich say they have a good appetite and that they are happy with their food in outer space. The astronauts' ration includes various natural and tinned products. The first course consists of cabbage soup, borshch, 'kharcho' etc. The first course dishes and the coffee are heated just before use. The variety of second course dishes includes steak, chicken fillet, minced pork with ham and eggs. The astronauts drink fruit juice with special pleasure. Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov are showing great interest in the events on the earth, they are following sports news, particularly the
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World football championship matches and hear music with great satisfaction. At the end of the working day, Comrade Nikolaev orientated the spacecraft so that the plane of the solar batteries made an angle of 70 degrees with respect to the sun. This position of the spacecraft was selected in view of the calculated regime of recharging the space-borne sources of current, since an insignificant amount of electric power is used during the hours of rest. Afterward, the turning of the spacecraft around this direction with an angular velocity of three degrees per second was carried out. On June 6, at 1300 hours Moscow time, the sixth working day started for the crew of the spacecraft. The astronauts are in good health, and feel fine.
Pravda, June 7, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 7 On June 7, at i aoo hours Moscow Time, Soyuz-Q completed 90 circuits around the earth. The sixth working day for the astronauts lasted from 1300 hours on June 6, to 0500 hours on the morning of June 7. In accordance with schedule, the crew carried out observations of the earth's surface and heavenly bodies and conducted scientific and medical experiments. In the radio communications sessions, the astronauts spoke about the results of the visual observations. On the flight path of the spacecraft, almost 80% of the surface of the planet is covered with clouds. Thus, in most cases, it is difficult to observe selected areas of the earth's surface. While passing over Africa on June 6, at about 1800 hours, Comrade Sevast'yanov detected the hot beds of a forest fire. In the same area, Kilimanjaro, covered with snow, and with a dark crater in the center, the big lakes, Tanganyika, Nyasa and Victoria, and the waterfall, could be seen very well. Vitalii Sevast'yanov spoke about the interesting observations of the heavenly bodies. While watching the starry sky in a direction opposite to that of the sun, the astronauts observed simultaneously the illuminated earth, the Southern Cross constellation, and Alpha-, Beta-, Centaurus, Sirius and other stars. According to the astronauts, the sunset and sunrise phases are very interesting. In the course of the flight, space engineer Sevast'yanov checked the condition of the surface of the spacecraft windows, photographed them and reported the results of the observations to the flight control center. In the medico-biological program, the astronauts carried out experiments for the study of the fundamental biological processes in the state of weightlessness, and investigated the muscle power of the hands. The second experiment was conducted to collect data for the indirect calculation of the tonicity
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of human skeletal muscles in space flight conditions. The medical data obtained through telemetry, as well as by the results of each other's medical checkup, show that the astronauts are enduring well the overall effect of spaceflight and retain a high working capacity. The pulse rate of the spacecraft commander is within 69-72 beats per minute, while that of the engineer is 64-66 per minute. Both the astronauts have a respiration rate of 12 per minute. Nikolaev's arterial pressure is 1 25 by 75, and Sevast'yanov's, 1 20 by 70 mm of Hg. According to the telemetric data, the parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft compartments are as follows : temperature — 22°C; pressure —-830 mm Hg; partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas —-195 and 8.5 mm Hg respectively. At 1340 hours Moscow time, the first radio communication session for the seventh day of the flight started. The spacecraft commander Nikolaev stated that the astronauts are feeling normal and have started work on the flight program for the day.
Pravda, June 8,

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 8 The crew of the spacecraft Soyuz-g is in orbital flight for the seventh day. On June 8, at 1437 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 108 circuits. The program for the seventh day of the flight included experiments on the study of the astronauts' organisms. One of the scientific experiments conducted was the photography and spectrometry of the dusk and daytime horizons of the earth, to study the intensity structure of the atmospheric layer for the exact determination of the line of horizon which is used as the main reference line for the navigation of the spacecraft. During the flight over the dark side of the earth, A.G. Nikolaev orientated the spacecraft, directing the axis of the optical illuminator toward the dusk horizon of the earth. Then, V.I. Sevast'yanov carried out a spectro-photometric survey of the horizon, starting from the moment of appearance of the luminous corona in the earth's atmosphere, to the rise of the sun from behind the horizon. Spectro-photometry of the daytime horizon was carried out during the flight of the spacecraft over the illuminated side of the earth. The experiment consisted of a series of successive spectrometric measurements carried out with the rotations of the spacecraft around the local vertical. Simultaneously, the crew photographed the horizon. During the day, the astronauts twice did a set of physical exercises, each lasting for about an hour.
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Continuing their work on the program of medical investigations, the astronauts studied the effect of space flight factors on the human organism. With the help of different functional probes and psycho-physiological tests, the condition of their organisms and the level of their working capacity were determined. The medical data obtained through telemetric channels, and the results of their own medical checkup and the TV observations of the astronauts show that for seven days they have well endured the overall effect of space flight factors, retaining a high level of working capacity. During the seventh day of the space flight, the pulse rate of Nikolaev was 68 and of Sevast'yanov 64 per minute. The respiration rate of both the astronauts was 12 per minute. The next working day for A.G. Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov started on June 8, at 1230 hours Moscow time. Commander Nikolaev reported that the crew is feeling well and in working mood.
Pravda, June 9, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 9 On June 9, 1425 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 124 circuits. By now, astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov have been in outer space for 186 hours. The 8th working day passed according to schedule. It ended on June 9, at 0430 hours Moscow time. During the day, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov carried out scientific and technical experiments, observed the earth's surface and heavenly bodies, and carried out a set of medical investigations. In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov spoke about the experiments and the results of the visual observations. On this day mostly South America and the African continent were visible for observation. The western coast of the American continent, the valley of the Amazon river and Lake Chad in Africa were clearly seen. During the g6th circuit, while carrying out an experiment on the determination of orbital parameters with the help of the systems on board, the astronauts selected Lake Viedma situated in South America, as their main reference point. With the help of the optical illuminator, the commander Andriyan Nikolaev orientated the spacecraft, after which, space engineer Sevast'yanov made navigational measurements, added this and other initial data to the formula, and calculated one of the orbital parameters. The crew also carried out medical observations for the study of possible changes in the sense organs and in the working capacity of the astronauts in the state of weightlessness. During the 11 ith circuit, astronaut Nikolaev did a set of physical exercises

for an hour and then gave the measurements of the physiological variables before and after physical exertion. Before doing physical exercises his arterial pressure was 125 by 75 mm Hg, pulse rate—-68 per minute, respiration rate— 11 per minute. 20 seconds after physical exertion, the level of arterial pressure increased to 135 by 70 mm Hg, pulse rate increased to 80 beats per minute and respiration rate to 15 per minute. After a period of two minutes, the restoration of astronaut's initial physiological parameters was observed. The recorded physiological characteristics show adequate reaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to measured physical loads. According to the astronaut, after doing physical exercises one feels pleasant and cheerful as on the earth. On June 8, at 2220 hours Moscow time, during a TV report from the spacecraft, Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev had a conversation with the members of his family, Valentina Vladimirovna and her daughter Alenka, whose sixth birthday it was. They wished Andriyan Grigor'evich success and a safe return to the earth. The next working day started on June 9, at 1230 hours Moscow time. In the first radio communications session the commander stated that the astronauts were feeling well after rest and had started work on the program for the day. Soyuz-9 continues in orbit.
Pravda, June 10, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 10 On June 10, at 1413 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-9 completed 140 circuits. The working day for the astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov lasted for 16 hours and was over at 0430 in the morning. During the day the crew carried out some technical experiments as well as medical investigations. During the 12 7th and I28th circuits, the astronauts tested the star sensor, working on a new principle. When the astronauts were flying over the unilluminated part of the earth, they carried out a search for the star, Vega, and with the help of the star sensor orientated the spacecraft toward Vega. This position of the spacecraft was afterward maintained with the help of the orientation engines and gyroscopic devices. After completing one full revolution around the earth, the star sensor again "caught" the star Vega. In the radio communications sessions, the astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov reported they were feeling well and had slept soundly. Andriyan Nikolaev prefers to sleep in the orbital compartment where the temperature is about 24°C, and Sevast'yanov in the cabin where it is slightly cooler.
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According to the astronauts, their appetites are good. They take the necessary amount of liquid in the form of drinking water, fruit juice, soup and coffee. According to the telemetric data and the TV observations, the astronauts are in good health and their working capacity is high. The next working day for the crew of Soyuz-g started on June 10, at 1200 hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session Andriyan Nikolaev reported that after resting the astronauts had started the scheduled program.
Pravda,June n, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE n On June 11, at 1231 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 155 circuits. Astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov have been in orbital flight for some 230 hours. The working day for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov started at 1200 hours Moscow time and passed smoothly according to schedule. After morning toilet, checkup of the spacecraft systems, and breakfast, the astronauts observed the earth's surface and the heavenly bodies. In the radio communications sessions, Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov reported that they observed the Crimea and Caucasus, and that the towns of Sochi and Batumi and Lake Sevang could be seen clearly. -During the I43rd circuit, the astronauts saw a dust storm in the Dasht-e-Kavir desert in Iran. On the tenth day of the space flight, A. Nikolaev and V. Sevast'yanov, according to plan, took more rest than on previous days. After lunch, they played chess and read books. The astronauts said they had cleaned the living compartments of the spacecraft using a vacuum cleaner. The parameters of the microclimate in the spacecraft are normal, close to those on the earth : pressure—-850 mm Hg, temperature—2O°C. Before supper, Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov did "space gymnastics" in the orbital compartment. At the end of the working day the astronauts checked each other medically. In the session of radio communication, commander Nikolaev reported that they rested well during the day. They are feeling well and in excellent mood. Before going to bed, Nikolaev's pulse rate was 68 and Sevast'yanov's 67 beats per minute, while the respiration rate was 12 and 15 per minute respectively. Their next working day started on June 11, at 1100 hours Moscow time. Andriyan Nikolaev reported to the flight control center, that the crew had begun work.
Pravda, June 12, 1970

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 12 On June 12, at 1346 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft Soyuz-g completed 172 circuits. The program for the eleventh day was full of scientific and technical experiments. In particular, the crew carried out a series of photographic and spectrometric surveys to study the surface and atmosphere of the earth from outer space. The experiments were conducted by several methods, using various recording and photographic equipment. Astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov carried out observations and photography of the cloud and snow cover of the earth. This experiment was conducted to study the spatial structure of the clouds and to determine the boundary between the beds of snow and ice. Firstly, the spacecraft was orientated toward the earth with the help of the optical sighting device, and then, during stabilized flight over selected areas, space engineer Sevast'yanov carried out photography and spectrometry of typical cloud and snow formations. In the course of the flight, the crew of Soyuz photographed the daytime and dusk horizons of the earth. They also photographed the moon with earth in the background. During circuits 159-161, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov photographed some regions of the earth's surface having typical geological relief. According to schedule, the astronauts ate and had a good appetite. During the day they also carried out a number of medical experiments. Among them they investigated the sensitivity of muscles and joints with the help of a spring dynamograph. Also the accuracy of endurance of a given muscular strain by the astronauts was determined. According to the psycho-physiological data analysis of the actions of the astronauts, functional probes, radio conversations, and observations of the astronauts during TV broadcasts, and according to their own reports, they are in good health, feeling well and are retaining a high working capacity. On June 12, at 1230 hours Moscow time, the first radio communications session of the new day began. The commander Andriyan Nikolaev reported that he was feeling well and that he had started work.
Pravda, June 13, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 13 On June 13, at 1332 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-Q completed 188 circuits.
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Astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov are in outer space for the 12th day. The working day for the astronauts lasted for about sixteen hours and was over on June 13, at 0430 hours. The flight program for the day included scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments. One of the experiments was the second flight-test of the star sensor, working on a new principle. This time the astro-orientation sensor was aligned with the star Canopus. The experiment was successful. At predetermined time, the star Canopus was detected by the sensor. When the spacecraft was in the equatorial region, the astronauts conducted experiments on establishing radio communications with ground tracking stations on the short wave band. In the course of the flight the orbital parameters were regularly measured by ground command. On the iSist circuit the orbital parameters were : maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 246.7km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 231.2 km; orbital period — 89.1 min. The crew conducted biological experiments to study the breeding and development of insects, characteristics of the fission of cells of chlorella, sporogenesis of flower plants and bacterial cultures in liquid media. In the radio communications sessions Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov reported that the program was being fulfilled successfully, that they were feeling well and that their working capacity was high, and appetite and sleep were normal. According to the telemetric data, and as reported by the astronauts, Nikolaev has a pulse rate of 68 beats per minute and Sevast'yanov 62. Both the cosmonauts have a respiration rate of 15 per minute and arterial pressure of 120 by 75 mm Hg. The thirteenth working day for the astronauts began on June 13, at 1200 hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session the astronauts reported that they were feeling well and had started work.
Pravda, June 14, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 14 On June 14, at 1316 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 204 circuits. By now, the astronauts have been in outer space for 303 hours. The thirteenth working day in outer space passed according to program and was over on June 14, at 0300 hours Moscow time. During the day,
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technical and medical experiments were carried out. One of the scientific experiments was the investigation of the dynamic functions of man considered as an element of the control system. In this experiment, a special cybernetic device was used, with the help of which the complicated dynamic system of the flight was modelled. In the course of the experiment conducted by space engineer Sevast'yanov, the accuracy of accomplishment of his given program of commands for the control of the cybernetic device was determined. Similar experiments were conducted during the training on the ground and at the beginning of the flight. A comparison of the results obained will enable the astronauts to find out the effect of space flight factors on the characteristics of the man understudy. During the day the astronauts took observations and photographs of the earth's surface. On the i88th circuit, the astronauts photographed cloud formations in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The scientific research ship of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Akademik Shirshov also took part in this experiment, and observations were taken with the help of the meteorological satellite, Meteor. In the radio communications sessions, Andriyan Nikolaev spoke about the observations of some small meteorites which entered the earth's atmosphere and were burnt up. The spacecraft commander spoke in detail also about the condition of the windows in the orbital compartment. The astronauts conducted a number of medical experiments. In particular, they investigated the contrast sensitivity of the eyes while working with instruments in the condition of prolonged weightlessness. The experiment was conducted in normal working light twice in the day—before and after sleep. The next flight day for the crew started on June 14, slightly earlier than usual, in view of the elections to the Supreme Soviet, USSR. At 0815 hours Moscow time, the astronauts sent a radio message in the name of the Soviet people. They concluded: "On this great day, we, along with all the Soviet people, vote for the further prosperity of our socialist motherland, for the Communist Party, and for communism." In a radio communications session, the spacecraft commander reported that the crew is carrying out the program for the day and that the astronauts are feeling well.
Pravda,June 15, 1970

RADIOGRAM FROM SPACECRAFT On the day of the elections to the Supreme Soviet, USSR, June 14, at 0815 hours Moscow time the astronauts A.G. Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov sent the following radiogram from Soyuz-g in the name of the Soviet people :

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Dear Comrades! Today, on June 14, when all the Soviet people are electing Deputies to the highest seat of government in our land, we, the members of the crew of the Soyuz-g spacecraft now in outer space, with a feeling of great civic duty, join the electorate, voting for the best sons and daughters of our motherland for the candidates of the unbreakable block of communists and non-Party people. On this great day, we, along with all the Soviet people, vote for the further prosperity of our socialist motherland, for our Communist Party, for communism.
A.G. Nikolaev Commander of the spacecraft Soyuz-g V.I. Sevast'yanov Space Engineer of the spacecraft Soyuz-<) Pravda,June 15, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 15 On June 15, at 1300 hours Moscow time, Soyuz-g completed 220 circuits of the earth. By this time, astronauts Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov have been in outer space for 327 hours. The 14th working day for the astronauts was over on June 15, at 0300 hours in the morning. In accordance with the scheduled program, the astronauts conducted scientific and technical experiments, carried out a medical checkup, and accomplished correction of the orbit of the spacecraft. At the beginning of the day, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov, after breakfast and physical exercises, observed and photographed the surface of our planet. Most of the African continent was visible for observation. The astronauts saw clearly and photographed the valley of the River Nile and the Aswan dam. On the 2o8th circuit, the crew carried out corrections of the orbit. In order to check the control system, before putting the propulsion system into action, the orientation of the spacecraft was carried out manually as well as automatically. After correction, the orbital parameters of the spacecraft Soyuz-g are: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 231.4 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 215.1 km: orbital period —• 88.8 min. The crew of Soyuz-g has been in orbit already for 14 days. Under the conditions of prolonged weightlessness, the astronauts carried out a large
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number of scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments. Each working day for the astronauts, as a rule, lasts for about 16 hours and is marked by intensive, strenuous work. During all this period, medical checkups were carried out regularly. An analysis of the results of the medical checkups shows that both astronauts have endured well the conditions of prolonged space flight. The working capacity of Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov remains at a high level. They are feeling well, and are in good spirits. The fifteenth working day started on June 15, at 1030 hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev reported that the astronauts were feeling well after their rest and had started their day's work.
Pravda, June 16, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNEi6 On June 16, at 1407 hours Moscow time, 237 circuits had been completed. The astronauts have been in orbit for 352 hours. This marks the longestever space flight. The working day of the astronauts passed according to schedule and was over on June 16 at 0300 hours in the morning. After breakfast and medical checkup, Vitalii Sevast'yanov took photographs and a film of Andriyan Nikolaev performing physical exercises and then he himself did exercises for an hour. On the 222nd circuit, the astronauts, with the help of manual control orientated the spacecraft so that one of the windows of the orbital compartment was directed toward the earth. Between the 222nd and 224th circuit, the required orientation of the spacecraft was maintained by the commander Andriyan Nikolaev, with the manual control system. During this period, Vitalii Sevast'yanov took photographs of the geological and geographical features in the southern regions of the European part of the USSR, Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. Simultaneously with this experiment in outer space, these areas were photographed from geological survey airplanes. During the day, the astronauts observed the heavenly bodies. Vitalii Sevast'yanov observed the stars Arcturus and Deneb in the Bootes and Cygnus constellations. He measured the angles between them and the horizon line. The results of navigational measurements were used for the determination of the orbital parameters of the spacecraft. Judging from the reports of the crew members, their observations on
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TV broadcasts, telemetric data and the results of their work for the day, the astronauts retain their high working capacity. They have adapted well to their stay in space. Comrades Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov remarked that they have now got accustomed to weightlessness, and are feeling as good and as confident as in the simulator on earth. The sixteenth working day in outer space started on June 16, at iioo hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session, the spacecraft commander announced that the astronauts were feeling well after the rest. The crew has started work on the program of scientific and technical experiments. The systems on board are functioning normally and are providing conditions in the living compartments similar to those on the earth.
Pravda, June 17, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNEi7 On June 17, at 1345 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 253 circuits around the earth and has been in outer space for 375 hours. The sixteenth working day in outer space was over on June 17 at 0300 hours. The astronauts carried out scientific and medical experiments in accordance with the program. During the day, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov observed the earth's surface and photographed some cloud formations and regions with typical geological relief. In the radio communications sessions the astronauts spoke about the results of their observations. The islands and shoreline of the Mediterranean Sea, the Crimea, the shore of the Black Sea in the Caucasus, the delta of the River Volga and areas of Western Siberia were seen clearly. The astronauts saw also the cities situated in this region—Athens, Istanbul, Yalta, Sochi, Astrakhan and others. While flying over Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov reported the gradual increase in the thickness of the cloud cover and about the formation of a cyclone in the region of Novosibirsk. After crossing the terminator, on the dark side of the earth they clearly saw cloud formation in the moonlight. At the beginning and at the end of the working day Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov conducted medical experiments. In particular, with the help of the dynamometer, they measured the muscular power of the hands, and using the spring dynamograph, they investigated the sensitivity of muscles and joints. During the day, the astronauts carried out a medical checkup of each
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other's health, measured arterial pressures, and recorded the pulse and respiration. According to the telemetric data, and as reported by the astronauts, the magnitudes of these parameters were: arterial pressure of Nikolaev—• 125 by 80, and of Sevast'yanov—-120 by 80 mm Hg, pulse rate 73 and 66, and respiration rate 14 and 16 per minute respectively. On June 17, at 1100 hours Moscow time, yet another working day started for Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov. In the first radio communications session, the spacecraft commander declared that the astronauts were feeling well after their rest and had started work.
Prmida, June 18, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JUNE 18 At 1449 hours Moscow time, the spacecraft completed 270 circuits of the earth. By this time Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov had spent 400 hours in outer space. The working day for the astronauts lasted for about 16 hours and was over on June 18, at 0300 hours in the morning. According to the program for the seventeenth day of the flight, the astronauts carried out scientific, technical and medical experiments. They checked the systems on board and had breakfast. In the course of some circuits, they observed and photographed the cloud cover and the surface of our planet, regions with typical relief, the shoreline of the ocean and large mountain tracts. In the radio communications sessions the astronauts reported about observations of the Pamirs, Baikal Lake, large tracts of forests in Eastern Siberia and the shores of the Pacific Ocean. During the day, A. Nikolaev and V. Sevast'yanov also observed and photographed the moon, with the earth in the background. They investigated the outer surface of the cabin windows and orbital compartment and reported their condition in detail to the earth. At the beginning and at the end of the working day, Andriyan Nikolaev and Vitalii Sevast'yanov carried out medical experiments as well as conducted a medical checkup of each other's health, measured arterial pressure, pulse and respiration rates. According to the telemetric data, and confirmed by the astronauts, Nikolaev had a pulse rate of 76 and Sevast'yanov— 64 beats per minute. Both had a respiration rate of 16 per minute. An analysis of the medical checkup showed that they had maintained a high working capacity and were in good health.
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The next working day started on June 18, at i too hours Moscow time. In a radio communications session, Andriyan Nikolaev said that the astronauts were feeling well after their rest and that they had started their program for the i8th day.
Pravda, June 19, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOTUZ-9 SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETES FLIGHT On June 19, 1970, at 1459 hours Moscow time, after completing the program of prolonged flight in a near-earth orbit, the Soyuz-g spacecraft landed in a predetermined area in Soviet territory, about 75 kilometers west of Karaganda. Comrades Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov are feeling well after the landing. For the descent of the spacecraft to the earth, at a precalculated time, the spacecraft was orientated and the braking engine was put into operation. After the braking engines had finished their work, the compartments of the spacecraft were separated and the landing vehicle entered the trajectory toward the earth. The landing vehicle descended along the guided descent trajectory with the use of aerodynamic control. After deceleration in the atmosphere, the parachute system was put into operation. The engines for soft-landing ensured a smooth landing for the vehicle. At the landing site, the astronauts were warmly welcomed by the search group, sport commissars, friends and journalists. A medical checkup of the crew at the landing site showed that they had adjusted well to the prolonged space flight. Thus Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel A.G. Nikolaev, and Space Engineer V.I. Sevast'yanov, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, fully accomplished the scheduled program of scientific, technical and medico-biological research in Soyuz-g.
Pravda, June 20, 1970

STATEMENT OF THE SOTU^-g CREW AT THE LANDING SITE TO
THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU, PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET.USSR, AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR We report today, June 19, 1970, after fully accomplishing the flight
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program of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft. The crew of Soyuz-Q was in orbital flight for 18 days. In the course of the flight, a complicated program of scientific and technical experiments has been accomplished, a set of medico-biological investigations carried out, and new instruments and assemblies tested. All the spacecraft systems functioned normally. . We heartily thank the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet Government for the faith shown in us in accomplishing this prolonged flight. We are feeling well, and are ready to carry out new tasks.
Pravda, June 20, 1970 A.G. Mkolaev Commander of the Soyuz-g spacecraft V.I. Scvast'yanov Kandidat of Technical Sciences Space Engineer of the Soyuz-g spacecraft

To

The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the preparation and successful accomplishment of the prolonged flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft.
To

The Soviet astronauts, Comrades Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov. Dear Comrades! Lenin's jubilee year was marked by a new and important achievement of Soviet astronautics. The 17-day orbital flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft has been successfully completed. The courageous Soviet astronauts, Comrades A.G. Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov, have accomplished the longest flight in outer space and have carried out a large number of scientific and technical experiments and investigations. In the course of the flight, the instruments and systems of the spacecraft functioned faultlessly. A new and important step has been taken in astronautics, signifying the beginning of prolonged manned space flights. The valuable biomedical data about the effect of prolonged space flight on the human organism and working capacity, obtained as a result of the investigations during the flight, the prolonged and multilateral checking of the technical systems of the spacecraft and ground devices, and the accomplishment of an extensive program of scientific and economic investigations and observations have provided us with the necessary practical material, for the foundations of future space flights and will bring closer the establishment of permanent working orbital stations.

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The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate you, dear comrades, Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev and Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, for the successful accomplishment of this difficult and responsible task. We congratulate all the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the preparation and successful accomplishment of the orbital flight of the manned spacecraft Soyuz-QWe wish you, dear comrades, further success in your wonderful work. Let these successes bring glory to our socialist motherland and serve the noble cause of the study and conquest of the universe by mankind.
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, June 20, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT NEW STEP TOWARD ORBITAL STATIONS On June i, 1970, the Soyuz-g spacecraft, with a crew consisting of spacecraft commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Colonel Adriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov, was launched by the Soviet Union into orbit as an artificial earth satellite. On June 19, 1970, at 1459 hours Moscow time, after completing the scheduled program of an 18-day flight, Soyuz-g made a landing in a predetermined area with high accuracy.

The crew of Soyuz-g remained in orbital flight around the earth for a period of 424 hours. This is the first time that such a prolonged flight has taken place with the crew working actively the whole time. The large number of scientific and technical investigations, observations and experiments were intended to study near-earth space and determine the potentialities of orbital space vehicles in the interests of various aspects of the national economy. In the course of the flight, scientific observation and photography of geologically typical portions of the earth's surface, were carried out. In particular, portions of the European part of the USSR, Kazakhstan and Western Siberia were photographed. Simultaneously with the experiment

in outer space, these regions were photographed by geological survey airplanes. During the flight, astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov observed and photographed different phases of the rising and setting sun and moon, cloud formations, snow covers of the earth, and different atmospheric phenomena for forecasting the weather for long periods. The astronauts reported about thunderstorm phenomena and cyclones a number of times. Information about forest fires, dust storms and sea storms was also received from the spacecraft. In a prefixed area of the Indian Ocean, a unique experiment on the photography of cloud formation was carried out. In this experiment, besides the spacecraft Soyuz-g, the scientific research ship of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Akademik Shirshov and the meteorological satellite, Meteor also took part. During the flight of Soyuz-g, the physical characteristics of near-earth space were studied further. The astronauts made wide use of the heavenly bodies as their main reference points for working out methods and new systems of astronavigation and maneuvering. In the process of multiple maneuvering, orientation and stabilization of the spacecraft, the processes of spacecraft control in different regimes of flight were further improved. The most important part of the space flight was a large number of medicobiological investigations for studying the effect of prolonged space flight factors on the human organism. Particular attention was paid to the measures for maintaining the good functional condition of the organism and a high level of working capacity. While carrying out a large medico-biological program, the astronauts conducted investigations of the cardiovascular system, functions of external respiration, gas metabolism and energy loss, contrast sensitivity of the eyes, functions of the vestibular apparatus, sensitivity of the muscles and joints, and the sense of pain with the help of different functional probes and psychophysiological tests. In order to diagnose in time the possible undesirable changes "in the physiological functions of the organism, regular medical checkups of the astronauts' state of health were carried out during the 18-day flight. The system of control included different methods: watching the astronauts during TV broadcasts and radio conversations, reports of the astronauts themselves, analysis of the experiments conducted by them, and in particular, the telemetric data about the dynamism of physiological experiments. Every day, at the beginning and end of the working day, the astronauts carried out each other's medical checkup, in which the arterial pressure was measured and the pulse and respiration were recorded. Similar measurements were made before and after the preplanned set of physical exercises. Normal life activities and high working capacity were maintained through
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a rational regime of work, rest and regular food. The medical data obtained through telemetric channels, the results of selfand mutual-medical checkups, and observations of the astronauts during TV broadcasts, have shown that the astronauts quickly adjusted to the state of weightlessness and adapted themselves to the complicated effects of prolonged space flight factors, retaining a high level of working capacity. The ground command and measurement complex and the scientific research ships of USSR Academy of Sciences, situated in different waters of the world, provided a clear and uninterrupted tracking of the flight. Regular radio and TV contact was maintained with the spacecraft, and the reception and processing of the telemetric information was carried out effectively. The spacecraft systems and scientific equipment, in the course of the whole flight, functioned faultlessly, and created normal conditions for work and rest in the living compartments, similar to those on the earth. After the completion of the space flight, astronauts A.G. Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov will undergo checkup for some time ahead. The experimental investigations carried out by astronauts Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov have great importance for the development of space technology and the solution of problems facing the building and functioning of long-term orbital stations for scientific and economic purposes.
Pravda, June 20, 1970

SOTUZ-9-. PROGRAM COMPLETED The further study of outer space for enriching our knowledge of nearearth and interplanetary space and using it in the interests of the national economy, is connected with the stay and work of man in restricted and weightless conditions. In the prolonged flights of orbital stations, the investigator will have to remain in the state of weightlessness for weeks and months. Till recently, the maximum duration of manned space flights varied from 5 (Vostok, Soyuz) to 14 days (Gemini-j). Along with the solution of definite scientific and technical tasks, the vital functions of the human organism, the health and working capacity of the astronauts were also investigated. It became clear that people quickly adapt themselves to the state of weightlessness. The "illusions of position" and unpleasant feelings due to motion soon disappear, and the organs of blood circulation and gas metabolism start functioning normally. However, slackness in movements and lower reactions may appear, and the irritation of the vestibular apparatus may go on accumulating, which can sometimes give rise to the symptoms of sea sickness. Hence it is essential to study in detail the behavior of the human organism under the conditions of a prolonged stay in the state of
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weightlessness, and the effects of strains of even very small magnitudes on the condition of the organism and the feelings of the astronauts. In a prolonged flight it is important also to check the working capacity of the control and communication systems and other equipment, gather experience and statistical data for the further improvement of the design and sealing of the spacecraft compartments, and its slave organs. The flight of Soyuz-g was designed specifically to solve these problems. As is well known, its crew consisted of spacecraft commander, Pilot-Astronaut Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev, and Space Engineer, Kandidat of Technical Sciences, Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov. Launched on June i, the spacecraft entered an orbit, having a minimum height (at perigee) of 207 kilometers, and maximum (at apogee)—221 kilometers. The orbital inclination was 51.7 degrees. The flight, which lasted for 18 days, was successfully completed. The following technical tasks were carried out in the course of the flight: —• medico-biological investigations of the effect of prolonged space flight factors on the human organism; —• overall checking and flight-testing of the systems under the conditions of prolonged space flight; —- further work on the improvement of the manual system of control and orientation, and investigations with autonomous navigational devices; —- scientific investigations and experiments for the further improvement of the design and systems of the spacecraft. Medico-biological investigations The flight of the Soyuz-9 spacecraft was of great interest from the point of view of space biology and medicine. In the conditions of orbital flight, the main factor acting on man is weightlessness. Right from the moment of taking the decision to send man into outer space great attention has been paid to this problem. Quite a lot of useful material has been collected from the scientific investigations. But one cannot yet say that the problem of weightlessness has been fully studied. As the flights of Soviet and American spacecraft have shown, the astronauts can stay and work for several days in the state of weightlessness, without any visible harm to their health and working capacity. However, with the increase in the duration of flights, to the action of weightlessness is added such factors as prolonged isolation, limited movement, psychological strain and lastly, the possibility of infection from the micro-organisms in the spacecraft. Reviewing the previous flights of Soviet and American astronauts, one can say that the results of medical control and biomedical investigations have demonstrated only insignificant changes in the organism, showing only the general tendency of perturbations, that can arise as a result of

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space flight factors. Their effect on the human organism is much less than what the scientists had supposed in the early stages of space exploration. Now we have a sufficient basis for changing over to ever-increasing durations of flight, keeping in view reliable and comprehensive provisions for the health of man in outer space. It is mainly for these purposes that the Soyuz-g experiment was carried out. It envisaged the study of the symptoms of possible perturbations arising from the prolonged action of weightlessness; obtaining data on the effect of a long stay in weightlessness on the organism, and on the effectiveness of safety measures; obtaining information necessary for the further perfecting of the lifesaving systems. Keeping in view these aims, Soviet scientists worked out several original methods, with instruments and devices, for recording the physiological functions of man in space flight. Special devices and a set of physical exercises were used directly to maintain the resistance of the organism to the effect of weightlessness (and the later overloading during the descent from the orbit), for maintaining the muscular power, and for causing a general toning effect on the nervous, cardiovascular and digestion systems. The cardiovascular system was investigated in detail with the help of sensitive methods of electrocardiography, seismocardiography, pneumography and measurement of the pulse rate. The results were transmitted to the earth with the help of radiotelemetry. Moreover, periodically the astronauts themselves measure the arterial pressure after rest and after definite physical strain. In close connection with the condition of the cardiovascular system, the variations in the water-salt metabolism were also studied, which will help in the further study of the water-electrolyte balance of the organism. Till now, there was no experimental data about the energy loss by man during space flight. But this data is absolutely essential for constructing optimal lifesaving systems, as well as for working out scientifically based rations of food and water. In this connection, the astronauts' functions of respiration, gas metabolism and energy loss in the conditions of work and rest were measured carefully. The vegetative reactions were also studied, the muscular power of the hands, pain and other senses were gauged, and the changes in the reactions of the analyzer systems—-most of all the functions of the vestibular system—were studied. All this is necessary for working out the recommendations for preventing the different perturbations which can arise as a result of prolonged space flight. The telemetric devices were used not only for medical control, but also for the investigation of the physiological reactions of the organism to the prolonged action of space flight factors. In this connection, the psychological steadiness of the man and the dynamic characteristics
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of an operator included in the control system, were studied. It must be stressed that in the field of medical investigations the latest methods were used. These enabled revealing the physiological mechanisms of adaptation of the human organism to space flight factors. This fact has importance for the further perfecting of devices for a man's prolonged stay and work in outer space.
Orbital maneuvering

Experiments were conducted on the orbital maneuvering of Sqyuz-g spacecraft. These included maneuvers carried out by the astronauts while solving problems of autonomous navigation, and on improving a number of prospective elements of the orientation and motion control systems. The control system allowed any angular orientation of the spacecraft which may be required for scientific and technical experiments, or for maneuvering. While working on the autonomous navigational system, the astronauts orientated the spacecraft toward particular heavenly bodies, and, while observing and photographing the earth—toward our planet. The spacecraft was also orientated toward the sun for the generation of electric power by the solar batteries, and for several scientific and technical experiments. This orientation was maintained by stabilizing the spacecraft through rotation. The orbital parameters were sustained with the help of corrections. Here the corrective impulse could be applied in any direction. The correction, as well as several other operations for control were carried out manually as well as automatically. Using the control handle and operating either group of orientation engines, the astronaut could rotate the spacecraft in the required direction; using the optical instruments, he could orientate the spacecraft with respect to the earth with the necessary accuracy. Special optical instruments enabled the astronaut to carry out highpoint orientation with respect to the stars. A prolonged flight demands economic fuel expenditure of the jet engines of the orientation system. It is provided by regimes using minimum single impulses of the engine for maintaining the orientation. The flight of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft was unusual since a number of new orientation instruments were tested in it. Some characteristics of the spacecraft, necessary for the work of the orientation system, have been defined more accurately.
For practical use

As in previous flights, the observations of our planet from outer space were continued, using optical instruments, photography and filming of different phenomena taking place on the surface of the earth. From the

photographs taken from Soyuz-g, scientists will be able to draw more accurately the geological maps of certain areas of the globe and determine the areas most likely to yield minerals. Similar work on the earth would need much more effort and cost. Moreover, from the photographs of different regions of the world ocean, the possibilities of determining ocean currents and some characteristics which simplify the search for zooplankton and the places of accumulation of schools offish, will be studied. The photographs of atmospheric formations, and of the snow and ice covers of the earth, will provide additional material for working out weather forecasting for long periods and finding the origin of typhoons. Investigations of the physical characteristics, phenomena and processes in outer space were also carried out. The effect of space conditions on the characteristics of the optical systems was determined, the methods of fixing reference points on the earth for navigation were investigated, and the functioning of different mechanisms in the conditions of outer space, were studied. The study of the intensity of cosmic radiation, more accurate determination of the solar constant, and investigation of the passage of radio waves of different frequencies through the atmosphere, were continued.
Structural characteristics of the spacecraft

In its design and component characteristics, the spacecraft Soyuz-g is basically similar to the previous Soyuz-type spacecraft. However, because of its task of prolonged flight, certain changes connected with the improvement of the working conditions and rest arrangements were made. Soyuz-g consists of three main compartments: orbital, landing, and instrument cum-assembly. The instruments and equipment required for rendezvous and docking with other spacecraft were removed from this model. The orbital compartment in Soyuz-g serves as a laboratory for scientific experiments and investigations, and at the same time, as a room in which the astronauts can rest, sleep, and eat. Most of the scientific apparatus and equipment is accommodated in this compartment. The regeneration and thermal control system, providing atmospheric conditions similar to those on the earth, is also fitted here. For retaining normal physical condition and high working capacity during prolonged stay in the state of weightlessness, the astronauts used to carry out a set of physical exercises in special suits on a special gymnastic ground with two shock-absorbers. The shock-absorbers help in putting a load on the human body. The muscular groups and the skeleton get loads similar to the forces of gravity on the earth. In the design of the orbital compartment, some additional attachments for holding the astronaut in standing, sitting and lying positions were introduced. This makes it more comfortable conducting experiments, resting and sleeping.
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The orbital compartment of the Soyuz-Q spacecraft is a prototype of the scientific laboratories and living rooms of the future orbital stations. The astronaut's work in this compartment will help reveal its specific character and selecting rational methods for conducting investigations in the conditions of outer space. The landing vehicle of Soyuz-g has two seats. For a prolonged flight and a large number of scientific investigations, it was necessary to change its arrangement slightly. In place of the third chair, some scientific apparatus, casettes, film-holders, stock of tapes for recording the results of orbital experiments, have been fixed. These results, as well as several scientific instruments for biological experiments, are brought back to earth. As in the previous spacecraft, the instrument panel for indication and signalling, and keys and handles for controlling the spacecraft and its systems, are accommodated in the landing vehicle. The descent of the landing vehicle envisages a small acceleration force, up to three units. This has great importance after a prolonged stay in the state of weightlessness. Necessary aerodynamic control and characteristics make it possible for the landing vehicle to glide steadily through the thick layers of the atmosphere. Moreover, the landing vehicle is equipped with shock-absorbing chairs, which decreases the acceleration forces at the moment of landing after descent by parachute. The instrument-cum-assembly compartment corresponds exactly to the compartments of the earlier Soyuz spacecraft. It accommodates equipment and assemblies necessary for the orbital flight of the spacecraft and its leaving orbit after completion of the flight program. It includes a corrective propulsion system, orientation engines, assemblies of the thermal control system, solar batteries, and antennas of the radio network and telemetry. Soyuz-Q was introduced into orbit by a multistage carrier-rocket. After separation from the carrier-rocket, the solar batteries and radio antennas opened. The spacecraft crew and the ground command-measurement complex carried out an analysis of the condition of the spacecraft and its systems on the basis of the telemetric information, and took the necessary decisions for control of the flight. Two-way radio communications were maintained between the spacecraft crew and the ground stations during the flight. In the radiovisibility zone of the ground control posts, the parameters of the spacecraft orbit were measured, the telemetric and TV information was received and radio commands for control were sent to the spacecraft. After completing the flight program, the crew prepared to descend. After orientation of the spacecraft in the orbital system of coordinates, delivery of the braking impulse and separation of the compartments, the landing vehicle carried out a guided descent through the atmosphere and landed in a predetermined area.

The flight of Soyuz-g is a new step on the path of prolonged space flights.
Professor V. Pavlov Pravda, June ai, 1970

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR,ON THE AWARD OF THE SECOND "ZOLOTAYA ZVEZDA" MEDAL TO HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION, PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR, COMRADE A.G. NIKOLAEV For the successful accomplishment of the prolonged orbital flight in the Soyuz-<) spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, a second "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal is awarded to Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, Comrade Andriyan Grigor'evich Nikolaev.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, July 3, 1970

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "HERO OF THE SOVIET UNION" TO PI LOT-ASTRONAUT COMRADE V.I. SEVAST'YANOV For the successful accomplishment of a prolonged orbital flight in the Soyuz-9 spacecraft, and for courage and heroism displayed during this flight, the title of "Hero of the Soviet Union" is conferred upon Pilot-Astronaut Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov. He is awarded the Order of Lenin and the "Zolotaya Zvezda" medal.
N. Podgornyi Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, July 3, 1970

DECREE OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, ON THE AWARD OF THE TITLE, "PILOT-ASTRONAUT OF THE USSR," TO COMRADE V.I. SEVAST'YANOV For accomplishing a space flight in the Soyuz-g spacecraft, the title of "Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR" is conferred upon Soviet citizen, Comrade Vitalii Ivanovich Sevast'yanov.
JV. Podgornyi

Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR M. Georgadze Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Kremlin, Moscow, July 3, 1970 Pravda, July 4, 1970

PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW UNIVERSITY The flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft has aroused great interest throughout the world. This lively interest was reflected by the large number of Soviet and foreign journalists who assembled at the press conference in the auditorium of the Moscow State University on July 9. The press conference, devoted to the successful accomplishment of the prolonged orbital Soyuz-9 flight and meeting with the Pilot-Astronauts of the USSR, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union, A.G. Nikolaev, and Hero of the Soviet Union, V.I. Sevast'yanov, was organized by the USSR Academy of Sciences, and the USSR Ministry of External Affairs. More than two thousand representatives of the press, radio, cinema and television, scientific and social organizations, welcomed the arrival of the heroes of the latest flight to the presidium along with distinguished Soviet scientists with loud cheers. The President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, M.V. Keldysh, inaugurated the press conference.
Speech by M.V. Keldysh

M.V. Keldysh reported that in the prolonged space flight the crew had successfully carried out an extensive and complicated program of scientific and technical experiments and medico-biological investigations. The President stressed that the results of this flight were of great importance for the development of astronautics. He said that the Soviet space research program was characterized by its systematic approach to technical problems. One trend was the establishing of
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prolonged orbital stations for scientific and economic purposes. These stations will enable many new problems to be effectively tackled. Manned orbital stations will form the basis for future progress in astronautics. The scientist noted that the most important stage on this path were the flights of the Soyuz spacecraft, which sought to perfect the principles of control, maneuvering, docking, and functioning of different systems on board, and at the same time performed complicated tasks regarding the study of our planet from outer space. M.V. Keldysh said that the entry of man into outer space had opened new prospects for the investigation of the earth on a global scale for a fuller exploitation of its natural resources, and for further penetration into the universe. For establishing long-term orbital stations and long-distance space flights, it is necessary to systematically accumulate data about the effect of weightlessness and other space flight factors on the human organism, and about the possibility of living and working in outer space. It is important to have an exact idea what the presence of an astronaut can give to the study of the earth's surface, and to find out the optimal ratio between the functions of man and automatic machines. This requires long, exacting work, without which the further progress of astronautics is impossible. The scientist added that new and important problems were solved during the Soyuz-Q flight. The astronauts accomplished an extensive program of medico-biological investigations on the study of the effect of space flight factors on the human organism under conditions of prolonged stay in orbit. Here the problems of adaptation of the human organism, the effect of weightlessness and lowered muscular activity on the process of metabolism, cardiovascular system, bone-joint apparatus and on the nature of the blood circulation, were studied. Interesting results were obtained during the investigation of the dynamic functions of a man, as an element of the control system. This experiment was carried out with the help of a special cybernetic device. Several medico-biological and psycho-physiological methods were used for the appraisal of the working capacity of the crew at different stages of the flight. The astronauts obtained a large amount of data about the terrestrial atmosphere and the processes taking place in it, about the mainland and water surfaces in different regions of the globe, and about typical geological and geographical features. They continued the observations started by the crew of earlier Soviet spacecraft. Thus, astronauts Valentina NikolaevaTereshkova and Konstantin Feoktistov had taken photographs of the dust halo, while from the spacecraft Soyuz-5 their spectra had been taken for the first time. M.V. Keldysh noted that similar observations were also carried out during the group flight of the three Soyuz spacecraft in October, last year. The processing of these measurements provided interesting facts about the optical characteristics of the atmosphere and the distribution of aerosol. The crew of Soyuz-Q carried out photography and spectrometry of the
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dusk and daytime horizons of the earth also. The results of these observations will enable us to understand better how the brightness and structure of the atmosphere layers change with the height. The scientist reported that it was important for the exact determination of the horizon line which is used as the main reference line for the navigation of spacecraft. The astronauts carried out a number of other astronavigational experiments also. Of great interest is the joint meteorological experiment, in which the satellite Meteor, the crew of Sqyuz-g and the scientific research ship Akademik Shirshov, all took part. These experiments are of great importance to meteorologists for more exact weather forecasts, since they enable an overall study of the condition of the atmosphere, surface of the mainland and sea, and structure of the cloud cover, to be made. The multiple experiment was carried out over the western part of the Indian Ocean. From the ship, radiosondes were sent for the measurement of temperature and wind velocity in different layers of the atmosphere. The Meteor satellite orbiting over this area at this moment, sent a series of TV pictures from a height of 630 kilometers, while Nikolaev and Sevast'yanov observed this area from a lower height. A similar meteorological experiment was carried out last year with the participation of the Soyuz-J crew, airplanes and ground stations. M.V. Keldysh stressed that these Soyuz experiments contributed greatly to the perfecting of meteorological forecasting. Our country has greeted Lenin's jubilee year with new achievements in the field of science and technical progress, with new successes in the construction of communism. M.V. Keldysh declared that the general trend of Soviet space research was to apply its achievements to the needs of the national economy and for scientific and technical progress. The flight of the Sqyuz-g spacecraft was an important step on this path. The President of the Academy heartily congratulated the courageous astronauts and wished them further success in the noble cause of the conquest of outer space. M.V. Keldysh announced that the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences had already marked the outstanding contribution of PilotAstronaut of the USSR A.G. Nikolaev, with the award of the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medal for the development of astronautics. Now the K.E. Tsiolkovskii Gold Medal was to be awarded to Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, V.I. Sevast'yanov. To the accompaniment of the applause of all present, the medal was handed over to the hero.

The next to speak was O.G. Gazenko, a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
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Speech by O.G. Gazenko The scientist said that the main aim of the medico-biological experiments was to study the effect of the conditions of prolonged space flight on the functional condition of man and his working capacity. For this, the functions of the cardiovascular system and analyzers were studied. The dynamics of the working capacity was investigated on the basis of the accomplishment of suitable working operations and the quality of the special probes carried out. In accordance with the program of biological investigations, some experiments were conducted with the active participation of the astronauts. The general purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of weightlessness on the growth, development and heredity of different kinds of living organisms. The scientist remarked that the flight of A.G. Nikolaev and V.I. Sevast'yanov had proved beyond doubt that man can not only live for a long time under the conditions of space flight but also work efficiently. The astronauts carried out quite an extensive program of scientific research, including a large number of medico-biological experiments, which, we hope, will enable us to take a new step forward in the study of the effect of weightlessness on the human organism. O.G. Gazenko stated that the scientific data received on the flight, was being processed. Then he gave certain preliminary results regarding the condition of the astronauts during flight, as well as some results of the postflight medical checkup. Andriyan Grigor'evich and Vitalii Ivanovich felt well during the flight. In spite of a full flight program, they retained a high working capacity. After carrying out complicated experiments and a crowded program, they used to feel somewhat tired, but this feeling would disappear completely after sleep. Quite interesting and valuable observations of the astronauts regarding their own condition during the flight, along with the data of objective investigations, have enabled us to collect important information regarding adaptation of the human organism to weightlessness. At the beginning of the flight, a definite period was necessary for working out new habits for carrying out specific actions, especially for movement in the spacecraft. Within 3-4 days of the flight, however, the movements of the astronauts inside the spacecraft were carried out with confidence and did not require constant control. Soon they were carried out automatically. The processes were manifested also in the characteristics under study in the vegetative sphere. For example, the pulse rate achieved preflight magnitudes within the first 3-6 circuits, and then dropped to a lower level. On the 3rd and 4th day of the flight, the pulse rate, respiration rate and the electrocardiogram characteristics became stabilized. Now the pulse rate varied from 68 to 80 per minute for Nikolaev, and from 60 to 70 per minute for V.I.
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Sevast'yanov. Naturally, this frequency increased while carrying out physical exercises or some complicated experiments. While sleeping, the pulse rate decreased slightly. The scientist said that it was interesting to note that compared to his first Vostok-g flight, A.G. Nikolaev's pulse rate on the same phases of flight in Soyuz-Q was somewhat lower. Throughout the flight, there was no considerable change in the reaction of the heart to standard physical strains. Analyzing the preliminary results of medico-biological observations further, O.G. Gazenko said that there were no signs of sickness due to motion. The astronauts said that in the initial phase of the flight, when they bent their body or head sharply, they used to get a sensation similar to that under vestibular loads on the earth. This perhaps indicates a lowering of the threshold for the occurrence of vestibular reactions in the state of weightlessness. Appetites during the flight were good. Feelings of thirst were somewhat less. The amount of water taken in 24 hours (including the water contained in the food) was 1.6-1.8 liters. The lifesaving systems of the Soyuz-Q strictly maintained the prescribed conditions with respect to gas composition, temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure in the spacecraft compartments. The astronauts were provided with food in the form of natural products and the average calorific value of the day's ration was about 2,600 kilo-calories. The scientist noted that the rational distribution of work and rest played an important role in maintaining the high working capacity. Important information was obtained during the postflight observation and checkup of the astronauts. On the day of landing, visible changes were observed in their movements. Their sensations were similar to those due to acceleration forces in the centrifuge of 2-2.5 units magnitude. Head, extremities and other parts of the body appeared to be unusually heavy and the astronauts felt their weight. This condition continued for about 2-3 days. Normalization of statics and movements was achieved in about ten days after the flight. The scientist gave data characterizing the effect of a prolonged state of weightlessness on the tonicity of the muscles, cardiovascular system and blood composition. He remarked that the changes in the physiological functions were almost normalized within ten days after the flight. The scientist concluded that adjustment to the normal conditions of life on the earth after a long stay in the state of weightlessness takes place with certain difficulties. It is probably achieved with greater tension of the physiological systems than the adaptation to the state of weightlessness. As has been already mentioned, biological investigations were also carried out during the flight. Fruit flies, potato tubers, seeds of wheat, barley, onion and arabidopsis and cultures of chlorella and blue-green algae were experimented upon.
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The next speaker was the commander of Soyuz-g, Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, A.G. Nikolaev.

Speech by A.G. Nikolaev "The main purpose of the Sqyuz-g flight was the study of prolonged space flight factors on the human organism, primarily to find man's capacity to work for a long period in the state of weightlessness. No less important was the study of man's adaptation to earth conditions after a long stay in the state of weightlessness. "The solution of these problems involved an extensive program, which included a complex of scientific, technical and medico-biological investigations and experiments. The flight program envisaged: — work on the improvement of the systems of manual control and orientation using also autonomous navigational devices; —• testing the orbit correction system in different regimes and the descent control system; —• experiments investigating the design elements of the spacecraft (mobile mechanical units, windows, etc.). "During the flight we had to: —• observe the earth from outer space using optical instruments, and photograph geological and geographical features for the mapping and determination of possible regions of mineral deposits; — observe and photograph atmospheric formations and boundaries of the snow cover; — record the phenomena and processes of near-earth space; —• perform special medico-biological investigations and experiments for an extensive study of the effect of prolonged space flight factors on the human organism." A.G. Nikolaev continued: "Before talking about the program and our life and work, I would first like to give a short description of Soyuz-g. "Soyuz-g is basically the same as the previous Soyuz spacecraft. Some changes connected with the improvement of the work and rest conditions were made in view of the prolonged flight. It is a wonderful spacecraft. There is still much to be done from this spacecraft in the study of near-earth space. "Our flight training was by stages. In the final stage we were trained on Soyuz-g. We thoroughly studied its special features, its systems of orientation and motion control, the systems for lifesaving and power supply and systems of descent control and landing. During the training, great attention was paid to the methods of conducting scientific experiments. "Also we rehearsed what to do in an emergency. As it happened this
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training was not required. Our flight went smoothly. "Much was done in the medico-biological field also. Our general physical training was quite extensive. The complex of physical exercises carried out on board the spacecraft occupied a special place in the program. It enabled us to retain a high working capacity during the flight and while returning to the earth. "We also practised checking our own and each other's health and giving first-aid to each other. Since the flight program envisaged working in the reverse rhythm of sleep by day and work by night, a number of adjustments were made during training to acclimatize the organism to the new cycle." A.G. Nikolaev said that the crew valued the great amount of experience accumulated by Soviet and American astronauts. "The fulfilment of the flight program was characterized by a large number of dynamic operations connected with the orientation of the spacecraft. These operations were carried out by us dozens of times. For conducting many experiments it was necessary to first orient the spacecraft and then stabilize it in this position with the help of gyroscopes. As a rule, they were carried out manually, sometimes by changing over to the automatic regime. Almost every day we performed the so-called turning of the spacecraft for orientating the panels of the solar batteries toward the sun. The turning was carried out manually. "Several times we carried out orientation toward the earth when we were situated on its dark side. Here, automatic, semi-automatic as well as manual regimes of control were used. Thus, during the first correction of the orbit on the fifth circuit, we checked the accuracy of orientation of the spacecraft while being on the dark side of the earth and switched on the engine in the region of the terminator." A.G. Nikolaev said that the crew carried out the flight-test of a number of new instruments used in the systems of orientation and motion control. The spacecraft while orientated toward the sun at different predetermined angles, was tested with the help of a wide-angle optical indicator. This appeared to be satisfactory. Afterward, the crew worked out the methods of optimal control of the spacecraft with the help of this indicator, and used these methods for carrying out the so-called "oblique" turn. Such turns are carried out while orientating the spacecraft at a certain angle toward the sun for providing the necessary thermal regime of the spacecraft, and for maintaining the normal regime of work of the buffer battery during periods when there is comparatively low consumption of electric power in the spacecraft. During the flight, orbit corrections were carried out thrice. Here, manual as well as automatic regimes were used. The program envisaged more than fifty different experiments during the flight, and each of them was repeated several times.
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The astronaut continued, "In accordance with the flight program, each astronaut was given different experiments to do in a definite order. Most of the experiments were carried out independently. But there were also some joint experiments. These usually also involved a particular orientation of the spacecraft. "Our work in outer space was carried out in quite comfortable conditions. Everything necessary for our work and rest was all found. "Throughout the flight we had good appetites and we ate well according to prescribed limits. It was very pleasant to take hot food, borshch, kharcho, soups and coffee. We took an unlimited amount of water, although we did not feel any special thirst. We used to sleep in sleeping bags. We would fall asleep soon and would sleep soundly. Once in sleep I swam out of my sleeping bag and when I woke up, I found myself near the roof of the orbital compartment. After sleep, we always felt active and fresh. Throughout the flight, twice a day we used to do a set of physical exercises. It gave us great pleasure to do them. "After the completion of the flight program, on the i8th day, the spacecraft was orientated for imparting a braking impulse. At a prefixed time, the descent program was put into action. As a result of the braking engine, the orbital velocity of the spacecraft decreased and it entered a flight trajectory toward the earth. "After the separation of the orbital and instrument-cum-assembly compartments from the landing vehicle, the re-entry system was switched on, which assured a guided re-entry of the vehicle into the earth's atmosphere with the use of aerodynamic control. While entering the thick layers of the earth's atmosphere, one can clearly feel the increase in noise due to air friction. After entry into the atmosphere, the acceleration started increasing gradually. However, it did not exceed 3-4 units. The spacecraft carried out a softlanding in a predetermined area. "We adapted to the flight well, but frankly speaking, did not expect that there would be so much difficulty in re-adapting to living conditions on the earth. It was difficult to get up from the chair. After the opening of the door of the vehicle, our comrades from the search group helped us to come out of the landing vehicle. After eighteen days of weightlessness, the whole body (hands, legs, head) suddenly became very heavy. We felt as if we were sitting in a centrifuge with small acceleration forces. On the first day it appeared that this overloading was about two units or slightly more. Afterward, it gradually decreased, and on the 5th-6th day, it disappeared completely." A.G. Nikolaev concluded by saying, "After the i8-day flight of Soyuz-g, one can confidently predict the active participation by man in the establishment of long-term manned orbital stations."

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The last to speak was the space engineer of Scyuz-g Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, V.I. Sevast'yanov.

Speech by V.I. Sevast'yanov "I would like to talk about the work of the systems on board. Everything can be summed up in the phrase: 'All the systems of the spacecraft functioned faultlessly.' Hence I would speak about related matters. "The purpose of the technical experiments was to test the systems of Soyuz-g in the conditions of prolonged flight, to improve the new instruments of the navigation systems and motion control, and to determine the constructional and dynamic characteristics of the spacecraft and external disturbing factors. "In the course of the flight, anewautomaticstarorientation sensor, assuring an accurate orientation of the spacecraft in spite of strong light disturbances in the background, was tested. The tests enabled improvements to be made in the instrument. The flight-test of the visual optical-electronic instrument for the manual orientation of the spacecraft toward the earth, when the spacecraft is flying over the dark side of the earth, passed successfully. "The experiments on the improvement of the autonomous orbital navigation devices were continued. In particular, we determined the orbital period, measured the height of the flight and conducted angular measurements with the help of the ground reference points and stars. On the basis of these measurements, all the elements of the spacecraft orbit were determined, and the necessary corrections of the trajectory were calculated. In the course of the flight, the methods for the operative solution of navigational problems by using computers were worked out. These methods may be used for the purposes of duplication and increasing the reliability of flight control. "A number of experiments were connected with the study of constructional characteristics of the spacecraft, The deformations of the spacecraft caused by the conditions of vacuum and one-sided heating by sun, were measured. The inertial characteristics of the spacecraft were defined more exactly, 'he moments of inertia and the position of the main axes of inertia were determined. The functioning of the precision mechanisms and optical units under the conditions of a space medium, were studied. With the help of optical devices we determined the accuracy characteristics of the gyroscopic instruments of the orientation and stabilization systems. The investigation of the nature, dynamics and intensity of the shining particles, and flight-testing of the new high-precision illuminators, which assure faultless functioning of sensitive optical elements throughout the flight, were continued. "In the process of the flight, the effect of aerodynamic and gravitational perturbation moments on the dynamic characteristics and control of the

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spacecraft, was determined. In the prolonged flight we made a complete test of different lifesaving systems and have collected valuable information." The astronaut stressed that the preliminary results of the technical experiments fully conformed to the expected results. "All the systems of the spacecraft functioned perfectly normally and we can confidently declare that Soyuz-Q is capable of providing for the long-term stay of man in the conditions of outer space," he said. V.I. Sevast'yanov talked further about the medico-biological investigations. The crew conducted experiments on the investigation of the functions of vestibular apparatus, functions of external respiration, dynamics of arterial pressure, nature of the pain senses of the skin, contrast sensitivity of the eyes, maintenance of the characteristics of the vision apparatus, muscular power of the hands and the sensitivity of muscles and joints. All these experiments were conducted not just for the control of the astronauts' health, but mainly for a deeper study of the potentialities of man and all his organs to function normally in the conditions of prolonged space flight. In order to get data for constructing optimal lifesaving systems, as well as for working out a scientifically based ration of food and water consumption, the energy loss by the astronauts under flight conditions was calculated. "At different stages of the flight we carried out experiments on the transients of the manual control of the spacecraft. These experiments were conducted on a special analog computer, with the help of which different dynamic regimes of control were modelled. This enabled us to determine the 'transmission function' of man as the main component of the control system," he continued. "In the process of the flight, biological experiments were also conducted, which gave interesting information regarding some problems of genetics and cytology. "Experiments of economic importance to the nation occupied a prominent place in the program. During the flight, we carried out observations and photography for the study of the spatial structure of clouds, for determining the boundaries of the snow cover and for detecting gales, storms and tropical cyclones. "From the earth we received enquiries about the weather in different regions of the globe. We carried out the necessary observations and sent the results back to earth. The reports from the spacecraft about meteorological phenomena were used by the weather service in its operational work." While talking about the photography of geographical and geological features, the astronaut remarked: "The main purpose of these experiments was to make the existing geological maps more exact and create new geological maps for the detection of minerals. "While conducting a complex experiment in the regions of the Northern
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Caucasus, Caspian and Aral Seas, Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, simultaneously, these features were being photographed from geological survey airplanes." The space engineer narrated briefly about some scientific experiments on the study of near-earth space. In particular, the spectral intensities of the sun, and the night and daytime horizons of the earth were measured. During the flight,the shining particles were observed through the windows and their size, intensity, distance and velocities were determined. "It must be noted that in the course of the flight, the methods of conducting some experiments changed. We corrected the methods in accordance with the recommendations from the flight control center. This enabled us to conduct better-quality experiments, taking into account changing conditions," said the astronaut. "It is important to stress that the long duration of the experiment enabled us, on the one hand, to increase the number of experiments as compared to previous flights, and on the other, to repeat each planned experiment a number of times. As a result, rich statistical data was obtained." V.I. Sevast'yanov stated, "Our investigations show that the astronaut gets accustomed to the state of weightlessness very soon. We did not have any feeling of illusion. However, during the first two or three days some symptoms, such as congestion of blood in the head and a feeling of some discomfort, were noticed, which later disappeared completely. On the first and second day of the flight, weightlessness affected our movements. On the third day, when the period of adaptation to weightlessness was over, an unusual easiness appeared in our actions, and a smoothness, accuracy and confidence in our movement from one compartment to another. "It should be noted that my feelings in connection with the changeover of the organism from weightlessness to the conditions of gravity on the earth, were similar to those experienced by the spacecraft commander." V.I. Sevast'yanov said: "Finally, I would like to say that we have obtained a lot of material during the flight. Its detailed study will enable the scientists and specialists to move ahead on the path to building long-term orbital stations, and prepare astronauts for flights longer than 18 days, returning them to earth in good health and with high working capacity." Afterward, the scientists and astronauts replied to a large number of questions from the representatives of the Soviet and foreign press. (TASS)
Pravda, July 10, 1970

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III
LUNAR EXPLORATIONS

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SOVIET ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE OF THE MOON The space era, begun by the labor and talent of the Soviet people about ten years ago, has made an exceptionally important contribution to the knowledge of mankind. Appreciating the importance and prospects of space research for modern science, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union orientated our scientists and engineers toward the solution of these problems. Everyone now knows the role and practical importance of the artificial earth satellite, especially after the launching of the Molniya series which provide long-range communications and television broadcasts and meteorological satellite for weather forecasting. It is difficult to overestimate also the importance of the discoveries made with the help of the space vehicles in the exploration of the upper atmosphere of the earth, its magnetic and gravitational fields, radiation belt, and in the study of solar radiation and cosmic rays. Naturally, Soviet people talk with pride about the prior place given to space research in the progress of Russian science and technology. Three and a half centuries after Galileo observed the moon through his telescope, the science of the universe had entered a new era—the era of exploration with the help of space vehicles sent to the heavenly bodie* to have a close look of them and then make a study of the characteristics of their structure with the help of soft-landing automated probes and artificial satellite. Obviously, the first object to attract our attention was the permanent natural satellite, the moon. In many of its characteristics, the moon is similar to the other bodies of
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the solar system. Study of its surface, composition of its crust and lower layers, and the processes which change the landscape and structure of the interior—all these problems are important not only for knowing the evolution of the moon, but also for the cosmology of all the bodies of our solar system. One can name the processes common to all the planets and their satellite, especially in the early period of their development: collisions with planetoids, meteorites, comets, volcanic activity, etc. The moon is especially interesting from another point of view, namely, that on its surface the original formations have been preserved. They have not undergone disaggregation as on the earth (e.g. erosion), although recently the possibility of the effect of not only volcanic eruptions but also of water on the visible parts of the lunar surface is being discussed. The study of the internal structure of the moon, distribution of mass in its interior, thermal regime and characteristics of its magnetic field, is necessary for understanding the history of both earth and moon. It is obvious that many of the problems of the bodies of solar systems can be solved by comparing geophysical and geochemical parameters of the earth with analogical parameters of the moon. One of the main tasks of the exploration of the lunar atmosphere is the study of the parameters of near-moon space. The first steps in this direction were taken in the course of the nights of the automated probes Luna-i and Luna-2 (1959), which became the first artificial bodies to exceed earthescape velocity and fly beyond near-earth space. The automated interplanetary probe Luna-i passed at a distance of 5-6 thousand kilometers from the surface of the moon and then became the first artificial satellite of the solar system. During the first historical interplanetary flight from the earth to the vicinity of the moon, information was obtained which enabled us to make two main scientific conclusions: For the first time, the absence of strong magnetic field near the moon was detected and again, for the first time, flux of ionized plasma—"solar wind"— was observed in interplanetary space. These results substantially changed the conceptions about the characteristics of the interplanetary medium. The launching of the automated interplanetary probe Luna-2 enabled us to deliver scientific and measuring equipment directly to the lunar surface. Before the probe reached the lunar surface, its instruments transmitted to the earth a set of the first experimental data about the physical characteristics of the moon, including that about the absence of a radiation belt near the moon. The Soviet automated probe Luna-^ started, and the probe ^ond-3 practically completed, the photographic study of the hidden side of the moon. On the basis of their material, a global survey of the whole lunar surface was carried out, the basic principles of distribution of sea and mainland regions were worked out, and the first complete map andglobeof themoon were made.
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Although the automated probes passing near the lunar surface and reaching up to it, gave extremely valuable data, the further development of moon science demanded the presence of scientific instruments near the moon for a longer period. A qualitatively new stage started with the launching of the automated lunar probe Luna-g, which carried out the first-ever soft-landing on the surface of the moon on February 3, 1966. The automated laboratory actively functioned for several days, out of which 8 hours and 5 minutes were devoted to radio communication sessions. The panorama of the surrounding area and information about the lunar environment were transmitted over the earth-moon radio link. Dosimetric measurements showed the presence of a radiation background, which was about 25 per cent of the radiation background of interplanetary space. This experiment for the first time, gave information about the presence of radioactive processes in the lunar rocks and enabled us to determine the coefficient of reflection (albedo) of the lunar surface for cosmic rays. Prospects of exploration in this direction lead to the collection of data about the chemical composition of the lunar rocks. At the same time, the comparative study of the nature of the upper layers of the moon on the scale of the surface of the whole lunar globe, seemed to be important in principle. Even this particular problem in the overall complex of lunar explorations required a much longer stay of the measuring instruments near the moon and the covering of substantial areas by the measurements. A number of other problems of the science of the moon demanded similar conditions. The solution of these problems only became possible after the building of the moon's artificial satellite. On March 31, 1966, the automated probe Luna-io started toward the moon. The aim was to create the first-ever artificial satellite of the moon. The last stage imparted a velocity of 10.87 kilometers per second, which meant that it needed approximately 3.5 days to travel to the nearest vicinity of the moon. The motion of the automated probe was under constant control. The trajectory data formed the basis of the calculation of the correction which was carried out on April i on a signal from the earth. When the station approached the boundary of the sphere of lunar gravity, it had a velocity of one kilometer per second. Then, as the probe approached nearer the moon and when the gravitational force of the earth became less than that of the moon, the velocity started increasing and attained 2.1 kilometers per second at a precalculated point. At a height of i ,000 kilometers from the surface of the moon, this velocity is too high for a body to be captured by lunar gravity. But beforehand, at a distance of 8000 kilometers from the moon, on the basis of the data of the astro-orientation system instruments, the probe was placed in a definite position in space by operating the probe's
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controlling engine. The braking engine was switched on in this position. When the braking engine stopped, the velocity of the probe was already 1.25 kilometers per second, which is less than the planet-escape velocity tor a distance of 1,000 kilometers from the surface of the moon, viz. 1.9 kilometers per second. The lunar gravity captured the probe and put it into an elliptical orbit around the moon. The natural earth satellite now had its own "artificial moon." 20 seconds after the scientific equipment was switched off, a container carrying the scientific equipment and weighing 245 kilograms, was separated from the lunar rocket, which weighed, together with the probe, 1600 kilograms at the beginning of the flight. (It should be remembered that the first artificial earth satellite launched on October 4, 1957, weighed 83.6 kilograms.) The automated probe Luna-io accomplished its first circuits around the moon in an orbit with the following parameters: maximum distance from the moon (at apolune)—1,017 kilometers; minimum distance from the moon (at perilune)—350 kilometers; orbital period—a hours, 58 minutes, 15 seconds; angle between the orbit and the plane of lunar equator—71 degrees 54 minutes. On April 4, when the 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was in session, the melody of the Party anthem "Internationale" was relayed from Luna-io. The active existence of the first artificial satellite of the moon lasted for about two months (56 days). During this period, Luna-io made 460 circuits around the moon. A large amount of information, having great scientific importance, was transmitted to the earth during the 219 sessions of radio communication. The following apparatus worked on board the probe: gamma-spectrometer for investigating the intensity and spectral composition of the gammaradiation from the lunar surface, characterizing the types of lunar rocks; instrument for the study of radiational conditions near the moon; apparatus for the study of the solar plasma in near-moon space; instruments for recording the infrared emission of the lunar surface; system for recording meteor particles in near-moon space. Moreover, the study of the evolution of the orbit of Luna- \ o formed the basis of the determination of the orbit of the dynamic figure of the moon, i.e. the nature of its gravitational field. On May 30, 1966, at the moment Luna-1o ceased to exist actively, the parameters of its orbit changed considerably. The maximum distance from the surface of the moon was now 985.3 kilometers, minimum distance— 378.7 kilometers (ellipticity substantially decreased), and the inclination— 72 degrees 02 minutes. The nature of the dynamic figure of the moon turned out to be distinctly far from spherical. According to the precision measurements of the spatial positions of a number of points of the lunar surface, the geometrical figure
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of the moon is close to that of a sphere with a radius of 1,738 kilometers. Moreover, some of the investigations contemplate an insignificant stretching of the lunar body toward the earth. According to analysis of the data of the orbital measurements of Luna-10, the surfaces of constant gravitational force have the form of a pear, stretching out on the hidden side of the moon, i.e. in the direction opposite the earth. As is well known, the form of the surface of constant gravitation of a heavenly body depends not only on its geometrical form, but also on the internal distribution of mass. Taking this fact into account, the above-mentioned data can be appraised not only from the point of view of the practical interest in the structure of the gravitational field of the moon, but also as a step toward the study of the structure of the interior of the natural earth satellite. In this connection it is interesting to note that the main conclusion about the global structure of the moon, made at one time on the basis of the photographs of the hidden side of the moon (Luna-g, 1959, and £ond-3, 1965), was the morphological asymmetry of the visible and hidden hemispheres. As it turned out, the hidden hemisphere is completely covered with a shield of "continents." But according to the measurements of the visible hemisphere, the "continents" are generally situated at a height of 1-2 kilometers above the seas. It is not ruled out that these two results are compatible. Future investigations of the structure of the lunar globe will show the validity of such an assertion. The density of the meteoric matter near the moon was also investigated. An essentially new thing was the first-ever determination of the chemical composition of lunar rocks on the basis of the nature of gamma-radiation by the surface layers of the moon. In spite of the fact that these measurements were carried out in morphologically different areas, the nature of gamma-radiation turned out to be the same. The concentration of radioactive elements—potassium, thorium and uranium—determined on the basis of the gamma-radiation, corresponds to the content of these elements in such rocks as basalt on earth. It is interesting that the optical characteristics of the lunar cover, which have been studied from the surface of the earth for a long time, have also led to the same analogy, taking into account, naturally, the specific character of lunar conditions. Extensive investigations were devoted to the magnetometric measurements started by the first Soviet space probes of the Luna series. The strength of the magnetic field varied from 24 to 38 gammas, while on the earth it varied from 30,000 to 74,000 gammas. During the period of magnetometric measurements, the moon occupied different positions in its orbit with respect to the earth and the sun. Thus, during the phase of full moon (as seen from the earth) the moon and the
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automated probe Luna-io in a near-moon orbit, happened to be in the region of the magnetic loop of the earth. However no effects were observed in this course. No change was observed in the intensity of the magnetic field with distance either. One can presume that there are no magnetic poles on the moon, and the lunar magnetic field can be considered as an interplanetary field, distorted by the moon. On August 24, 1966, the next Luna probe was launched toward the moon, and on August 27, a new artificial satellite Luna-n entered a near-moon orbit. Parameters of its orbit were somewhat different from those of the first artificial satellite of the moon. At perilune the satellite approached the lunar surface at a distance of 163.5 kilometers, while the maximum distance from the surface was 1,193.6 kilometers. The plane of the orbit also had a different inclination. While Luna-io orbited near the poles, the new satellite was introduced into an orbit closer to the equator. Luna-11 completed 277 circuits in a near-earth orbit during the period of its active existence. Instruments installed on it continued the investigations of the moon and near-moon space started by Luna-io. But the previous program was supplemented by the study of long-wave space radio waves, data about which was received through special radio-astronomical equipment. During 137 sessions of radio communication conducted from the probe, information was received which confirmed and elaborated the main conclusions made on the basis of the investigations of Luna-io. The third Soviet artificial satellite of the moon Luna-12, which entered a near-moon orbit on October 25, 1966, had not only to continue the work started by the two earlier satellite of the moon, but also to photograph portions of the lunar surface. The photographs, obtained from a height of 100 to 340 kilometers, included pictures of the region near Aristarchus Crater. Most interesting were the pictures of the region of bright rays emerging from this crater. They showed a high concentration of small craters in those regions, which are characterized by higher brightness when observed from the earth. The smallest of these craters which could be studied were 15-20 meters in diameter. Morphological characteristics of these craters enable us to attribute them to the so-called secondary craters, which are presumed to be formed due to the burst of rocks caused by volcanic activity, or due to meteoric bodies falling on the lunar surface. One cannot exclude the possibility of the Aristarchus Crater itself being the source of such ejections in this area. Photographs from low heights, obtained by the satellite of the moon, open still more startling characteristics of the structure of the lunar surface. It has become possible to visualize the successive stages of the lava eruptions and volcanic activity. The closer we observe the moon, the more difficult the problems of its history become. But the range of prospective tasks of the artificial satellite of the moon includes not only problems connected
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directly with the moon, but also problems of the earth-moon system. The research program of the new Soviet artificial satellite of the moon, Luna-i4, put into a lunar orbit, tackles these problems. In particular, the ratio of the masses of the earth and moon will be determined more accurately. This ratio is of fundamental value for astronomy, and ground observatories devoted many years of work to determine it. Equally important are the envisaged systematic observations of the orbit of the artificial lunar satellite for finding out the characteristics of the moon's gravitational field. The circumstances of the passage of radio signals between earth and the probe, when the latter occupies different positions with respect to the lunar surface, will provide valuable astrophysical information. For example, quite interesting results may be expected on analyzing the radio signals during the process of the turning of the probe behind the disc of the moon. Moreover, the analysis of all these materials will enable us to define more accurately the theory of motion of the moon. The investigations of the flux of charged particles coming from the sun, cosmic rays and other investigations, started by the first satellite of the moon, will be continued. Further exploration of the lunar surface and outer space will help reveal many secrets of nature, including those about our own planet.
Academician A. Vinogradov Vice President, Academy of Sciences USSR Tu. Lipskii Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Sciences

Pravda, April 12, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-4 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe d-4 was launched in the Soviet Union on March 2, 1968. The automated probe was introduced into the predetermined trajectory from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According to the measurement data, the automated probe ^ond-ij. is flying along a trajectory close to that calculated. The aim of the flight is to explore the further regions of near-earth space, as well as perfecting the new systems and assemblies on board. The coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, March 3, 1968

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNA-14 IN OUTER SPACE In accordance with the space research program, a space rocket with the automated probe Luna-14 on board was launched by the Soviet Union for the moon on April 7, 1968, at 1309 hours Moscow time. The purpose of the flight is to continue the scientific investigations of near-moon space. Preliminary results of the measurements show that the probe is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. On April 7, 1968, at 1700 hours Moscow time, the probe Luna-14 was situated at a distance of 40 thousand kilometers from the earth over a point on the earth's surface with the coordinates, 34 degrees 48 minutes northern latitude and 99 degrees 38 minutes eastern longitude. Communications with the probe are steady. According to the telemetric data, all the systems on board the probe are functioning normally. The ground measurement system is tracking the flight of the probe. The coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, April 8, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-5 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, the automated probe Zpnd-5 was 'launched in the Soviet Union on September 15, 1968. The automated probe has been introduced into the predetermined trajectory from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According to the telemetric data, the automated probe %pnd-5h moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations in outer space and to work on the further improvement of the systems and assemblies on board the probe. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe ^ond-5. According to the telemetric data, all the systems and assemblies on board and the scientific equipment are functioning normally. The coordination and computation center is processing the information received.
Pravda, September 16, 1968

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT -s FLIES AROUND MOON The automated space probe 2jond-5, launched by the Soviet Union on September 15, 1968, continues its flight. In accordance with the program, a correction in the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out on September 17, 1968 at 06 1 1 hours Moscow time. After orientation in space and the programmed turning of the probe, the propulsion system was put into operation, which gave the probe the necessary corrective impulse. As a result of this maneuver, the probe entered a new flight trajectory for conducting investigations of the physical characteristics of near-moon space. On September 18, 1968, the automated probe J^ond-5 flew around the moon. In this process, the minimum distance from its surface was 1,950 kilometers. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe and scientific information is being received from the data-storage device on board. The equipment on board is functioning normally. Pressure and temperature inside the probe are within the prescribed limits. The program of scientific investigations of outer space by the automated probe Zpnd-5 has been completed. The coordination and computation center continues to process the information received.
Pravda, September 21, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE £CWD-5 SUCCESSFULLY RETURNS TO EARTH AT PLANET-ESCAPE VELOCITY, AFTER GOING AROUND MOON As has already been reported, the automated space probe Zpnd->j was launched in the Soviet Union on September 15, 1968. After a seven-day flight on the track earth-moon-earth, the probe has returned to the earth.
For the first time in the world, the Soviet space vehicle, after going around the moon, has successfully returned to the earth at a planetescape velocity and has brought a large amount of scientific data.

At 1854 hours Moscow time on September 21, 1968, the automated probe entered the earth's atmosphere at a planet-escape velocity of about 11 thousand meters per second and at 1908 hours splashed down in a predetermined area in the waters of the Indian Ocean, with the following coordinates: 32 degrees 38 minutes southern latitude and 65 degrees 33 minutes eastern longitude. The motion of the probe in the atmosphere
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during the phase of aerodynamic deceleration took place along a ballistic trajectory. After aerodynamic deceleration, the descent of the probe was carried out by using the parachute system. The automated probe, along with the scientific equipment, was picked up by a Soviet search and rescue ship on September 22. The following tasks have been carried out during the course of the flight of Zjond-5: — flight around the moon; — scientific investigations of near-moon space; — return to the earth with planet-escape velocity and soft-landing in a predetermined area. In the course of the flight, work was done on the improvement of the systems and assemblies of the probe for maneuvering in the trajectory, and returning to the earth. The flight control system of the probe and the radio technical devices for the measurement of its trajectory enabled the accomplishment of the envisaged tasks. The program of scientific investigations of outer space, and the overall testing of the systems and assemblies on board the probe £ond-5, has been fully accomplished. The successful flight of the automated probe %ond-5 along the track, earth-moon-earth, and its recovery in the predetermined area, is an outstanding achievement of Soviet science and technology. Another scientific and technical problem has been solved and wide prospects have been opened for the further study of outer space and the planets of the solar system with the help of automated space probes which return to the earth with research material.
Pravda, September 23, 1968

AUTOMATED PROBE ZOND-5 FLIES AROUND MOON AND RETURNS TO EARTH Automatic vehicles of different kinds, launched by the Soviet Union, are carrying out various scientific investigations in near-earth space as well as in the farther regions of outer space, near the heavenly bodies and on their surfaces. They are also being used for carrying out the flight-tests of new systems and instruments on board. Satellite of the Kosmos series are carrying out extensive investigations of the upper layers of the atmosphere and near-earth space, in accordance with the program announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. Investigations of interplanetary space, the moon and the planets, are
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being carried out by automated probes of the ^ond, Luna, Mars and Venera type. Thus in 1959, the Soviet automated probe, Luna-g for the first time in the world, flew around the moon and photographed its hidden side and transmitted the photographs to the earth. In 1965, another Soviet probe Zpnd-g, took photographs of a portion of the hidden side of the moon, not covered by the photographs taken by Luna-g. Photographs of the lunar surface taken by the probe. %ond-3, were transmitted to the earth from a distance of over 30 million kilometers. These photographs enabled the Soviet scientists to reveal secrets hidden behind the dark side of the moon. Outstanding results in the exploration of the moon and near-moon space have been obtained in subsequent years also. On February 3, 1966, for the first time in the world, a soft-landing on the moon was accomplished by the automated probe, Luna-g, and on April 3, of the same year, the first artificial satellite of the moon, Luna-io, was introduced into orbit. Afterward, the automated probes, Luna-n, Luna-12, and Luna-i4, were introduced into near-moon orbits, while Luna-i$ made a soft-landing on the surface of the moon. The probes, Luna-g and Luna-13, transmitted to the earth a TV panorama of the lunar surface and valuable information about the surface and soil. Scientific investigations of near-moon space, and the gravitational field of the moon, and photography of its surface, were carried out with the help of the lunar satellite. A large amount of scientific information about the physical processes going on in interplanetary space was transmitted by the Soviet automated probes, Venera-1, Mars-i, Venera-2, and Ventra-^. None of the above-mentioned automatic vehicles returned to the earth, since such a task could not be tackled in the early stages of space technology. The scientific information obtained was transmitted by the probe through radiotelemetric channels. However, no matter how perfect the radiotelemetric and television devices for transmitting information, their potentialities are limited to some extent. Moreover, not all information received by the scientific equipment can be analyzed on board the space vehicle. For example, the results of the study of the action of high energy beams on scientific instruments can only be effectively analyzed by scientists after the probe has returned to earth. The development of space technology places before scientists more and more complicated tasks in the exploration of interplanetary space, and the planets of the solar system. Today, such problems as the study of the surface and crust of planets, composition of the chemical elements and minerals forming them and search for living organisms, have become urgent. The problem of receiving telemetric transmission of direct pictures of the surface and radiation spectra of heavenly bodies, without noise and
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distortion, is also of great scientific interest. Hence, for the further development of astronautics, the real problem is how to receive outer space information directly in the scientist's laboratory. This task, requiring perfect devices and recovery methods, was successfully accomplished by the Soviet probe ^ond-5.
Design of the automated probe, Zond-5, and its main scientific and technical investigations

The automated probe, ^ond-5, consists of two parts: the landing vehicle with scientific apparatus, and the instrument compartment with the systems which ensure the successful flight of the probe. The body of the landing vehicle is covered with a layer of thermal-insulation material for protection from the thermal flux, arising in the process of braking at the time of re-entry into the earth's atmosphere, at a velocity close to planet-escape velocity. The landing vehicle (LV) contains instruments for conducting scientific measurements, as well as equipment for radio communication, thermal control system and power supply system. The instrument compartment contains the radiotelemetric system, equipment for controlling the systems on board, orientation and stabilization systems, rocket propulsion system for imparting the necessary corrective impulse to the probe, and thermal control and power supply systems. Optical sensors of the orientation system, panels of solar batteries and antennas are fixed on the outer side of the compartment. The Zpnd-5 program of scientific measurements included further investigation of the physical conditions in near-moon space. During the flight, a large number of scientific and technical experiments were conducted for the perfecting of devices on board and testing their workability on the earth-moon-earth route. The orientation and motion control systems of the probe were tested in the conditions of space flight. The corrective propulsion system and the low-thrust controlling engines were also tested. At the final stage of the flight, work was done on the further improvement of the systems which ensured the re-entry of the landing vehicle into the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity, the design of the landing vehicle, and the soft-landing system. The radio technological devices for the measurement of trajectory elements were tested over the course of the whole flight. Simultaneously, it was necessary to ensure high accuracy in the control of the flight of the vehicle so that it could enter the narrow corridor of the earth's atmosphere. As the results of the %ond-5 flight have shown, all these tasks were successfully accomplished.

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Flight of the automated probe Zond-f, along the earth-moon-earth route Zpnd-5 was launched on September 15, at 0042 hours Moscow time. The probe, along with the last stage of the carrier rocket, was introduced into orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the following parameters: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 219 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 187 km; orbital inclination — 5i-5deg. After 67 minutes, on a command from the programmer, the propulsion system of the last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation, which increased the velocity of the probe close to the planet-escape velocity (11.2 kilometers per second) necessary for putting the probe on its way to the moon (Fig. 14). Before putting the propulsion system into operation, the probe and the last stage of the carrier-rocket were orientated in space with great accuracy. After the propulsion system had finished its work, the last stage of the carrier-rocket was separated from the probe. After the probe had entered its path toward the moon, the necessary trajectorial measurements were carried out. An analysis of these measurements showed that the flight path of the probe was close to the calculated one. The telemetric information confirmed the normal functioning of all the systems and scientific equipment on board.
Flying by • the moon 1st trajectory correction

n \

-1^
1950km

Satellite orbit and -the flight path without correction 2nd trajectory correction \Separation of LV Ballistic re-entry into atmosphere Fig. 14. Schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Zond-5 on the earth-moon-earth route.

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The flight around the moon at a particular distance from it, and return to a prefixed area on the earth, requires trajectory correction. The necessary data for carrying out the correction was prepared by the command and measurement complex on the basis of the trajectory measurements, and transmitted to the probe. Before correction, the probe was orientated in space. First, particular angular velocity was imparted to the probe for the optical sensor to detect the sun, and then it was turned for the detection of the earth and orientation of the corresponding sensor toward it. After these operations, the programmed turning of the probe into its original position was carried out with the help of the autonomous control system. On September 17, 1968, at 0611 hours Moscow time, the corrective propulsion system was put into operation, which imparted the necessary corrective impulse to the space probe. As a result of this maneuver, the probe entered a new trajectory for exploring the physical characteristics of near-moon space. At the time of correction, the probe was at a distance of 325 thousand kilometers from the earth. In accordance with the flight program of September 18, the automated probe flew by the moon at a minimum distance of 1950 kilometers from its surface. After flying by the moon, the probe started approaching the earth. In this phase of its flight, the trajectory measurement, checkup of the systems on board, and scientific investigations, were carried out. When the probe was approaching the earth, the second correction of its flight trajectory was carried out, which ensured its accurate re-entry into the earth's atmosphere at a definite entry angle. Here the flight velocity was changed only by 0.005% an(i tne magnitude of the overall, total impulse was about 0.35 meters per second. One of the main tasks of the flight program was the accomplishment of the accurate re-entry into the earth's atmosphere at planet-escape velocity and soft-landing in a predetermined area.
Entry and descent of the landing vehicle in the earth's atmosphere

The recovery of a space vehicle on the earth after a flight on an interplanetary trajectory around the moon, or any planet of the solar system, is an extremely complicated technical problem, many times more difficult than the recovery of the artificial earth satellite. The problem has a number of specific characteristics. In order for an interplanetary space vehicle to return to the earth with the correct acceleration forces and, also to allow it to land in a predetermined area, the following conditions for entry into the atmosphere have to be
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fulfilled extremely accurately, viz. entry at a calculated place with the necessary entry angle. For obtaining the necessary regime of aerodynamic deceleration of the probe, it must approach the earth's surface at a small angle, almost along the tangent line, in such a way that its trajectory crosses only the upper layers, while its maximum height over the surface at the apparent perigee *s 35~45 kilometers. The great velocity of the probe (of the order of 11 kilometers per second) is sharply retarded by the atmosphere, and in a comparatively short tune the probe loses practically all its velocity. At a height of about 7 kilometers, when the flight velocity of the landing vehicle is about 200 meters per second, the parachute system starts functioning; ensuring a soft-landing. In order to carry out landing in a predetermined area, it is essential to sustain accurately the height of the apparent perigee (Fig. 15). If the probe has the apparent perigee somewhat higher than the calculated one, then it will start crossing more rarefied atmospheric layers and will be retarded less intensively. Ultimately, it will fly beyond the predetermined place. On the other hand, if the probe enters the atmosphere with less height than the apparent perigee, then it will be retarded more intensively and will land before the predetermined place.
Zone of "escape" from atmosphere

Zone of inadmissible . accelerations/'''.

. . V... V\ .'• •./ apparent v V : . : . ' - V : . ' . ' - : . - : : - . 7 perigee.

Fig. 15. Entry of the Zond—5 probe into the atmosphere and its descent to the earth. I—point of entry into the atmosphere with landing at the further boundary of the landing area; II—precalculated point of entry into the atmosphere; III—point of entry into the atmosphere, with landing at the nearer boundary of the landing area. 1—entry corridor; 2—lower boundary of the corridor; 4—trajectory of ballistic descent; 3—upper boundary of the corridor; 5—arbitrary boundary of the atmosphere: 6—trajectory without taking into account the effect of atmosphere.
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How strongly the accuracy of sustaining the height of the apparent perigee (i.e. the accuracy of the probe falling in a given atmospheric corridor) affects the landing of the vehicle, can be judged from the following example: A deviation of plus-minus i kilometer in the height of the apparent perigee gives rise to a deviation of plus-minus 50 kilometers in the landing site, when the height of the apparent perigee is 35 kilometers. An increase of 25 kilometers or a decrease of 10 kilometers in the height of the apparent perigee leads to the escape of the space probe beyond the earth in the first case, and to such acceleration in the second case, which exceeds the maximum admissible limit and leads to intensive kinetic heating. For the space vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere from an interplanetary track, themost suitable trajectory is one which has an entry angle of the order of 5-6 degrees with the plane of the local horizon, for aheightof 35 kilometers of the apparent perigee. In this case, for a ballistic descent, the acceleration forces at the time of deceleration of the space vehicle do not exceed 10-16 units. If the entry angle is increased by one degree, the magnitude of the acceleration forces can increase up to 30-40 units and may exceed the limit for the design and the apparatus. On the other hand, decrease of the entry angle by one degree is dangerous because of the possibility of the space vehicle's "escape" from the earth's atmosphere, i.e. it will fly past the earth and go into outer space. Only the earth's gravitational forces can stop it. After travelling in an ellipse, because of gravitational forces, the vehicle will again return to the atmosphere. Only after passing through its upper layers a number of times will it be able to lose its velocity and land. But it considerably increases the period of its stay in near-earth space and this makes its landing in a predetermined area very difficult. Thus the landing of the space vehicle in a prefixed area demands very accurate entry of the vehicle into the atmosphere. For example, for the automated %pnd-5 probe, the calculated breadth of the "entry corridor" was only 10-13 kilometers. By comparing this figure with the size of the flight trajectory to the moon, —-385 thousand kilometers away, one can judge the perfection and high precision in the work of the orientation and control system of ^ond-5. The space vehicle returning to the earth after flying by the moon, enters into the earth's atmosphere at a velocity of about 11 kilometers per second, while the artificial earth satellite return with a velocity of about 8 kilometers per second. Motion through the thick layers of the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity gives rise to much greater thermal loads. Strong shock-waves arise in front of the space vehicle moving with a hypersonic velocity through the atmosphere. Between the shock-wave and the vehicle, the temperature reaches 13 thousand degrees as compared to 7-8 thousand degrees when the vehicle enters the orbiting velocity. This factor substantially affects the
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magnitude of the radiational thermal flux, which, in many parts of the trajectory, exceeds the magnitude of convectional flux, affecting the thermal regime of the body of the landing vehicle and nature of its circumvention by the flux. This factor substantially affects the steadiness of motion and accuracy of landing of the vehicle in a predetermined area. Thus, there is a real problem of an optimal organization of thermal protection for the vehicle. This problem is solved by choosing a suitable form of vehicle and covering it with thermal insulation material. The vehicle can have various, forms. The distribution of thermal loads on the landing vehicle will also be diverse, which calls for suitable design of the thermal insulation cover. The selection of the form of the landing vehicle is a complicated scientific and technical problem, which has been solved theoretically as well as experimentally. The thermal insulation cover of the landing vehicle has a complicated design and includes various heat-resisting and heat-insulating materials. The successful return to the earth of the landing vehicle of ^ond-5 shows the correctness of the selected form and the reliability of its design, tested in actual re-entry conditions. After aerodynamic deceleration in the trajectory, the parachute system was put into operation, which ensured further deceleration and a soft-landing. It is vital to detect the LV splashdown in time and recover the scientific equipment and films with the records of scientific measurements. This task was done by a special search and rescue complex, equipped with sophisticated radio detection devices. It included ships, search planes and helicopters. After the splashdown of %pnd-5 the ships of the search and rescue service approached the probe and picked it up. The flight of the probe continued for about 7 days. During that period it conducted 36 sessions of radio communication. Telemetric information received from the probe during the flight showed the faultless working of all the systems on board the probe, which confirmed the correctness of its design. The program of scientific investigations of outer space and the overall tests of the systems and assemblies on board %pnd-5 had been fully accomplished. The successful flight of %pnd-5 on the earth-moon-earth route, and the return and splashdown of the landing vehicle in a predetermined area, is a new and outstanding achievement of Soviet science and technology. This experiment shows that the recovery of space vehicles from nearmoon space to the earth is not only possible but has already been ensured by the creation of the necessary technical devices. The latest success of Soviet space explorers has once again demonstrated the high level of Russian
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science and technology and the progress of our country in the systematic conquest of near-earth space. The prospects for further exploration of outer space, the moon and the planets of the solar system by automated space vehicles, with the recovery of the research materials to the earth, are most promising.
Professor A. Dmitriev Pravda, September 25,1968

ZOND-5 PHOTOGRAPHS One of the tasks of the exploration program of the ^ond-5 probe was the photography of the earth from outer space, at the last phase of the trajectory. As a result, a series of pictures has been obtained. In the photograph published (Fig. 16), the image of the earth taken on September 21, 1968, at 1208 hours Moscow time, from a distance of about 90 thousand kilometers, has been depicted. The illuminated part of the terrestrial surface is limited by the meridians, 50 degrees western longitude and 60 degrees eastern longitude. The terminator approximately passes through the meridian of 50 degrees of western longitude. The contours of the continents and water surface not covered by the clouds, can be seen well—regions of the Mediterranean, Black, Caspian and Aral seas, Arabian sub-continent, Iranian Uplands and a large portion of Africa. On African territory, one can easily recognize the valleys of the rivers Nile, Limpopo, and Zambezi, as well as the lakes Nyasa and Chad. In the basin of the Mediterranean Sea one can see the Straits of Gibraltar, the Suez Canal and the islands. A substantial part of the earth's surface is covered with clouds. Over the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and over Northern Europe there are two cyclonic cloud formations. Over Central Europe and the neighboring portions of the Atlantic Ocean and the Soviet Union there are dense stratocumulus clouds. Over Central Africa and the central portion of the Atlantic Ocean there are fractional and partly dense—cumulus, highly cumulus and cirrocumulus—clouds. Over the Atlantic Ocean in the region adjoining South-West Africa, there are stratocumulus clouds. Over the region between Central Europe and Central Africa there are small clouds of different kinds. In the southern part of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, adjoining the Antarctic, there are dense stratus clouds. The direct photography of the earth from great heights enables us to get a lot of important scientific information. In particular, by measuring the photographs of the earth's surface, the relative spatial position of large meteorological structures (cyclones, anticyclones, cloud formations, etc.)
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at the moment of taking the photograph, can be established. In the whole complex of meteorological investigations this will help in making important scientific generalizations.

Fig. 16. A photograph taken by Zond-5.

Photographs of the earth from outer space make it possible to study the reflection power of the earth's surface. It is well known that the reflection of rays from the surface of different solid bodies takes place in different
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ways, and the nature of this reflection can tell a good deal about the nature of the object under study. Determination of coefficients of reflection of mainlands, oceans, seas, lakes, large tracts of forests etc. gives rich material for deciphering not only the earth, but other planets also.
Pravda, October 26, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-6 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, on November 10, 1968, the automated probe %ond-6 was launched by the Soviet Union in the direction of the moon. The automated probe has been launched into the flight trajectory from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. According to the measurement data, the automated probe %pnd-6 is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations on the flight path and in near-moon space and to work on the perfecting of the systems and assemblies on board the probe. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the ^ond-6 probe. According to the telemetric information, the systems, assemblies and the scientific equipment on board are functioning normally. The center for coordination and computations is processing the data received.
Pravda, November 12, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-6 FLIES AROUND MOON The automated space probe, ^ond-6, launched by the Soviet Union on November 10, 1968, is continuing its flight. In accordance with the program, a correction of the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out on November 12, 1968, at 0841 hours Moscow time. After carrying out orientation in space for the programmed turning of the probe, the propulsion system was put into operation, which imparted the necessary corrective impulse. As a result of this maneuver, the probe entered a new trajectory, ensuring the flight around the moon at a predetermined distance. On November 14, 1968, the automated probe %pnd-6 flew around the
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moon, its minimum distance from the lunar surface being 2,420 kilometers. In the process of the probe flight, in the near-moon area, scientific investigations of the physical characteristics of near-moon space were carried out. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe, and scientific information is being received from the data-storage devices on board. The equipment on board is functioning normally. The pressure and temperature inside the probe are within the prescribed limits. The center for coordination and computation is continuing the processing of the information received.
Pravda, November 15, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT PROBE ZOND-6 LANDS After a seven-day flight on the earth-moon-earth route, on November 17, 1968, the £ond-6 probe returned to earth in a predetermined area in the Soviet Union. In this experiment with the automated probe £ond-6, for the first time, another more complicated and prospective method of recovery from the interplanetary lift (aerodynamic control) of the landing vehicle was tested. In the case of guided descent with the use of aerodynamic control, the flight trajectory of the space vehicle during deceleration has substantially different form than the trajectory of ballistic descent. This enables the carrying out of landing at a given place on the earth's surface with less acceleration and more accuracy. The braking of the landing vehicle in the earth's atmosphere took place along a trajectory with two plunges into the atmosphere. In the first plunge of the landing vehicle, the planet-escape velocity (over 11 kilometers per second) was decreased to 7.6 kilometers per second because of aerodynamic braking. Here, the landing vehicle of the probe was orientated with the help of the control system on board in such a way that, while passing through the thick atmospheric layers it came out and continued its flight along a ballistic trajectory, then plunged into the atmosphere for a second time. In the second phase of plunging, the further descent of the landing vehicle took place along a guided descent trajectory with use of aerodynamic control, which enabled the return of the vehicle to the earth in a predetermined area. During the flight of the automated probe ^ond-6, the following tasks were carried out: — flight around the moon at a fixed distance (2,420 kilometers); —• scientific explorations on the flight path and in near-moon space; — testing and work on the improvement of systems, assemblies and
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scientific equipment of the space probe in actual space flight conditions; — work on the perfecting of the system of guided descent while returning to the earth at planet-escape velocity, using the aerodynamic lift of the landing vehicle. The scheduled program of tests and perfecting of the systems, assemblies, units and equipment on board, and the scientific investigations on outer space by the automated probe ^ond-6, have been accomplished.
Pravda, November 19, 1968

FROM MOON TO EARTH An interview with Academician G.I. Petrov After the completion of the flight of the Soviet automated probe ^ond-6, the Izvestiya correspondent B. Konovalov met Academician G.I. Petrov—the most outstanding Soviet specialist in the field of aerodynamics and space exploration—and requested him to answer a few questions. QUESTION: Georgii Ivanovich, please speak about the specific characteristics of the entry of the automated probe into the earth's atmosphere at planet-escape velocity. ANSWER : The recovery of vehicles flying at planet-escape velocity to the earth is a qualitatively new stage in the development of astronautics. The solution of this problem seems to belong to the technology of the second decade of the space era. This shows the complexity of the task. From a practical standpoint, it is very difficult to retard the velocity of the probe with the help of rocket engines. In order to decrease the velocity up to the circular velocity in the case of such a big vehicle as £ond-6, a great amount of fuel would have to be taken around the moon. But each kilogram of weight introduced into the lunar orbit means hundreds of kilogiams added to the firing weight. Thus we have to depend on the retardation due to atmospheric resistance. This means that the demands on the thermal protection system greatly increase. The circular velocity near the earth is 7.8 kilometers per second, while the planet-escape velocity is 11.2 kilometers per second. The increase, as you see, is not much—about 40%. But the thermal loads increase by about three times. Before the space vehicle a strong shock wave is formed. The temperature of the gas behind it reaches 13 thousand degrees. For comparison : the temperature on the surface of the sun is 6 thousand degrees, and the gas burner gives 4 thousand degrees during the autogenous cutting of metals. But here it is 13 thousand degrees. The gas molecules behind
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the shock wave are not only split into atoms, but even electrons are torn away from the atoms. The gas partially becomes plasma and starts shining intensely. This greatly complicates the calculation of the thermal flows near the vehicle surface and demands special measures for protection. At the same time, because of strict conditions regarding the weight, the material must be sufficiently light. Another characteristic of the return to earth at planet-escape velocity is the necessity of high accuracy in the work of the orientation and control systems of the probe. In order that the probe may land on the earth without large acceleration forces, it must approach the atmosphere, as they say in aerodynamics, at a small angle of incidence—almost along the tangent. But if the entry angle is too small, the probe will escape the earth. For example, the calculated width of the "entry corridor" for the automated probe ^ond-5 was only 10-13 kilometers. QUESTION: Could you please describe in detail, the meaning of guided descent with the use of aerodynamic control? ANSWER: During the descent along a ballistic trajectory, as in the case of %ond-5 for example, the motion is determined by the air drag and the the vehicle flies in the atmosphere as a missile, fired with space velocity. The landing site is determined only by the atmospheric entry angle and velocity. During the descent with aerodynamic control, because of the peculiar position of the center of gravity and the form, the air current flows over the vehicle asymmetrically. Here, not only the air drag, directed along the trajectory, acts on the vehicle, but also the lift, perpendicular to the flight direction. The flight as it gets longer, the deceleration takes place for a longer period and the acceleration forces decrease. It becomes possible to control the range of the flight and maneuver in the atmosphere, and thus return to the determined area with greater accuracy. Such a descent is somewhat similar to that of an ordinary airplane, although the great difference between them is that the aerodynamic control—the ratio of the lift and the drag—is much less here than for airplanes. If necessary, the space vehicles, having aerodynamic control, can descend along ballistic trajectories. The Sqyuz-type spacecraft and such automated probes as %pnd-5 and £ond-6form a special and independent class of controlled hypersonic vehicles, with interesting possibilities. During the ballistic descent of the ^ond-5 probe, the acceleration forces approached 10-16 units, but the descent of ^ond-6 with aerodynamic control enabled us to decrease them considerably, ^ond-6plunged into the atmosphere once, thus decreasing its velocity approximately to the orbital velocity. Then it again entered the highly rarefied space and again plunged into the atmosphere. Only such a flight scheme ensured the landing of ^ond-6 in Soviet territory.
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The recovery of space vehicles by using aerodynamic control marks a new epoch in astronautics. And it is pleasant to note that we have achieved great success in it. But we had to overcome great difficulties. It is so happening in astronautics that for each new step, we have to pay back in the form of more complicated investigations, working out of new materials and new designs. Descent with aerodynamic control, as we have already said, makes the flight a guided one. But in this case the period of flight in the atmosphere is extended, and consequently, the period of action of strong thermal flux also increases. Moreover, the vehicle gets two thermal shocks: when it strikes against it and when it finally enters into it. And, as you know, sharp jumps in the thermal load are much more harmful for the protection layer of the shell than gradual heating. QUESTION: How was the problem of entry into the atmosphere at planetescape velocity solved in the laboratories? ANSWER: A large number of investigations, theoretical as well as experimental, were carried out in the ground laboratories for finding the best possible form of the vehicle and the thermal protection system. A serious problem was the passing over from the results of the experiments on small models to the actual space vehicles, since it is impossible to create on the earth the whole complex of circumstances, of entry of space vehicles into the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity, on a full-scale test. The vehicles enter the atmosphere with a velocity which is 30-40 times more than the velocity of sound. In a space tunnel meant for such velocities, we would have to create a pressure drop of many hundred thousand atmospheres, and for heating the gas we would need the energy of several big electric power stations. Thus it is not possible to solve the aerodynamic problems directly. Not only the investigations have to be conducted on small models, but the complex of conditions of entry into the atmosphere has to be divided into parts and the thermal regime and the regime of flow of hypersonic gas flux over the vehicle have to be studied separately. It is quite difficult to unite all the results thus obtained, relate them with the theoretical calculations and satisfy the requirements of the designers. But the success of the Venera-4 probe, which, for the first time in the history of astronautics, entered the atmosphere of a distant planet with planet-escape velocity, and the recovery of ^ond-5 and Zpnd-6, show that the Soviet scientists and engineers can handle this most difficult of problems. QUESTION : What is the importance of the accomplishment of the recovery of space vehicles, moving at planet-escape velocity on the earth and descent with aerodynamic control for the further conquest of the outer space? ANSWER: Firstly, the solution of this problem has great scientific value.
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Howsoever perfect the devices for space radio communications may be, while transmitting information obtained during flight through radio channels, there is bound to be some interference. The photographs of the Martian surface taken by the camera on board and printed on the earth are one thing, but those transmitted by radio are absolutely another thing; you can't compare their quality. On board the %ond-5 probe there were tortoises, fruit flies, chlorella, seeds of wheat, barley and pine. For the investigators it was important to find out how they reacted to the conditions of the lunar path, and to find out remote genetic aftereffects of the action of cosmic radiation. It is clear that if the probe had not returned to the earth, we would not have received answers to these questions. If we talk about the future, then the successful flight of the ^ond-5 and Zpnd-6 probes is an important step on the path of building space vehicles that can visit the moon. Mars, Venus and other planets, and return to earth. Descent with aerodynamic control has great importance for manned flights in the future. Space technology—if it continues to develop at the present rate—-will soon enable us to build long-period orbital stations and lunar laboratories with scientific personnel. The spacecraft using aerodynamic control, will enable us to return to the earth, if necessary, practically any healthy scientist, since the acceleration forces will not be very high. Astronaut G.T. Beregovoi endured the landing of the spacecraft Soyuz-g very well: he could turn his head, made notes in his diary. Acceleration forces were present, but they were such that any ordinary person could bear them. The first flights of vehicles using aerodynamic control is another important step, leading to the creation of rocket transport. Of course, the passenger rockets will be different from the modern spacecraft, but the principles of their construction are before our eyes. At present, the passenger rockets, which can take passengers to the other side of the earth in just one hour, are still a dream. It is quite possible that the perfection of supersonic aviation may make passenger rockets uneconomic and the rocket will be used on the earth-moon-earth route only for mail and goods. But for trips to orbital and interplanetary stations, rocket transport is indispensable and it must be developed.
luiestiya, November 19, 1968

NEXT STAGE OF THE SOVIET SPACE PROGRAM: GUIDED DESCENT OF THE ZOND-6 PROBE FROM EARTH-MOON-EARTH TRACK The Soviet people have written another glorious page in the short but
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exciting history of scientific achievements in space conquest. The automated probe ^ond-6 flew by the moon, returned to the earth and carried out a guided descent on its surface. The successful accomplishment of this experiment clearly shows that with each new flight, the space vehicles are becoming more and more sophisticated, and the volume and complexity of the scientific and technical tasks carried out is increasing. Moreover, each new step into outer space

Fig. 17. A schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Zond-6 on the earth-moon-earth route. 1—injection into the intermediate orbit; 2—start for the moon; 3—first correction of trajectory; 4—satellite orbit and flight trajectory 5—flight around the moon; without correction; 7—third correction of trajectory; 6—second correction of trajectory; 9—descent into the atmosphere; entry corridors; 8—separation of landing vehicle; 10—portion of (ballistic) flight outside atmosphere.

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is becoming a qualitatively new and necessary link in the Soviet space research program. Not very long ago, the automated probe ^ond-5 flew by the moon and returned to the earth along a ballistic trajectory. In this unparalleled space experiment, the most complicated scientific and technical task of the recovery of a vehicle, moving at planet-escape velocity, from the moon-earth space route, was solved for the first time in the world. During the flight of the automated probe %pnd-6, we were able to solve another, more complicated scientific and technical problem of guided descent of a space vehicle, which has flown by the moon, and back to the earth. The flight path of the automated probe £ond-6 can be divided into three main phases (Fig. 17). In the first phase, a rocket-space complex, consisting of the last stage of the carrier-rocket and the probe itself, is launched into the intermediate orbit as an earth satellite with the help of a multistage rocket. In the second phase of the flight, the automated probe starts from the intermediate orbit with the help of the last stage of the carrier rocket, and enters the flight path for the moon. After flying by the moon, it start? moving toward the earth. In the third phase of the flight, the landing vehicle is separated from the probe while approaching the earth. The vehicle enters the earth's atmosphere and after carrying out guided descent, lands in the predetermined area of Soviet territory.
Flight of Zond-6 probe along the earth-moon-earth route

The automated probe ^ond-6 was launched by a multistage carrierrocket on November 10, 1968, at 2211 hours Moscow time. The probe, along with the last stage of the carrier-rocket, was introduced into orbit as an artificial earth satellite having the following parameters: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 185 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 2 1 0 km; inclination of the orbit to the equatorial plane — 51.4 deg. After introduction into orbit, the rocket-space complex carried out necessary angular turning and stabilization of its position in space. At 2318 hours 30 seconds on a signal from the space control system, the last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation to increase the velocity of
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the probe, close to the planet-escape velocity (11.2 kilometers per second), which was necessary for the flight of the probe toward the moon. When the necessary velocity had been attained, the entire engine was switched on automatically and the space probe was separated from the last stage of the carrier. The rest of the flight of the automated probe was carried out with the permanent orientation of its solar battery panels—which ensure the power supply to the probe—-toward the sun. The process of orientation of the solar batteries took place as follows. Immediately after the separation of the space probe from the last stage of the carrier-rocket, the autonomous control system, by using the lowthrust engines, extinguished all the perturbations caused by the separation. Then the sun was detected and the probe was turned in such a way that the plane of the solar batteries was perpendicular to the sun-space vehicle line. Afterward the probe was given a rotation around this axis so that throughout the flight the solar batteries are directed toward the sun. Here the gyroscopic effect (torsion) was used. As a result of the measurements of the actual motion of the probe, it was established that the flight trajectory of the probe was close to the calculated one. But for ensuring the passage of the probe at a precalculated distance, it was essential to carry out trajectory correction. The time of correction was to be selected after taking into consideration many factors. A correction at small distances from the earth leads to a big variation in the near-moon region, while a correction near the moon may turn out to be ineffective or may require substantially large expenditure of power for ensuring optimal trajectory of flight by the moon. Hence the correction of the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out at a distance of about 250 thousand kilometers from the earth. The center for coordination and computation on the earth, calculated the necessary initial data for the correction, magnitude and direction of the corrective impulse and moment of switching on the propulsion system. At a precalculated moment this data was transmitted to the probe and was stored in the computer. Before carrying out the correction, ^jond-6 was orientated in space with respect to the sun and the star, Sirius. Then the space probe, in accordance with the stored data, automatically carried out the necessary angular turns with the help of the low-thrust engines. As a result of these turns, the axis of the corrective engine was orientated in space in the precalculated position. On November 12, at 0841 hours, the corrective propulsion engine was put into operation. When the necessary amount of additional velocity had been imparted, the control system switched off the propulsion system. As a result of the correction, ^ond-6, continuing its flight along the trajec240

tory, flew by the moon at a prefixed distance of 2,420 kilometers from its surface. During the flight of the probe in near-moon space, a set of scientific investigations and measurement of the physical characteristics of near-moon space were carried out. After the probe had flown by the moon, a second trajectory correction was carried out on November i6,.at 0940 hours, at a distance of 236 thousand kilometers from the earth, to eliminate the perturbations caused by the gravitational field of the moon. For a more accurate entry of the landing vehicle into the earth's atmosphere, another trajectory correction was carried out on November 17, at 0836 hours. These corrections ensured the falling of the landing vehicle into the predett rmined entry corridor of the earth's atmosphere, the calculated width of which is plus-minus i o kilometers, when the desired value of the apparent perigee is 45 kilometers. It must be noted that for ensuring the landing of the space vehicle in a predetermined area in Soviet territory on its return from flying by the moon, it is essential to sustain accurately not only the height of the apparent perigee, but also the time of approach of the probe to the earth. A deviation of plus-minus 5-10 minutes from the calculated time of entry of the space probe into the earth's atmosphere, leads to an error of about 300 kilometers, because of the rotation of the earth. This fact was taken into consideration while carrying out the corrections. When the probe approached the earth, initial data for carrying out the descent was transmitted to it. On a signal from the programmer on board, astro-orientation and turning of the probe were carried out so that it occupied its starting position for entry into the earth's atmosphere. After carrying out these operations, the separation of the landing vehicle from the instrumental compartment was carried out on a signal from the programmer. The stabilization system of the landing vehicle extinguished the angular perturbations caused by the separation and, at the moment of its entry into the atmosphere, turned it in such a way that it makes the required angle of incidence (angle between the fore-and-aft axis and the velocity vector), which ensures the creation of the necessary magnitude of the lift during the descent.
Guided descent and landing of vehicle on the earth

Since the probe approaches the earth from the southern hemisphere, the landing vehicle has to cover about 9 thousand kilometers after its entry into the dense atmospheric layers, for landing in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union.
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In general, the landing vehicle can enter the atmosphere from any side: either from the nor.th ("northern entry alternative") or from the south ("southern entry alternative"). This can be done by giving proper direction of motion to the automated probe. But for landing in Soviet territory, only the "southern alternative" is relevant. This is explained by the fact that while entering from the north, the point of entry of the landing vehicle into the atmosphere, in practically all the cases, lies on the fouthern border of Soviet territory. Only in exceptional cases, the landing can be carried out with the "northern alternative", but then the flight will be accompanied by large acceleration forces. In case of the "southern alternative" there is the other extremity: the point of entry is away from the southern borders of the USSR by several thousand kilometers. The vehicle can cover such distances only by guided descent. The control of the space vehicle is accomplished most rationally by using aerodynamic forces, the forces of drag and lift. This type of descent, known as guided descent, was first accomplished by the vehicle %pnd-6 after its successful flight around the moon. Such a descent is more complicated than the ballistic descent, since in this case the flight trajectory requires two plunges of the landing vehicle into the atmosphere. For this purpose, it is essential to have a specially accurate system of control for the descent. In the case of the %ond-6 probe, a law governing the descent was selected, where the control of the magnitude of lifts is accomplished by changing the direction of its action (by rotating it through rolling), which ensures the required magnitudes of velocity, height and distance. The ratio of the lift and the drag is known as the aerodynamic quality. The higher the aerodynamic quality, the more slanting can be the descent trajectory, the longer the distance of the flight, and the greater the maneuvering potentialities of the landing vehicle. In order to understand the working principle of the descent control system, let us assume that the space vehicle is flying slightly higher than the calculated trajectory. In order to return it to the calculated trajectory, the lift has to be directed in the other direction, i.e. downward. Thus the descent control system, with the help of the low-thrust engines, will turn the vehicle around the fore-and-aft axis through the rolling. Then the lift will not "push" the vehicle from the atmosphere and the vehicle will descend faster, thus entering the calculated flight trajectory. Fig. 18 shows the descent trajectory, consisting of the following phases: first plunging, intermediate flight outside the atmosphere and second plunging, which ends by landing in the predetermined area. The main task of the control system during the phase of first plunging is to ensure with high accuracy such magnitudes of the flight velocity and the trajectory inclination, which would ensure the calculated distance of flight before the beginning of the phase of second plunging. In this phase
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Fig. 18. A schematic diagram of the maneuvering of the landing vehicle of the Zond-6 probe in the earth's atmosphere. 1—separation of landing vehicle from the probe: 2—stabilization of the landing vehicle; 3—border of the entry corridor; 4—phase of first plunging of landing vehicle into the earth's atmosphere: 5—apparent flight trajectory without taking into account atmospheric effects; 6—apparent border of the atmosphere; 7—phase of (ballistic) flight outside the atmosphere; 8—phase of second plunging into atmosphere: 9—predetermined landing area.

of the flight, the velocity of the vehicle decreases from about 11 kilometers per second to about 7.6 kilometers per second, because of the force of aerodynamic resistance, while the acceleration forces and thermal behavior observe certain restrictions. The maximum value of the axial load factor during the phase of first plunging mainly depends upon the height of the apparent perigee and is about 4-7 units. The controlling effect of the lift during the phase of first plunging prevents the bending of the trajectory in the direction of the earth because of the aerodynamic braking in the atmosphere, and the vehicle does not descend beyond a calculated height.
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Then the vehicle comes out of the dense atmospheric layers and carries out an unguided flight along a ballistic trajectory. During this phase of the flight, the descent control system again carries out turns of the vehicle and its stabilization, in a position necessary for the control during the phase of second plunging. During the second plunging into the atmosphere, the automated control system selects the descent program for this phase, ensuring a highly accurate landing in a predetermined area in Soviet territory. The thermal flux in this phase is much less than in the first plunging and does not exceed that of the descent of an artificial earth satellite from its orbit. But the thermal protection cover, which undergoes this heating, has already undergone an intensive thermal heating during the first plunging. This makes the problem of providing a reliable thermal protection to the vehicle quite complicated. Thus, the thermal protection cover of the landing vehicle is of complicated construction, and includes a number of heat-resisting and heat-insulating materials, which save the elements of design and the equipment from excessive heating. The landing vehicle of the ^ond-6 probe entered the dense atmosphere layers on November 17, 1968, at 1658 hours Moscow time. At the time of entry into the atmosphere, the computers on board selected the necessary flight program for the phase of first plunging, and the descent control system carried it out exactly. While coming out of the atmosphere, the landing vehicle had a velocity and angle of inclination of trajectory very close to the calculated one. In the phase of flight outside the atmosphere, all the preparations for the second entry into the atmosphere were carried out automatically and the vehicle carried it out in a predetermined order. At the end of the phase of second plunging, the control system guided the vehicle into the landing area. At a height of 7.5 kilometers, when the velocity was about 200 meters per second, the parachute system was put into operation and the vehicle landed.
Scientific and technical tasks of the flight

One of the important scientific tasks of the automated space probe %pnd-6 was the exploration of radiational conditions on the flight path earth-moonearth. As is well known, nowadays higher solar activity is being closely observed. At the end of October this year, big bursts were recorded on the sun, which led to a considerable increase in the intensity of the cosmic rays. Radiational zones, and especially the emissions due to the chromospheric bursts on the sun, can create certain dangers for man in outer space. Thus, the data about the effect of different kinds of radiations in outer space on
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biological objects is of great scientific interest. The radiational experiments on biological objects started by ^ond-5 were continued by ^ond-6. Together with this, another experiment was carried out by using the photo-emulsion camera, which will enable collection at distances of hundreds of thousands of kilometers, of data for the study of the multiple-charge, which forms the primary cosmic rays (in the range of high charges). A device for recording meteoric particles was fitted on the ^ond-6 probe, for determining their space density and energy characteristics on the flight path and in near-moon space. In this connection, the possible passage of the probe Zpnd-6—on its way back to the earth—through the meteor shower, Leonids, which as compared to other known meteor showers, is distinguished by the highest velocity of encounter with the earth (about 72 kilometers per second), is of great interest. This shower is one of Nature's most wonderful phenomena. People have observed it a number of times in the form of a bright and impressive shower of "shooting stars." At present, it has somewhat shifted in space, probably because of the gravitational force of Jupiter. On its way back, the time of flight of the probe coincided with the time of passage of the earth through the outer layer of the Leonids shower. And although the probability of collision with meteors is not much, this information increases the chances of such an encounter. Careful processing of the information received will help in answering this question. The study of the photographic film delivered on the earth, depicting the lunar surface from a distance of 10 thousand to 3.5 thousand kilometers, is of special interest. This film, having high resolving power, has enabled us to get photographs of better quality than those of the probes Luna-j and Zpnd-g. The good quality of the photographs is explained by the absence of those disturbances which arise during transmissions through radio channels. The photographs were taken by a camera which had an objective with a focal length of 400 millimeters. The size of the frame is 13 X 18 centimeters. The detailed study of the scientific material obtained will take some time. But even now, one can say that a large amount of valuable new information has been delivered to the scientists' laboratories. The main technical tasks carried out during the flight of %ond-6 are: 1. Work on the improvement of the flights of the space probes on the route earth-moon-earth, with recovery on the earth. 2. Improvement of the descent control system, with the entry into the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity. The control of the probe is based on the change of acceleration forces while entering the atmosphere. In the estimated trajectory, the acceleration forces change in a definite manner in the flight and one can know the program of change of these forces, say, from the time of the descent. In actual flight, one can get an idea about
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the nature of the flight by measuring the actual forces and comparing them with the programmed ones. Thus, if the acceleration forces exceed the estimated value, it means that the flight trajectory of the vehicle is lower than the designed one. It must be stressed that the functioning of the descent control system is not controlled from the earth, since the landing vehicle is surrounded by an ionized layer of the air and there is no communication with the earth under these conditions. This makes special demands on the reliability of the descent control system and makes an automated flight extremely complicated from the technical point of view. 3. Work on the improvement of the aerodynamic form and characteristics of the landing vehicle under flight conditions. Use of axisymmetric segmento-conical forms, without any part projecting outside, is the most expedient for the landing vehicle. For creating aerodynamic lift, a vehicle of this shape has to be composed in such a way that the center of gravity is displaced with respect to the axis of symmetry. Then the vehicle, while moving in the atmosphere will have such an angle of incidence which is known as the angle of balance, and the incoming flux of air will approach at an angle to the axis of symmetry of the landing vehicle. Asymmetrical flow over a symmetrical body gives rise to aerodynamic lift. The aim of launching the ^ond-6 probe, as well as the ^ond-4 and ^ond-5 probes, was to perfect the flight and construction of an automated variant of the manned spacecraft for flying to the moon, as well as to check the functioning of systems on board under actual conditions of flight on the earth-moon-earth route. The successful flight of the probe %ond-6 shows a high level of technical perfection. The automated probe has accomplished all the envisaged tasks.
Importance of the flight of the automated probe Zond-6

The successful flight of the automated probe %ond-6 has clearly shown that the Soviet scientists and engineers have taken another important step on the path of conquest of the space routes and recovery of spacecraft and vehicles on the earth. The flight program of the automated probes ^ond-^, ^ond-5 and ^ond-6 envisaged the solution of new problems of astronautics. The launching of the %ond probes had enabled us to obtain a lot of important experimental data regarding the functioning of the design, systems on board and equipment of the manned spacecraft for the flight of man to the moon. It has also enabled us to check the working capacity of the devices of the command and measurement complex. The Soviet Union is systematically accomplishing the scientifically
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geared lunar exploration program, considering the moon as an important object of study. The world knows well the success of the Soviet Union in this direction. Starting from 1959, the flights of Soviet automated space vehicles have yielded a lot of information to contemporary sciences, enriched the knowledge about the form and surface of the moon, about its physical characteristics and chemical composition, and about the parameters of near-moon space. The first photograph of the hidden side of the moon, the soft-landing on the moon and transmission of the panorama of the lunar surface to the earth, the artificial satellite of the moon, and the successful flights of the probes in the %pnd series—these are the successive stages of our lunar exploration program. Explorations of Mars and Venus by the Soviet automated probes have also made a great contribution to world science and have enabled us to accumulate a lot of very important data about interplanetary space and the planets. Now we can construct more perfect space vehicles and confidently put new, more complicated, tasks before the astronauts. The artificial earth satellite have found a wide use in solving important economic and scientific problems. Satellite of the Kosmos, Molniya, Elektron, Proton, and other series, have started serving the people and are successfully helping in accomplishing the grand task of building communism. The launching of the space probes of the %ond series has practical importance, since they open new prospects for the flight of man to the moon and recovery of the results of the scientific investigations obtained in the course of the space flight. The flight of the ^ond-6 probe has shown that the characteristics of the vehicle fulfil the requirements of guided descent with planet-escape velocity. It has great importance for the future flights with maneuvering in the atmospheres of the earth and planets. The next important step has been taken in the Soviet Union for the accomplishment of the program of conquest and study of outer space and the moon.
Pravda, November 24, 1968

HOW THE MOON'S PORTRAIT WAS TAKEN The space probe ^ond-6 photographed the moon from a close distance and delivered the exposed film to the earth. What new things does it give to science? And how was the photography carried out? Before replying to these questions, let us make a small excursion into the recent past. The moon was earlier photographed by the automated probes
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Luna-3 and ^ond-^. As a result of these pictures almost the whole of the hidden part of our natural satellite was photographed, and that was an important landmark in space research. On the Luna-3 and %ond-3 probes, phototelevision systems operated, which are combinations of photographic camera, developing device, TV camera and radio-transmitter. The image of the moon was exposed on the photo film, developed on board the probe, and then scanned by the TV camera and transmitted to the earth in the form of electric signals. Here it was received with the help of photographic apparatus and was again transformed into the photographic image. At the level of development of space technology then existing, the use of the photo-television system was the most advanced method. Following the Soviet scientists, this system was used by the Americans in their space vehicles Mariner-4 and Lunar-arbiter. The photo-television systems have the advantage that they enable the photographing of the lunar surface quickly and with good quality on the photographic film, and include a large amount of information about its nature. For such a volume of information to be transmitted directly at the time of flight of the space vehicle, large reserves of power, a powerful transmitter, and complicated antenna system exactly directed towards the earth, are required. It is understandable that such facilities are difficult to arrange on space flights. Hence it is much more convenient to first store the data and transmit it—-as the radio technicians say—in a narrow frequency band, i.e. in small quantities for a longer time, after the photography is over. In this case the photographic film, developed on board the space vehicle, goes through "intermediate storage". But, along with these advantages the photo-television systems possess a big defect also. The information contained in the original photographic film undergoes a number of distortions before reaching the specialists on the earth. Moreover, some losses are inevitable and consequently the photographs reproduced on the earth are worse in quality than the original ones. They have fewer details and are distorted geometrically. Secondly, the field of vision of the TV device, which scans the photographic image, is not great. Thus, either the photography has to be done on a narrow film, or the picture has to be scanned in parts. In both cases, it limits the total information power in one way or the other. But if a photographic film, exposed during the flight in outer space, is delivered to the earth and processed here, then we shall have original photographs, which have retained all the original information. This is precisely the advantage of the photographs taken by ^ond-6. A special automatic photographic camera was fitted on the Zjond-6 probe for taking photographs of the moon when the probe approaches it the closest. The photocamera has an objective with a focal length of 400 millimeters and aperture ratio of i: 6.3. The photographs were taken on an isopanchromatic film of 19 centimeters width and 28.5 meters length. The size of a
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single photograph is 13x18 centimeters. With the best exposure time, the photo camera gives an average resolving power of 50 lines per millimeter of the ground of the photograph. It is equipped with additional devices, with the help of which the working regime of the camera shutter and the exact moments of exposure in the central timing scale, were recorded. In order that the different parts of the lunar surface possessing different intensities are photographed better, the objective is provided with a mechanism for changing the aperture. This mechanism establishes, one after another, three apertures, as a result of which, after definite intervals, three different exposures are obtained. The photocamera is controlled by the signals from a command instrument which puts it into operation at required moments. Before the flight, the photocamera underwent thorough checking, i.e. its photometric and photogrammetric characteristics were determined. In order to appreciate the qualitative jump made by the photography of the moon and delivery of the film to the earth, let us compare the information of a photograph taken by Zpnd-g with that of ^ond-6. The information on a phototelevision picture is determined by the number of lines and the number of elements in each line of the TV device for scanning (without taking into consideration the intensity gradations). For the system used on %ond-3 it was 11 oo X 11 oo, i.e. in one picture it could give 1,210,000 small black and white elements, which form a microscopic "chessboard", which fills the whole field of the picture. But on the photographs taken by the photocamera of £ond-6, the number of such small elements depicted is 134 millions. Moreover, if we take into consideration the fact that 2j)nd-3 transmitted only 25 pictures, while £ond-6 has brought many more and they reproduce the intensity scale four times greater than the phototelevision picture, then it means that the information value is almost a thousand times more. The foregoing only concerns the depictive characteristics of the photographs,i.e. how small parts of the lunar surface can be located and recognized. The photographs developed on the earth, have incomparably better measuring characteristics also. They enable us to make stereoscopic measurements of the lunar surface with an accuracy much higher than before. What are the scientific tasks of the experiment on photography of the moon from the probe £ond-6? First of all, it is the observation of the moon from a close distance and from directions which are not possible from the earth. It is well known that the forms and the surfaces of the planets are being carefully studied by the scientists, since they definitely reflect their characteristics, origin and physical nature. Till recently, the form of the moon was studied on the basis of the data of observations from the earth, which could cover only its visible side. Thus the concepts about the moon were literally "one-sided". The photographs taken by Luna-j and £ond-3 did not give much in this
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respect because of insufficient geometrical accuracy and information. Only the artificial satellite of the moon, the first of which was the Soviet probe Luna-1o, made a new contribution to the study of the moon's form. The gravitational field of the moon, which is connected with its dynamic form, is studied on the basis of the motion of the satellite. The dynamic form gives only indirect ideas about the form of the physical surface. But for a detailed study of the gravitational field, and its tying with the reference points on the lunar surface, and for the study of its physical nature, geological structures etc., it is essential to know the form of the physical surface precisely. The photography from a probe like ^j>nd-6 enables us to get the profile of the moon from angles different from what we usually see from the earth. Accurate stereophotogrammetric measurements enable us to construct a three-dimensional model of the moon and thus "measure" its form. Another scientific task is the detailed study of the lunar surface and natural formations at those places which are either not visible or inconvenient to observe from the earth. In particular, it is interesting to reveal the peculiarities and topography of the hidden side of the moon. No less important is the study of the physico-optical properties of the lunar rocks and geological structures, with the help of accurate photometry of the pictures. The applied-scientific tasks of the experiment include the more accurate determination of the coordinate system on the visible side of the moon and its extension to the hidden side; the plotting of more accurate maps required for scientific investigations; orientation at the time of the near-moon flights and for the 'trying' of the orbits of space vehicle with the physical surface of the moon. This being the first experiment of its kind, with the delivery of the film to the earth, it makes a contribution to the perfecting of the photographic method of exploring planets. In particular, the correctness of the selected exposures, and the effect of cosmic radiation on the photomaterial in the process of a long stay in outer space are being studied, regimes of photo processing are being worked out, the depictive and measurement characteristics of the photographs are being determined, and the methods of photogrammetric and photometric processing of the pictures and methods of their deciphering etc. are being worked out. The process of photography took place as follows. When %ond-6 was passing over the northern hemLphere of the moon, the probe was orientated in such a way that the optical axis of the camera lay in the orbital plane, perpendicular to the earth-moon line. If there had been an astronaut on board ^ond-6, he would have observed that with the approach of the moon, its size increased. For switching on the camera, a moment was selected when the moon was slightly smaller than the field of view of the objective, and the camera was directed toward the center of the lunar disc. Here the whole
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frame was covered by the image of the lunar disc. After that, the camera carried out photography automatically. The probe continued to move along the flight trajectory, gradually approaching the moon and passed, by it at a distance of 2,420 kilometers. At this distance, the visible angular size of the moon substantially exceeds the viewing angle of the camera. Hence, only a strip of the lunar surface parallel to the flight path—from the edge of the disc observed from ^ond-6, up to the terminator—could be photographed. The photographs obtained from ^ond-6, covered a considerable part of the visible as well as hidden side of the moon. This ensured a reliable 'fastening' of the photographs of the hidden side of the moon with the frame of the coordinates and the maps of thi visible hemisphere. The photographs of the moon, taken and delivered by the %pnd-6 probe to the earth, are of unique importance. At present they arc being studied from all aspects. These results will be published in due course.
Academician G. Petrov Professor B. Rodionov Pravda, November 25, 1968

ZOND-6 PHOTOGRAPHS As was reported by TASS in the article "Next Stage of Soviet Space Program", the program of scientific investigations by the Soviet automated probe ^ond-6 envisaged photography of the moon. In the course of the flight, two sessions of photography were conducted with an aero-photocamera, with a focal length of 400 millimeters and frame size 13 X 18 centimeters. During the first session, while approaching the moon, the aim was to photograph the whole illuminated surface of the moon for the measurement of photometric characteristics and to determine its size and form. After orientation with respect to the sun and a star, the %ond-6 probe was turned in such a way that the optical axis of the aero-photocamera was directed toward the center of the moon, approximately toward the boundary between its visible and hidden parts from the earth. The position of the vehicle is shown in a diagram of the flight near the moon. The second session of photography was to take pictures of the largest possible scale for the purpose of photogrammetric measurements and cartography of the hidden side of the moon. Here, the optical axis of the aerophotocamera was oriented in such a way that the earth also fell into the field of view (Fig. 19).
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Fig. 19. A schematic diagram of the flight to the moon and the photography sessions of the moon and the earth by the equipment of the Zond-6 probe. 1 —beginning of the first session of photography; 2—beginning of the second session of photography; 3—pericenter.

The first photograph was taken on November 14, at 0400 hours Moscow time, from a distance of about 11 thousand kilometers. In this photograph, the whole lunar disc "visible" from the probe, bounded by the 10 degree and 170 degree meridians of western longitude, i.e. the eastern sector of the hidden side and a part of the western sector of the visible side, have been depicted. The northeastern part of the photograph is occupied by the Ocean of Storms, on the surface of which there are bright spots, the Aristarchus and Kepler craters. On the eastern border of the lunar disc, Copernicus Crater can be seen well. In the southwestern part of the Ocean of Storms, there is a round dark spot—one of the largest cirques, Grimaldi. On the north west of it there is a spot of lesser dimensions, viz. Cirque Riccioli. The dark area near the southeastern edge of the moon is the Sea of Humidity, on the west of which there is a bright spot with scattering rays, the Byurgi Crater. In the southern part of the photograph, one can see clearly the typical form of the Orien252

tal Sea and the Sea of Spring and Sea of Autumn bordering it in the northeast and east, as well as the ranges of the Ruk and Cordeliers mountains. Near the center of the photograph a brightly shining point, Buffon Crater, can be seen well. To the northwest of it, there is Sternberg Crater with rays scattering from it toward the northeast and northwest. On the western border of the lunar disc can be seen Kondratiyuk Crater, to the southeast of which is situated Kibalchich Crater, with chains of small craters, GIRD and RNEE, so named in honor of the first organizations to work on the development of rocket technology in the USSR, lying to the east. Between the Sternberg and Kibalchich craters one can see Langevin Crater. A number of other craters are also seen in the photograph. The second picture (Fig. 20) shows the edge of the moon (i) from a distance of about 3.3 thousand kilometers and of the planet earth (2) from a distance of about 388 thousand kilometers, taken at 0548 hours Moscow time. In this picture one can see clearly the eastern sector of the hidden side of the moon, bounded by the 90 degree and 130 degree meridians of western longitude. In the upper part of the image of the lunar surface in this photograph one can see well Sternberg Crater (3) on the west of which is situated Lorentz Crater (4) and on the southwest—-Langevin Crater (5). In the lower part of the picture Rynin Crater (6) is seen. In the equatorial region, on the edge of the disc and eastward from Rynin Crater, one can see Buffon Crater (7). From the side of the eastern edge of the moon, our planet earth is seen. At the moment of taking the photograph, the terminator of the earth (boundary between the day and the night) passed through the 45 degree meridian of eastern longitude. Most of the surface of our planet is covered with clouds. Only in the southeast can one see the western shores of Australia up to 120 degrees eastern longitude. The third photograph (Fig. 21) shows a portion of the lunar surface near the double crater, the Vavilov Brothers (i). The width of the crater is about 100 kilometers. One can clearly see the steep precipices of the crater and the wavy surface of its bottom. The upper part of the photograph shows Lovell Crater (2), in the west there is Eotvos (3), and in the south west—Van Gu (4). A number of other craters and unevennesses up to 200 meters in width, can also be seen clearly. With the successful accomplishment by Soviet science and technology of the task of recovery of automated probes from interplanetary routes, it has become possible to use one of the best methods of storing and preserving information, namely, photography. The importance of this fact is obvious. It is well known that the photographic image gives much more detail than the phototelevision image. In the interval between the white and the black tones, the best television systems transmit at the most 12 tones of different intensity (gradations). On a photograph, one can use all the potentialities of the human eye and get up
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Fig. 20. A photograph of the edge of the moon and the earth taken by the probe Zond-6. 1—edge of the moon; 5—Langevin; 2—earth; 6—Rynin; 3—Sternberg; 7—Buffon. 4—Lorentz;

to 60 gradations, and if one uses instruments—up to 100 or more. The phototelevision system transmits 3-5 pairs of black and white lines in a thickness of i millimeter (resolving power—3-5 lines per millimeter). The photographic system can give 10-20 times more. Moreover, the geometrical distortions decrease considerably. In principle, there is no difference between photography by automated probes of the %ond series and aerophotography from airplanes. In both cases, the orbital system is "focused" at infinity and the photographs are taken automatically. The correlation between the velocity, size of photograph and exposure enables us to neglect in most cases the shift in the image because of the motion. In the instrumental compartment of the probe, fixed temperature and pressure are maintained, and there are no vibrations. In this sense, the
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Fig. 21.

Depiction of a portion of the lunar surface around the double crater, the Vavilov Brothers.

conditions for photography are better here than in the airplane. The only new factor is that the photographic equipment works in the state of weightlessness. Modern cartography makes use of the photographic film as the fundamental material. Thus, while taking photographs from a probe recoverable from
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outer space, we can make use of the whole arsenal of methods and devices of aerophotography, photogrammetry and cartography, which have already been worked out well. The photographs of the moon, obtained during the flight of the %ond-6 probe, give valuable material for different scientific investigations. (TASS)
Prai'da, December i, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-15 IN SPACE In accordance with the space research program, a carrier-rocket with the automated probe Luna-15 was launched in the Soviet Union on July 13, 1969, at 0555 hours Moscow time. The probe was launched toward the moon from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. The purpose of the flight is to perfect the systems on board the automated probe and to continue the scientific exploration of the moon and near-moon space. The probe is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. On July 13, 1969, at 1200 hours Moscow time the Luna-i^ probe will be situated at a distance of 65 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a point on the earth's surface, with the following coordinates: 62 degrees 12 minutes eastern longitude and 36 degrees 27 minutes northern latitude. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe. According to the telemetric data, the systems on board and the scientific equipment of the probe are functioning normally. The devices of the ground command-measurement complex are carrying out the control of the flight of the probe Luna- 75, determination of its trajectory parameters and the reception of the information. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pra«/a,July 14, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOVIET AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is IN A NEAR-MOON ORBIT On July 17, 1969, the Soviet automated probe Luna-75 was introduced into a near-moon orbit and thus became another artificial satellite of the moon.
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As has already been reported, the automated probe Luna- /j was launched on July 13, this year. During 102 hours of flight on the earth-moon space route, 28 sessions of radio communications were conducted from the probe, during which the flight trajectory was measured, the functioning of the systems on board was checked and scientific investigations were conducted. In order that the probe approaches the moon at a predetermined distance, a correction of its flight trajectory was carried out on July 14. When the automated probe approached the moon, it was orientated in space, and at 1300 hours Moscow time, its propulsion system was put into operation. At this moment the probe was situated over the hidden side of the moon. After braking, the Luna-15 probe entered orbit as an artificial lunar satellite. The parameters of the near-moon orbit are close to the calculated ones. The radio communications with the probe are steady. According to the telemetric data, the equipment on board is functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, July 18, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNA-15 CONTINUES FLIGHT IN LUNAR ORBIT In accordance with the program, the automated probe Luna-15 continues its flight in a near-moon orbit. All the systems on board and the scientific equipment of the probe are functioning normally. Scientific investigations are being conducted in near-moon space. A correction of the orbit of the Luna- 75 probe was carried out on July 19, at 1608 hours. According to the preliminary data, the parameters of the orbit after the correction are: maximum distance from the lunar surface (at apolune) — 221 km; minimum distance from the lunar surface (at perilune) — 95 km; inclination to the plane of lunar equator — 126 deg; — 2 hr 03.5 min. orbital period
Pravda, July 20, 1969

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is IN NEW NEAR-MOON ORBIT The Soviet automated probe Luna-15, introduced into a near-moon orbit on July 17, continues its flight. A second correction of the lunar orbit of the automated probe was carried out on July 20, at 1716 hours Moscow time. As a result, the probe entered a new orbit with the following parameters : maximum distance from the lunar surface (at apolune) — iiokm; minimum distance from the lunar surface (at perilune) — 16 km; inclination of the orbit to the plane of lunar equator — 127 deg; — i hr 54 min. orbital period According to the telemetric data, the systems on board and scientific equipment are functioning normally. The automated probe Luna-15 continues scientific investigations in nearmoon space.
Pravda, July 21, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-is COMPLETES FLIGHT The program of investigations in near-moon space and the perfecting of new systems of the automated probe Luna- /j, was completed on July 21, I969As has already been reported, the automated probe Luna-15 was introduced into a trajectory toward the moon on July 13. In the course of the flight, 86 sessions of radio communications were transmitted from the probe, during which the functioning of the new systems of the probe was tested; the trajectory parameters were measured and scientific investigations were held. During its flight in a near-moon orbit, the automated probe Luna-15 completed 52 circuits around the moon. The Luna-15 probe differs from the earlier probes Luna-g and Luna-13 in that it can land on different areas of the lunar surface by changing its lunar orbit. Two such changes were made on July 18 and 19 this year. The new automatic navigational systems were tested on this course. On July 21, at 1847 hours, the braking engine was put into operation. The probe left the orbit and reached the lunar surface at a predetermined place.
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The work of the probe was over at 1851 hours. In the course of the flight of the probe in lunar satellite orbit, a number of scientific investigations were conducted in near-moon space and important experimental data was received about the functioning of the systems on board. The results of the measurements are being processed.
Pravda, July 22, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE In accordance with the space research program, the automated probe d-j was launched with the help of a powerful carrier-rocket on August 8, 1969, in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the flight is for further study of the moon and near-moon space, to photograph the lunar surface and to perfect the systems, assemblies and design of the rocket-space complex. After the introduction of the probe into orbit as an artificial earth satellite, it was oriented in space and at a precalculated point the booster unit was switched on, which imparted to the probe an impulse of the necessary magnitude. As a result of this maneuver, the probe ^ond-j entered the flight trajectory toward the moon. After the separation of the booster unit from the probe, the solar batteries were orientated toward the sun and the radio antennas were orientated toward the earth. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe. The devices of the ground command-measurement complex are conducting control, measurement of the trajectorial parameters and reception of the telemetric information from the probe. The parameters of the flight trajectory of the probe ^ond-j are close to the calculated ones. According to the telemetric data, all the systems and equipment on board are functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation has started processing the information received.
Pravda, August 9, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-7 FLIES PAST MOON The Soviet automated probe %pnd-j continues its flight. In accordance with the program, on August 9, 1969, after astro-orientation
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and programed turnings, the propulsion system, to give a calculated magnitude of corrective impulse was put into operation when the probe was situated at a distance of about 260 thousand kilometers from the earth. As a result of this maneuver, the automated probe entered an improved flight trajectory toward the moon. In the course of the flight scientific measurements were conducted, the earth was photographed and work was done on perfecting the systems on board. On August 11, the probe flew by the moon. On this course, the physical characteristics of near-moon space were measured and the lunar surface was photographed. After flying by the moon, Zpnd-j entered the flight trajectory toward the earth. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe. According to the telemetric information received, all the systems on board are functioning normally. The trajectorial parameters are close to the calculated ones. The devices of the ground command-measurement complex continue to receive telemetric information, transmitted by the Zpnd-j probe. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, August 12, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT PROBE ZOND-7 RETURNS TO EARTH On August 14, 1969, a new space experiment was accomplished in the Soviet lunar exploration program. The automated probe %ond-j, launched on August 8, flew by the moon and, after completing a large number of scientific investigations and experiments, carried out a guided descent in the earth's atmosphere and soft-landed in a prefixed area in Soviet territory, south of the town Kustanai. As has already been reported, the automated probe ^ond-"j was introduced into orbit as an artificial earth satellite, and after the booster unit was put into operation, it entered a flight trajectory toward the moon. On August 11, after a correction of the trajectory, the probe flew by the moon. Scientific measurements of the physical characteristics of outer space, moon and near-moon space, and photography of the earth and the moon, were conducted in the course of the flight. The flight program included a large number of technical experiments for the perfecting of the following improved systems and assemblies on board the probe: — system of motion control by using the space-borne computer, ensuring
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the optimal control expression at all stages of the flight; — precision astro-orientation system; — equipment on board the probe for long-distance radio communications, meant for receiving and transmitting information from the probe and for recording the parameters of its motion; — telemetric system for checking the functioning of the systems on board the probe; — devices for the protection of the spacecraft from radiation and for the control of the radiation dose in the landing vehicle. The descent of the %pnd-j probe in the atmosphere took place along a trajectory with the use of aerodynamic lift. Before entering the atmosphere, the landing vehicle was separated from the probe on a signal from the programer. After plunging twice into the atmosphere, the flight velocity of the landing vehicle was reduced from the planet-escape velocity (over 11 kilometers per second) to 200 meters per second because of aerodynamic deceleration. At a height of 7.5 kilometers, the parachute system was put into operation. Just before landing, the engines for soft-landing were switched on automatically. The flight program of the Soviet automated probe Zpnd-j has been completed. A new step has been taken in perfecting space-borne devices for the extensive study of the moon and near-moon space. New experimental data about the working capacity of the improved systems of the probe and the scientific results on the exploration of outer space have been received.
Pravda, August 15,1969

AUTOMATED PROBE ZOXD-j PHOTOGRAPHS MOON AND EARTH As has been already reported, one of the scientific experiments conducted during the flight of the automated probe ^ond-j was the colored photography of the earth and the moon. The photographs have been delivered by the probe to the earth. The first session of photography of the earth was conducted on August 8, 1969, from 0852 to 0926 hours. At this time the probe was situated at a distance of about 70 thousand kilometers from our planet (Fig. 22). Before the start of the session, the probe was orientated in such a way that the optical axis of the photographic camera fixed in it was directed toward the center of the earth. At the moment of photography, the probe was situated over the Caspian Sea. In the photograph, the axis of the earth is slightly tilted toward the left. One can see there are no clouds over the sea and to the east of it. The contours of the Central Asian Republics, the
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Fig. 22. A photograph of-the earth, taken by the Zond-7 probe from a distance of about 70 thousand kilometers.

Aral Sea and Balkhash Lake can be seen clearly. The Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges can be distinguished clearly. Toward the east, through the
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!-

openings between the clouds, one can see the wooded mountains of Altai and still further—the outlines of Baikal Lake. Behind the dense clouds covering the whole of the Caucasus, one can see the Black and Azov seas and the Crimean Peninsula. Northward, behind the banks of clouds, the outlines of the Gulf of Bothnia, Karelia and the White Sea are seen. The area over the Arctic Ocean is covered with clouds. In the south of the Soviet Union, the territories of Iran, Afghanistan,

Fig. 23. A photograph of the moon, taken by the automated probe Zond-7 on August 11. 1969. The following cirques and craters have been denoted by numbers: 1—Russell; 8—Riccioli; 2—Struve; 9—Schluter; 3—Eddington; 10—Hartwig: 4—Briggs; 11—Vasco da Gama; 5—Cardan; 12—Einstein; 6—Cavalieri; 13—Moseley; 7—Hevelius; 14—Balboa.

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Iraq, Asia Minor and the Arabian peninsula are seen. In this part, the outlines of Mesopotamia, with the rivers Tigris and Euphrates passing through it, attract attention. Behind the Red Sea, one can see the areas of northern Africa, the Nile Valley through Egypt and the Sudan, to the African desert. Over the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Balkan Peninsula there are light clouds. The clouds, moving from the Atlantic Ocean, have densely covered the Pyrenee Peninsula. At the moment of photography, the terminator (boundary between day and night) passed through the Atlantic Ocean. The second session of photography started on August 11, at 0528 hours Moscow time, and continued for ten minutes. At the beginning of the session, the probe was situated at a distance of 10 thousand kilometers from the moon. The left part of the lunar surface is brightly illuminated by the sun. The right portion is darkened. The terminator can be seen in the photograph (Fig. 23). On the dark side is the western part of the Ocean of Storms. In the colored photograph it looks grayish-brown with green (the other parts are grayishyellow) . One can clearly distinguish the largest formations of the Ocean of Storms, the cirques Russell and Struve. Westward from them the Hercynia Mountains curve round. To the east of Cirque Eddington, on the terminator, one can see the swell of Seleucus Crater illuminated by the rays of the setting sun. To the north of Cirque Eddington, close to ihe terminator, is Briggs Crater and toward the south are two clearly seen craters, Kraft and Cardan. In the southern part of the photograph, the swells of the cirques Cavalieri and Hevelius are hardly seen in the light of the setting sun. In the lower corner on the right, the wide bottom of Cirque Grimaldi can be seen, and northwest from it are situated the cirques Hedin and Riccioli. The boundary between the visible and hidden sides of the moon—when seen from the earth—passes from north to south approximately in the middle of the photograph. Here, the visible part is on the left. In the lowest part of the photograph is seen Schluter Crater. On its right is Cirque Hartwig, which is not seen very clearly. The whole western part of the photograph is filled with a big group of craters and cirques, brightly illuminated by the sun. In the middle portion one can see the darkened Cirque Vasco da Gama, in the west of which is situated the double Cirque Einstein and in the north— cirques Moseley and Balboa. The photograph covers about 30 degrees in longitude and about 40 degrees in latitude. The third session of photography started about an hour after the second session was over—just a few minutes before the ^ond-"j probe entered the zone of radiovisibility of the moon. The orientation systems and the automatic programing and controlling devices ensured high accuracy and faultless
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working of all the units of the space photographic system. The optical axis during the third session, as also in the first session, was directed toward the center of the earth. The photography of the hidden side of the moon was carried out from a distance of 2,000 kilometers from the lunar surface and was continued till the moment ^ond-j passed the pericenter of the orbit (minimum distance between the probe and the lunar surface). At the very beginning of the third session, the colored photographs of the earth (Fig. 24) gradually moving behind the lunar horizon, were obtained.

Fig. 24. A photograph of the earth before it moved behind the edge of the moon, taken on August 11. 1969, by the automated probe Zond-1. In the photograph. Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and Australia are clearly seen.

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Here the earth is seen foreshortened in a slightly different way. In the center of the picture, one can see the southern part of the Indian subcontinent and the northern shores of the Indian Ocean. South-West Asia and North East Africa are almost free of cloud. One can clearly see the Caspian and Aral seas, Central Asia and a narrow strip of Africa. In the lower part of the picture on the right, are the outlines of Australia almost free of cloud. The Pacific Ocean occupies a part of the photograph. The photograph was taken at 0708 Moscow time, thus the western part of Europe and Africa are in darkness—it is still night there. The boundary between day and night in the photograph is represented by a slightly diffused line facing the moon. The result of the photographic experiments conducted during the flight of the ^ond-j probe are being worked out. The colored photographs will be published in journals.
fravda, August 22, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNA-i6 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe Luna-i6 was launched in the Soviet Union on September 12, 1970, at 1626 hours Moscow time. The purpose of the flight is to conduct scientific investigations of the moon and near-moon space. The automated probe Luna-i6 started for the moon from an orbit as an artificial earth satellite and has entered a trajectory close to the calculated one. According to the telemetric information, the systems and assemblies on board the probe are functioning normally. The devices of the ground command-measurement complex are maintaining steady radio communications with the probe. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, September 13, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNA-i6 IN NEAR-MOON ORBIT The automated probe Luna-i6, launched into flight trajectory towards the moon on September 12, 1970, continues its flight.
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In the course of the flight on the earth-moon route, 26 communication sessions were conducted by the probe, during which the parameters of the flight trajectory were measured and the functioning of the systems on board was tested. On September 13. a correction of the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out, to enable it to pass through a precalculated point in near-moon space. On September 17, while approaching the moon, the automated probe Luna-16 was orientated in space with respect to the moon and earth. Then, at a prefixed point of the trajectory, the propulsion system was put into operation which imparted to the probe the necessary braking impulse, as a result of which, the probe Luna-i6 entered a circular orbit as an artificial lunar satellite with the following parameters: — - n o km; height over the lunar surface inclination of the orbit to the lunar' equatorial probe —- yodeg; orbital period — i hr 59 min. The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio communications with the automated probe Luna-i6. According to the telemetric information, the equipment on board is functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, September 18, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOFT-LANDING ON MOON In accordance with the flight program, on September 20, 1970, at 0818 Moscow time, the automated probe Luna-i6 made a soft-landing on the surface of the moon in the region of the Sea of Plenty. The selenographic coordinates of the landing site of the probe are: o degree 41 minutes southern latitude and 56 degrees 18 minutes eastern longitude. As has already been reported, on September 17, 1970 the probe passed through a precalculated point in near-moon space, and after the propulsion system was put into operation, it entered a circular orbit as an artificial lunar satellite with a height of no kilometers above the lunar surface. On September 18 and 19, maneuvers were conducted in the near-moon orbit, as a result of which the probe entered an elliptical orbit with the following parameters: maximum distance from the lunar surface (at apolune) — 106 km;
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minimum distance from the lunar surface (at perilune) — 15 km; inclination of the orbit to the lunar — 71 deg; equatorial plane —• i hr 54. min. orbital period The descent of the probe from this orbit and its landing on the moon took place in two phases. In the first phase, after trajectorial measurements, orientation and delivery of the signal for leaving the orbit, the propulsion system was put into operation at a precalculatcd moment. In the second phase, at a height of 600 meters the stage of controlled precision deceleration started. The propulsion system was switched on again and the regime of thrust of the main engine changed in conformity with the selected control program and the incoming information about the velocity and height of descent. The main engine finished its work at a height of 20 meters from the lunar surface. The further deceleration of the probe took place with the help of low-thrust engines. They were switched off at a height of about 2 meters and the automated probe Luna-i6 softly dropped on to the surface of the moon. During the nine days of the space flight, 68 communication sessions were conducted from the probe. According to the information received from the center for remote space communications, all the systems on board the probe are functioning normally. Continuing to fulfil the program of scientific investigations of the moon and near-moon space, the automated probe Luna-i6 has started investigations of the lunar surface.
Pravda, September 21, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT START FROM MOON The Soviet automated probe Luna-i6, which made a soft-landing in the region of the Sea of Plenty, has completed its program of work on the lunar surface, and on September 21, 1970, at 1043 hours Moscow time, an outer space rocket took off from it toward the earth. The outer space rocket is carrying samples of lunar soil. The main task in the flight program of the Luna-i6 probe was the accomplishment of an absolutely new job: the automated delivery of lunar soil to the earth. After the landing of the probe Luna-i6, a set of technological operations including the measurement of angular position of the probe
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with respect to the local vertical and the checking of the functioning of different assemblies and systems on board was carried out. After the preliminary operations were over, the signal was given to the soil-intake mechanism. The electric drill of the Luna-i6 probe controlled by signals from the earth and capable of moving in both horizontal and vertical planes, was put at the required position, where it drilled the lunar soil and collected samples of lunar rocks down to a depth of 350 millimeters. After the drilling was over, the lunar rocks were put into the container of the outer space rocket with the help of a manipulator and sealed. Using the landing stage of the probe as the launching platform, the outer space rocket with a recovery vehicle containing the lunar rocks, started from the moon. The landing stage remains on the lunar surface and continues to conduct temperature and radiation measurements. The outer space rocket entered a ballistic flight trajectory towards the earth, close to the calculated one. Two sessions of radio communication were conducted with it at a frequency of 183.6 megahertz. Trajectorial and telemetric measurements are being made for an accurate determination of the landing site on the earth. The landing will take place on September 24, 1970. When the rocket approaches the earth, the recovery vehicle will separate from the rocket and enter the dense layers of the atmosphere. After aerodynamic deceleration, it will descend on a parachute. Since the area of possible landing is quite big, the search and detecting of the recovery vehicle will be a complicated job. Search group expeditions have been alerted.
Pravda, September 22, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT OUTER SPACE ROCKET OF AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i6 ON ITS WAY TO EARTH As has already been reported, the outer space rocket of the automated probe Luna-i6 containing the samples of lunar rocks on board, started from the moon on September 21, 1970. On September 22, at 1000 hours Moscow time, the outer space rocket was approaching at a distance of 306 thousand kilometers from the earth. The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio communication with the rocket. Trajectorial and telemetric measurements were conducted during the sessions.
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The pressure and temperature in the compartments of the rocket are within the prescribed limits.
Pravda, September 23, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT APPROACHING EARTH The flight of the outer space rocket of the automated probe Luna-16 is nearing completion. On September 23, at 1140 hours Moscow time, the outer space rocket was situated at a distance of 185 thousand kilometers from the earth. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the rocket. All the systems on board are functioning normally. Pressure in the instrument compartment of the rocket and in the recovery vehicle is 760 millimeters and the temperature is +i°C. The processing of the trajectorial measurements has enabled the exact determination of the coordinates of the point of entry of the recovery vehicle into the earth's atmosphere and the area of its landing. The recovery vehicle will land in the territory of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic on September 24, at 0820 hours Moscow time.
Pravda, September 24, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOFT-LANDING IN A PREDETERMINED AREA OF THE SOVIET UNION On September 24, 1970, at 0826 hours Moscow time, the recovery vehicle of the automated probe Luna-16, carried out a soft-landing in a predetermined area of the Soviet Union, 80 kilometers southeast of the town Dzhezkazgan in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic The recovery vehicle which carried the sealed container with lunar rocks, was observed by a search group expedition while it was descending by parachute. After landing, the vehicle was lifted into a helicopter and brought to Moscow. The container with the lunar rocks will be handed over to the USSR Academy of Science for analysis and study. The results of these investigations will be published. For the first time in the history of the conquest of outer space, lunar
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soil has been brought to the earth by an automated vehicle. Pravda, September 35, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT RESULTS OF AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i6 A new scientific and technical problem has been brilliantly solved by Soviet space science and technology. For the first time in the history of astronautics, an automated vehicle has flown on the earth-moon-earth route and brought back samples of lunar rocks to the earth. The program of scientific and technical investigations of the moon and near-moon space by the Soviet automated probe Luna-i6 has been fully accomplished. The accomplishment of this task was technically very complicated and required great creativity from the collectives of scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers for ensuring reliable and troublefree functioning of all the components, systems on board and ground devices for observation and control and accurate performance at all stages of the flight. The unique space experiment took place in several stages. Launched toward the moon on September 12, 1970, the probe was injected into a selenocentric circular orbit on September 17. As a result of maneuvering in near-moon space, the probe entered an elliptical orbit from which— on September 20, at 0818 hours Moscow time—it carried out soft-landing on the lunar surface in the region of the Sea of Plenty. After landing, a specially designed device for collecting lunar soil, on a signal from the earth, drilled the soil and took samples of lunar rocks which were automatically put into an air-tight container of the recovery vehicle. The probe remained on the moon for 26 hours 25 minutes. Besides the collection of the lunar soil, during this period the temperature and the radiation were measured, the coordinates of the landing site were determined more accurately, the functioning of the systems and assemblies on board was tested and the position of the fore-and-aft axis of the probe was determined with respect to the local vertical. In the next communication session, the program for the return from the moon was transmitted to the probe. On September 21, 1970, at 1043 hours Moscow time, using the last stage of the probe as a launching platform, the outer space rocket with the recovery vehicle started from the moon. The accomplishment of automatic launching of the outer space rocket of the Luna-16 probe from the lunar surface necessitated the accomplishment of several absolutely new tasks. For the launching of the probe and its introduction into the designed
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ballistic trajectory for landing in a predetermined area of the earth, it was necessary to determine accurately the coordinates of the point of lunar landing and the time of start from the moon and to ensure the attainment of the necessary velocity at the end of the active phase. All these tasks were carried out successfully. In the process of the flight on the moon-earth route, the devices of the ground command-measurement complex carried out measurements of the flight trajectory of the outer space rocket and as it approached the earth, the coordinates of the landing site of the recovery vehicle were determined more accurately. On September 24, the outer space rocket of the probe Luna-i6 approached the earth at planet-escape velocity. Before entering the atmosphere, the recovery vehicle got separated from the outer space rocket, entered the dense atmospheric layers and continued to descend along the ballistic trajectory. After aerodynamic deceleration, the parachute system was put into operation and the recovery vehicle containing the lunar soil descended smoothly and landed in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union—not far from the cosmodrome whence the carrier-rocket had been launched on September 12. All the stages of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6—flight to the moon and in the near-moon orbit, start from the moon and the return to the earth—passed in conformity with the program and the calculated data. The search group, equipped with radar stations and aircraft, ensured quick detection and collection of the recovery vehicle with lunar soil. At 0810 hours, the vehicle entered the dense atmospheric layers of the earth. At 0814 hours, the signal from the transmitter of the recovery vehicle was discovered and the descent of vehicle by parachute was observed visually from the helicopters and airplanes of the search group. At 0826 hours, the vehicle landed on the earth. When brought to Moscow, the capsule with the lunar soil was taken out of the container of the recovery vehicle under special conditions to maintain the necessary steriliry. The lunar soil has undergone quarantine. It will be handed over to the USSR Academy of Science for scientific investigations in accordance widi a specially worked out program. Another experiment in outer space has been completed. For the first time in the exploration of outer space, samples of lunar soil have been brought to earth by an automated vehicle. The flight of the Luna-16 probe is an outstanding achievement of our science and technology which opens new and wide prospects for conducting systematic investigation of the heavenly bodies with the help of automated vehicles.
Pravda, September 26, 1970
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To THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION, PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR

We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who took part in the preparation, launching and accomplishment of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 hereby report to the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, that for the first time in the world, an absolutely new task has been successfully accomplished in astronautics. This was the flight of an automated vehicle to another heavenly body, collection of its soil and return to the earth. It opens wide prospects for the further exploration of the moon and the planets of the solar system by automated vehicles. The method of landing on the moon an automated probe with a recoverable outer space rocket (for the first time), enables the carrying out of systematic study of the different areas of space by reliable and more economic methods. In the course of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 unique experimental data has been obtained about the working capacity of the new system, its high performance and superb design. This opens new prospects in the design and construction of perfected models for space technology of the future. We heartily thank the Communist Party, the Soviet Government and the whole nation for the firm support given to us in our work and for the faith shown in us in the accomplishment of this difficult and responsible task. We, the builders of the automated probe Luna-i6, dedicate this achievement of Soviet science and technology to the auspicious occasion of the forthcoming 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. We are proud that the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 has coincided with the birth centenary of V.I. Lenin, the organizer of the Communist Party and founder of the first workers' and peasants' government in the world. We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, the Soviet government and all the Soviet people, that we shall make every effort to accomplish new tasks for the further conquest of outer space for the benefit of our great motherland and in the interests of mankind.
To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the creation of the automated probe Luna-i6 and in the accomplishment of its flight program.
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Dear Comrades! Soviet science and technology have achieved another outstanding success in the exploration and conquest of outer space. Launched on September 12, 1970, the automated probe Luna-i6 accomplished several complicated maneuvers in the course of its flight and softlanded in a predetermined area on the moon. It took samples of lunar soil and then an outer space rocket launched from the probe brought them to the earth, landing in a predetermined area in Soviet territory. In the history of the conquest of outer space, an absolutely new task has been accomplished—for the first time the flight of an automated vehicle to another heavenly body, collection of its soil and return to the earth has taken place. The problems of the study and conquest of outer space are becoming more and more complicated and thus technical and economically rational means have to be found for the development of space technology. The accomplishment of the flight program of the Z,«na-/6probehas once again confirmed the great potentialities and wide prospects for the application of automated vehicles in the exploration of outer space and for collecting information from the surface of the moon and planets of the solar system. The new achievements of Soviet science and technology in the creation of automated probes have been made possible by the inspired labor of our working class and the scientific and technical leadership of our intelligentsia. This achievement is particularly pleasant since it has come in Lenin's jubilee year, when the preparations are going on for the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR and the Council of Ministers, USSR, warmly congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, all the collectives and organizations that took part in the creation and the accomplishment of the flight of the automated probe Luna-i6. Glory to the Soviet people—the builders of a heroic nation! Long live the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—the inspirer and the organizer of all our achievements for the benefit of our great motherland under the banner of communism!
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, September 25, 1970

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OUTSTANDING SOVIET ACHIEVEMENT IN ASTRONAUTICS Lenin's jubilee year was marked by outstanding achievements in the history of Soviet astronautics. The flight of the Soyuz-g spacecraft, unmatched in duration and range of experiments, the new flight of the interplanetary probe Venera-j to Venus, the successful flight of the satellite Interkosmos-3 and the continued regular exploration of near-earth space by the Kosmos satellite have enriched science and technology with important data, ensuring further progress in the conquest of outer space. A new chapter was opened by the launching and successful completion of the complicated flight program of the Luna-i6 probe. On September 24, the envoy of science returned with samples of lunar soil. The Soviet space research program is characterized by its systematic approach to the solution of new scientific and technical problems. One of the important trends of our space program is the study of the moon and the planets of the solar system with the help of automated vehicles. Every year more and more problems are being solved by automated vehicles. This mode of space travel is much more economical than manned spacecraft; it is reliable, and sends or brings to the earth the most valuable scientific information from those regions where it is either impossible, difficult, or risky for man to reach. Obviously, this does not exclude the direct participation by man in the scientific exploration of outer space. But the manned flights are undertaken only when they are justified and necessary. The way for the manned flights is also paved by the automated vehicles—reliable assistants in unravelling the unknown. Scientists have obtained very rich scientific material about the moon and near-moon space, about Mars and Venus and about various regions of interplanetary space. All this information is considerably enriching our knowledge about the earth and the universe and sometimes even changing strongly-held earlier conceptions. The moon has been an object of study with the help of automated vehicles for more than ten years. The first Soviet automated probe Luna-i was launched in the direction of the moon at the beginning of 1959. The probe passed the lunar surface at a distance of a few thousand kilometers and entered a lunar orbit, and thus became the first artificial satellite of the moon. In the fall of the same year, the automated probe Luna-2 brought the Soviet pennant to the lunar surface. For the first time in the history of civilization, a space vehicle flew from the earth to another heavenly body. After a month, the third Soviet automated probe Luna-g photographed the hidden side of the moon for the first time and transmitted the photographs
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to the earth. In July 1965, the automated probe ^ond-^ once again photographed the hidden side of the moon while passing near it. The first complete map and globe of the moon were prepared with the help of the photographs sent by these two probes. The flight of the automated probe Luna-g demonstrated new prospects in the study of the lunar surface. This probe accomplished the first softlanding on another heavenly body. Mankind could now, for the first time, have a close look at the structure of the surface layer of the moon. Simultaneously, this achievement may be considered as a big step on the path to perfecting automated devices for space exploration. Next, the automated artificial lunar satellite were created, which continued the explorations of the moon and near-moon space. As a result of the flights of the probes Luna-io and Luna-12, we were able to determine for the first time the nature of the lunar rocks which, in composition, turned out to be close to the basalt of the earth. After accomplishing soft-landing, the Luna-13 probe conducted a set of investigations on the lunar surface. In particular, it transmitted important information about the mechanical characteristics of the surface layer of the lunar soil. These flights demonstrated the high efficiency of automatic devices in the exploration of heavenly bodies. The era of manned flights to the moon started with the expedition of the American spacecraft Apollo-n. The landing on the moon of astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin followed by the crew of the Apollo-12 spacecraft, further increased the prospects of lunar exploration. For the first time, samples of lunar soil, taken from two different places, were brought to the earth. Study of these samples in laboratories on the earth made it possible to determine more accurately some basic characteristics of these rocks: structure, chemical composition, physical characteristics. However, the results obtained so far do not permit us to make final conclusions about many fundamental problems of lunar exploration, such as the origin of the moon, or its age and structure. The successful flights of the Luna probes as well as the successful recovery of the scientific laboratories to the earth (the flights of the probes ^ond-^, Zpnd-6 and Zpnd-j) have confirmed the value of these vehicles in the exploration of the moon. The Soviet scientists, designers, engineers and workers had before them the task of perfecting the automated space vehicles and developing new, complicated elements and units of automatic systems. The record of achievements of our science in the field of automated control and our experienced personnel in the industry enabled us to accomplish this task brilliantly. A proof of it is the wonderful success of the probe Luna-i6, the flight of which has made it possible to solve the most important scientific and technical
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problem of astronautics—the collection of samples of soil from the heavenly bodies of the solar system and their delivery on earth.
Design of the probe Luna-i6

The automated probe Luna-i6 (Fig. 25) consists of the landing stage with the device for collecting soil (Fig. 26) and the outer space Moon-Earth rocket with recovery vehicle (Fig. 27). The weight of the probe at the moment of landing on the moon is 1,880 kilograms.

Fig. 25. Automated probe Luna-16. 1—engine of the moon-earth rocket; 7—instrument compartment of the rocket; 2—instrument compartment of the 8—drilling mechanism; landing stage: 9—bar of the drilling mechanism; 3—controlling nozzles; 10—telephotometer; 4—fuel tank of the rocket; 11—fuel tank; 5—antenna; 12—engine of the landing stage. 6—recovery vehicle;

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Fig. 26. Landing stage of the automated probe Luna-16 with device for collecting soil.

The landing stage is a self-contained, multipurpose rocket unit, which has a liquid propellant rocket engine, a system of tanks with components of fuel, instrument section and shockproof gearings for landing on the moon. The antennas of the space-borne radio complex are also fixed on the landing stage. The propulsion system of the landing stage has a main engine with adjustable thrust for braking, and two low-thrust engines, which work at the final stage of the landing phase. The main engine of the landing stage can start up a number of times. The instrument compartments of the landing stage contain the calculating, decision-making gyroscopic instruments of the systems of control and stabilization, electronic instruments of the orientation system, radio transmitters and receivers of the space-borne radio-measurement complex which works in several radio wave bands, the programer, which automatically controls the work of all the systems and assemblies, chemical storage batteries and current transformers, elements of the thermal control system, autonomous radio devices for the measurement of height, horizontal and vertical components of the velocity at the time of landing on the surface of the moon, telephotometers for transmitting the auxiliary information about the area
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Fig. 27. The layout of the recovery vehicle of the automated probe Luna-16. 1—storage battery; 6—antennas; 2—cover of the container; 7—antenna switch; 3—container for the lunar soil; 8—transmitters; 4—cover of the parachute compartment; 9—body of the recovery vehicle; 5—parachute compartment; 10—thermal protection.

of drilling, and scientific instruments for the determination of temperature and radiational conditions during the phase of flight as well as on the lunar surface. The landing stage served as a launching device for the Moon-Earth rocket from the moon. Outside the instrument compartments, on the outer surfaces of the landing stage, there are microjet engines of the orientation and stabilization systems, tanks with the reserve propellant for them and optical sensors of the orientation system.
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In the upper part of the landing stage is the outer space Moon-Earth rocket (Fig. 28).

Fig. 28. The Moon-Earth rocket.

The Moon-Earth rocket is a self-contained rocket unit with liquid-propellant jet engine and a system of spherical tanks with the fuel components. On the central tank is fixed a cylindrical instrument compartment which
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contains the electronic, computing and gyroscopic instruments of the rocket control system, transmitting, receiving, deciphering and programing instruments of the space-borne radio complex of the rocket, chemical storage batteries, current transformers and electrical instruments of the space-borne radio complex. On the outer surface of the instrument compartment of the rocket there are four pin-type receiving and transmitting antennas of the radio complex on board. In the upper part of the instrument compartment, the spherical recovery vehicle is attached with the help of metallic tie tapes. The tapes fastening the recovery vehicle are joined by a special, pyrotechnical lock which opens on a radio command from the flight control center at the time of the approach of the rocket to the earth. The recovery vehicle is a metallic sphere, on the outer surface of which a special heat protection layer has been added. This layer saves the vehicle and the equipment fitted inside it from the effect of high temperatures at the time of its entry into the earth's atmosphere. The internal volume of the recovery vehicle is divided into three isolated compartments. In the biggest of these compartments there are radio directionfinding transmitters, which ensure the detection of the recovery vehicle at the time of its descent by parachute and its reaching the earth, chemical storage batteries, elements of automatic machines, and the space-borne programer, which control the operation of the parachute system. In the second compartment, there is the packed parachute, four flexible antennas of the direction-finding transmitters, and two elastic gas tanks, which ensure the required position of the recovery vehicle after its landing on earth. The third compartment is a cylindrical container for the soil samples from the surface of the moon. On one side of the cylinder there is an intake hole which is closed hermetically by a special cover after the lunar rocks have been put into it. The device for collecting soil is fitted on the landing stage and consists of three parts: —• drilling machine, with a system of electric driving mechanisms and drilling instruments; — bars, on which the drilling machine is fixed; — driving mechanisms, which move the bar in vertical and horizontal directions. While designing the mechanism for collecting soil, special attention was paid to the construction of such a drilling machine which could drill and collect samples of lunar soil of different hardness, from the most friable (dust-like) to the hardest, such as basalt and granite on the earth. Moreover, the necessity of creating a soil-collecting mechanism with minimum weight
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and power consumption was also taken into consideration. The soil-collecting mechanism of the automated probe Luna-16 fully ensured the fulfilment of the tasks of drilling, transportation of the soil samples from the lunar surface to the container of the recovery vehicle, and their insertion into the container. On the automated probe Luna-i6 were fixed the pennant and the national emblem of the Soviet Union. The pennant, made in the form of a thin rectangular metallic plate, was fixed on the landing stage. On the front was the inscription: "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" and also the Soviet emblem; on the other side in the right hand side margin was an inscription: "Luna-i6, September 1970", while on the rest of the area was depicted the start of the rocket from the moon, its moon-earth route, and the earth with the outlines of the Soviet territory where the landing site of the recovery vehicle was marked. The State symbol, in the form of a pentagon, was fixed on the recovery vehicle. On the front was the inscription "USSR" and the emblem, of the Soviet Union. In the center of the pentagon, the probe Luna-i6 was depicted collecting the lunar soil according to program. There was an inscription "Luna-i6, September 1970, EARTH-MOON-EARTH" in a frame. Course of fulfilment of flight program. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe can be subdivided into the following m?.in phases: start and flight to moon, work on its surface, return to earth (Fig. 29).

Start from lunar surface Path of Moon-Earth flight Flight into AES orbit \i Maneuvering in near-moon orbit

Introduction into AES orbit I
Separation of recovery vehicle from rocket

Braking and entry into ALS orbit

X
Boos

Path of Earth-Moon flight

Fig. 29. A schematic diagram of the flight of the automated probe Luna-16.
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Start and flight to moon. The automated probe Luna-16 was launched on September 12, 1970. It was introduced into orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the help of a carrier-rocket which was more powerful than the one used for the launching of the automated probes Luna-g and Luna-13. According to the trajectorial measurements, the parameters of the intermediate near-orbit, from which the probe Luna-16 started for the moon, were as follows: maximum distance from the earth—212.2 kilometers; inclination to the equatorial plane—51 degrees 36 minutes. The engine of the last stage of the carrier-rocket was put into operation on a signal from the space-borne programer 70 minutes after the start. It imparted to the probe additional velocity and thus the probe could enter the flight trajectory toward the moon. One of the planned corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe—-for ensuring its accurate entry into the precalculated region of the near-moon space—was carried out on the way to the moon. Theinitial data for the trajectory correction—-the magnitude and direction of the corrective impulse and the time of switching on the engine—was calculated by the coordination and computation center on the basis of the results of the trajectorial measurements. This data was transmitted by radio to the probe in the form of special codograms in one of the sessions of communication and was "put" in the data storage block of the programer. In the beginning of the process of correction, the probe—with the help of the control system and the optical sensors of the orientation system—was accurately orientated in space with respect to the earth and sun in such a way that it occupied the position necessary for the correction. After the completion of all the preparatory operations, on September 13, 1970, the engine was put into operation on a signal from the control system, which functioned for a predetermined 6.4 seconds and imparted the necessary corrective impulse to the probe. The trajectorial measurements taken after the operation showed that the probe would reach the calculated point in near-moon space very accurately. Hence there was no need to carry out the second correction. This correction was meant for the elimination of the slight deviation of the flight path of the probe from the designed trajectory. To get an idea about the exceptionally high accuracy required in the work of the systems on board, it is sufficient to realize that a deviation of i meter per second from the calculated velocity at the moment the engine of the last stage is switched on (which is only about o.oi % of this velocity) would lead to a deviation of about 300 kilometers near the moon. When the probe reached the predetermined area in near-moon space, the preliminary work was carried out, and the engine of the landing stage was put into operation for the second time, to decrease the velocity of approach to the moon and to transfer the probe into an orbit of a lunar
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I

satellite. Here, high accuracy was necessary in the orientation of the probe and the magnitude of the braking impulse. For accomplishing this task, the engine was put into operation on September 17, at 0238 hours. The probe entered a selenocentric circular orbit at a distance of no kilometers from the lunar surface. Afterward, the complicated task of formation of the prelanding orbit with a low perilune (minimum distance from the lunar surface) was tackled successfully. This orbit was necessary for the creation of optimal conditions for the functioning of the autonomous control systems during the phases of descent and landing of the probe on the lunar surface. For this purpose, two maneuvers were carried out in the course of three days, during which the probe was in a selenocentric orbit. With the help of the first maneuver the form of the orbit was changed. The orbit became elliptical, the height at the perilune being 15 kilometers and at the apolune (the maximum distance from the lunar surface)—-i 10 kilometers. As a result of the second maneuver, the plane of the orbit in space was turned to the necessary position. Now the height at the apolune was 106 kilometers. On September 20, at 0606 hours, started one of the most responsible phases of the flight of the probe—preparations for accomplishing soft-landing on the lunar surface. In the course of the preparatory operations, from 0641 hours to 0731 hours, the probe was situated behind the lunar disc and radio communications could not be maintained with it. After a number of operations for the orientation of the probe and programed turnings, at 0812 hours, the engine of the landing stage was put into operation, as a result of which the velocity of the probe was decreased to a value at which the descent started. In this process the probe was maintained in the required position by the stabilizing organs of the control system. After attaining a definite height and vertical descent velocity, which were continuously being measured by the space-borne Dopplar velocity sensor and the altimeter, the engine of the landing stage was once again put into operation. At a height of 20 meters, the velocity of the probe decreased to about 2.5 meters per second. At this height above the lunar surface, the main engine of the probe was switched off and the two low-thrust engines were put into operation. These two engines were switched off on a signal from the gamma altimeter when the probe was very close to the lunar surface. The soft-landing of the probe was accomplished at 0818 hours on September 20, 1970, in the region of the Sea of Plenty, at a point with the following coordinates: o degree 41 minutes, southern latitude and 56 degrees 18 minutes, eastern longitude (Fig. 30). Here, the actual deviation from the center of the selected area was insignificant. The work of the ground command-measurement complex was very important for the successful accomplishment of the flight program of the
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Fig. 30. The site of lunar landing of the Luna-16 probe.

Luna-i6 probe. The data of the trajectorial measurements, systematically being made by the devices of the center for remote space communications, were uninterruptedly processed by electronic computers. This enabled the accurate determination of the parameters of the flight trajectory of the Luna-i6 probe at all stages of its flight, and helped to calculate and control
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the maneuvers in near-moon orbit and to predict and determine more accurately the coordinates of the points of landing on the moon and on the earth. The reliable functioning of the automatic systems on board the Luna-i6 probe, the well-coordinated work of the measuring devices, and the accurate control of the flight ensured the landing of the probe within the predetermined limits of the area on the surface of the moon, and afterward, the safe return of the vehicle containing samples of lunar soil to a predetermined area in Soviet territory. Work on the lunar surface. After landing on the lunar surface, the spaceborne radio complex was put into action on a signal from the earth. An analysis of the information received showed that the probe as a whole, including its different systems, behaved normally. The position of the probe on the lunar surface was also determined. Then a signal was given to the probe for operating the soil-collecting mechanism. The lock holding the soil-collecting mechanism in the course of the flight of the probe was opened, and the bar with the drilling machine —-under the action of one of the driving mechanisms—took a vertical position. On a signal from the earth, the cameras of the telephotometers were put into operation, transmitting to the earth a telecast of the drilling site. Then, under the action of another driving mechanism, the bar rotated around the vertical axis by 180 degrees, so that when the bar became horizontal, the active part of the drilling machine faced the lunar surface. At this very moment, a signal from the earth fired the mechanism for opening the cover of the drilling machine. The bar was lowered till the drilling machine touched the lunar surface. On another signal from the earth the machine started drilling. The drilling and the extraction of the soil was carried out by a special drill. It had a hollow tube with cutters at the end. Simultaneously with the drilling, the impenetrability of the rocks was also determined. The velocity of deepening of the drill into the lunar rocks was controlled from the earth. When the drilling was over, the drill with the lunar rocks was put into the body of the drilling machine. The driving mechanism of the bar of the soilcollecting device was again switched on. The bar became vertical and turned by 180 degrees around its axis. The drill was brought close to the intake hole of the hermetic container of the recovery vehicle. On the next signal from the earth, the drill with lunar rocks was put into the container. Automatically the intake hole of the container of the recovery vehicle was sealed hermetically. Besides accomplishing the main task of collection of lunar soil, the temperature of the components of the probe and the level of radiation on the lunar surface were also measured and the results were transmitted to the earth. The next stage of the work envisaged the preparation for the start of the Moon-Earth rocket. Here the required magnitude of velocity which the
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rocket must attain while flying from the moon, was "put" into the data-storage device of the control system of the rocket. The Moon-Earth rocket took off at 1043 hours on September 21, 1970, on receiving a signal from the earth. Return to the earth. When the rocket attained the required velocity of 2,708 meters per second, the engine was switched off and the rocket with the recovery vehicle started moving fast toward the earth. Its flight took place along a ballistic trajectory. The correction of the trajectory while returning was not envisaged. In the course of the flight of the rocket toward the earth, the center for remote space communications regularly conducted trajectorial measurements. On the basis of the results of these measurements, the landing site of the recovery vehicle in Kazakhstan territory was determined more accurately. When the rocket approached the earth on September 24, at 0450 hours, at a signal from the earth, the recovery vehicle was separated from the instrument compartment of the outer space rocket, and at 081 o hours it entered the dense atmospheric layers of the earth. The velocity at the time of entry was slightly more than 11 kilometers per second. The vehicle turned head-on toward the incoming flux of air. The damping device kept the vehicle in this position, thus ensuring the most suitable regime for the deceleration of the recovery vehicle in the atmosphere. The maximum acceleration forces acting on the recovery vehicle at the time of aerodynamic deceleration reached up to 350 units. The temperature of the boundary layer in this process exceeded 10 thousand degrees centigrade. In the process of increase of the acceleration forces, the programer and command sensors of the acceleration forces and pressure are switched on. When the maximum temperature and acceleration forces passed, the acceleration forces' sensor gave a signal for the removal of the cover of the parachute compartment. The deceleration parachute was opened when the descent velocity was 300 meters per second and the height was 14.5 kilometers. Afterward, on a signal from the barometric sensor, at a height of about 11 kilometers, the deceleration parachute separated, and the main parachute opened. Simultaneously, the direction-finding radio transmitters were switched on. At 0814 hours, the airplanes and helicopters of the search group, concentrated in the predetermined area, received radio signals and observed the descent of the vehicle. A helicopter accompanied it to the landing. At 0826 hours the recovery vehicle landed on the earth, 80 kilometers southeast of the town Dzhezkazgan. A preliminary checkup showed that the vehicle endured well the conditions of space flight. The recovery vehicle (Fig. 31) with the samples of lunar rocks was brought to Moscow, and the container with the soil was handed over to the USSR Academy of Sciences.
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The flight of the Luna-16 probe was covered by a well-spread network of ground measurement posts over Soviet territory and also by the ships of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe was controlled from the center for remote space communications. The personnel of the launching, ground command-measurement and search complexes ensured the accurate working and coordination throughout the course of the flight of the probe. Lunar soil on the earth. The hermetic container with lunar soil, having been taken out of the recovery vehicle, was brought lo the special laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences and placed in the suction chamber. Before putting it into the chamber, dosimetric measurements were conducted and the whole container was carefully sterilized. The suction chamber was equipped with devices for opening the container. All these operations were carried out in a controllable gaseous atmosphere, observing conditions of sterility. After the samples were set, a high vacuum was created in the chamber with the help of non-oily methods of evacuation. Then the chamber was filled with a pure inert gas (helium) till the pressure inside was equal to the atmospheric pressure. Thus the possibility of reaction of the lunar matter with such elements of our atmosphere as oxygen, water and products of sterilization was excluded. Their presence could have irreversibly changed the characteristics of the lunar soil. The container was opened and the drill was removed from it by an operator, standing outside the suction chamber. The operator used sterilized instruments, kept in the chamber beforehand. The drill, on being taken out of the container, was found to be covered with a thin layer of lunar dust. The matter taken out of the drill was put in a surveying tray, retaining the distribution of the sample according to depth. Then the lunar soil was observed and photographed through the optical glass windows of the chamber. Photographs were taken a number of times, at various angles, with various exposures and magnifications. The samples mainly consist of fine-grained mineral particles. The color of the soil in bulk is gray. The external form of the lunar soil brought from the region of the Sea of Plenty indicates its friable structure and appreciable cohesion between particles. Dosimetric measurements did not indicate any considerable excess of the intensity of gamma-radiation of lunar soil over the intensity of gammaradiation of rocks on the earth with small contents of natural radioactive elements. For further detailed study, the lunar soil will be packed in special containers and handed over to specialized institutes and laboratories. The containers will be taken out of the chamber through a locking device, ensuring main288

Fig. 31. Container with samples of lunar rocks.

tenance of the inert atmosphere surrounding the lunar samples. Till the results of the toxicological and biological analyses are obtained, the lunar soil will undergo a period of quarantine in the suction chamber. Afterward, the radiational, chemical, physicomechanical, thermophysical and other characteristics of the lunar soil will be studied. Results of these investigations will be published in scientific journals.

An important experiment in the Soviet space program has been completed, opening new prospects in the study of the planets of the solar system. For the first time in the history of space conquest, an absolutely new flight mission of an automated space vehicle collecting soil from a heavenly body and returning it to the earth, has been accomplished. Besides the success of the flight, the delivery of the lunar soil to the earth is of great importance. For the study of the origin and evolution of the solar
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system it is very important to determine the composition of the matter which forms the different heavenly bodies. Scientists have studied sufficiently well the composition of the surface layer of the earth and the composition of small bodies, meteorites, which fall on the earth by chance. Today's burning problem is the study of the composition of other objects in the solar system. The successful flight of the Luna-16 probe prepares the ground for the wider use of automated probes for the systematic study of the heavenly bodies by reliable and economical means. In the course of the flight, valuable data has been obtained about the working capacity of the new design and its high quality. This will help in the creation of new types of space vehicles in the near future. The Soviet scientists, engineers and workers—creators of the automated probe Luna-16—have dedicated this new outstanding achievement of our country to an important event in the life of our people—-the forthcoming 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
(TASS) Pravda, October 4, 1970

PRESS CONFERENCE DEVOTED TO THE SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT OF THE AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i6 AND ITS DELIVERY OF LUNAR SOIL TO EARTH The unique space experiment, conducted during the flight of the automated probe Luna-16 roused great interest throughout the world. A press conference, devoted to this outstanding event was held on October 28 in the Moscow House of Scientists. Over the stage of the conference hall there was a several-meter-long photograph of the trophy won by Soviet science—the photograph of the lunar soil. On sides there were big placards with a diagram of the construction of the celebrated probe Luna-i6 and the phases of its flight on the earth-moon-earth route. Hundreds of Soviet and foreign journalists, representatives of the people, engineers and scientists came to hear the story of the flight of an automated space vehicle which took samples of the lunar soil and brought them back to the earth, and to hear about the results of the preliminary investigations of these samples. The press conference was opened by M.V. Keldysh, President of the USSR Academy of Science.
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Speech by M.V. Keldysh: Most important phase in exploration of the moon and planets

The Soviet automated probe Luna-i6 was launched on September 12, 1970. The probe made a soft-landing in the region of the Sea of Plenty, drilled and collected lunar soil and with the help of an outer space rocket, which started from the moon, ensured the delivery of the recovery vehicle containing the lunar soil to the earth. The flight of the Luna-i6 probe has made it possible to solve the most complicated scientific and technical problem of astronautics, namely, the collection of samples of hard rocks from a heavenly body of the solar system by an automated device and the delivery of these samples on the earth. The moon occupies a special place in the general program of space research. Firstly because of its nearness to the earth. Explorations of physical conditions on the moon, its relief, composition and characteristics of its soil for scientific purposes, especially for solving astronautical problems, have put the moon among the most important objects for intense study by means of rocket-space technology. A number of important stages in the exploration of the moon and nearmoon space were covered during the last twelve years. The automated probes of the Luna and %pnd series carried out an extensive program of scientific investigations of our natural satellite. They have given important information about the absence of any substantial magnetic field or radiational belt near the moon, and photographed the hidden side of the moon. This has enabled the scientists to draw a map of both hemispheres of the moon and make the first lunar globe. A new stage in the study of the nature of the moon was started in February 1966, when the automated probe Luna-g successfully accomplished a softlanding on the eastern part of the Ocean of Storms. The probe transmitted to the earth a panorama of the lunar landscape, which made it possible for the first time to see closely the finest details of the lunar surface, appraise the nature of the macrostructure and the strength of the lunar soil. Investigations of the density and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, conducted by the probe Luna-13, were of great importance for the designing of the future lunar space vehicles. Extensive investigations of the moon and near-moon space were conducted in the course of the flights of artificial lunar satellite. Results of the measurements made by the probes Luna-io and Luna-12 made it possible for the first time to establish that there are rocks on the moon which are close in composition to the widely spread igneous basalt-type rocks in the crust of the earth. Important information about the moon was transmitted by the American automated probes also.
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In the course of the flights of the automated probes to the moon, work was done on the further improvement of various elements of design, the systems on board and the devices of the ground command-measurement complex. The task of recovery of space vehicles, which enter the atmosphere at planet-escape velocity, was accomplished for the first time with the help of the automated probe ^ond. Yesterday another space experiment was completed successfully: the Zond-8 probe launched on October 20 has returned to the earth. In the process of this experiment, physical investigations were conducted on the flight path and good quality photographs of the moon and the earth were taken from different distances. A new variant of the ballistic entry of the space vehicle into the atmosphere from the northern hemisphere was tested. Here, the object in the final phase of the trajectory, can be controlled by means of the ground-measurement complex, spread over the Soviet territory. This ensures a much more accurate landing. %pnd-8 splashed down in a predetermined area in the Indian Ocean, very close to the calculated point. The American astronauts accomplished two moon visits in the Apollo spacecraft. They helped solve the problems connected with the landing of man on the moon. The first samples of the lunar rocks were also brought to the earth. This was a new stage in the field of lunar exploration. The successful flights of the Luna and %ond probes, as well as that of the Venera probes, have shown that at this stage many scientific problems concerning the study of the moon and planets can be solved with the help of automated devices, which have proved their worth several times. The Soviet scientists and designers had before them the task of perfecting automated space vehicles and solving new problems with their help. The progressive attitude of Soviet science toward automated control and the high level of our socialist industry enabled the construction of an automated probe of a new type, which can carry out a number of important tasks and return to the earth. The flight of the automated probe Luna-16 demonstrated at all stages the reliability in the functioning of the assemblies and systems of the vehicle and the efficiency of the new, most accurate methods of remote control of space vehicles. The probe started for the moon from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. High accuracy in its introduction into the flight trajectory toward the moon made it possible for the probe to pass through the predetermined point in the near-moon space with one correction. Afterward, by carrying out complicated maneuvers, the task of forming a prelanding orbit was accomplished successfully. The soft-landing of the probe Luna-16 was carried out in the predetermined region of the Sea of the Plenty with a deviation of only 1.5 kilometers from the calculated point. On the surface of the moon, the soil-collecting mechanism—a unique mechanism which, through a number of manipulations, ensured the contact
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of the electric drill with the lunar surface, drilling to a depth of 35 cm, collection of soil and its insertion into the container of the recovery vehicle—was put into operation on a signal from the earth. Besides this main task, on the lunar surface radiational measurements were made and all the parameters of the probe and the functioning of the systems on board were checked. After completing the planned operations as per program, the outer-space rocket with the recovery vehicle took off from the moon. An automatic launching of a rocket from another heavenly body of the solar system and the injection of the automated vehicle into the trajectory back to the earth were accomplished for the first time. Accurate launching ensured the flight of the recovery vehicle to the earth, without any correction, along a ballistic trajectory, the entry of the vehicle into the atmosphere through a calculated entry corridor and its highly accurate landing in the prefixed area of the Soviet territory. Thus the lunar soil was delivered to the earth safely. The collected soil sample consists of fine-grained matter with small pieces of rocks and minerals. The number of large grains increases with the depth. As it is, the lunar soil looks like a dark-gray powder, resembling dark cement, but its color changes considerably with the light. The matter easily sticks together and forms small clumps. The grains effused rocks contained in the sample possess a strong glance and shine brightly in the background of the powder. Under a microscope, minerals of greenish and brown color with marks of fracture are easily distinguished among crystalline grains. Mostly, the pieces of rocks belong to different varieties of basalt. The structural characteristics of the lunar matter cause certain differences in its physical properties as compared to the earthly rocks. For example, the density of the matter depends greatly upon the nature of compaction and varies approximately from one to two grams per cubic centimeter. An interesting peculiarity is that in spite of a relatively high density, the lunar matter has very low thermal conductivity in vacuum, approximately 10 times less than that of air. Obviously, these are some of the most preliminary results. Academician A.P. Vinogradov will tell you about these results in more detail. At present, multiple investigations of the lunar soil are being conducted, which include the study of its chemical, physicomechanical, mineralogical, optical, electromagnetic and other characteristics. The results of these investigations will be published in scientific journals. So far as the moon is concerned, taking samples of soil from its different regions is of substantial interest for science. Here, the problem of the origin of the moon is very closely connected with the problem of the origin of the solar system. Thus, the study of the physical characteristics and chemical composition of the rocks from different regions of the moon and the determination of the age of the moon will be important for the solution of fundamental problems of natural science. Already several years ago, the Soviet Union took the general decision
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to study outer space with the help of orbital stations and automated vehicles for the investigation of the moon and the planets of the solar system. The successful flight of the Lunar-16 probe creates the basis for a more extensive use of the automated vehicles in the study of outer space. The automatic machines are capable of making a wide range of investigations—-right from the first, 'probing' information to the systematic and deep study of heavenly bodies and physical processes in outer space and at less cost. The Soviet space program is characterized by a rational combination of automated as well as manned devices for the study of the universe. Astronautics has complicated tasks before it. The sphere of space research is constantly widening, covering regions of the solar system further and further away from the earth. Hence the need for purposeful direction and economy in collecting scientific information is very important. In the future we shall widely use automatic machines as efficient and economical instruments. The flight of the automated probe Luna-16 marks a new and important stage in the study of not only the moon, but of the planets of the solar system also. Determination of the composition of matter is very important for science. Scientists have studied sufficiently well the composition of the surface layer of the earth, as well as the composition of small bodies, like meteorites, which fall on the earth by chance. Today's burning problem is the study of the composition of other objects in the solar system.
Speech by V.E. Ishevskii: Earth-moon-earth flight

The flight of the automated probe Luna-i6 has laid the foundation for the solution of an absolutely new scientific and technical problem: the taking of samples of soil from other heavenly bodies of the solar system and the conducting of other investigations, whose results can be delivered to the earth without the direct participation of man. On the lunar surface, a set of scientific experiments was to be conducted and the main task—-the taking of samples of lunar soil from different depths with the help of a special drilling device—was to be accomplished. No less important was the preparation for the launching of the MoonEarth rocket. Here, the position of the probe with respect to the local lunar vertical was to be determined, the required magnitude of the velocity boost of the Moon-Earth rocket was to be put into the data-storage device of the control system and the whole logical scheme—ensuring the proper order of operations, magnitudes of parameters and their characteristics for the start of the rocket from the moon—-was to be made ready. The flight to the earth took place along a ballistic trajectory. In this process, the systems on board the rocket were constantly checked,
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trajectory measurements were conducted and the distance was measured. The data received was processed in the center for remote space communications. When the vehicle approached the earth, the recovery vehicle was to be separated from the rocket with the help of radio channels. And, the final stage was the entry into the dense atmospheric layers of the earth and smooth landing. The design of the automated probe Luna-i6, its systems and devices ensured the accomplishment of these tasks. The automated probe Luna-16 consists of the landing stage with the soilcollecting mechanism and the outer space Moon-Earth rocket with the recovery vehicle. The landing stage, which is an autonomous rocket unit, is meant for carrying out a number of dynamic operations. The following operations were carried out with the help of the main engine of the landing stage: corrections of the trajectory of the probe while approaching the moon, deceleration for its entry into orbit as an artificial lunar satellite, maneuvers in this orbit, second deceleration for leaving the orbit and soft-landing on the surface of the moon. The landing stage had two independent lowthrust rocket engines, which worked during the final phase of the landing. The landing stage has shock-proof bearings for landing on lunar surface. The landing stage serves also as the launching device for the Moon-Earth rocket. The soil-collecting mechanism fixed on the landing stage, consists of three main parts: drilling machine; bar, on which the drilling machine is fixed; electric driving mechanisms, which ensure the movement of the soil-collecting mechanism along the three axes. The drilling machine is meant for the drilling and collection of soil of different degrees of impenetrability. In the upper part of the landing stage the independent Moon-Earth rocket unit is fixed. The rocket consists of a liquid propellant rocket engine, fuel tanks and the instrument compartment, which contains electronic, computing and gyroscopic instruments of the rocket control system, spaceborne radio equipment, power supplies and electrical instruments of the space-borne automatic machines. Over the instrument compartment of the Moon-Earth rocket is fitted the spherical recovery vehicle. The vehicle is divided into three compartments: instrument, parachute and 'lunar soil' compartments. The instrument compartment contains radio direction-finding transmitters, which ensure the detection of the recovery vehicle during its descent by parachute and on reaching the earth, elements of automatic machines and the space-borne programer, which controls the operation of the parachute system. In the parachute compartment there are the deceleration parachute and the main parachute, as well as the two gas-filled tanks which ensure the required position of the recovery vehicle after landing on the earth.
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It also accommodates the antennas of the direction-finding transmitters which open at the time of jettisoning the cover of the parachute compartment. The third compartment is a cylindrical container for the samples of lunar soil. The container has a charging hatch, which is hermetically closed by a special cover. The Luna-i6 probe was introduced into an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite with the help of a carrier-rocket, more powerful than the one used for the launching of the automated probes Luna-g and Luna-i^. Within 70 minutes of launching, the engine of the last stage of the carrier-rocket was switched on, as a result of which additional velocity was imparted to the probe and it entered the flight trajectory toward the moon. Because of the accurate launching of the probe into the designated trajectory, one of the two planned corrections on the earth-moon flight path was dropped. Four days after launching, the probe reached the predetermined point in near-moon space, and after orientation, the engine of the launching stage was switched on. The braking impulse received by the probe, transferred it to a circular selenocentric orbit at a distance of 11 o kilometers from the lunar surface: When the probe was in the selenocentric orbit, the pre-landing orbit was entered with a height of 15 kilometers at perilune and 110 kilometers at apolune. For this purpose maneuvering was done so as to change the form and inclination of the orbit. After preliminary operations, including the orientation and the programed turning, at 0812 hours on September 20 the engine of the landing stage was switched on and the probe started descending. In this process the probe was held in the strictly fixed position by the stabilizing organs of the control systems. The height and velocity of descent were continuously measured in this process by the radar altimeter and Doppler velocity sensor. When a certain height was attained, the engine of the landing stage was again switched on. At a height of 20 meters above the lunar surface, the main engine was switched off and further deceleration was achieved with the help of low-thrust engines. When the pedestal of the landing stage touched the lunar surface, the velocity of the probe was almost zero. After the information received had shown that the systems on board were in normal condition and after the position of the probe on the lunar surface was determined, the operators of the flight control post started their work with the soil-collecting mechanism. The lock holding the soilcollecting device was rotated by 180 degrees, so that when the bar was brought to the horizontal position the working part of the body of the drilling machine was directed toward the lunar surface. Then the bar was dropped till contact with the lunar surface was established. All these operations were controlled through telemetry.
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The drilling and soil collection was done by a special drill, which was a hollow cylinder with blades at the end. The rate of drilling into the rocks was also controlled from the earth, which enabled the strength of soil at the drilling site to be determined. After the drilling was over, the drill with the lunar soil was taken into the container and separated from the drilling machine. The container with the lunar soil was hermetically closed and the bar with the drilling machine was removed from the recovery vehicle. Now began the preparations for the start of the Moon-Earth rocket. The magnitude of the velocity to be attained by the rocket while taking off from the moon and other parameters were transmitted to the rocket. The flight of the Moon-Earth rocket with the recovery vehicle toward the earth took place along a ballistic trajectory without correction. The trajectory measurements, made by the center for remote space communications as the vehicle approached the earth, enabled more correctly the determination of the landing site. Near the earth, the recovery vehicle was separated from the instrument compartment of the outer-space rocket and about 3 hours after separation it entered the dense atmospheric layers of the earth. In the course of its movement in the earth's atmosphere, the vehicle was orientated in such a way that the incoming air flux ran across its front which was most effectively protected against the action of high temperatures. In spite of high acceleration forces, which attained 350 units, all the instruments of the recovery vehicle worked faultlessly. The deceleration parachute opened at 14.5 kilometers, followed by the main parachute. Simultaneously, the direction-finding transmitters were switched on. The vehicle was detected by a search and rescue group, while still descending. The recovery vehicle landed on the earth on September 24, at 0826 hours, in a predetermined area, about 80 kilometers southeast of the town Dzhezkazgan. The successful accomplishment of the mission of bringing lunar soil to the earth with the help of an automated probe and the superb performance of all the systems and devices, which had no breakdown throughout the course of the flight, was prepared for on earth by the enormous amount of work on the perfecting of the units and systems on board, under conditions close to those of actual space flight, namely: vacuum, weightlessness, temperature drops, vibrations, large acceleration forces, lunar gravitation, etc. In addition to the versatility of the automated probe's exploratory potential and its economic advantages over manned spacecraft, it has the ability to work under conditions not yet accessible to man.
Speech by A.P. Vinogradov: Preliminary results of study of lunar soil

I shall report some preliminary data about the lunar soil brought by the automated probe Luna-i6. The soil sample was taken from the north297

eastern part of the Sea of Plenty at a point having the following coordinates: o degree 41 minutes southern latitude and 56 degrees 18 minutes eastern longitude. It was situated about 100 kilometers west of Webb Crater. The Sea of Plenty has traces of relatively slow sinking, the shores do not have a mountainous ring and have a jagged outline. It is like a plain with low (100-300 meters) ramified-type swells. There are no radial systems of large craters, in this region. The samples characterize a new sea area of the lunar surface, situated about 900 kilometers east of the landing site of Apollo-n. In the process of work, the drill went relatively easily into the friable layer of the moon soil or the regolith. The latter term, coined at the end of the last century, denotes the friable surface material, independent of the circumstances of its formation. After going in a certain depth, the drill struck against some hard rock or against a large fragment of rock. Further deepening of the drill did not exceed 5 millimeters which is confirmed by a checkup of the drilling column. The sample brought to the reception laboratory, went through dosimetric, biological and toxicological tests, which, taking into consideration the earlier data, was unnecessary. The column of friable lunar soil (regolith) completely filled the drill. When taken to the reception tray, it did not have visible stratification and looked homogeneous. Only a small part of the soil near the blades, at a depth of 35 centimeters, consisted of more thick-grained material. The total weight of the soil column of Luna-i 6 was slightly more than 100 grams. The soil (regolith) on the whole is a dark gray (blackish) multigranular powder, which is easily molded and sticks together into isolated friable lumps. This characteristic substantially distinguishes it from the terrestrial formless soil, despite the predominance of fine-grained fractions, the average size of the grain being 0.08-0. i millimeters. In this aspect, the lunar soil is more similar to the wet sand or the clotted structure of our soil. All kinds of marks are easily printed on the lunar soil. In the panorama one can see the imprints of semicircular form. The soil can easily stand as a vertical wall. For example, when poured through a funnel as a small heap of 2 centimeter height near a vertically placed glass wall, it retained its imprint without scattering and formed a natural 45 degree slope. In spite of its good adherence, it is easily sifted through sieves. It is interesting to note the high electrifying capacity of the lunar soil, which is revealed, for example, by the sticking of its particles to the surfaces of organic glass and polyfluoroethylene resin etc. The size of soil grains increases with the depth. On the basis of this criterion we can form zones, gradually replacing each other. Let us call them zones A, B, C, D and E. Zones A and B are made of fine-grained material with low content of
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larger fractions—from o to 15 centimeters of the column length. Zones C and D are made of mixed-grain material which includes pieces of rocks and other particles of size more than three millimeters—from 15 to 33 centimeters of column length. Zone E is made of large-grained material—from 33 to 35 centimeters of column length. To zone A belongs the most friable surface layer (0-5 centimeters). Its characteristics determine the main optical characteristics of the lunar surface and correspond to high porosity of the surface structure. Probably, the thickness of the most friable layer varies from place to place, but the average volumetric weight for the 5 centimeter layer has been determined, according to the Luna-is data, as 0.8 grams per cubic centimeter and this can be presumed to be true for the landing site of Luna-16 also. On the moon there was hard rock or its fragments below the column (layer F). The average size of the particles of less than i millimeter size varies in the column from 70 microns in its upper part to 120 microns in the lower part. The average volumetric weight of the soil in its natural occurrence for the depth of insertion of the drill has been calculated to be 1.2 grams per cubic centimeter. When the soil was freely poured into the graduated cylinder, the bulk density was of the same order, while after shaking, it was 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter. In this way the average porosity of the lunar soil for a depth of 35 centimeters was found out to be 50-60%. As has already been said, the lunar soil has dark gray or blackish color. A visual appraisal of its luminosity turned out to be quite difficult because its luminosity strongly changes with the relative position of the light source and the observer's eye. This typical characteristic of the lunar soil is exhibited in a peculiar form of the indices of scattering for different wave lengths and the angles of light falling on it. The deciding factor here is the structure of the surface and the reflecting properties of the glazed particles forming it. The normal albedo, determined with the help of instruments, varies from 8.6% for the ultraviolet range of the spectrum to 12.6% for the near infrared, while for the visible light it is 10.7%. This value corresponds to a soil slightly more luminescent than that typical for the lunar seas in general, but is close to the terrestrial albedo measurements of the Sea of Plenty. The color of the soil called forth several contradictory appraisals of the observers, who sometimes called it greenish and sometimes brownish. This is explained by the fact that because of the peculiarity detected in its properties of reflection and scattering at angles close to the normal, a greenish tinge appears. Increase in the viewing angle leads to the emergence of a reddish-brown tinge. The difference in the perception of color increases with the increase in angle of the light falling on the surface of the soil. It is possible that the visual impression of different tinges arises because of the
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presence of greenish as well as brownish grains of glass and minerals in the soil. When a microscopic study is made, a number of varieties can be distinguished among the particles of the lunar soil, some of which substantially differ from the formations on the earth. One can distinguish two main groups: particles of primary magnitude rocks (basalt type) and particles which have undergone considerable transformations on the lunar surface. The first of these are characterized by an astonishingly fresh look, which is observed on the earth only in freshly granulated stationary rocks. They have almost no signs of toughness and have angular forms. On the other hand, there is a large number of splintered particles of complicated, unusual form, often vitrified on the surface, and a considerable number of spherical, fused formation—cooled droplets—which look like glass or minerals and are similar to the "space beads" met with on the earth. The following groups of particles among the larger fractions have been distinguished and are being studied. Basalt rocks. Among these one can distinguish two types, characterizing the conditions of cooling of the basalt melt: fine-grained basalts and large crystalline gabbroid basalts. Approximately a quarter of all the large grain fractions are of this type. Mainly these rocks consist of plagioclase, pyroxene, ilmenite and olivine. In different particles their relative contents change substantially. Feldspar rocks (anorthosites). These are white, polycrystalline grains, in insignificant number. They are interesting, because some of the investigators consider them to be representatives of the mainland rocks of the moon, which are scattered over considerable distances. Grains of isolated minerals. Among the monomineral grains, plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and ilmenite (i.e. the main minerals of the basalt rocks) have been identified. Their number among the large fractions is not large, but it increases with the decrease of the size of the particles. Cooled droplets—-beads and similar formations. In the soil one comes across glass beads, pear-shaped and dumbbell-shaped cooled droplets of different colors: transparent, turbid-white, greenish, yellow-brown and opaque; and often hollow. Their shine varies from glass-like to metal-like. The number of these formations increased in small fractions. They are formed in the process of their spraying in the melted form at temperatures substantially higher than the temperatures of melting of rocks and meteorites. Breccia. These are cemented and lithified rocks formed as a result of molding of finely granulated material of regolith and contain all its components, including the primary magmatic rocks, in different proportions. In some breccia rocks, a round form of the particles as well as a weak molding —which leads to easy destruction of such particles with mechanical action—is observed. A characteristic feature of many breccia is their magnetizability.
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Breccia forms about 40% of the total number of particles. Sintered mass. These are fine sintered particles which form assemblies of very complicated, irregular, dendritic form. As in the case of breccia, they are also composed of all kinds of particles. The number of sintered particles is about 15-20% of the total number of particles. These are observed normally in large fractions only. The breccia and sintered particles are interesting, since they show that on the lunar surface, simultaneously with the processes of breaking and granulation of the rocks, the process of consolidation of particles is also taking place. It must be stressed that some tenacity of the lunar soil was known earlier also. However, among the reasons for such characteristics, probably the complex form of the soil particles was not fully appreciated. Obviously, purely mechanical adhesion of particles, which enables the formation of separate clotted assemblies, is explained by the peculiarities of the form of the particles and the specific character of their surface. Glasses, vitrified and scorified particles. Among all types of particles of lunar rocks, more than half are fused or scorified from one or more sides. The color of the glass formed depends upon the composition of the fused particles. The particles of tones from brown to black dominate. One comes across blistered, dull fire-polishing, as well as smooth, glazed vitrification. This typically lunar glazing can take place only during instantaneous heating of an altogether cold particle, which distinguishes such vitrification from, say, the volocanic glasses. The glass of volcanic origin (volcanic ash) is a type of brownish, largely blistered, completely fused grains with typical conchoidal fractures, which could be formed by the breaking of comparatively large masses of melted rocks. The total number of glasses of this type is not large. It must be noted that the contents of different morphological types of particles change with the depth of the column. As we go deeper, the relative contents of the sintered mass and the scorified particles decrease while the number of gabbroid-type basalt particles increases. This may indicate the composition of the primary rocks in the landing area. Particles of metallic iron are occasionally found in the form of isolated splinters of, probably, iron meteorites, as in theformof components of breccia and sintered mass. They determine the main magnetic properties of the lunar regolith. The mechanical, electromagnetic and thermophysical properties of the soil are being studied. For example, the transmission of heat through a layer of lunar matter under the conditions of outer space vacuum takes place through radiation and contact heat transfer. Measurements have shown that the specific heat of the soil does not depend on the density of covering, and on an average, corresponds to the rocks on the earth, but
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the thermal conductivity is characterized by extremely low magnitudes, much less than those of the best heat insulating materials on the earth. At present, the chemical composition of different fractions of the soil is being determined. According to the chemical composition, the soil matter represents granulated basalt-type rocks. As early as 1966, on the basis of the Luna-ro data, we had indicated the basaltic nature of the surface layers of the moon.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LUNAR ROCKS

Basalt rocks of Luna- 1 6 Si02 TiO2 A1203 FeO MgO CaO Na20 K20 MnO Cr203 ZrO2

Fine fractions Basalt rocks of Luna- 16 of Apollo- 12

Fine fractions of Apollo- 1 2
42 3-i H '7
13
10

43.8 4-9 13-65 19-35 7-05 10.4 o-33 0.15
0.2

41.7 3-39 I5-32 16.8 8.73
12.2 0-37 0.10 O.2I 0.31
0.015

40

3-7
I 1.2

21-3 II.7 10.7 0-45 0.065 O.26

0.28 0.04

°-55 0.023

0.40 0.18 0.25 0.41 0.09

The table shows some data about the composition of the fine fraction and the pieces of compact rocks brought by Luna-i6 as compared to the data of Apollo-12 samples. One observes a tendency of decrease of several elements in the fine fraction as compared to the compact rocks, as in the case of FeO, TiO2, etc. For others, there is an increase in the fine fraction, especially for A12O3, Th, U, etc. The contents of Th and U are of the same order as for Apollo-i i and Apollo-is; Th of the order of io~4 and U, io~5%. Although the site of the Luna-i6 samples is situated at a distance of 900 kilometers from the Apollo-11 site—-the Sea of Tranquility—-there is considerable difference in the contents of TiO2, ZrO2, rare-earth elements and others, which are less as compared to the Apollo-u site and in FeO which is more. It is interesting that the samples of Luna-16 and Apollo- n have equally high contents of cosmogenic inert gases He, Ar, Xe and Kr, which cannot be compared with the Apollo-12 samples. But at the same time, as one can see from the table, in general composition the Luna-16 samples are closer to the Apollo-is samples, which were taken from the Ocean of Storms at a distance of 2,500 kilometers from the landing site of Luna-i6. But probably the strength of regolith in the region of the Ocean of Storms is insignificant.
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At present we have analyses of 70 chemical elements for the samples of Luna-16, and isotopic analyses. The short-lived radio nuclides in the lunar matter, formed under the action of solar wind, are being analyzed. Thus, the crystalline rocks of the surfaces of the lunar seas are of the same basaltic type, but differ in the content of certain chemical elements. Their composition is close to the composition of primitive basalts on the earth. Lunar seas are plains which were earlier filled with volcanic lava. Basalttype rocks are formed as the easiest fusible part during the zonal fusion of the internal matter of the planet. We can presume that the general process of differentiation of the matter of the earth and the moon, and probably of other planets also, took place in similar ways, although they have attained different stages of development. Matter of these lava seas underwent lunar breaking, and maybe, as it were, "lunar turning inside out." The turning inside out and destruction of rocks on the earth is taking place mainly under the effect of oxygen, water and organisms. There is nothing of this kind on the moon. Absolutely different factors of destruction of rocks are acting on the moon: solar wind, corpuscular cosmic radiation, meteorite blows, substantial vibration of temperature on the surface and outer space vacuum. The task now is to find out which factors are the most important in the process of disintegration of the lunar surface rocks. The collisions of meteorites and micrometeorites, which can strike the moon at high velocity, can destroy the surface rocks of the moon in large quantity, thus intermixing the whole friable material. But it is necessary to find sufficient traces of these meteorites in the lunar soil. The corpuscular radiation undoubtedly acts on lunar rocks and the induced radioactivity etc. emerges. But it does not penetrate deep into the rocks. Finally, maybe, volcanic outbursts on the moon in the outer space vacuum, cause granulation and formation of the ash-like matter. But this is only an assumption so far and needs confirmation. Study of lunar rocks is particularly important for understanding the processes on the earth in the earlier period of its existence. Much work lies ahead. At the end of the press conference M.V. Keldysh and other scientists replied to a number of questions from journalists.
Izvestiya, October 28, 1970

AWARDS FOR SUCCESS IN OUTER SPACE The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, has conferred the title
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of 'Hero of Socialist Labor' upon a group of designers and workers, and awarded USSR Orders and Medals to a large number of workers, who distinguished themselves in the creation and launching of the automated space probe Luna-16. In a decision taken by the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of Ministers, USSR, a Lenin Prize and two USSR State Awards in the field of science and technology have been awarded to the scientists, designers, engineers and workers who created the automated probe Luna-16 which delivered lunar soil to the earth.
Pravda, November 14, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-8 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the Soviet space research program, an automated probe Zpnd-8 was launched in the direction of the moon on October 20, 1970. The automated probe was introduced into a precalculated trajectory from an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. The purpose of the flight is to conduct physical investigations along the flight path, to photograph the moon and earth from various distances and to work on the further improvement of the systems, assemblies, and design of the space vehicle. According to the program, on October 24, ^pnd-8 will fly by the moon and enter the flight trajectory toward the earth, returning to the earth on October 27. The automated probe %pnd-8 is moving along a trajectory close to that calculated. On October 21, at 1000 hours Moscow time, the probe was situated at a distance of 118 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a point on the terrestrial surface with the following coordinates: 27 degrees 5 minutes northern latitude and 8 degrees 54 minutes western longitude. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe. According to the telemetric information, the systems on board, scientific equipment and the assemblies of the probe are functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, October 22, 1970

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT ZOND-8 RETURNS TO EARTH As has already been reported, an automated probe Zpnd-8 was launched in the Soviet Union on October 20, 1970. After a seven-day flight, during which it flew by the moon on October 24, ^ond-8 returned to the earth on October 27. The probe splashed down at 1655 hours Moscow time, in a predetermined area in the Indian Ocean, about 730 kilometers southeast of the Chagos Archipelago. The vehicle was picked up by a ship of the search-rescue service. In order to test one of the possible return variants for space vehicles approaching the earth, ^ond-8 entered the earth's atmosphere from the northern hemisphere. In this process, the ground measurement posts situated in the Soviet territory controlled the approach of the probe to the earth and most of its flight trajectory. Another experiment in outer space has been successfully completed. The envisaged program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments has been fully accomplished.
Pravda, October 28, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i? IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, an automated probe Luna-ly was launched in the Soviet Union on November 10, 1970, at 1744 hours Moscow time. The purpose of the flight is the perfecting of new systems on board and the continuation of the scientific investigations of the moon and near-moon space. The automated probe Luna-ij took off for the moon from the orbit of an artificial earth satellite and entered a trajectory close to the calculated one. On November 11, at 0900 hours Moscow time, the probe was situated at a distance of 139 thousand kilometers from the surface of the earth. According to telemetric information, the systems and assemblies on board the probe are functioning normally. The observation of the probe and the measurement of its coordinates is being carried out by the radio measurement and optical devices of the ground command-measurement complex and astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union.
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The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Praoda, November 12, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE LUNA-i-j IN NEAR-MOON ORBIT As has already been reported, an automated probe Luna-iy was introduced into a flight trajectory toward the moon on November 10, 1970. In the course of the flight on the earth-moon route, 36 radio communications sessions were conducted from the probe, during which the parameters of flight trajectory were measured and the functioning of the systems on board was checked. For the probe to enter the predetermined region of near-moon space, corrections of its flight trajectory were carried out on November 12 and 14. When the probe approached the moon, it decelerated, and entered a selenocentric orbit with the following parameters: height over the surface of the moon — 85 km; orbital inclination to the lunar equatorial plane — 141 deg; lunar orbital period —• i hr 56min. The flight program envisages multiple maneuvering by the probe in the near-moon orbit. The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio communications with the automated probe Luna- ij. According to the telemetric information, the equipment on board is functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, November 16, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY
Lunar self-moving vehicle conducts experiment. Automated investigator is controlled from the earth

On November 17, 1970, at 0647 hours Moscow time, the automated probe Luna-17 accomplished a soft-landing (Fig. 32) on the lunar surface in the region of Sea of Rains.
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Fig. 32. Landing of the automated probe Luna-17 on the surface of the moon.

Fig. 33. Landing stage with Lunokhod-1 on the surface of the moon.

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On the leading stage of the probe is mounted a lunar self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 (Fig. 33). For the first time in the history of astronautics an automated self-moving lunar vehicle has been transported to the moon, and has started scientific investigations. For ensuring the landing of the probe in the predetermined area of the lunar surface on November 16, maneuvering was carried out in near-moon space. The probe entered an elliptical orbit with a minimum distance of 19 kilometers from the lunar surface. The operations of descent from the orbit of an artificial lunar satellite and soft-landing on the lunar surface were accomplished with the help of the unified landing stage. After landing, checking of the systems on board and survey of the lunar surface, on a signal from the earth at 0928 hours Moscow time, the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 emerged from Luna- ij along a special gangway. The self-moving vehicle moves on the lunar surface with the help of an 8-wheel chassis (Fig. 34). Fixed on Lunokhod-1 and the landing stage are flags and plaques depicting the State emblem of the Soviet Union and a bas-relief of Lenin. For conducting scientific investigations on the lunar surface at various

Fig. 34. Testing of Lunokhod-1 on earth, imitating the lunar soil.

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distances from the landing site, and for testing the performance of the vehicle, Lunokhod is equipped with scientific apparatus, instruments and systems for control, radio communications and TV observation (Fig. 35).

Fig. 35. Antenna of Lunokhod-1.

In accordance with the Soviet-French agreement for cooperation in the study and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes, a French reflector for laser location of the moon has been fitted on board Lunokhod. • Lunokhod-1 has moved away from the landing stage to a distance of 2O meters and has started a program of experiments. The movements of Lunokhod-1 are being controlled by the center for remote space communications on the basis of the TV information about the position of the vehicle and the nature of the surrounding lunar surface. According to the telemetric information, the systems on board Lunokhod-1 are functioning normally. Soviet science has obtained a new efficient device for the exploration of the moon with the help of automated vehicles.
Pravda, November 18, 1970

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNOKHOD CONTINUES ITS WORK The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1, after its initial movement on the lunar surface, is continuing the program of scientific and technical investigations near the landing site of the Luna-17 probe. In a radio and TV communications session on November 17, 1970, the systems on board Lunokhod were checked. According to the telemetric information, all the systems of the vehicle are functioning normally. The temperature and pressure in the hermetic container are: temperature—plus i8°C; pressure—780 mm Hg. The telecast of the lunar surface was transmitted to the earth with the help of telephotometers. The quality of the telecast was good. In the panorama of the lunar surface one could clearly see the traces left by Lunokhod. Some parts of Lunokhod could also be seen well. According to the program of scientific investigations, the extragalactic X-ray background was measured with the help of the X-ray telescope. The working program of the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 is being carried out successfully.
Pranda, November 19, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNOKHOD-1 CONTINUES TO CARRY OUT A PROGRAM OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS On November 18, at 2300 hours Moscow time, the normal radio and TV communications session with the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 began. The following main tasks were accomplished: improvement of controlling the self-moving automated vehicle, panoramic survey of the site and its characteristic portions, and carrying out of planned scientific experiments. The session continued for 4 hours 40 minutes. After checking the systems on board and setting the solar battery in the necessary position, the automated vehicle moved away from its parking site and turned so that the Luna- 77 landing stage could be seen by the telephotocamera. Afterward Lunokhod was turned in a southeasterly direction for its next move. Its route passed over a relatively smooth surface, with depressions and elevations of angles of inclination up to 10 degrees. The self-moving vehicle met with stones and craters of comparatively small size on its path and crossed a low lunar ridge. The systems of TV observation and radiotelemetry enabled the operators controlling Lunokhod from the center for remote
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space communications, to guide the self-moving vehicle on its route and avoid obstructions on its path. At various phases on the route, the mechanical properties of the soil and the parameters of performance of the carriage were measured. In the process of its work the self-moving vehicle covered a distance of 96 meters. According to the telemetric information, all the systems of Lunokhod functioned well. The temperature in the instrument compartment was i6°G and the pressure— 750 mm Hg. The program of scientific investigations and testing of the self-moving vehicle in lunar conditions is being carried out successfully. On November 20, at oooo Moscow time another communications session with Lunokhod started. At this time the self-moving vehicle was situated in the zone of radio-visibility of the space center for remote communications. For 4 hours 25 minutes scientific and technical experiments were conducted as Lunokhod was driven. With the help of an X-ray spectrometer, the chemical composition of the surface layer of the lunar rocks was determined. The experiments on the study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil and the passability of Lunokhod were continued. An instrument having a die for penetrating the soil and a system of sensors for the measurement of the forces acting on the chassis were used. With the help of the X-ray telescope the measurements of the extragalactic X-rays, inaccessible to the instruments on the earth, were further continued. New panoramic views of the lunar landscape were received from Lunokhod. In the pictures one can clearly see the traces left by the self-moving vehicle, details of the lunar surface and parts of Lunokhod. Television cameras, for the survey and appraisal of the route, gave the necessary information for movement in the conditions of rough ground. At some places the inclination of the surface reached 14 degrees. On its route the self-moving vehicle met a deep crater, which was skillfully avoided by the operators. In the course of the session, a large amount of telemetric information was received. During this period, the self-moving vehicle covered about 82 meters. As a result of the maneuvers accomplished by Lunokhod, it is now situated 125 meters from the landing stage. The Soviet Lunokhod-1 continues to accomplish the program of investigations and experiments in the Sea of Rains.
Izvestya, November ao, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNOKHOD-r CONTINUES ITS WORK On the morning of November 21, 1970, the Soviet automated self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 completed 100 hours on the moon. In a radio and TV communications session for i hour 55 minutes, the scientific and technical investigations and experiments envisaged by the program were carried out. In particular, the physico-mechanical characteristics of the lunar soil were determined. To select the parking site for the lunar night, which will set in on November 24 and continue for 14 and a half days, the movement and maneuvering of Lunokhod continued along with transmission of the lunar panorama. In the radio communications sessions on November 20 and 21, the systems on board were checked and Lunokhod was surveyed. According to the data received, all the systems of Lunokhod are functioning normally. The temperature in the hermetic container is plus i8°C and the pressure is 730 mm Hg. The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 is continuing its work.
Izvestiya, November ai, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT PROGRAM FOR LUNAR DAY COMPLETED
197 meters covered on the moon; self-moving laboratory transmits valuable scientific data to the earth

The first stage of the unique space experiment on the construction and use of lunar transport has been successfully completed. On November 17, 1970, the Soviet automated probe Luna-17 accomplished a soft-landing on the lunar surface illuminated by the sun, in the region of the Sea of Rains. On the same day at 0928 hours Moscow time, the automated self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 came down from the landing stage and started carrying out an extensive program of scientific and technical investigations and experiments. Five days of active work by Lunokhod made it possible to carry out a set of tests for the self-moving vehicle performing lunar exploration. In the course of the motion over broken terrain, including craters, lunar ridges and stones, an extensive program of checks and tests of its mobility was carried out. Moreover, work was done from the earth on perfecting control by telephotometric and television images of the lunar surface. Simultaneously, multiple scientific investigations were conducted for the study of the physics of the moon and outer space.
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In the process of its work, the self-moving vehicle covered a distance of 197 meters. The checking of the assemblies and control of the self-moving vehicle and TV observation showed good reliability and maneuverability. The experiments confirmed the correctness of the basic design. During the experiment, good quality telephotometric and TV pictures of different regions of the lunar surface were obtained. On their basis one can judge the peculiarities of the lunar landscape, surface structure and interaction of the vehicle's chassis with the soil. In conformity with the scientific investigation program, the radiation penetration on the earth-moon route was measured with the help of a radiometer, and the radiational conditions on the lunar surface were checked. In the experiment, streams of protons, electrons and alphaparticles of cosmic radiation of galactic origin, as well as the angular distribution of low-energy protons, were recorded. An X-ray telescope, fitted on Lunokhod, measured the intensity and distribution of the X-ray radiation of extragalactic background and separate sources. On the path of the self-moving vehicle, experiments were conducted on the study of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil, and the chemical composition of the surface layer of the lunar rocks was determined. The physico-mechanical properties of the soil were investigated by injecting and rotating a conical blade die and by recording the parameters of passability of the vehicle. The contents of the main rock-forming chemical elements in the unperturbed layer of the lunar surface were determined by X-ray spectral methods. The scientific information obtained has been handed over to the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences for futher study. In the experiment with Lunokhod-i, from November 17 to 22, 10 sessions of radio and TV communications were conducted and a large amount of information received. In a radio communications session the final preparations for the lunar night were made. Lunokhod-i was put in a predetermined position and the solar battery panel was closed. On November 24 the lunar night will set in over the Sea of Rains and will last till December 8, 1970. In this period, the vehicle will remain in a stationary position on the dark side of the moon. The program for the lunar day has been completely accomplished.
Izvestiya, November 23, 1970

LUNOKHOD-i MAINTAINS CONTACT WITH EARTH As has already been reported, the lunar night has started from November 24, 1970 where Lunokhod-1 is situated, and will last till December 8.
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At present the self-moving vehicle is in a stationary, orientated position. In accordance with the working program of Lunokhod, for the period of lunar night, radio communications sessions are being conducted with the automated vehicle for telemetric information. In a communications session held on November 27, data was received about the parameters and the conditions of the systems of Lunokhod. The pressure of gas in the instrument compartment is 755 mm Hg, the temperature is plus I5°C. The temperature of external parts of Lunokhod—wheels, antennas etc.—-varies from minus 90° to minus i25°C. Lunokhod is orientated on the lunar surface in a definite position, to ensure the functioning of the reflector for the laser location of the moon. The cover of the reflector is open, which is confirmed by the telemetric information data. The self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-1 is situated in the Sea of Rains, to the south of Bay of Rainbows, at a point having the following lunar coordinates: 38 degrees 17 minutes northern latitude and 35 degrees western longitude.
(TASS) Pravda, November 28, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LUNOKHOD-1 STARTS PROGRAM FOR SECOND LUNAR DAY On December 8, 1970, the lunar day started. In the region of the Sea of Rains the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 began a new phase of work. During the lunar night which lasted from November 24 to December 8, the self-moving vehicle Lunokhod-i remained stationary, but the instruments and systems situated in its instrument compartment continued to function. During this period, two radio communications sessions were conducted with Lunokhod-1, in the process of which telemetric information showed normal functioning of all its systems. When the temperature on the lunar surface was below minus I3O°G, a temperature of plus i5°C with insignificant variations was maintained inside the instrument compartment of Lunokhod. The predetermined temperature regime was maintained with the help of a special isotopic source of heat, which heats the gas circulating in the body of Lunokhod. In this way, the Soviet automated vehicle successfully accomplished the lunar night program under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature. On December 5 and 6, in the Crimean Astrophysical Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences, experiments were conducted on the laser location on the lunar surface near Lunokhod. The ground equipment sent signals in the direction of the moon and recorded clear signals reflected by

the laser reflector prepared by the French specialists and fitted on Lunokhod. On December 9, 1970, a radio communications session lasting an hour, was conducted with Lunokhod-1 during which the next phase of work was carried out. The solar battery was opened and set toward the sun, to provide the maximum charging current for filling the reserves of electric power in the storage battery. Panoramas of the lunar surface at the parking site of the self-moving vehicle as well as the image of the sun rising over the lunar horizon, were transmitted to the earth with the help of the telephotometers. In the next session on December 10, 1970, the movement of Lunokhod was started on a signal from the center for remote space communications. In the course of its movement on the lunar surface, the vehicle made some turns also. The TV systems transmitted clear pictures of the lunar landscape. The program also included the determination of the mechanical properties of the lunar soil. During the session the necessary telemetric data showing the normal functioning of the systems on board Lunokhod was received. The center for remote space communications continues to control Lunokhod. The scheduled program of scientific investigations and experiments is being carried out successfully.
Pravda, December 11, 1970

9 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WORK BY LUNOKHOD On December 11, the TASS correspondent reported from the center for remote space communications: Yesterday evening, at 1600 hours Moscow time, the next radio control session of the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 started. In the 9-hour session, Lunokhod was driven for the first time after the lunar night. It moved over the broken terrain firstly in a southeasterly direction and then southwesterly. The route of the automated vehicle passed through isolated stones and depressions. Controlled by the crew, Lunokhod carried out maneuvers to avoid the natural lunar obstacles. Lunokhod on its path met with a crater of 16 meters diameter and about 2 meters depth. The vehicle entered the crater, crossed and then climbed up and came out into a level area. While it was passing through the crater, its heel attained 27 degrees and the trim difference was 17 degrees. During this first drive, 244 meters were covered. During short-period halts of Lunokhod, investigations of the mechanical properties of the soil were conducted. ^ According to the technical supervisors, the severe conditions of prolonged
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lunar night did not affect the maneuvering characteristics and working capacity of the vehicle. (TASS)
Pravda, December 12, 1970

LUNOKHOD-1 MANEUVERS Center for remote space communications 12 (TASS). Yesterday at 1700 hours Moscow time started the third session of radio and TV communications with Lunokhod-1, which continues its work on the lunar surface. On signals from the center for remote space communications, the telephotometers, which transmitted new high quality panoramas of the lunar surface, were again switched on. At this moment, the sun had risen to an angle of 27 degrees above the lunar horizon, which provided a contrast illumination of the landscape. In the course of the movement of Lunokhod-1, maneuvering was carried out to perfect control in avoiding obstacles at different velocities. The Lunokhod is moving south in the plain of the Sea of Rains, which is a moderately broken terrain with craters of different sizes. The operations at the center for remote space communications ensured the confident movement of the Lunokhod along the selected route. During the communications session on December n, Lunokhod-1 covered a distance of 98 meters. During the short halts, the strength of the soil was measured and a number of other experiments were conducted. Variegated telemetric information received in the space center fiom the lunar vehicle confirms that all its systems are functioning normally. The temperature in the instrument compartment is plus I5°C, while the maximum external temperature of Lunokhod reaches plus 108 C. The pressure in the instrument compartment is 750 mm Hg. Preliminary analysis of the scientific data received from the moment of start of the second lunar day shows that the planned program of investigations and experiments on board Lunokhod is being carried out successfully. (TASS)
Pravda, December 13, 1970

253 METERS SOUTHWARD
• On December 13, the TASS correspondent sent from the center for remote 316

space communications the following report about the work of Lunokhod-1 in the region of the Sea of Rains: In a radio and TV communications session held on December 12, from 1800 to 2227 hours Moscow time, the self-moving vehicle was driven further. Lunokhod moved south over broken ground. At different points, higher speeds were tested. In the course of the session, Lunokhod covered 253 meters. When the vehicle halted, telephotometric panoramas of the lunar surface were transmitted to the earth. Lunokhod-1 has been orientated in such a way that the solar battery L> directed toward the sun for recharging the chemical power supply on board. According to the telemetric information, all the systems, assemblies and instruments of Lunokhod are functioning normally. The lunar journey of the Soviet moon vehicle is continuing successfully.
Pravda, December 14, 1970

825 METERS COVERED On December 14, the TASS correspondent reported from the center for remote space communications: The usual session of radio and TV communications with Lunokhod-1 started on December 13, at 1900 hours Moscow time. Lunokhod continued its motion southward, transmitting to the earth telecasts of the lunar surface, scientific information and telemetric data about the systems on board. For all-around panoramas of the lunar landscape, Lunokhod-1 carried out a number of turns and, at times, moved in reverse. The vehicle approached one of the craters, which provoked great interest among the specialists and selenologists. An analysis of the telephotometric panoramic images and the stereoscopic photographs made it possible to establish that the crater is relatively "young" with clearly expressed relief. During the communications sessions conducted on December 12 and 13, the radiometer recorded an increase in the intensity of the corpuscular stream of cosmic radiation—alpha-particles and protons. In the period between sessions, the radiation increased by dozens of times. The increase in the intensity of the corpuscular stream was also recorded by the equipment of the automated interplanetary probe Venera-J. This phenomenon was caused by a powerful chromospheric outburst on the sun, recorded by the astronomical observatories on the earth on December 10. By the end of the session of December 13, the sun had risen above the lunar horizon to over 40 degrees. The thermal flux on the lunar surface and on the body of Lunokhod has substantially increased, but a temperature
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of plus I5°C is being maintained in the instrument compartment of the automated vehicle. Pressure in the compartment is 750 mm Hg. In the course of its work on the moon, Lunokhod-1 has covered 825 meters and is situated at present at a distance of 600 meters from the landing stage. In accordance with the program, Lunokhod will remain stationary from December 14 to 16. Scientific investigations will be conducted during this period.
Pracda, December 15, 1970

1,022 METERS COVERED Center for remote space communications, 18 (TASS). The Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-i has been conducting scientific and technical investigations and experiments on the lunar surface for a month. On the night of December 18, the 93rd session of radio communications with Lunokhod was held. The session continued for 3 hours 41 minutes. After a short halt from December 14 to 17, when the automated vehicle conducted scientific measurements in a stationary position, the driving of Lunokhod continued. The automated vehicle moved southeasterly. On its way, Lunokhod crossed shallow depressions and avoided isolated stones. After the drive was over the panoramas of the lunar surface in the new area were transmitted to the earth. In the course of the session, Lunokhod covered 197 meters. During the whole period from November 17, the automated vehicle has covered a distance of 1,022 meters. According to the telemetric information, all the systems and assemblies of Lunokhod-i are functioning normally. The temperature in the instrument compartment is plus 2i°C, and the pressure—780 mm Hg. The lunar exploration with the help of the self-moving vehicle continues successfully.
Pravda, December 19, 1970

MOVING SOUTHEAST Center for remote space communications, ig (TASS). The next radio communications session with the automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 started on 19 December at oooo Moscow time, and continued for more than 4 hours.
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During this period, Lunokhod was driven further in a southeasterly direction, scientific measurements were conducted and the telephotometric panoramas of the lunar surface were transmitted to the earth. At the beginning of its drive, the self-moving vehicle climbed out of the crater in which it was parked since the previous session. Afterward Lunokhod moved over ground covered with small craters. The vehicle bypassed the deep craters with steep sides, but passed through the craters having a slope up to 20 degrees. Lunokhod was negotiating slopes with a lateral inclination of the vehicle up to 18 degrees. On its path, periodically the physico-mechanical properties of the soil were determined. During this session, Lunokhod covered a total distance of 263 meters. Now it is more than i ,000 meters away from the landing stage. After the automated vehicle was parked, an analysis of the chemical composition of the soil was carried out and the panorama of the surface at the parking site was transmitted to the earth. In one of the panoramas the earth is also seen, on the basis of which—taking into consideration the position of the sun—the selenographic coordinates of Lunokhod can be determined more accurately. The telemetric information shows that the systems and assemblies of the vehicle are functioning normally. The temperature and pressure of gas in the instrument compartment are within the prescribed limits. The journey of the automated vehicle Lunokhod- r in the Sea of Rains continues successfully.
Pravda, December 20, 1970

ANOTHER 337 METERS COVERED
Center for remote space communications, 20 (TASS). Another session of radio and TV communications with the Soviet automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 was conducted on December 20, from oioo to 0426 hours Moscow time. At the beginning of the communications session, Lunokhod was standing inside a shallow ditch of about 50 meter diameter. It climbed out and started moving south. The route of Lunokhod passed through a plain having a substantial number of small craters. At times, scatterings of stones of 10-15 centimeter size came into the field of vision of the Lunokhod TV cameras. At the end of the session, Lunokhod entered a crater of about 100 meters diameter with a steepness of about 10 degrees. After parking in the center of the crater, panoramic views of the surrounding area were obtained, in which one could see small craters and sharp-angled stones of a size up to 20-30 centimeters.
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337 meters were covered during the session. In this process, the physicomechanical characteristics of the lunar soil were determined several times. In particular, the nature of the soil was determined at the inner slopes and at the bottom of the crater where Lunokhod was parked. In the course of the session, other scientific experiments were also continued. Data was obtained from the data-storage device of the X-ray telescope, which is at present recording the streams of radiation in the galactic plane. According to the radiometric measurement data, no substantial increase in the intensity of the corpuscular cosmic radiation was observed during the last two days. The radiation background conformed to the radiational conditions characteristic for the quiet period of the sun. The Soviet lunar vehicle is continuing its work on the lunar surface.
Pravda, December 21, 1970

LUNOKHOD-1 SELECTS PARKING SITE Center for remote space communications, 21 (TASS). The program of scientific investigations by Lunokhod-1, planned for the second lunar day, is approaching completion. In another radio communications session with Lunokhod heldon December 21, from 0500 to 0830 hours Moscow time, an all-around survey of the parking site of the vehicle for the forthcoming lunar night was carried out. With this purpose in mind, Lunokhod was moved southeast down the inside slope of a big crater, to the center where it had been on an earlier visit. The conditions for movement were complicated, since the inclination of Lunokhod at times attained 23 degrees. On its path, Lunokhod came across small craters of up to 5 meters diameter and scatterings of sharp-angled stones. Some stones were up to half a meter in size. The automated vehicle had to turn and reverse several times. The distance covered by Lunokhod during the period of the radio communications session was 78 meters. In the course of the session, the surrounding surface was surveyed for a stereoscopic image. An analysis of the panoramas and stereoscopic pictures of the surface showed that the study of stones on the way is of considerable scientific interest. It is assumed that Lunokhod is situated in a zone of ejections from a relatively "young" crater in the neighborhood. According to the telemetric data, all the systems and assemblies of the self-moving vehicle are functioning normally. The temperatures in the instrument compartment is plus i8°C and pressure—770 mm Hg.
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The automated vehicle Lunokhod-1 continues to conduct scientific investigations in the Sea of Rains.
Pravda, December 22, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT SOVIET LUNOKHOD-i COMPLETES PROGRAM FOR SECOND DAY Lunokhod-1 has successfully completed the extensive program of scientific and technical experiments planned for the second lunar day. In the final session of radio communications, held on December 22 from 0700 to 0836 hours Moscow time, operations were carried out to prepare the automated vehicle for the lunar night. In the region selected for parking, Lunokhod made a number of maneuvers to find the predetermined orientated position. Afterward, the panorama of the lunar surface and scientific information from the measuring instruments of the automated vehicle were transmitted to the earth. At the end of the communications session the solar battery panel was closed and the systems on board were put in a stationary regime. During the lunar night, which will last from December 23, 1970 to January 7, 1971, the automated vehicle Lunokhod-i will remain stationary. The laser reflector of Lunokhod has been set in a position for experiments on laser locations to be conducted by centers in interested countries. Thus the second phase of work by Lunokhod has been successfully completed. As is well known, the Soviet Lunokhod-1 started conducting scientific and technical investigations on the moon in the region of the Sea of Rains on November 17, 1970. In 35 days of functioning—which include two periods of work in the condition of lunar day, and one in the lunar night—• a large amount of experimental data has been obtained. The most important part of the program was an all-around test of the characteristics of motion of automated vehicle for lunar exploration. In 14 sessions of radio communications, during which driving and maneuvering of the vehicle was carried out, a distance of 1,719 meters was covered. In this process Lunokhod-1 moved away from the landing stage to a distance of about 1,370 meters. The driving of the automated vehicle on broken ground, craters, stones, elevations and depressions, was a good test of the performance of Lunokhod. In the process of maneuvering and detouring and passing over obstacles at substantial inclination of Lunokhod, work was done on the improvement of the control from the earth with the help of television and telephotometric images and telemetric information.
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The experiments show the vehicle's high reliability, maneuverability and controllability. In the process of work, dozens of telephotometric panoramas of different regions of the lunar surface and surrounding space and a large number of TV images of the ground have been obtained. The TV information received was used to select the direction of movement and orientation of Lunokhod, as well as for topogeodesical and geomorphological investigations of the surface. On the path of the vehicle, the physico-mechanical properties of the surface layer of the soil—including the plane surface, crater slopes and isolated stones—were investigated regularly. In some regions the contents of the main chemical elements forming the rocks were determined with the help of an X-ray spectrometer. In the course of the prolonged work of the vehicle, extensive information has been obtained about the streams of space corpuscular radiation. The data about the dynamics of the increase of corpuscular radiation intensity, caused by the chromospheric outburst of the sun, is of great scientific interest. The intensity and angular distribution of the extragalactic X-ray background and X-ray radiation from isolated sources were regularly measured with the help of the X-ray telescope. The scientific information received is being processed in the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences. According to the telemetric data, at present the parameters of the equipment on board Lunokhod before the lunar night sets in, are within the prescribed limits. The temperature in the instrument compartment is plus i5°G and the pressure is 765 mm Hg. The unique space experiment in the region of the Sea of Rains on the moon continues.
Pravda, December 23, 1970

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOVIET ASTRONAUTICS Another brilliant page has been written in the glorious history of Soviet astronautics. The automated space probe Luna-17 which took off from a Soviet space base on November i o, made a soft-landing in a predetermined area of the moon after an accurate flight with complicated maneuvers in near-moon space. It delivered Lunokhod-i, the first-ever self-moving space investigator, in the region of the Sea of Rains. This vehicle, equipped with instruments for the ideal study of lunar soil properties, cosmic ray characteristics, and radiational conditions, with the help of complicated TV, telemetric and other experimental devices, has successfully completed the
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first phase of its scientific work. Responding to every touch of the Soviet specialists who control the work of Lunokhod from a distance of about 400 thousand kilometers, it left the first lunar tracks and transmitted the results of its observations to the earth, thus enriching our knowledge of the universe. The tracks made on the lunar surface by the wheels of this historic vehicle, symbolize a new and outstanding achievement of Soviet scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, and its originality is a great victory for the Soviet nation. In the course of preparation and execution of this truly fantastic experiment many complicated tasks which had never arisen before in science and technology had to be accomplished. This clearly reflects the great creative power of Soviet science, the industrial strength of our socialist country and demonstrates the inexhaustible potential of the Soviet people, the pioneers of communism. World science, especially astronautics, owes much to the genius and daring of the Soviet people. The country of the October Revolution supported K.E. Tsiolkovskii, the founder of space travel. Ours was the first country in the world to launch an artificial earth satellite. A Soviet citizen—communist Yurii Gagarin—-was the first earthman who dared to set out for outer space. Our country has priority in many important astronautic achievements such as the first walk by man in open space, creation of the first experimental orbital station, smooth descent of the automated research probes into the atmosphere of Venus, and many others. In the field of world selenology our country has made such memorable contributions as the first probes to reach the moon, the first lunar satellite, the first soft-landing of an automated probe on the moon, photography of the hidden side of the moon, flights of the £ond-type probes on the earth-moon-earth route. The recent flight of the Luna-i6 probe which brought lunar soil to the scientists'laboratories, was judged throughout the world as an outstanding feat. Now Soviet science and technology again adds to its impressive list of inventions for conquest of near and outer space. The self-moving research laboratory opens new horizons for the study of the universe, since it is a prototype of the "wise" machines of the future, which will help man in the study of the moon and planets, assemble observatories and laboratories far away from the earth, and replace them wherever it i» possible and necessary. The accurate work of the self-moving scientific apparatus on the moon is a real triumph for automation. It once again shows the breadth and diversity of the Soviet space program, which creatively combines various devices supplementing each other, for the conquest of outer space. From our space bases, the manned spacecraft take off along with automated probes. Experiments in near-earth orbits are being replaced by journeys to far-off regions of outer space. Study of the earth from our outer space
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neighbors will yield secrets of the moon and planets. Originality and regular and purposeful application to a wide range of investigations geared to the most important scientific and economic problems of the nation— are some of the specific characteristics of the Soviet space program. This is precisely the approach demanded by the Communist Party toward the technological revolution. Social advancement based on the rapid progress of science and technology is considered by tha Party to be the present trend in its politics for building communism. Rapid application of the achievements of science and technology in the national economy and the strengthening of the relationship between science and production are the most vital needs of the day. The real success of the collectives of scientists and workers who accomplish our space program is in their sincerity to satisfy the demands of the Party. The Party organizations must see that this approach is also affirmed in the research and production collectives also. The latest triumph of our motherland in outer space is truly impressive. At the loth Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, while talking about the successes of the Soviet people reviewed at the 24th Congress of the CPSU, Comrade L.I. Brezhnev mentioned the progress of our science and technology. He said: "One of the proofs for this is the remarkable success of the first-ever experiment on the landing of an automated investigator, Lunokhod-i created by the Soviet people." Our success is being praised in brotherly socialist countries and has met with a high opinion in other countries also. The word Lunokhod has entered the international lexicon along with the word sputnik. The scientific trip of Lunokhod-1 for peaceful purposes arouses patriotic pride among the Soviet people. Following the other Soviet conquerors of outer space, they are full of the desire to serve their motherland with new achievements in labor to honor rhe 24th Congress of the CPSU. The Soviet people unanimously salute tht creators of this great triumph in outer space with the motto: "Keep it up."
Praada, November 26, 1970

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IV
EXPLORATION OF DISTANT PLANETS

Page Intentionally Left

L,

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED INTERPLANETARY PROBE VENERA-5 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the space research program, an automated interplanetary probe Venera-5 was launched in the Soviet Union on January 5, 1969, at 0928 hours Moscow time. The main purpose of the probe is to continue the exploration of Venus started by Venera-4. In Venera-5 the structure of the scientific and measuring instruments has been enlarged. This will increase the accuracy of the measurements and obtain additional information about the atmosphere of the planet. In the course of the flight of the probe along with track earth-Venus, extensive scientific investigations will be conducted in outer space. The automated interplanetary probe Venera-5 has on board a pennant of the Soviet Union with a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State emblem of the USSR. The weight of the automated probe Venera-5, excluding the weight of the last stage of the carrier-rocket, is 1,130 kilograms. Venera-5 was introduced into the flight trajectory toward Venus from the intermediate orbit of an artificial earth satellite. The launching from the earth satellite orbit was carried out at 1047 Moscow time. At this moment the probe was situated over Africa. The engine of the last stage of the carrierrocket worked for 228 seconds and imparted to the probe a velocity slightly more than planet-escape velocity.
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The automated probe Venera-5 was introduced into the precalculated trajectory. The flight of the probe to the planet will continue for more than 4 months. The probe will reach Venus in the middle of May 1969, after covering a distance of some 250 million kilometers, and will carry out a smooth descent in its atmosphere. The study of the atmosphere of Venus is scheduled to be carried out throughout the period of the descent of the probe. Regular radio communications will be maintained with the probe during its flight and the scientific information will be received at a frequency of 922.763 megahertz. Corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe are envisaged to obtain the necessary accuracy of its flight to Venus. On January 5, 1969, at 1300 hours Moscow time, the probe was situated at a distance of 25 thousand kilometers over a point on earth having the following coordinates: 116 degrees 50 minutes eastern longitude and 26 degrees 30 minutes northern latitude. The equipment mounted on board the automated interplanetary probe Venera-5 is functioning normally. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the probe. The center for remote space communications is controlling the flight of the probe. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, January 6, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT VENERA-6 WILL CONDUCT SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS ALONG WITH VENERA-5 In order to make a more complete study of the planet Venus and to collect more scientific information about it, a second automated interplanetary probe, Venera-6 was launched in the Soviet Union on January 10, 1969, at 0852 hours Moscow time. The Venera-6 probe will conduct scientific investigations along with Venera-5 which was launched on January 5. Venera-6, like Venera-5, will carry out a smooth descent in the atmosphere of Venus on its dark side. The joint flight of the two interplanetary probes will make it possible to determine the parameters of the atmosphere in different regions of the planet. The probe Venera-6 will reach Venus in the middle of May, 1969. The weight of the automated interplanetary probe—-excluding the weight of the last stage of the carrier-rocket—is 1,130 kilograms. The automated interplanetary probe Venera-6 has on board a pennant of the Soviet Union with a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State emblem of the USSR.
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The scheme of introduction of Venera-6 into a heliocentric flight trajectory was similar to that of Venera-5. The interplanetary probe Venera-6 has entered the calculated flight trajectory. Radio communications with th? probe and reception of the scientific information will be carried out on a frequency of 922.763 megahertz. Corrections of the flight trajectory of the probe are envisaged to attain the necessary accuracy in the flight to Venus. On January 10, 1969, at 1400 hours Moscow time the probe Venera-6 was situated at a distance of 65.6 thousand kilometers from the earth, over a point on the terrestrial surface having the following coordinates: 98 degrees 47 minutes eastern longitude and 17 degrees 41 minutes northern latitude. At this moment the probe Venera-5 was situated at a distance of i million 391 thousand kilometers from the earth. According to the telemetric data, the equipment on board both probes are functioning normally. The flights of the automated interplanetary probes are being controlled by the center for remote space communications. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, January n, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT FLIGHT TO VENUS CONTINUES The automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and. Venera-6, launched in the Soviet Union on January 5 and 10, 1969 respectively, continue their joint flight along the heliocentric orbit to the planet Venus. Both probes are moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one. Radio-technical systems of the probes, along with the ground devices, ensure the measurement of the parameters of flight and the transmission of scientific data and information about the regimes of work of the systems and assemblies on board. The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio communications with the interplanetary probes. In accordance with the flight program, 13 sessions of radio communications were conducted with Venera-5 and 9 sessions with Venera-6. On February 6, 1969, at 1800 hours Moscow time, Venera-5 was situated at a distance of 7 million 695 thousand kilometers and Venera-6— 6 million 530 thousand kilometers from the earth. Scientific investigations of the physical processes taking place in outer
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space are being conducted in the course of the flight of the automated probes along the earth-Venus track. According to the telemetric data, the equipment fixed on board the probes is functioning normally. Temperature and pressure inside the probe are within the prescribed limits. Chemical sources of power supply ensure the functioning of all the equipment. The stores of energy are being filled with the help of the solar batteries. The center for coordination and computation continues to process the information received.
Pravda, February 7, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT FLIGHT TO VENUS CONTINUES The automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are continuing their joint flight toward the planet Venus. To ensure that the probes reach a predetermined region of the planet Venus, their flight trajectories were corrected in accordance with the flight program on March 14 and 16, 1969. First, the special programs for the flight trajectory corrections were sent to the space-borne control systems of the probes through radio signals. The sessions of flight trajectory corrections of the probes were started on signals from the earth. Further processes—the orientation of the probes with respect to the sun and the star Sirius, their programed turnings and the switching on and off of the corrective propulsion systems—were carried out automatically, on commands from the electronic programer on board. As the analysis of the telemetric information and the trajectory measurements has shown, the maneuvers for the corrections were accomplished successfully and the probes have entered flight trajectories which ensure their reaching the planet Venus. Venera-5 is expected to reach the planet on May 16, and Venera-6 on May 17, 1969. When the corrections were carried out, the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 were situated at distances of 15.7 million kilometers and 15.5 million kilometers from the earth respectively. Steady radio communications are being maintained with the automated probes. 34 sessions of radio communications have been conducted with Venera-5 and 29 sessions with Venera-6. According to the telemetric information, the scientific equipment and systems on board the probes are functioning normally. The pressure and
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temperature in the hermetic compartments of the probes are within the prescribed limits. The flight program continues successfully.
Pravda, March 18, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LENIN'S BAS-RELIEF ON VENUS
Venera-5 descends smoothly in the atmosphere of Venus. Probe Venera-6 approaching the planet

On May 16, 1969, the interplanetary probe Venera-5, after covering a distance of about 350 million kilometers in 130 days, successfully completed the interplanetary space flight and carried out a smooth descent into the atmosphere of the planet Venus. The probe delivered to Venus a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin, pennants and the State emblem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Regular and steady radio communications were maintained with the probe in the course of its flight along a heliocentric orbit. The probe Venera-5 carried out maneuvers in outer space on radio signals from the earth. Extensive scientific investigations of the physical processes taking place in outer space along the flight path of the automated probe were carried out with the help of the instruments on board. The scientific information and data of the functioning of the systems and equipment was uninterruptedly transmitted to the center for remote space communications through radiotelemetric channels. On May 16, at 0708 hours Moscow time, Venera-5 approached the planet Venus to a distance of 50 thousand kilometers. At this moment a command was given from the earth to start the final session of interplanetary radio communications. Before Venera-5 entered the atmosphere of Venus, the landing vehicle carrying the scientific measurement equipment on board was automatically separated from the probe. At 0901 hours, the aerodynamic deceleration of the vehicle started in the atmosphere of the planet, which was accompanied by a sharp increase in the acceleration forces and a substantial increase in the temperature of the outer surface of the vehicle. As a result of the aerodynamic deceleration, the velocity of the landing vehicle decreased from 11.17 kilometers per second to 21 o meters per second. Then the parachute system was put into operation. In the course of the descent by parachute, lasting for 53 minutes, the parameters of the atmosphere of Venus—temperature, pressure and chemical composition—were measured with the help of the scientific instruments
33i

fitted on the vehicle. The radioaltimeter determined the height of the vehicle over the surface of the planet. The radio network on board ensured the uninterrupted transmission of these measurements to the earth. Important scientific data about the atmosphere of Venus is being processed in the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences. While the probe Venera-5 has successfully completed the flight, the automated interplanetary probe Venera-6, launched on January 10 this year, is approaching Venus and will enter its atmosphere on May 17, 1969, at 0903 hours. Thus another glorious page in the history of the conquest of outer space has been written by Soviet science and technology.
Pravda, May 17,1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT OUTSTANDING EXPERIMENT COMPLETED Soviet science has achieved another success. On May 17, 1969, automated interplanetary probe Venera-6 completed its flight—just a day after the descent of Venera-5—along the earth-Venus track, which had lasted for several months. The probe entered the atmosphere of the planet at a distance of about 300 kilometers from the point of entry of Venera-5. The landing vehicle descended smoothly in the atmosphere for 51 minutes. In the course of the descent, the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus were determined and transmitted to the center for remote space communications. Like the probe Venera-5, Venera-6 also delivered a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and a pennant and the State emblem of the Soviet Union. The program of study of the planet Venus with the help of automated space vehicles is being accomplished from the Soviet Union systematically and successfully. For the first time in the world, in the Soviet Union in 1961, the study of the planet Venus with the help of automated space vehicles was started when the probe Venera-i was launched. On February 27, 1966, the Soviet automated probe Venera-2 passed near the planet Venus, and on March i in the same year, Venera-j reached the planet for the first time, delivering the the Soviet pennant to its surface. On October 18, 1967, Soviet science and technology achieved another outstanding triumph. For the first time in the history of the conquest of outer space, the landing vehicle of the automated probe Venera-4 carried out a smooth descent into the atmosphere of Venus and measured its parameters. Unique scientific information was
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received about the physical characteristics of the Venusian atmosphere. The automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 continued the exploration of this planet, enriching science with important data and widening our knowledge about Venus, thus making a new, remarkable contribution to our understanding of the universe. In the course of the flight which lasted for more than four months, the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 carried out important investigations of the physical processes taking place in interplanetary space. This has been achieved, thanks to the constant and successful communications with the probes. 73 sessions of radio communications were held with the probe Venera-5 and 63—with Venera-6. In the course of the whole flight, the systems and the scientific equipment on board the probes functioned perfectly. The necessary thermal regime in the compartments of the probe; constant orientation of their solar batteries with respect to the sun, and orientation of the parabolic antennas pointed toward the earth, were all arranged. All this proves the high scientific and technical level of the automated probes. Perfect functioning of all the systems on board the probes ensured the accomplishment of their predetermined program of flight to Venus and smooth descent of the vehicles in the planet's atmosphere. As envisaged, the landing vehicles of both probes carried out descent into the atmosphere of the planet on its night side. In the process of the descent, the scientific equipment on board the vehicles measured the chemical composition, pressure, density and temperature of the Venusian atmosphere. For the first time in the world, scientific investigations of the Venusian atmosphere were conducted in two of its regions almost simultaneously. The design and flight of the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 clearly demonstrates the highly advanced state of Soviet space science and technology, the talent of its scientists and designers, and skill of its engineers, technicians and workeis. The latest outstanding success of Soviet astronautics, achieved on the eve of the birth centenary of Lenin, is a remarkable proof of the scientific and technical progress of the Soviet Union and the enthusiasm of its people, and is another victory in the conquest of outer space.
Pravda, May 18, 1969

To
The scientists, designers, engineers, technicians, workers, all the collectives and organizations, who took part in the building and accomplishment of the flight of the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6

Dear Comrades! Our Soviet motherland has achieved another outstanding triumph in the
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conquest of outer space. On May 16 and 17, 1969, a new experiment in outer space has been successfully completed: the Soviet interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 have reached the planet Venus. The landing vehicles of the probes carried out smooth descent in the atmosphere, conducted a large number of scientific measurements and transmitted valuable information about the planet, thus enriching mankind with new data about one of the little-explored heavenly bodies of the solar system. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 delivered a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin, pennants and the State emblem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The triumphal flight of the Soviet probes Venera-5and Venera-6 is another important step in the study of the solar system with the help of automated space vehicles. The new success of Soviet science and technology in the exploration of outer space has been made possible by the heroic, inspired labor of all the Soviet people. This scientific achievement has been accomplished at an auspicious time as our country prepares to celebrate Lenin's centenary— the creator of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and founder of the first workers'and peasants'government in the world. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet^ USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, heartily congratulate the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, collectives and organizations that took part in the creation, launching and accomplishment of the flight of the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera~6. Glory to the heroic and creative Soviet people! Long live the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the inspirer and organizer of all our successes for the benefit of our great motherland in the name of glorious communism!
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR

To

THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU, THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR We, the scientists, designers, engineers, technicians and workers, who took part in the construction, launching and accomplishment of the flight of the
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interplanetary automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6, and also in obtaining and processing the scientific information, are reporting to the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, that the flight programs of the interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 have been successfully accomplished. With the help of the scientific equipment fitted on the probes, valuable new data has been obtained about the physical processes taking place in outer space and in the Venusian atmosphere. Pennants, a bas-relief of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and the State emblem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have been delivered to the planet Venus. The latest achievement of our motherland in the conquest of outer space became possible only due to the heroic labor of our people and the great achievements of socialism, attained under the guidance of our Communist Party and the Soviet Government. We dedicate this achievement of Soviet science to the centenary celebrations of Il'ich Lenin, organizer of the Communist Party, founder of the Soviet Government and leader of the working people of the world. We assure the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Soviet Government, that we are always ready to perform any task for the further conquest of outer space for the benefit of the Soviet people and the whole of mankind.
Pravda, May 19, 1969

IMPORTANT STEP IN UNDERSTANDING THE UNIVERSE Soviet interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 Astronautics is steadily entering into the life of man. Each year the fields of application of artificial earth satellite and space vehicles are widening. We have seen with our own eyes how the satellite, spacecraft and automated interplanetary probes, built by the labor and ingenuity of man, are enriching mankind with new information about space and are helping to uncover Ihe mysteries of the universe. A big new victory has been achieved in outer space. The flight program of the Soviet automated probes Venera-5 (Fig. 36) and Venera-6 (Fig. 37), to explore the depths of the Venusian atmosphere has been successfully completed. New important scientific data has been obtained about the properties and characteristics of the atmosphere of this planet, which has remained till now mysterious in many respects.
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Fig. 36. Automated interplanetary probe Venera-5. 9—solar orientation sensor; 1—parabolic directional antenna; 10—pressure system nozzles; 2—spherical balloons of the corrective 11 —cosmic ray particle counter; propulsion system; 1 2—ion traps; 3—corrective propulsion system; 13—temperature sensor of the landing 4—orbital compartment; vehicle compartment; 5—non-directional antenna; 14—solar battery panel; 6—technological stand; 1 5—landing vehicle. 7—short-range shield; 8—astro-orientation instrument;

Main stages in the study of Venus

Venus has always attracted man's attention. In 1610 the first, still imperfect, telescope of Galileo enabled him to discover the phases of Venus. The vitally important discovery of the Venusian atmosphere was made by M.V. Lomonosov in 1761. The next two centuries of observation of this mysterious planet even with the help of optical devices yielded hardly any additional information for an understanding of its peculiar properties. The results of infrared spectrometry obtained during the last decade made it possible to determine the temperature and chemical composition of the atmosphere above the cloud layer and, in particular, about the presence of carbon dioxide gas in the Venusian atmosphere. However, some opinions were that its concentration did not exceed 5-10% and that the main component, as in the case of earth, was nitrogen. So far as the temperature above the cloud layer is concerned, the spectroscopic measurements showed that it was approximately equal to minus 3O°C and depending upon the gas which dominates in the Venusian atmosphere, it can be below minus 8o°C also.
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,.J••B •

Fig. 37.

Automated interplanetary probe Venera-6.

A study of the radio waves emitted by Venus, started in the middle fifties and carried out with the help of radio telescopes, indicated a high temperature on the Venusian surface, of the order, 25O-450°C. But there was no firm conviction about the high temperature of the atmosphere. At the same time the question about the pressure remained unsolved: values ranging from one to a hundred atmospheres were cited. For explaining the results of radioastronomical measurements, different models of the atmosphere were proposed, including those which presumed the presence of a strong ionosphere near the planet, with comparatively small magnitudes of temperature and pressure near the surface. A sharp, qualitative jump in the knowledge about this planet took place in the last few years, when the exploration of this planet with automated inter-planetary probes was started. The first automated interplanetary probe to be sent in the direction of Venus on February 12, 1961, was the Soviet probe Venera-i. Afterward, on November 12, 1965, the probe Venera-2 was launched and on November 16, 1965, the automated probe Venera-g. The probe Venera-g reached Venus on March i, 1966, and delivered a pennant depicting the State emblem of the Soviet Union.
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The flights of these probes prepared the ground for the outstanding scientific experiment on the exploration of the Venusian atmosphere, carried out by the automated probe Venera-4. On October 18, 1967, after travelling for more than four months, it reached the planet and entered its atmosphere. The landing vehicle of the probe made the first-ever direct measurements of the temperature, pressure, density and chemical composition of the atmosphere. This session of interplanetary communications—the first one in the history of mankind—lasted for 93 minutes. These 93 minutes gave the first real measurements of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere, thereby unequivocally establishing the existence of high pressures and temperatures on this planet. The most important results were obtained on the chemical composition of the Venusian atmosphere. Earlier, some scientists considered that the carbon dioxide formed less than 10% of the total composition of the atmosphere. But the probe Venera-4 showed that its contents are about 90%. The temperature near the surface was presumed to be from a few degrees to several hundred degrees centigrade, and the pressure—from one to a hundred atmospheres. After the flight of Venera-4 it became clear that the temperature near the surface is not less than 2yo°C, and the pressure— not lower than 18 atmospheres. Explorations of the Venusian atmosphere were carried out with the help of the American vehicle Mariner-5, which, a day after the completion of the experiment by the automated probe Venera-4, passed by the planet at a distance of about 4,000 kilometers. For the exploration of the Venusian atmosphere, the American scientists used the radioscopy method, which by taking into consideration the data about the gas composition determined by Venera-4, enabled them to get information about the higher layers of the planet atmosphere. In the preliminary processing of the results of measurements taken by Venera-4, the length of the phase of measurements was calculated on the basis of the recorded pressure and temperature in two ways: starting from the condition of hydrostatic stability of the atmosphere and starting from the equations of motion. The reading of the altimeter at the beginning of the functioning of the probe, —28 kilometers, coincided well with the length of the phase of measurements. Thus it was assumed that the parameters of the atmosphere were measured to the surface of the planet. When a further, deeper, combined analysis of the results of measurements taken by Venera-4, the radioastronomical and radar investigations of Venus and the measurements taken by the vehicle Mariner-5 was made, another assumption emerged, namely, the temperature and pressure near the surface of Venus may be still higher. This is connected wjth the fact that the reading of the radioaltimeter could correspond to two values of height, differing by about 30-40 kilometers. Such an ambiguity is typical for the altimeters with periodically modulated frequency. Thus emerged the as338

sumption that the landing vehicle of the probe could have stopped measuring above the planet surface. In such a case, the external pressure of the atmosphere, after attaining the limit value for the safety of the vehicle, could have crushed the cover of the instrument compartment, thus destroying the integrity of the radio complex. Hence, during the remaining portion of descent Venera-4 did not conduct measurements. Naturally, the first flight of Venera-4 could not answer all the questions interesting the scientists. New problems of clarification also arose. To meet this demand, the exploration of the Venusian atmosphere was continued by the same type of automated probes, Venera-5 and Venera-6. The purpose of launching two similar automated probes was to get practically simultaneous measurements of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere in different regions. It imparted a new quality to the results of investigations of the Venusian atmosphere.
Design of the automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6

Both the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 are similar in construction and range of instruments. They consist of two main parts: orbital compartment and landing vehicle (Fig. 38), and weigh 1,130 kilograms. The orbital compartment is a hermetic body of cylindrical form. Inside it contains instruments of the radio network, astro-orientation system, control system, thermal control system, chemical sources of the current and scientific equipment. In the compartment, there are: the corrective propulsion system, optical sensors, slave organs of the astro-orientation system, folding solar battery panels, antennas of the radio network and sensors of the scientific instruments. The landing vehicle is attached to the orbital compartment. The landing vehicle has a form close to spherical. The diameter of the vehicle is about i meter and its weight is 405 kilograms. The landing vehicle has two hermetic compartments: instrument and parachute compartment. The instrument compartment contains radio transmitters, the telemetric system, storage battery, programer, automatic machine unit, thermal control system, scientific equipment and radioaltimeter. In the lower part of the landing vehicle, there is an attenuator for damping the oscillations of the vehicle during its motion in the planet atmosphere. In the parachute compartment there are two—-deceleration and main— parachutes, sensors of scientific equipment, transmitting antenna of the radio transmitter for communications with the earth, and antennas of the radioaltimeter. On the basis of the results of the flight of Venera-4, some changes have been made in the design and instrumentation of the landing vehicle.
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to

Fig. 38. Landing vehicle of the probe Venera~5. 1—external thermal insulation; 6—transmitting antenna; 2—frame for holding equipment; 7—radioaltimeter antenna; 3—body; 8—control unit; A—mechanism for opening 9—storage battery; radioaltimeter antennas; 10—thermal insulation; 5—heat exchanger; 11—attenuator.

The main aim of the improvements made in the landing vehicle of the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 was to increase the accuracy in determining the chemical composition., parameters of the atmosphere and their corresponding heights, as well as to increase the depth of exploration of the atmosphere. The landing vehicles of Venera-5 and Venera-6 were made stronger within the permissible weight limits, which made it possible to conduct measurements of the parameters of the Venusian atmosphere within limits external pressure from 0.5 to 25-27 atmospheres. The capacity of the landing vehicles to endure high acceleration forces and temperatures—arising at the time of aerodynamic deceleration—was increased. The attachment components pf Ahe instrumentation inside the landing vehicle were substantially changed. This was necessary to create a design
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which can endure acceleration forces up to 450 units at the time of entry into the atmosphere which is one and a half times the acceleration forces acting on the probe Venera-4- The increase in the acceleration forces is explained by the fact that the velocities of entry of the probes into the Venusian atmosphere in 1969 were much higher than those in 1967 because of the different relative positions of the planets earth and Venus. The action of 450 units of acceleration forces can be explained as follows: an instrument weighing i kilogram on the earth in a few seconds after entry into the Venusian atmosphere will weigh 450 kilograms. Attachment components must be strong to hold it in its place. Moreover, in order to decrease the time taken for the descent in the Venusian atmosphere the area of the main parachute was decreased by several times, since earlier it had been designed for a less dense atmosphere. The canopy of the parachute was prepared from a special heat-resisting material, which can work at a surrounding atmosphere of temperatures above 50O°C. The composition of the scientific instruments was also changed and the range of measurements by the instruments was determined more accurately. As the calculations have shown, the temperature near the surface of the heat protection cover of the landing vehicles may attain 10-11 thousand degrees at the moment of maximum thermal action of the atmosphere. Thus much is demanded of the thermal protection material covering the external surface of the landing vehicles. High thermal isolation of the internal portion of the landing vehicle for prolonged action in the high temperatures of the Venusian atmosphere is also a complicated problem. The equipment, instruments and assemblies of Veriera-5 and Venera-6 were tested extensively. The large number of tests conducted in the simulator stands, imitating flight conditions, had made it possible to ensure the faultless functioning of all the systems of both probes in the course of flight and during the descent of the landing vehicles in the planet's atmosphere.
Flight trajectory of automated probes

A number of factors have to be taken into consideration while selecting the flight trajectories of the automated interplanetary probes toward Venus. Firstly, the selected trajectory must ensure the introduction of the probe into an interplanetary track with minimum energy loss, to achieve maximum pay-load. Secondly, the selected trajectory must ensure the minimum possible

velocity while approaching Venus, to decrease the acceleration forces on the landing vehicle at the time of entry into the Venusian atmosphere and to lower the high demands regarding its strength and thermal protection. Thirdly, it is better to have a trajectory which ensures the minimum possible distance between Venus and the earth at the moment the probe approaches the planet. In this case the conditions for radio communications are the most suitable. Fourthly, the trajectory must ensure the minimum possible energy loss while carrying out correction. The main requirement is normally considered to be the guarantee of minimum velocity for boosting the automated probe while introducing it into the flight trajectory. As is well known, the earth and Venus are rotating around the sun in close to circular orbits at distances of 149.6 and 108 million kilometers respectively. Moreover, the earth is moving along its orbit at a velocity of 29.76 kilometers per second, and Venus 35 kilometers per second. For flying to another planet, the flight regime has to allow the probe to meet Venus—after overcoming terrestrial gravity and moving along its own orbit under the action of the gravity of the sun. The relative position of the earth and Venus constantly changes due to difference in their periods of orbiting around the sun. The flight to Venus with minimum boost velocity is possible only in certain periods of the relative positions of the planets. Calculations show that the launch has to be effected when the earth 'leads' Venus in angular motion around the sun by about 45 degrees (Fig. 39). This relative position of the earth and Venus is repeated after 584 days. This is exactly the factor which determines the periodicity of launching of space probes to Venus. The possible range of dates for the start of the probes Venera-5a.nd Venera-6 according to the calculations, was about a month. During this period January 5 and 10, 1969, were selected for launching. The duration of the flights for these dates was 131 and 12 7 days respectively. Thus while there was an interval of 5 days between their launches, they reached Venus with a difference of only i day. The automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 were introduced into an interplanetary trajectory from an intermediate orbit as artificial earth satellite. The magnitude of the boost velocity from the intermediate orbit was about 3.6 kilometers per second. The total velocity of the probe at the end of the boost phase with respect to the earth was more than 11 kilometers per second. To ensure the probe reaching the planet, the introduction into the trajectory had to be carried out very accurately. If there is an error of i meter per second in the velocity, i.e. less than o.oi per cent of the total velocity, it will lead to a deviation of 70 thousand kilometers. High accuracy
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Fig. 39. Schematic diagram of the flight of the automated interplanetary probe Venera-5.

was necessary also in the moment of launching, start of the boost from the earth orbit and in the direction of the velocity. To ensure such high accuracy in the flight of the automated probes without unnecessarily complicating the control system instruments, a correction of their flight trajectory was carried out. In order to calculate properly the magnitude and direction of the corrective velocity impulse, it is necessary to measure very accurately the actual flight trajectory of the probe. It should be noted that at the time of correction, not only the trajectory form is corrected and the reaching of a particular region of the planet is ensured, but the time of approaching the planet is also selected. Actually, the center for remote space communications, as also any other ground astronomical center, can observe the planet Venus only during particular hours in the day. Thus the corrective impulse is calculated in such a way that the moment the probe approaches the planet, it falls in the time interval when the planet is visible from the center for remote space communications. Before the correction is carried out, calculated values of the angles for the orientation of its axes in space and the magnitude of the velocity impulse, to be imparted by the corrective engines, were transmitted to the probe. The orientation of the probe was carried out with respect to the sun and the star Sirius. The control system carries out this orientation and switches
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on the engine and switches it off again when the required corrective velocity has been attained. The corrective impulse was calculated in such a way that it ensured the entry into the Venusian atmosphere at 0900 hours Moscow time on May 16 for the probe Venera-5and on May 17 for the probe Venera-6. The most responsible phase is the final portion of the flight near the planet. As the probe approaches Venus, its action on the probe becomes more and more appreciable. Finally, when the probe approaches the planet to a distance of less than 600 thousand kilometers, the approach velocity starts increasing substantially under the action of the force of gravity of the planet. In this phase, the exact knowledge of the place where the probe is situated and of the parameters of the gravitational field of the planet plays a special role. The region of entry into the Venusian atmosphere is selected remembering the fact that the antenna pattern of the landing vehicle during its descent on the parachute must be directed toward the earth. The most suitable region of entry into the Venusian atmosphere is in the middle of the planet disc visible from the earth. Under these conditions, the probe approaches Venus from its shady side with respect to the sun^ and the point of entry into the atmosphere is situated on the unilluminated side of Venus. For the probes Venera-§ and Venera-6, the point of entry into the Venusian atmosphere was situated on the unilluminated side of the planet, at a distance of about 2,700 kilometers from the terminator, i.e. the boundary beween the day and night.
Flight of the automated probes

The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 were launched from the space base on January 5 and 10, 1969 respectively. In the course of the flight, which lasted for more than four months, all the equipment of the probe functioned faultlessly and ensured completion of the program. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 were introduced into the interplanetary flight trajectory with great accuracy. The deviations of the actual trajectory from the calculated in the region of the planet Venus were: 25 thousand kilometers for the probe Venera-5 and 150 thousand kilometers for Venera-6. For predicting the flight trajectory of the automated probes in order that they reach the predetermined area of Venus, its motion with respect to the earth was determined more accurately. This was done by direct radar measurements of the distance between the earth and Venus and the velocity of Venus with respect to the earth. The data obtained made it possible to predict the moments of entry of the probes into the Venusian atmosphere with an accuracy up to a few
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seconds and the coordinates of the region of entry—-with an accuracy up to 200 kilometers. The correction of the flight trajectory of Venera-5was carried out on March 14, 1969. Here, an additional velocity of 9.2 meters per second was imparted to the probe. The correction of the flight trajectory of Venera-6 was carried out on March 16, 1969 and the additional velocity imparted was 37.4 meters per second. Naturally, the impulse of corrective velocity for the probe Venera-6 had a larger value, since a larger deviation of the flight path from the designed trajectory had to be corrected. The accuracy in imparting the given values of the velocity impulse by the instruments of the probe was sufficiently high; namely, i and 3 centimeters per second. The last stages of the carrier-rockets which brought the probes to Venus, continued moving along the uncorrected trajectories and became artificial satellite of the sun. The flight of the automated probes was ensured by the space-borne and ground radio networks. With their help the distance of the probes and their velocities with respect to the earth were measured, all the commands were transmitted to the probes and telemetric information was received. The radio transmitters on board the probes used two types of antennas for radio communications with the earth: antenna with large radiation pattern and small amplification factor—the so-called non-directional antenna—and the parabolic antenna with a narrow radiation pattern and large amplification factor, the so-called directional antenna. The non-directional antennas were used all along the flight track in the unoiientated position of the probe. The pointed antennas were used for communications at large distances from the earth to ensure a high rate of information while transmitting telemetric information. While working with the pointed antenna, the probe, on a signal from the earth or from the programer, would receive orientation with the antenna axis toward the earth. The orientation was carried out by the control system of the probe automatically—with the help of optico-electronic devices—with respect to the sun and the earth. On getting a signal "Find Earth" from the optical sensor, the pointed antenna would switch on and the session of radio communications would start. The transmitters fitted on the landing vehicles of the probes, worked with their own non-directional antennas, which had a radiation pattern with a breadth of dozens of degrees. The receiving devices of the center for remote space communications carried out a confident reception of signals at all stages of the flight of Venera-5 and Venera-6. The radio communications session were conducted on commands from the earth as well as from the space-borne programer. The radio communications sessions with the probes included the following main elements: delivery of control commands, control of their passage and
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execution; reception of telemetric information about the condition and functioning of the systems on board which ensure the working of the probes; conducting trajectory measurements; insertion of angular programs into the optico-electronic instruments for orientation toward the sun, earth and the star Sirius, and their control; reception of scientific information.
Physical investigations on the flight path and in near-planet space

Measurements of the solar and galactic cosmic rays, and investigations of the interplanetary plasma and the scattered ultraviolet solar radiation were carried out in the course of the flight of Verier a-5 and Verier a-6. The measurements have shown that the general level of a stream of galactic rays has decreased by about 15% as compared to the level in June-October 1967, measured during the flight of Venera-4, and by about 40% as compared to the level in December 1965, measured during the flight of the probes Zpnd-3 and Venera-2. This phenomenon is connected with the cyclic activity of the sun and indicates the increased stream of heterogeneous magnetic fields, arising from the sun. In the course of the flight, which lasted for over four months, the increase in the intensity of the solar proton flux with energy of i -4 million electron volts was observed several times. Of these, twelve times the increase was substantial. Four times the increase was distinguished by complicated structure and long duration: each of them lasted for not less than 7 days. Their intensity was many times more than the level of the galactic background and was much higher than the intensity increases observed during the previous flights. These phenomena are obviously connected with the increased solar activity, namely, with the groups of large chromospheric outbursts taking place during this period. New data has been obtained about the structure of the streams of the near-planet plasma near Venus. The flights of interplanetary vehicles have shown that interplanetary space is filled with streams of plasma, moving from the sun at velocities of several hundred kilometers per second and known as "solar winds." This plasma is "magnetized" and it carries a magnetic field with it. Before conducting direct investigations of Venus, it was not known how the "solar wind" plasma behaves near a planet, which—as the measurements by the Soviet and American space vehicles have shown—has practically no magnetic field of its own. First of all sharp changes in the concentration of plasma, connected with a simultaneous change in the intensity of the magnetic field in the vicinity of Venus, were observed on October 18, 1967 with the help of charged-particle traps and magnetometers, fitted on the Soviet probe Venera-4- Now new investigations of the interplanetary plasma
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flux near the planet have been conducted. The most informative investigations were conducted with the help of the trap fixed on the probe Venera-6. When the probe approached the planet, changes in the magnitudes of these streams characteristic for die region were observed, where the "solar wind" flows around Venus. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6—like the probe Venera-4— descended on the night side of the planet, but farther away from the terminator. Hence it was expected that they would cross the front of the sharp change in the charged particle streams at a greater distance from the planet than in the case of Venera-4, which crossed the front at a distance of about 20 thousand kilometers from the center of the planet. This experiment confirmed this assumption: the front of the change of plasma streams was observed at a distance of about 30 thousand kilometers. Both the automated probes had on board photoelectric photometers for the measurement of the scattered ultraviolet radiation in the vicinity of the planet and in the interplanetary medium. The measurements showed— it was also observed during the Venera-4 flight—that the intensity of radiation at the atomic hydrogen line increases on approaching the planet. On the basis of these measurements, the density of the atomic hydrogen in the distant regions of near-planet space was calculated. The first signs of the presence of the hydrogen corona were observed at a distance of 25 thousand kilometers fiom the center of the planet, while at a distance of about 10 thousand kilometers the density of hydrogen corona was about 100 atoms per cubic centimeter. These results confirm and supplement the measurements of the hydrogen corona of the planet carried out by Venera-j.
Entry and descent of vehicles into the Venusian atmosphere

When Venera-5 and Venera-6 approached Venus, the last radio communications session in the vicinity of the planet was carried out two hours before entry into its atmosphere. It was started on a command from the programer, given by the earth in the previous session. In the first eight minutes of the sessions, the flight velocities of the probes were checked so that the effect of the Venusian gravitation field could be determined more accurately. Then the telemetric information about the condition of the systems on board was transmitted. The separation of the landing vehicles of the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 was carried out before entry into the planet's atmosphere at distances of 37 and 25 thousand kilometers from Venus respectively. After the separation of the landing vehicles, the orbital compartments of the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 continued to transmit telemetric information till their entry
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Fig. 40.

Descent into the Venusian atmosphere (sketch).

into the dense atmospheric layers. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 entered the Venusian atmosphere at a velocity of 11.18 kilometers per second and at angles of 62-65 degrees with the local horizon. They took place at 0901 hours Moscow time on May 16 and 0905 hours Moscow time on May 17 respectively. Then started the most complicated stage of flight for the landing vehicles of the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6, namely the aerodynamic deceleration. In the phase of aerodynamic deceleration, the descent velocity of the landing vehicles in a short interval of time, decreased to about 210 meters
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per second. Then the parachute system was automatically put into operation (Fig. 40), the radio transmitters were switched on and the antennas of the altimeter wete opened. Now the scientific measurements and the transmission of data to the earth started. The radio communications with the landing vehicles during their descent into the Venusian atmosphere were steady. The radio communications sessions lasted for 53 minutes in the case of Venera-5 and 51 minutes for Venera-6. In the course of descent the temperature inside the landing vehicles changed insignificantly: from i3°C at the beginning of the phase to 28°C at the end. This shows the reliable functioning of the exteinal thermal protection layer, protecting the vehicle from short-lived but extremely high thermal fluxes which arise during aerodynamic deceleration, as well as the faultless functioning of the internal heat insulation layer, which protected the vehicle from heating in the Venusian atmosphere in the course of the long period of descent on parachute when the atmospheric temperature reached up to 32O°C.
Results of scientific investigations in the Venusian atmosphere

The landing vehicles of the automated probes had on board gas analyzers for the study of the atmospheric gas composition, a system of sensors for temperature and pressure designed for different ranges of measurement, density meter for the measurement of the density of the atmosphere and photocells for the measurement of the illumination. With the help of the gas analyzers, the contents of carbon dioxide gas, nitrogen, together with inert gases, oxygen and water were determined at different heights above the planet surface and hence, at different pressures and temperatures. The simplest and the most reliable physico-chemical methods, based on well-studied reactions and possessing high selectivity, were used for the determination of the composition of the atmosphere. The gas analyzer is a miniature chemical laboratory, which automatically, in a certain order, carries out all the chemical operations necessary for the analysis of the gas composition of the atmosphere. These instruments are completely autonomous and are controlled by the space-borne programer. On commands at definite moments the samples of the atmosphere weie taken for analysis, the power supply to different chemical analyzers were switched on and off, and the results of the measurements were received and stored. The system of sensors for the measurement of pressure and temperature consisted of the aneroid manometers and the resistance thermometers. These comparatively simple instruments are equipped in the best possible way for measurements in a dense gas medium and under the conditions
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of high temperatures. The mutual overlapping of the ranges of measurement ensured the possibility of checking the correctness of measurements and also their high accuracy. For the measurement of the density, an instrument based on the change of amplitude of vibration of a tuning fork with the density of the surrounding medium was used. Photoelectric sensors, designed for recording the radiations in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum with a threshold sensitivity of 0.5 watt per square meter were used for the measurement of the illumination. This value corresponds approximately to the illumination of the earth at dusk. Both the landing vehicles were equipped with radioaltimeters of microwave band. With the help of these altimeters, a number of values of the height above the planet were determined in the course of the descent. The scale of fixed values of height which could be registered with the help of radioaltimeters, ranged from 50 to 10 kilometers. Such a working range of the instruments was based on the expected height of the opening of the parachutes. On each landing vehicle the collection of the sample for the atmospheric gas composition analysis was done twice. On the probe Venera-5, the first analysis of the atmospheric composition was carried out soon after the opening of the main parachute, when the atmospheric pressure was about 0.6 atmospheres and the temperature—-about 25°C. The composition was investigated for the second time in a lower region, when the pressure was about 5 atmospheres and temperature—-about I5O°C. On the probe Venera-6 the first analysis of the gas composition of the atmosphere was carried out at a pressure of about i atmosphere and temperature—about 6o°C. The second analysis was carried out when the pressure had reached 10 atmospheres and the temperature was 225° C. The new data, obtained with thehelp of Venera-5 and Venera-6ha.s confirmed the measurements made by Venera-4 and has substantially increased the accuracy in the determination of the chemical composition of the Venusian atmosphere. According to the data from Venera-5 and Venera-6, the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in the planet atmosphere reaches up to 93-97%, while the measurements by the probe Venera-4 showed a value of 90% with a possible error of about 10%. The contents of nitrogen and inert gases are 2-5% while the content of oxygen does not exceed 0.4%. The measurements by the probe Venera-4 had shown that the content of nitrogen in the planet atmosphere is not more than 7% and of oxygen—less than i%. The content of water vapor, determined by Venera-4, at pressures of about 0.6 atmosphere was within 1-8 milligrams per liter. The measurements by Venera-5 and. Venera-6'have shown that the content of water vapors at levels of height corresponding to a pressure of 0.6 atmospheres, is from 4 to 11 milligrams per liter. This shows the absence of saturation of the Venusian atmosphere with water vapors at heights.
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The measurements of pressure and temperature were conducted, on an average, in 40-50 seconds. In the course of the parachute descent of each vehicle, in all more than 70 measurements of pressure and over 50 measurements of temperature were carried out. In the course of the whole period of exploration, the pressure and temperature of the Venusian atmosphere was measured accurately, with a possible error of few percent. In 1967, the probe Venera-4 conducted measurements in the region where the temperature varied from 25 to 27O°C. The corresponding change in pressure in this portion was from 0.5 to 18 atmospheres. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 conducted measurements in those portions of the atmosphere where the temperature varied approximately from 25° to 32O°C and the pressure—-from 0.5 to 27 atmospheres. In the interval of measurements, the rate of change of temperature with height differs little from the adiabatic change. The part of the descent of the landing vehicles in the Venusian atmosphere —starting from the opening of the parachutes—where the atmospheric parameters were measured, were calculated on the basis cf the results of the measurements of temperature, pressure and chemical composition. The differences between the values of heights recorded by the radical time ters agree well with the values calculated by two independent methods: from the velocity of descent of the landing vehicle by parachute and from the condition of hydrostatic equilibrium of the atmosphere. The part, during which the atmospheric parameters were measured, was 36 kilometers for the probe Venera-5 and 38 kilometers for Venera-6. According to the preliminary data, the heights, recorded by the radioaltimeters of the probes Venera-5 and Venera-6, for the same values of temperature and pressure differ from each other by about 12-16 kilometers. According to the data from the radioaltimeter of the probe Venera-5, a pressure of 27 atmospheres corresponded to a height of 24-26 kilometers, while according to the data from the radicaltimeter of the probe Venera-6, the same pressure corresponds to a height of 10-12 kilometers. This result will be studied further. The pressure of 27 atmospheres corresponds to the same level of the atmosphere, yet the descent took place over different regions of the planet surface. A possible hypothesis for the explanation of the difference in the readings of the radicaltimeters of Venera-5 and Venera-6 can be the existence of substantial irregularities in the relief of the surface of Venus. In case the temperature changes according to the adiabatic law up to the planet surface, then at the level of the surface determined by the radioaltimeter of Venera-6 the temperature and pressure will be about 4OO°C and 60 atmospheres, while at the surface level, determined by the radioaltimeter of Venera-5 the temperature and pressure can reach up to 53O°C and 140 atmospheres. The photoelectric sensors did not record the illumination of the Venusian
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atmosphere above the threshold value of 0.5 watt per square meter. An exception is a reading taken by Venera-5 about 4 minutes before the end of the radio communications session and corresponding to a level of about 25 watts per square meter. It remains to be analyzed whether this reading by the instrument is accidental or is connected with some atmosphere phenomenon. Thus, Venera-5 and Venera-6 penetrated and gave information from deeper layers of the atmosphere, than Venera-q. By direct measurements they have made it possible to define more accurately the chemical composition of the Venusian atmosphere and determine the shape of the atmospheric temperature, pressure and density curves for a portion of about 40 kilometers, which is more than the intervals of previous measurements. Results of these experiments show that Venus has a powerful, dense atmosphere with very high values of pressure and temperature near the surface. The new direct measurements of the chemical composition, temperature, pressure and density of the Venusian atmosphere, carried out by the Soviet probes Venera-5 and Venera-6, have great importance for the deeper understanding of the structure of the Venusian atmosphere. They enable us to form a more definite opinion about the origin of the Venusian atmosphere and about the processes which could lead to such high temperatures on this planet. For the first time an experiment has been conducted jointly by two automated probes, which carried out deep explorations of the Venusian atmosphere in two neighboring regions almost simultaneously. The processing of the unique measurement data of the Venusian atmosphere is still going on and the results will be published in scientific journals. The automated probes which penetrated into the Venusian atmosphere at a distance of hundreds of millions of kilometers from the earth, have enabled us to learn a lot about this planet. Further investigations will reveal many other interesting facts about this planet which is so different from the earth. The flight of the automated interplanetary probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 is the latest success of Soviet science and technology, a proof of the high development of Soviet industry, the inexhaustible creative potential of the first socialist country of the world. The systematic study of Venus and other worlds of the universe is an important part of the Soviet space program. The success of this experiment gives inspiration to the Soviet scientists, engineers and workers for new achievements for the benefit and happiness of mankind. The new outstanding victory of Soviet astronautics, achieved on the eve of the centenary of the great founder of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government, V.I. Lenin, is a wonderful proof of the scientific and technical progress of the Soviet Union and the creative enthusiasm of its people.
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This brilliant achievement of Soviet science and technology is another remarkable contribution to the development of world science in its conquest of outer space.
Pravda, June 4, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT INTERPLANETARY ROUTE OF VENERA-j In accordance with the program of investigation of outer space and the planets of the solar system, an automated interplanetary probe Venera-j was launched in the Soviet Union on August 17, 1970, at 0838 hours Moscow time. The main purpose of the flight of Venera-j is to continue investigations of the planet Venus begun by the earlier automated Venera probes. Compared to the earlier probes, Venera-j is an improved version. The weight of the probe is 1,180 kilograms. Venera-y, along with the last stage of the carrier-rocket, was introduced into an intermediate orbit as an artificial earth satellite. At 0959 hours Moscow time, on a command from the programer, the engine of the last stage of the rocket was switched on, which worked for 244 seconds and imparted to the probe a velocity slightly more than planet-escape velocity. Venera-j has been introduced into a trajectory close to that calculated. At 1200 hours Moscow time on August 17, the probe was situated at a distance of 42 thousand kilometers from the earth, at a point over the terrestrial surface with the following coordinates: 120 degrees 15 minutes eastern longitude and 23 degrees 30 minutes northern latitude. In the course of the flight regular radio communications will be maintained with the probe Venera-j and scientific information will be received at a frequency of 928.429 megahertz. According to the telemetric data, the systems and scientific equipment on board the probe are functioning normally. The flight of the automated probe is being controlled by the center for remote space communications. The center for coordination and computation is processing the data received.
Pravda, August 18, 1970

QUESTIONS TO VENUS The Soviet automated probe, as was reported yesterday, is moving toward the distant 'morning star.' What do we know about the planet Venus?
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What still remains to be found out? The article published below describes Venus. Venus is our nearest neighbor in outer space. When this 'morning star", moving along its orbit, passes between the earth and the sun, the distance between it and the earth reaches its minimum—'only' about 40 million kilometers. Venus, one can say, is also the nearest relative of our planet. It is slightly less than the earth in mass and radius, and receives almost the same amount of heat from the sun. The similarity in the main characteristics of the two planets is, in general, understandable from the cosmogonical point of view. According to the present scientific hypotheses, all the planets of the solar system were formed from a single 'protosolar' nebula, condensed from interstellar matter. The process of condensation took place in such a way that a major portion of the mass (99.9 per cent) gathered in the central portion and later formed the sun, while the remaining matter shrank into a highly condensed disc. It consisted of hard meteoritic particles of different sizes, which collided and combined, thus creating planet nuclii, which, in hundreds of millions of years, were transformed into the present planets. This process was completed about five billion years ago. The planets Mercury, Venus, earth and Mars, which are closer to the sun, were formed mainly from comparatively heavy elements namely iron, silicon and oxygen, while they had such elements as hydrogen and helium in insignificant quantities. By contrast, the 'building' material of the distant planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune—was mainly hydrogen and helium. They are larger in size and less dense. Such a difference in the structure of the planets is probably due to the escape of such light elements as hydrogen and helium from the portions of the initial nebula closer to the sun because of high temperatures. The earth and Venus are situated in the middle of the band of the four denser but less massive planets. Thus their mass and radius are almost equal. It also indicates nearness in the chemical composition and internal structure. On the basis of these reasons, many astronomers, as recently as 10-15 years ago, thought that the atmospheres of these two planets and nature of their surface should also be similar. In particular, the existence of life on Venus was not excluded. The dense cloud cover, however, did not allow penetration deep into the atmosphere to study the surface with the help of optical telescopes. The first data about it was given by the radioastronomical and radar observations, since radio waves of a 5-6 centimeter wavelength can penetrate into the layer of the Venusian atmosphere. But the most important results, which made a fundamental contribution to planetology, were given to the scientists by the Soviet automated probes Venera-4, Venera-5 and Venera-6.
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About 40 years ago, spectra of Venus in the region of waves, slightly larger than those which give visual perception of the red light, were obtained. The scientists had before them a regular pattern of narrow thick lines, which are not in the solar spectrum. These lines were never observed in the laboratories. True, their relative positions made it possible that they belonged to carbon dioxide gas. This was confirmed when the spectrum of radiation, passing through a thick layer of carbon dioxide gas, was obtained in the laboratory. Thus, the presence of carbon dioxide gas on Venus was discovered. Afterward, to it were added carbon monoxide, water vapors and two compounds completely absent in the terrestrial atmosphere, i.e. hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. However, a question remained unclear: is carbon dioxide the main component of the Venusian atmosphere or is it mixed in small quantities with nitrogen (as on the earth) or with some other gas, say neon, which cannot be detected by spectroscopic methods? Chemical gas analyzers, fixed on the Venera-4, clearly established that the Venusian atmosphere consists almost completely of carbon dioxide gas. The data about the chemical composition was determined more accurately by Veriera-5and Venera-6. They showed that the contents of nitrogen are not more than 2% and oxygen—0.1%. The quantity of water vapors was also measured with the help of gas analyzers. It was found that their content in the main layer of the Venusian atmosphere is not more than 0.05%. In fact liquid water cannot exist on the planet because of the extremely high temperatures. If the oceans on the earth were to evaporate into the atmosphere the pressure would increase by 300 times and water vapors would be 300 tunes more than all the other gases. In the upper layers of the atmosphere, the water vapors are disintegrated into hydrogen and oxygen. But since hydrogen has the least atomic mass, its concentration increases with the height. At heights up to 100 kilometers from the planet surface, it exists as an insignificant ingredient, but with the increase of height, its percentage also increases. At heights of about 1,000 kilometers, it becomes the main component of the atmosphere. Already, many years ago this phenomenon was discovered in the terrestrial atmosphere. The outermost, rarefied and extensive part of the terrestrial atmosphere is a kind of hydrogen "geocorona". The automated interplanetary probes, the Soviet Venera-4 and American Mariner-5 in 1967 recorded an analogical hydrogen corona near Venus also. It was found to be less dense than the terrestrial. There is also another interesting difference: the hydrogen corona of Venus contains much more deuterium (heavy isotope of hydrogen). The Soviet automated probes measured the temperature and pressure in the planet atmosphere. The probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 completed measurements at a pressure of 27 atmospheres. The temperature at this level was 320°C and the height above the planet surface—about 20 kilo355

meters. With the decreases in height, the temperature increases by about 10° C per kilometer. If the same rate of change of temperature according to height is maintained right up to the surface, then it must be "heated" up to 500° G and the pressure would be about 100 atmospheres. Hence it turns out, that although Venus and earth are twins, they differ greatly in the composition and structure of their atmospheres. Why is the Venusian atmosphere a hundred times heavier than the terrestrial atmosphere? Why is there so much carbon dioxide gas? Why is it so hot and dry? Probably the search for the answers lies in the evolution of the planet's atmosphere. According to the general view, the planets of the earth group maintained for a very short period the initial atmosphere, close in gas composition to the protoplanet cloud which surrounded the sun in the epoch of its formation. This initial atmosphere could contain hydrogen, helium and inert gases, particularly neon. But this atmosphere was almost completely lost and was replaced by a secondary atmosphere, consisting of products fi orn volcanic activity. That is how water vapors, carbon dioxide gas and nitrogen appeared in the atmospheres of earth and Venus. But the further fate of volcanic gases depends upon many factors, including chemical reactions with rocks, disintegration of molecules due to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and the volatilization of lighter components into interplanetary space. On the earth, the evolution of the atmosphere is very closely connected with the biosphere, i.e. the activity of the living organisms. The observations and calculations show that in the process of the geological history of our planet, almost the same amount of carbon dioxide gas has been exhaled into the atmosphere as is now present on Venus. But the biosphere of the earth has taken up this gas and transformed it into sedimentary rocks. On the other hand, the breathing by plants enriched the terrestrial atmosphere with oxygen. Only comparatively inert nitrogen remained, in almost the same quantity. These are precisely the processes which explain the difference in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. But another difficult question remains: what happened to the water on Venus? The following explanation is the most probable. As has already been said, water vapor disintegrates in the upper atmosphere into hydrogen and oxygen and a hydrogen corona is formed, which extends to many thousand kilometers. A part of the hydrogen atoms in this corona, because of thermal motion, attains a higher velocity than planet-escape velocity and leaves the atmosphere. This process may lead to a complete disappearance of water from the planet if the velocity of the water vapors joining the atmosphere is sufficiently high. This velocity is controlled by the temperature of the coldest level of the atmosphere. With the increase of the distance from the planet, the temperature in the atmosphere first decreases and then increases again. But there is always a level where the temperature is minimum. If the temperature
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at this level is increased by a few dozen degrees, the results can be severe: in about 100 million years the earth will lose its oceans. Probably that is what happened with Venus. An indirect proof is the above mentioned abundance of deuterium in its upper atmosphere. This has happened because the deuterium atoms, due to their large mass; do not always attain planetescape velocity. What are the processes which lead to high temperatures? It can be a hothouse effect, or the so-called adiabatic heating, or the internal heat. The hothouse effect is thephenomenonoccurring when a part of the solar radiation penetrates to the surface and heats it, since the atmospheric 'fur coat' allows very little radiation to go back. The adiabatic heating is obtained during the mechanical displacement caused by atmospheric circulation. Finally, under particular conditions the internal heat of the planet can also heat up the surface and the atmosphere. Only a detailed study of the Venusian meteorology, including the distribution of temperature and atmospheric movements, can enable us to find out which of the above processes is responsible for the heating of the atmosphere. In our opinion, the cause of the heating will be the key problem of Venusian exploration. There are many problems which are still unsolved. One of them is the chemical composition of the cloud layer. Often it is supposed that it is formed of icy particles. But when analyzed in detail this hypothesis faces great difficulties. During the last few years science has achieved a lot in the investigation of Venus. Representatives of different countries and different fields of science took part in its study. We can really be proud that the strongest team in this study of the unknown was formed by Soviet specialists and our automated probes.
Pravda, August 19, 1969 . Professor V. Moroz

VENERA-7 CONTINUES FLIGHT The TASS correspondent was informed by the flight control center, that the automated interplanetary probe Venera-j, launched on August 17, 1970, continues its flight toward Venus. On September 5, Venera-j was situated at a distance of 5 million kilometers from the earth. According to the telemetric data, all the instruments and assemblies of the probe are functioning normally. The prefixed temperature regime is being maintained in the instrument compartments. The space-borne radio network functions normally during the communications sessions with the probe.
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The information received is being processed in the center for coordination and computation.
Pravda, September 6, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE VENERA-j CONTINUES FLIGHT The automated interplanetary probe Venera-?, launched in the Soviet Union on August 17, 1970, continues its flight toward the planet Venus along a heliocentric orbit. During this period, 85 sessions of radio communications were conducted with the probe Venera-j, during which the flight trajectory of the probe was measured and a lot of telemetric information was obtained about the physical processes taking place in outer space and about the work of the systems on board. In accordance with the flight program, a correction of the flight trajectory of the probe was carried out on 17 November, at 1230 hours Moscow time. The automated probe Venera-j is moving along a trajectory close to the calculated one and will reach Venus on December 15, 1970. On November 17, the probe was situated at a distance of 3 i .5 million kilometers away. The center for remote space communications is maintaining steady radio communications with the probe Venera-j. According to the telemetric information, the systems on board are functioning normally and the pressure and temperature in the instrument compartments are within the prescribed limits. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, November 19, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT AUTOMATED PROBE VENERA--J COMPLETES FLIGHT The automated probe Venera-j, after a iso-day flight, reached Venus on December 15, 1970. The automated interplanetary probe Venera-? was launched on August 17, 1970. During this period, the probe covered a distance of about 320 million kilometers, and 124 sessions of radio communications were conducted with it, during which a large amount of telemetric information was received.
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On December 12, at a distance of i million 300 thousand kilometers from Venus the preparatory operations for the final phase of entry into the planet atmosphere started. For this purpose, on a signal from the earth, the chemical sources of power supply of the landing vehicle were connected with the solar battery of the probe for charging, and the temperature in the landing vehicle was reduced to minus 8°C. On December 15, at 0802 hours Moscow time, while entering into the planet's atmosphere, the orbital compartment and the landing vehicle were separated. After the aerodynamic deceleration of the landing vehicle, by which its velocity decreased to 250 meters per second, the parachute system was put into operation, the antennas opened and the transmission of information through the radio channels started. The signals from the landing vehicle were received for 35 minutes. Results of the measurements received from Venera-j are being processed.
Pravda, December 16, 1970

QUESTIONS ABOUT VENUS Probes for Venusian explorations occupy an important place in the family of Soviet automated space vehicles. The historic flight of Venera-4, which for the first time in October 1967, penetrated the atmosphere of the 'mysterious planet' and made direct measurements of its physical parameters and chemical composition, laid the foundation of the study of this planet in recent years. In May 1969, the automated probes Venera-5 and Venera-6 again explored the Venusian atmosphere, which enabled us to judge its physico-chemical characteristics more definitely. Recently, Ventra-j, launched four months ago for continuing these explorations, has successfully completed its flight. What are the present conceptions about the nature of Venus? What are the problems which interest the scientists? Venus is the second planet from the sun. It moves in an almost circular orbit, at a distance of about 108 million kilometers from the sun. The Venusian year is equal to 224.7 terrestrial days. Periodically—on an average, after 584 terrestrial days—the planet is situated at a minimum distance from the earth, i.e. at about 40 million kilometers. Of all the planets in the solar system, Venus is closest to earth in size^ mass and average density. Its radius is only 620 kilometers less than the mean terrestrial radius, its mass slightly more than 80% of the earth's, its average density is almost the same and the influx of solar energy on both planets is approximately equal. But these are purely external similarities. Thanks to the improved methods
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of study on the earth (mainly radio-astronomical methods) and the flights of the space vehicles, such vast differences between the two planets have been established during the last decade that we have been forced to abandon the previous oversimplified concepts about Venus being a twin planet of the earth. It was found that the period of rotation of Venus around its axis is 243 times more than the corresponding period on the earth, and the direction of rotation is reversed, i.e. clockwise (if seen from the north pole). It is not anticlockwise, as in the case of the earth and other planets. In the course of one Venusian year, the sunrise and sunset are observed only twice, and one Venusian day is equal to 116.8 terrestrial days. The axis of its own rotation is almost perpendicular to the plane of its rotation around the sun, i.e. the inclination is almost eight times less than the inclination of the earth. It means that there are no seasonal changes on the planet. It is interesting that while approaching the earth, Venus is turned toward us each time practically from the same side and one can presume that the timing of the orbital motion of the earth has a certain effect on the natural rotation of Venus, because of tidal forces. The Venusian surface can be 'seen' from the earth only in a comparatively narrow band of radio waves, for which its atmosphere is sufficiently transparent—approximately from three centimeters to a few dozen centimeters. For the visible and infrared bands, the observations are limited to the upper visible boundary of the Venusian clouds. The spectral characteristics of the infrared radiation recorded on earth, enabled us to discover the presence of certain components of the atmosphere and obtain approximate values of the temperature and pressure at the level of the cloud layer. But the optical measurements could not tell about the composition of the Venusian atmosphere, nor of its characteristics below the cloud layer and about the temperature and pressure near the planet surface. An unexpected result of the observations in the band of radio waves was the discovery of an unusually high radio intensity temperature of Venus—of the order of 300-400° C—made at the end of the fifties. The first natural explanation of this result was the hypothesis that the planet surface is heated precisely up to these temperatures. In this case, however, such attractive and promising hypotheses as the presence of oceans and luxuriant vegetation etc. on the planet were automatically ruled out. Psychologically it was not easy to drop these hypotheses. Attempts were made to 'reconcile' this result with the concept of a temperate climate on Venus. Thus arose the hypotheses about different mechanisms of a "non-thermal" nature of the radio emission, and the problem of the source of the high radio intensity temperature remained unsolved. Still greater uncertainty prevailed in estimating the pressure on the surface, and values varying from one to a few hundred atmospheres were suggested.
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Hence it was natural that the main task of the automated scientific probes Venera-4, 5and 6 was to get the answers to these burning questions. The most important result was the direct determination of the chemical composition. Contrary to the concepts about the abundance of nitrogen, it was found that the Venusian atmosphere is almost completely (93-97%) formed of carbon dioxide gas, while the nitrogen content is not more than 2%. There is practically no oxygen in the Venusian atmosphere and very little water vapor, only about 10% near the cloud layer. The Venera probes started measurements at temperatures of about 25° C and pressure 0.6 atmospheres and carried out exploration during the smooth descent on parachutes on the night side of Venusian atmosphere, to a level where the temperature increased to 325° C and pressure to 27 atmospheres. This pressure was at a height of about 20 kilometers from the surface. The temperature in the satellite phase increased rapidly—at a rate of about 8.5 degrees per kilometer. The determination of the atmospheric parameters near the surface depends upon whether the same rate of change of the temperature (approximately conforming to the adiabatic law in a carbon dioxide atmosphere) is retained to the end or whether the shape of the temperature curve gradually changes into a different type (for example, isothermal or inversion). According to the calculations made on these various assumptions of the Venusian atmospheric model, the surface must be heated to 42o-5OO°C and the average pressure must be 100 -i 10 atmospheres. In this way, these measurements have made it possible to establish reliably that Venus has a powerfully heated atmosphere, the density of which near the surface is only 10-15 times less than the density of water. Penetration through such a medium is a very complicated scientific and technical task. The vehicle must have the strength of a bathyscaph, which is lowered into the ocean to a depth cf more than a kilometer, and simultaneously, should be able to endure very high temperatures, which puts additional requirements on its design and space-borne systems. Meanwhile, the knowledge about the actual nature of change of the atmospheric parameters in the lower layers of the Venusian atmosphere to a great extent predetermines the possibility of getting an answer to a number of fundamental questions concerning the nature and evolution of the Venusian atmosphere, and the most probable mechanism "responsible" for its thermal regime etc. One of the most complicated problems of planetology is of foremost interest to the scientists: what were the processes which preceded the development of such peculiar conditions on Venus? What were those geochemical laws and physical mechanisms, which ied to the existing difference in the structure of the outer cover of two neighboring planets, earth and Venus? On the basis of the hypothesis of the origin of the solar-system planets from a gigantic protoplanet cloud, it is natural to assume that the orginal composition of their atmospheres about 4.5 billion years ago was almost
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the same and conformed to the average prevalence of chemical elements on the sun. But the most prevalent elements—hydrogen and helium—were afterward retained only by the cold, gigantic planets formed mainly from these gases in the periphery of the solar system. In the composition of the hard iron-silicate phase of the planets of the earth group, closest to the sun, the less prevalent and heavier elements entered (in the form of metals, oxides, sulfides), while the lighter—hydrogen, helium—were lost because of the 'escape' (dissipation) of these gas molecules into outer space. The gaseous composition of the atmospheres of the earth-group planets was formed mainly because of the volcanic outbursts that accompanied the processes of differentiation of the planet matter into mantles, as a result of the internal heating due to radioactive decay in its interior. Water vapor and carbon dioxide gas are the main components of the volcanic gases; in lesser quantities are carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride discovered in the Venusian atmosphere spectroscopically. It is possible that the terrestrial atmosphere had almost the same composition about 2-3 billion years ago. But the vital role in the formation of the terrestrial atmosphere was played, probably, by the processes of photosynthesis and the appearance of free oxygen in its atmosphere due to the emergence of the biosphere. It caused the oxidation of the ammonia, which is also contained in the volcanic gas, and the emergence of nitrogen in the atmosphere. The hydrogen fluoride and different compounds of sulfur entered into reactions with the biosphere and the hard matter of the planet. Because of the moderate temperature of the surface and atmosphere, the earth retained its water, most of which was concentrated in the oceans. The carbon dioxide gas was bound in the carbonates of the sedimentary rocks. It is possible that the nearness of Venus to the sun was responsible for the different evolution of its atmosphere. Probably one of the main reasons for the existing conditions was the gradual dehydration of the planet. In the terrestrial atmosphere there is a lot of oxygen, which stops solar ultraviolet radiation and does not permit it to enter the atmospheric layers which are situated below it for about 100 kilometers. On Venus, this radiation can penetrate deeper and the temperature above the cloud layer is slightly higher than on the earth. Both these factors enable us to presume that the processes of supply from below (diffusion) and photodissociation (disintegration) of water vapor molecules are taking place on Venus much more intensively. Hydrogen easily escapes into outer space while oxygen enters into the oxidization reactions with the solid mantle and the atmospheric gases. With the increase of temperature, pressure and dehydration, the process of emission of carbon dioxide gas from the carbonates into the atmosphere greatly intensifies. This process, known as the Wollaston Equilibrium, is determined by the reaction of carbonates with silicates in the surface layers of the planet. At the expected temperature and pressure near the Venusian
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surface, almost the same quantity of carbon dioxide gas has entered into its atmosphere as is present on the earth in the bound form. If the temperature on the earth was to be increased to the temperature on Venus, the pressure in the terrestrial atmosphere would be still higher, since to a pressure of about 300 atmospheres—corresponding to the pressure of the terrestrial hydrosphere—due to the evaporation^ the ocean there would be an addition of about hundred atmospheres due-'fo the '^mission of carbon dioxide gas. The thermal regime and dynamics of the planet atmosphere directly depend upon its chemical composition. In the light of the existing data, based on the calculation of models of thermal equilibrium, it can be assumed that for Venus the most effective are the processes of radiant and convectional thermal exchanges in the layers of atmospheric gas along the vertical direction and circulation in the meridional direction, which equalize the temperatures of the equatorial and polar regions. The high temperature near the Venusian surface can most easily be explained by the hothouse mechanism, created by the strong screening action of the carbon dioxide gas and water vapor for thermal radiation. There is a large reserve of heat in the Venusian atmosphere. It is hundreds of times more than the amount of heat lost during the Venusian night. Thus the change of temperature on the planet in a day is probably not more than i degree. Still a lot remains unclear in our knowledge about Venus. Besides the problems connected with the thermal regime and nature of the planet's atmosphere, a lot of discussion has been called forth by the problem of the structure and composition of the Venusian clouds. Different hypotheses have been proposed in this connection, but in our view, the clouds most probably consist of small icy crystals, approximately the size of a micron. The data about the processes taking place in the upper atmosphere and about the nature of the 'solar wind' plasma passing around it, is not sufficient. There are no convincing explanations of the cause of the anomalous rotation of Venus around its axis, and of the circulation of the Venusian clouds with a period of about four terrestrial days in a direction opposite to that of the rotation of the planet. At present one can only form hypotheses about the nature of the Venusian surface and about the rocks forming it. Naturally, in order to be able to answer these and innumerable other questions, many years of hard research work of different specializations, continued intensive study from earth and extensive measurements in the atmosphere and on the surface of the planet with the help of space vehicles, will be necessary. The flight of the automated probe Venera-j is another step forward on the difficult path to the solution of these baffling problems.
M. Marov, Kandidate of Physico-Mathematical Sciences. Pravda, December 19, 1970.
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v
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

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FOR THE BENEFIT OF MANKIND From November 15 to November 20, 1965, a conference of the representatives of the socialist countries—the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Republic of Cuba, Mongolian Peoples' Republic, Polish Peoples' RepubliCj Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic—was held in Moscow to discuss cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. At the conference, which was held in an atmosphere of friendship, cordiality and mutual understanding, the participants exchanged views on the most suitable ways and means of cooperation in the field of exploration and peaceful use of outer space, taking into consideration the scientific and technical potentialities and economic resources of each particular socialist country. The question of forming a program of joint research in the fields of space physics, space meteorology, organization of distant communications and telecasts, and space medicine and biology with the help of artificial earth satellite, geophysical and meteorological rockets etc. were considered. The question of joint construction and launching of satellite and the possibilities of the joint working out of instruments and equipment for space exploration by specialists of interested countries were also considered. The participants of the conference have declared their determination to develop cooperation between socialist countries in this important field of science and technology. The united efforts of the scientists of the socialist
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countries for conducting joint work in the exploration of outer space and in the application of satellites for meteorology, organization of remote radio communications, television and other practical purposes will make it possible to exploit better the advantages of the social system of the socialist countries for the acceleration of their scientific and technical progress and cultural prosperity. The participants of the conference have expressed their confidence that the joint efforts of the socialist countries in the exploration and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes will promote international cooperation in this field and will be an important contribution to the development of science for the benefit of all mankind.
Pravda, November 24, 1965

AGREEMENT
Between the Government of the USSR and the Government of

France about cooperation in the field of exploration and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes

The Government of the USSR and Government of France: recognizing the importance of the exploration and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes, considering that the cooperation between the USSR and France in this field will help further development of the cooperation between the two countries and that it is in the spirit of the traditional friendship between the. Soviet and the French people, believing that such cooperation in outer space would be an important step for the cause of normalization of scientific and technical cooperation in Europe, expressing satisfaction over the contacts already made between the interested organizations of the USSR and France in this field, have agreed on the following:
Article i

Both governments have agreed to prepare and realize a program of scientific and technical cooperation between the USSR and France in the field of exploration and peaceful conquest of outer space. For these purposes, they will give encouragement and help to the interested organizations of both countries.
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Article a

This cooperation will be realized: —in the field of exploration of outer space, including, in principle, the launching of a French satellite by the Soviet Union; —in the field of space meteorology, using the latest scientific equipment; —in the field of study of space communications through artificial earth satellite and also by joint projects and experimental work, particularly in the field of television; —through the exchange of scientific information, trainees, scientific delegations and by organizing conferences and symposiums. The scientific data obtained during the joint experiments will be available to both parties of the Agreement and will be conveyed within reasonable periods. The authors of the experiment will have the right of first publication.
Article 3

The other fields of cooperation can be decided on mutual agreement in the future.
Article 4

The program and conditions of cooperation in the fields mentioned in Article 2 of this Agreement will be defined by the working protocols.
Article 5

Mixed working groups of representatives of scientific and technical organizations of both countries will ensure the working out and accomplishment of the cooperation program.
Article 6

Each of the parties of the Agreement will inform the other party about the completion of the legal procedure, necessary for the validity of this agreement. This agreement will be valid from the day of the last of these intimations. This Agreement is valid for ten years. It will be valid till one of the parties denounces it. In such a case it will cease to be valid two years after the intimation of the denouncement.
Article 7

Further specifications and additions can be made to this Agreement on
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request from one of the parties of the Agreement and on mutual approval. In witness of that the representatives of the two Governments have signed this Agreement and have put their seals on it. Signed in the city of Moscow on June 30, 1966, in two copies in Russian and French, whereby both the texts are equally valid:
Upon authorization of the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
A. GROMYKO

Upon authorization of the Government of the Republic of France
COUVLE de MURVILLE

Prai'iiz, July I, 1966

COOPERATION IN OUTER SPACE
Communique From a conference of experts from socialist countries

A conference of experts from the socialist countries was held in Moscow from April 5 to April 13 this year on the question of cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. The scientists and the management of the connected departments from the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Republic of Cuba, Mongolian Peoples' Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic took part in the conference. The conference worked out the protocols of agreements on separate topics, experiments and jobs in the field of exploration of the physical properties of outer space, space meteorology, and space biology and medicine. It outlined the program of joint launching of satellite and rockets. In the field of space communications for the further development of economic, trading, cultural and other relations between the socialist countries, the participants acknowledged the expediency of an international system of satellite telecommunications, which would provide transmission of TV programs, telephony and other forms of information. This system will be open to any other country who wishes to join. The participants of the conference acquainted themselves with the receiving and transmitting equipment and other technical devices for watching earth satellite and distant outer-space objects, and devices for the control of their flights. The participants visited a number of scientific institutions and also heard a series of review lectures by specialists on some of the problems of exploration and use of outer space.
37°

The conference, which was held in a business-like, yet friendly atmosphere showed the unanimity of views of its participants on the questions of development of cooperation between the socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer space. The participants of tli2 conference observed that the cooperation between socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer space will help in the development of scientific research work in all the member countries. It will also help in solving many problems facing the development of national economy, culture and other fields. The participants of the conference have reiterated their confidence that the joint effort of the socialist countries in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes will help in the further strengthening of the friendship between the socialist countries and will be an important contribution to the development of science for the benefit of the whole of mankind.
Pravda, April 16, 1967

EXPERIMENT IN OUTER SPACE The first joint experiment envisaged by the Franco-Soviet agreement on cooperation in the field of space research (space meteorology and aeronomy), was carried out in October by the scientists of the aeronomy service of the National Scientific Research Center of France and the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR at Druzhnaya Observatory on Kheysa Island (Franz Josef Land). Two Soviet meteorological rockets MR-12, with instruments prepared by French specialists, were successfully launched. The aim of the experiment was to measure the temperature of the upper atmosphere. The experiment was carried out successfully. The aeronomy service of the National Scientific Research Center of France provided containers to fit into the nose of the Soviet rocket, with matter which can create two sodium clouds in each flight at a height of 120-180 kilometers. For the measurement of the temperature of the upper atmosphere, a method worked out by the French scientists was used. This method is based on the observation of artificial shining sodium clouds. The nature of their shining depends directly upon the temperature of the region of the upper atmosphere of the earth where the cloud is formed. At present this is the only method for the measurement of the temperature in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In their previous experiments, the French scientists observed sharp changes in the temperature of the upper layers of the atmosphere at a height of 120
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kilometers. It is possible that it changes at the time of aurora polaris under the action of streams of charged particles. This circumstance was at the center of attention while conducting the experiment on Kheysa Island. All the ground observations of different phenomena, accompanying the experiment, were carried out by the Soviet specialists and were conducted at the Druzhnaya Observatory. Moreover, on Kheysa Island a French measuring instrument (an electrophotometer for the measurement of the temperature of the upper atmosphere) was fitted, which was handled by Soviet scientists. The French experiments carried out observations from the air-borne laboratory "IL-i8" of the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR, equipped with two electrophotometers for the measurement of the temperature of artificial clouds. (TASS)
Pravda, October 18, 1967

COOPERATION IN THE PEACEFUL CONQUEST OF OUTER SPACE A Soviet-French conference on the question of scientific explorations of outer space; space communications, space meteorology and aeronomy was held in Moscow from February 14 to 21. The Soviet delegation at the conference was headed by Academician B.N. Petrov, President of the Council for International Cooperation in the field of exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes under the USSR Academy of Sciences. The French delegation was headed by Professor F. Dennis, President of the National Space Research Center of France and member of the French Academy of Sciences. This conference was in continuation of several meetings between the Soviet and French specialists in space research, which were held in Moscow and in Paris after the signing of the agreement between the Government of the USSR and the Government of France on June 30, 1966, for cooperation in the field of study and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes. At the conference, the schedule of the joint program in the working out, preparation and launching of the French satellite Rozo, its technical characteristics, parameters of the orbit and other problems connected with the accomplishment of this experiment were discussed. The launching of the Roz» satellite with the help of a Soviet carrier-rocket is scheduled for the end of 1971. The parties discussed some new suggestions about conducting additional scientific experiments on Soviet space vehicles and also about conducting some experiments using ground devices.
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Both sides acknowledged the expediency of joint participation in the technical collaboration and construction of some instruments meant for use in the joint experiments for outer space. The further expansion of the joint investigations at the magnetically conjugated points of the earth (Sorga in Arkhangelsk District—Kerguelen Island) was laid down. Both sides expressed satisfaction over the results already achieved in the field of meteorology and aeronomy, where Soviet rockets and French and Soviet measuring instruments were used. Quite interesting scientific information was obtained as a result of launching rockets on Kheysa Island in fall 1967. These investigations will be continued further. It is planned to use a Soviet mass-spectrometer with a French telemetric system on French rockets for the study of the condition of the upper atmosphere. In the field of space communications, the program of further investigations and experimental work on the transmission of black and white and colored telecasts and also of the signals of multi-channel telephony between Moscow and Paris through the telecommunications satellite Molniya-i was discussed and approved. Preliminary talks were held on different aspects of possible cooperation between the USSR and France in the systems of communication, using artificial earth satellite. The parties also discussed other possible ways of cooperation of mutual interest. The participants of the conference visited some scientific institutions and centers of the Soviet Union and got acquainted with the work connected with the exploration and conquest of outer space. Both sides noted with satisfaction that the cooperation between the USSR and France in the field of exploration and conquest of outer space is being accomplished successfully and has good prospects of further development. On February 20, 1968, a meeting was held between the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Academician M.V. Keldysh, and the President of the National Space Research Center of France, Professor F. Dennis, when problems of mutual interest were discussed. (TASS)
Izvtitiya, February 22, 1968

ADVANCEMENT OF SPACE METEOROLOGY Another series of joint experiments was carried out from February 28 to March 20 at the arctic Druzhnaya Observatory on Kheysa Island (Franz
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Josef Land) by the scientists of the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR and the aeronomy service of the National Scientific Research Center of France. Determination of the temperature, gas density and winds in the upper atmosphere was carried out. In accordance with the program of Soviet-French cooperation in the field of aeronomy and space meteorology, during this period six Soviet meteorological rockets MR-12, carrying sodium evaporators of Soviet and French production, were launched. In the course of these experiments artificial shining clouds were formed at the height range of 120-180 kilometers. The measurement of temperature, winds, and gas density with the help of these clouds was carried out by the Soviet and French specialists from the ground posts situated on Kheysa Island, using photographic and photometric equipment. Simultaneously, the condition of the ionosphere and the terrestrial magnetic field in the upper layers of the atmosphere were also observed. All the experiments were carried out in complete conformity with the predetermined program of scientific observations. Valuable information has been obtained about the parameters of the upper atmosphere in the polar latitudes, which is of great scientific interest. (TASS)
Pravda, April 6, 1968

USSR-FRANCE: SCIENTISTS' COLLABORATION In the framework of the Soviet-French collaboration in the field of exploration of outer space, joint scientific experiments were conducted in March-April on Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean and also at one of the centers in Arkhangelsk District. The scientists simultaneously launched several stratosphere balloons to heights of the order of 35 kilometers and above. These experiments will help scientists in explaining the nature of X-ray radiation of the aurora polaris at the magnetically conjugated points of the earth. Such joint and simultaneous observations on stratosphere balloons at magnetically conjugated points are being conducted for the first time in the world. They are included in the program of the International Solar Activity Year (1968-1970), the purpose of which is to study the relationship between the solar and terrestrial phenomena during the period of maximum solar activity. (TASS)
Pravda, April 18, 1968

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COLLABORATION BETWEEN SOCIALIST COUNTRIES IN THE FIELD OF SPACE PHYSICS A conference of the scientists and specialists from several socialist countries collaborating in the field of space research (Working Group for Space Physics), was held in Moscow. Representatives of Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Mongolia, Poland, Rumania, USSR and Czechoslovakia took part. Progress in the realization of the protocols adopted in Moscow in 1967 was discussed, concrete programs for the realization of these protocols were laid down and the several problems connected with the accomplishment of the planned experiments and with the processing and analysis of their results were discussed. The participants of the conference noted with satisfaction that the protocols adopted earlier are being realized successfully. New scientific, technical and organizational problems, connected with the joint work scheduled for 19681969 on satellite, to be launched by the Soviet Union according to its national program, were discussed in detail. Also discussed were the problems connected with preparation for the launching of satellite and geophysical rockets with instrumentation from socialist countries during 1969-1970. These experiments envisage an extensive program of ground observations. At the conference, general prospects of developing collaboration between socialist countries in the field of space physics were discussed. In particular, some new suggestions regarding joint outer space experiments were considered. The participants of the conference visited several Soviet institutions, which are taking part in the joint work on the exploration of outer space. The conference was held in an atmosphere of brotherly friendship and mutual understanding. It will help in strengthening the scientific and technical cooperation between socialist countries in the field of exploration of outer space for peaceful purposes.
Moskovskaya Pravda, June 18, 1968

JOINT EXPLORATION OF OUTER SPACE Paris, 11 October (TASS). Today in Paris ended the conference of Soviet and French delegations of scientists and specialists, which had been called in accordance with the agreement between the USSR and France regarding collaboration in the exploration and use of outer space, signed in Moscow in July 1966. The conference elaborated the scientific program worked out earlier and
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discussed new suggestions from both countries regarding the exploration of outer space and its use for peaceful purposes. At the end of the conference it was announced that the work on the project of launching a French scientific earth satellite Rozo has entered the concrete phase: the scientific purposes and methods of carrying out this experiment have been finally decided.
Izvestiya, October 12, 1968

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT JOINT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT On November 20. 1968 an artificial earth satellite Kosmos-sSi was launched in the Soviet Union. The satellite has on board scientific equipment meant for the study of the upper atmosphere of the eartii and the nature of the aurora polaris. In accordance with the program of collaboration between the socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, the scientific research institutes and observatories of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria; Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic are taking part in conducting this experiment on the study of the upper atmosphere of the earth and the nature of the aurora polaris. The main task of this multiple experiment, which includes direct measurements on the satellite as well as ground measurements, is to study geoactive corpuscules—electrons and protons causing the aurora polaris—, electrons having superthermal energy, as well as the change of density of the upper atmosphere during the aurora polaris. The satellite Kosmos-26i has been introduced into an orbit with the following parameters: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) —• 217 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 670 km; initial orbital period — 93.1 min; — 71 deg. orbital inclination The scientific equipment in the satellite is functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation of the Soviet Union and the scientific organizations of the countries taking part in the joint experiment are processing the data received.
Pravda, December 21, 1968
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IN OUTER SPACE AND ON EARTH
Yesterday TASS announced the launching of the artificial satellite Kosmos261, to study the upper atmosphere and nature of the aurora polaris. As is well known, scientists from several socialist countries of Europe are taking part in this experiment under the program of collaboration betwt en socialist countries in the field of exploration and the peaceful use of outer space. The Pravda correspondent requested Academician B.N. Petrov, President of the Council for International Cooperation under the USSR Academy of Sciences ("Interkosmos") to comment upon the launching of this satellite. Academician B.N. Petrov said: "Joint work of the scientists of the socialist countries in the field of space physics has been conducted from 1957, when the first artificial earth satellite was launched. At first this collaboration was limited to the joint optical observations of the satellite on the ground and investigations, based on their results. A new stage on this path was the joint fulfilment of scientific experiments with the help of Soviet satellite and rockets^ in accordance with the program of collaboration between socialist countries in outer space, adopted in Moscow in April 1967. One of these experiments is being conducted on the satellite Kosmos-s6i together with the geophysical observations on the ground. "The satellite has been injected into a near-polar orbit. Its launching has been timed with a period, close to the maximum solar activity. It has on board equipment for the measurement of the characteristics of geoactive corpuscules, i.e. electrons and protons, and the instrumentation for the measurement of the variations of the density of the upper atmosphere. "This is a multiple experiment. It also includes coordinated ground observations at the geophysical stations of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. Scientists from Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Rumania and Czechoslovakia are taking part in these observations. "The program envisages various investigations. It includes during the period of work of the satellite, study of the characteristics of the ionosphere by vertical ionospheric probing, measurement of the absorption of radio waves in the ionosphere and study of the sudden ionospheric perturbations. The investigations in the polar latitudes include also the measurement of the variations of terrestrial magnetic fields, terrestrial currents and photographic, spectral, electrophotometric and radar observations of the aurora polaris. Moreover, the evolution of the satellite orbit will be watched— especially during magnetic storms and aurora polaris—for calculating the density of the atmosphere. "The multiple nature of the experiment and the use of different methods of investigation is connected with the fact thai it is impossible to study sufficiently well many characteristics of the upper atmosphere and magneto377

sphere of the earth—including those which are connected with magnetic storms and the aurora polaris, which cover huge areas of near-earth space, if the investigations are conducted from any one point on the earth. For solving these problems, it is necessary to have the international cooperation of scientists who can study these planetary processes at different points on the earth. "The equipment fixed on the satellite records instantaneous values of parameters of the upper atmosphere. The satellite enables, for example, the determination of the energy spectrum, angular distribution, composition and intensity of particle flux with respect to a moment of time in a predetermined region of space. But because of the very high velocity of the satellite (of the order of 8 kilometers per second), it is not possible to get a complete picture of the variation of the corpuscular stream with time and distance. This is even more so for finding the relationships of such characteristics with multiple geophysical phenomena taking place in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the earth. "The observations from the earth's surface, on the other hand, make it possible to get information about the ionosphere and magnetosphere at different heights as well as their variation in time and space. A drawback of such investigations is that the characteristics of the upper atmosphere are substantially "averaged" in time and space. Thus it is very important to combine the measurements made by the satellite with measurements on the earth. Such experiments open absolutely new prospects for the study of the upper atmosphere and the geophysical processes. For its accomplishment, Soviet scientists are giving information about the expected parameters of the satellite orbits to the socialist countries. In this way, the participants in the experiment can get the ground geophysical centers ready in good time for making observations, as well as conduct some direct measurements while the satellite passes over one or other of the observatories. "The experiment, being conducted with thehelp of the Kosmos-26i satellite, is an important step toward the practical accomplishment of the program of collaboration between the socialist countries in the exploration of the physical properties of outer space. In the near future it is planned to carry out joint experiments connected with the launching of satellite and rockets with equipment developed in a number of socialist countries." In summing up, Academician B.N. Petrov said: "This collaboration in the exploration and use of outer spacs will help in the further development of scientific research in the socialist countries."
Pravda, December 22, 1968

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JOINT INVESTIGATIONS Paris, February 6 (TASS). In accordance with the program of FrancoSoviet agreement on cooperation in the field of exploration and the peaceful use of outer space, four French rocket-probes Dragon s-B, with Soviet scientific instruments fitted in them, were launched this month from the range in Landy Department near the city of Bordeaux. The aim of launching the rockets was to study the chemical composition of the atmosphere. In these experiments, Soviet scientists are also taking part along with the French scientists.
Pravda, February 7, 1969

SKY OF OUR PLANET
Joint Soviet-French experiment on exploration of upper atmosphere

Recently four Dragon rockets were launched from the French rocket range in Landy. These rockets carried Soviet scientific equipment for the study of the upper atmosphere. Izvestiya correspondent B. Konovalov requested Professor S.M. Poloskov, leader of the Soviet group of participants in the experiment, who has recently returned from France, to talk about the details and importance of this experiment. Sergei Matveevich said: "Man breathes air from his birth till death, but this does not help him understand and know the atmosphere. In fact we know little about the physical conditions at great heights, how they change during the day and night, and in the course of the year. But it is important to know all this for understanding many geophysical phenomena as well as preparing for space flights and increasing the reliability of radio communications. "The region from a height of 80 to 700 kilometers, known as the 'lower thermosphere', has not yet been studied satisfactorily. A large portion of the solar ultraviolet radiation is absorbed here. It is precisely here that the 'trigger mechanisms' of many processes operate, which evidently • play a substantial role in the formation of meteorological conditions in the lower atmospheric layers. Thus the Franco-Soviet collaboration in the exploration of the upper atmosphere is of great importance for all countries of the world. "The press has already reported the joint experiments on the rocket pro379

bing of the upper atmosphere over Kheysa Island in Franz Josef Land where the Soviet Druz.hna.ya Observatory is situated. Soviet meteorological rockets carrying French equipment are launched from the rocket base on this small island. In February this year, four French Dragon s-B rockets equipped with Soviet scientific instruments were launched from the Landy range situated in Gascony on the shore of the Bay of Biscay. The program of the experiment was worked out jointly by scientists from the institutions of the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR and the French National Center for Telecommunication Research. The technical provision and launching of the rockets was carried out by the organizations of the French National Center for Space Research. "In this experiment, heights from 100 to 430 kilometers were investigated. These heights are of great interest for the specialists in the field of radio communications, who are studying the conditions of the passage of radio waves. The most important layers of the ionosphere—the electric cover of the earth which reflects the radio waves—are situated precisely in this region. Soviet mass-spectrometers, fitted in the nose of the rockets enable us to get data about the composition of the atmosphere directly during the flight. After the processing of the measurement data, the density of each gas entering the composition of the atmosphere (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, helium, hydrogen) can be determined at all heights. Simultaneously the probing of the atmosphere was carried out from the earth by the so-called method of incoherent scattering. This method, consisting of the study of the scattering of a narrow beam of radio waves of strictly fixed wave length by the atmosphere, enables the determination of the electronic and ionic concentration and temperature of the atmosphere. "Four rockets were launched within 24 hours: two during the day and two at night. Investigations from the earth were conducted continuously. All the measurements were carried out successfully. This experiment made it possible to study the change in the condition of the upper atmosphere in 24 hours. The particularly important thing is that the data of rocket and ground measurements can be compared. The scientists have got this opportunity for the first time in the history of exploration of the upper atmosphere."
Izvestiya, February 22, 1969

COOPERATION

STRENGTHENS

The protocol of the 3rd conference of the Soviet and French delegations of scientists, which was held in accordance with the agreement between the USSR and Fiance on cooperation in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space was signed in Moscow on April 25.
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The protocol was signed on the Soviet side by Academician B.N. Petrov, President of the Council for International Cooperation (in the field of exploration and use of outer space), under the USSR Academy of Sciences (" Interkosmos")j and on the French side by Professor J.F. Dennis, President of the National Center for Space Research and member of the French Academy of Sciences. A joint communique was declared that the conference had reviewed the work done in the groups for the exploration of outer space, space communications, space meteorology and aeronomy, after the previous meeting in Paris in October 1968. It had also discussed questions connected with the further promotion of the joint program. The participants of the conference noted the successful development of collaboration between the USSR and France in all the above-mentioned fields. In the course of the meeting, the program of joint scientific experiments in the near future was discussed in detail. These experiments are connected with the launching of French instruments on Soviet space vehicles, meant for the exploration of the lunar atmosphere and solar radio emission, as well as for the delivery on the moon of a French reflector for laser detection. The scientists elaborated the scientific program worked out earlier and discussed new suggestions from both sides. In particular, the Soviet side agreed to the launching of small autonomous French satellite with the help of Soviet carrier-rockets. The conference which was held in a businesslike and friendly atmosphere, will help in the further development of cooperation between the USSR and France in the field of exploration and peaceful use of outer space. (TASS)
Pravda, April 26, 1969

CONFERENCE IN VARNA In accordance with the program of collaboration between the socialist countries for the exploration and peaceful use of outer space, a meeting of the permanent working group of the socialist countries and a scientific symposium on the problems of space biology and medicine were held in the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria in the town of Varna from September 22 to 27. 1969Representatives from the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic took part in this symposium.
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The participants of the conference reviewed the joint work carried out by the countries collaborating in the fields of space physiology and radiational safety of space flights during 1968-69. The current plans of joint work were elaborated and the program of scientific research during the next period was agreed upon. At the conference, the forms and methods of exchanging scientific information, scientific equipment and specimens were made more concrete. The working group noted with satisfaction the successful accomplishment of the adopted program of joint explorations, the scientific and practical value of the results obtained and the broad prospects for the joint solution of the present problems of space biology and medicine. The meeting of the working group and the symposium on space biology and medicine took place in an atmosphere of mutual understanding and friendship.
Pravda, October i, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT INTERKOSMOS-i In accordance with the program of collaboration between socialist countries in the field of exploration and the peaceful use of outer space, an

Fig. 41.

Satellite Interkosmos-7.
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artificial earth satellite Interkosmos-1 was launched in the Soviet Union on October 14, 1969. The satellite Interkosmos-1 (Fig. 41) is designed to study the ultraviolet and X-ray radiations of the sun and the effect of these radiations on the upper atmosphere of the earth. Interkosmos-1 has been launched into an orbit with the following parameters: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 260 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —• 640 km; initial orbital period —• 93.3 min; inclination — 48.4 deg. The satellite has the following scientific equipment on board: —Lyman alpha-photometer and a continuously operating transmitter for the transmission of results of scientific measurements, worked out and prepared in the German Democratic Republic; —X-ray spectroheliograph and X-ray polarimeter, worked out and prepared in the Soviet Union; —X-ray photometer and optical photometer, worked out and prepared in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. While preparing for the launching of the satellite, the scientists from these countries also took part in the assembly and testing of their respective scientific equipment on the satellite. Simultaneously with the measurements by the satellite, the observatories of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic are carrying out radio-astronomical, ionospheric and optical observations according to the agreed program. An operative group, consisting of specialists from the GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia, is controlling the satellite flight. The scientific equipment on the satellite is functioning normally. The scientific organizations of the countries taking part in the joint experiment are processing the data received. The leaders of the national coordination committees for collaboration in the field of exploration of outer space from the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic were present at the launching of the satellite Interkosmos-1.
Pravda, October 15, 1969

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EXPERIMENTS IN 'ORBIT OF FRIENDSHIP' On October 14, the artificial earth satellite Interkosmos-1 was launched in the Soviet Union. TASS correspondent I. Kozlovskii requested Academician B.N. Petrov, President of the Council for International Cooperation in the field of exploration and use of outer space ("Interkosmos") under the USSR Academy of Sciences to reply to a few questions. —What do you think of this event? What importance can it have for the development of international cooperation? —As TASS has already reported, an experiment is being carried out by an artificial earth satellite, the scientific equipment for which has been developed and prepared in a number of fraternal socialist countries. Scientists and specialists from the GDR and Czechoslovakia, along with their Soviet colleagues, took part in the preparation for the flight at all stages, starting from the making of the flight program and ending with the mounting of the instruments on the satellite. The scientists from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Rumania also took part in working out the scientific program and in the ground observations. The satellite Kosmos-26i, launched in December 1968, and the satellite Interkosmos-1 are the first steps toward the practical realization of the program of collaboration between the socialist countries in the launching of satellite and geophysical rockets. This work shows the great potentialities of cooperation between scientists of fraternal countries and opens new prospects for the participation of different countries of the world in space experiments. —What are the scientific aims of the experiment? —The aim of the Interkosmos-1 investigations, is to study the shortwave solar radiation and its effect on the processes taking place in the upper atmosphere of the earth. This experiment can be conducted only by using space technology. The terrestrial atmosphere completely absorbs all the electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths less than 2900 angstrom, coming from outer space. Since the instruments are almost outside the terrestrial atmosphere, they can record the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation coming from outer space. The flux of shortwave radiation is small as compared to the overall solar radiation. But its study is very important for science and practical reasons. The shortwave radiation, in particular, affects the density of the upper atmosphere of the earth. The shortwave solar radiation greatly affects the ionosphere of our planet and thus, the passage of radiowaves in the vicinity of the earth. The shortwave radiation, because of the strong photochemical action on the surface of materials, may have great importance for the study of outer space materials. Of course, the most important and direct result of the experiment will be the further penetration into the secrets of our luminary, particularly the physical processes
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taking place in the insufficiently explored solar corona. —Could you please talk about the peculiarities of this experiment? —-A characteristic feature of the experiment is the multiple approach toward the solution of the problems set out. Besides the space laboratory in orbit, the astronomical, geophysical and radioastronomical observatories of the socialist countries are taking part in the experiment. They are observing the sun and the upper atmosphere of the earth simultaneously with the working of the instruments on board the satellite. This will enable us to determine more correctly the relationship between the processes taking place in the sun and in the upper atmosphere of the earth. —What can you say about the activities of the "Interkosmos" Council, headed by you? —-It must be noted that there are many forms of cooperation in the field of astronautics. Participation by the USSR in international organizations, such as the UN Committee on the peaceful use of outer space, the International Committee for Space Research (COSPAR), the International Astronautical Federation, the International Electric Communication Union, the World Meteorological Organization etc., enables us to acquaint the scientists of the world with the latest achievements of the Soviet Union in the field of space science and technology and to discuss the most urgent problems connected with the conquest of outer space, at the international level. The practical work by the States in the field of outer space occupies a special position. In the Soviet Union, the Council for International Cooperation in Space Exploration and Use ("Interkosmos") has been created, which coordinates the international activity of different governmental organizations, including the USSR Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Communications, USSR, Directorate of Hydrometeorological Service and industrial organizations, in the field of space research. The Council also participates in planning collaboration with other countries, acquainting the collaborating countries with the possibilities which Soviet space technology can provide them, and helping in establishing business contacts between the scientific and industrial organizations of the Soviet Union and other countries. National coordination committees have been created in the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Mongolian Peoples' Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Republic of Cuba, Rumanian Socialist Republic and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. These committees guide and organize the collaboration mainly in the following fields of space research: space physics, communications, meteorology, biology and medicine. The collaboration between scientists of socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer space has its own history, since collaboration
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has continued since 1957, when the first artificial earth satellite was launchedHowever, in the beginning, it was limited only to ground observations of the artificial earth satellite and the scientific research connected with it. The launching of jointly-developed satellite and geophysical rockets as well as important collective work in the field of space physics, communications, meteorology, space biology and medicine, mark a new stage in the development of cooperation between the socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer space. In several socialist countries, collectives of talented scientists have come up, which are working in the field of space exploration. Collaboration between our countries has good prospects in this field.
Moskovskaya Pravda, October 16, 1969

INTERKOSMOS-1 WORKS IN ORBIT Another meeting of the operative and technical group for the control of the Interkosmos-1 satellite was held on October 22, at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The work during the last week was reviewed and the program for further work was decided. On October 22, at 1000 hours, Interkosmos-1 had completed 120 circuits around the earth. Its equipment is functioning normally. Ground stations in the GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia are receiving and processing scientific data from the special transmitter fitted on the satellite. The scientific institutions of the participating countries continue ground observations according to program. (TASS)
Pravda, October 23, 1969

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT WTERKOSMOS-2 In accordance with the cooperation program between the socialist countries in the field of exploration and the peaceful use of outer space, an artificial earth satellite Interkosmos-2 (Fig. 42) was launched in the Soviet Union on December 25, 1969. Interkosmos-s is designed to study the characteristics of the ionosphere of the earth: concentrations of electrons and positive ions, as well as the electron temperature near the satellite and average concentration of the electrons between the satellite and the ground receiving centers.
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Fig.

42. Satellite Interkosmos~2.

Interkosmos-2 has been introduced into an orbit with the following parameters : minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 206 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 1200 km; initial orbital period — 98.5 min; orbital inclination — 48.4 deg. The satellite is equipped with scientific instruments made in the German Democratic Republic and Soviet Union in accordance with the technical prescriptions worked out by the specialists from the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The specialists from Bulgaria, GDR and Czechoslovakia took part in the testing of the scientific equipment on the satellite and were present at the time of its launching. Simultaneously with the measurement by Interkosmos-2 the observatories of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Republic of Cuba, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic are conducting observations of the ionosphere and are receiving signals from the Mayak radio transmitter fitted on the satellite, according to the program.
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A working group of specialists from the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic has been formed for the control of the satellite equipment. The equipment on board the satellite is functioning normally.
Pravda, December 27, 1969

INTERKOSMOS-s IN FLIGHT Interkosmos-2 designed to study the characteristics of the earth ionosphere and launched on December 25 this year, is successfully continuing its flight. As is well known, the satellite has on board scientific equipment, prepared in the GDR and USSR on technical data, worked out by specialists from Bulgaria, GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia. Meetings of the technical group for the control of the equipment on board the satellite were conducted, at which specialists from Bulgaria, GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia took part. During the last meeting of this group, held at the Radio-Technological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the results of the recent satellite flight were discussed. By 1300 hrs on December 31, 1969, the satellite Interkosmos-2 had completed 89 circuits around the earth. Apparatus on board the satellite are working normal. The storage of the data received with the help of ion traps and highly sensitive probing along the satellite orbit, and its transmission to the earth through radio communications channels, as well as the direct radio communication of the results of measurements, are being carried out normally, in accordance with the prescribed program. In the socialist countries taking part in the experiment, ionospheric observatories and centers for the reception of signals of the radio transmitter are continuing coordinated observations. The program of further work has been decided. (TASS)
Pravda, January i, 1970

COLLABORATION IN SPACE EXPLORATION An international seminar of scientists and specialists from Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, devoted to the problems of joint processing of scientific data from space vehicles, launched in accordance with the program of collaboration between socialist countries in the field of exploration and use of outer
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space, was held in the Institute of Space Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences from January 12 to 16. The first fruits of collaboration between different scientific organizations of the socialist countries were obtained by the satellite Kosmos-sGi, launched on December 20, 1968, and used for conducting experiments. As is well known, an artificial satellite Interkosmos-1 was successfully launched in the Soviet Union on October 14, for the exploration of the sun and the upper atmosphere. On December 25, 1969, another satellite Interkosmos-2 was launched for the exploration of the ionosphere. These satellite, created by the collective efforts of scientists of the socialist countries, have made it possible to collect a large amount of diverse scientific data directly as well as through the help of a big network of ground devices. The ground observatories and centers in the socialist countries taking part in the collaboration, are conducting astronomical, ionospheric, radioastronomical and phase-metric measurements in accordance with the agreed program. The experiment on the satellite Interkosmos-2 is continuing, and the scientific organizations are receiving more new data for processing. In connection with the large amount and complex nature of telemetric data being received from outer space, the aim of the seminar was to find out ways of optimal organization of joint work for processing this data. From the countries participating in the experiment, papers and reports were heard and practical work was done on the processing of the results of telemetric measurements of parameters by the instruments on the satellite Interkosmos-1 and Interkosmos-2. In the course of the seminar, the scientists and specialists discussed the order of conducting further joint work and the ways of improving the maintenance of information of the complex scientific experiments. (TASS)
Pravda, January 17, 1970

COLLABORATION IN THE FIELD OF SPACE METEOROLOGY A delegation of Soviet scientists returned to Moscow from the Polish Peoples' Republic after taking part in a meeting of the working group for space meteorology. The meeting was held within the framework of the cooperation program between scientists of the socialist countries in the field of exploration and peaceful use of outer space. At the meeting in Cracow, the results of the collaboration in using the data of the Soviet Meteor meteorological satellite and geophysical rockets for practical and scientific work of the weather services of the socialist
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countries were discussed. The participants discussed the working out of scientific equipment for meteorological satellite as well as the question for further development of a network of rocket probing of the atmosphere in countries participating in the Interkosmos program.
(TASS) Moskovskaya Pravda, April 30, 1970

MULTIPLE GLOBAL EXPERIMENT As has been already reported, an artificial earth satellite Kosmos-g^S was launched in the Soviet Union on June 13. The launching of this satellite into orbit is part of the second multiple experiment which is being conducted jointly by the scientists and geophysicists from Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Poland, Rumania, USSR and Czechoslovakia, for the study of the upper atmosphere of the earth, aurora polaris and magnetic storms. The first joint experiment in this field was carried out in winter 1968, with the help of the satellite Kosmos-s6i. The second experiment, by contrast, is being carried out in summer. The main aim in the complex of ground measurements being carried out by the observatories of the northern hemisphere, is the investigation of the ionosphere and variation of the magnetic field. At the same time, the observations of the aurora polaris and the effects caused by it, are being carried out at observatories in the Antarctic. The equipment of the satellite Kosmos-s^S differs from the equipment of the satellite Kosmos-s6i in some respects: the sensitivity of some instruments has been increased and the measurement of concentration and temperature of ions has been included in the program. But the main aim of the measurements is the same. This will enable us to compare the results of the first and second experiment and study the seasonal variations in the ionosphere. As in the case of the first experiment also, the investigations in outer space and at the ground observatories of the socialist countries taking part are coordinated and synchronized. The cooperation between the scientists of the socialist countries has made geophysical experiments on a global level a reality. (TASS)
Pravda, June 19, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT INTERKOSMOS-3 IN FLIGHT In accordance with the cooperation program, an artificial earth satellite Interkosmos-3 was launched in the Soviet Union on August 7, 1970. Interkosmos-3 is designed to study the radiational conditions in near-earth
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space, investigate the relationship of the dynamic processes in the radiational belts of the earth with the solar activity and study the nature and spectrum of low-frequency electromagnetic vibrations in the upper atmosphere. Interkosmos-g has been launched into orbit with the following parameters: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 207 km; maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 1320 km; initial orbital period —• 99.8 min; orbital inclination — 49 deg. The satellite has the following scientific instruments on board: —equipment for the study of the composition and time variation of the charged particles (protons, electrons, alpha-particles), developed and manufactured in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic with the participation of Soviet specialists; —-equipment for the recording and analysis of the spectrum of low-frequency electromagnetic waves and signals in the frequency band of 0.7 to 12 kilohertz, developed and prepared jointly by specialists from the Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic; —-three-component magnetometer for the measurement of the terrestrial magnetic field and for the determination of the orientation of the satellite, developed and manufactured in the Soviet Union. While preparing for the launching of the satellite, specialists from the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic took part in the assembly and testing of scientific equipment. Simultaneously with the measurements of Interkosmos-g, the scientific institutions of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic are conducting ground measurements of the low-frequency radiations of the outer ionosphere in accordance with an agreed program. The flight of the satellite is being controlled by working group of specialists from the Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The scientific equipment on board the satellite is functioning normally. The scientific information from Interkosmos-g is being received by the ground stations in the German Democratic Republic, the Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
Pravda, August 8, 1970

INTERKOSMOS-3 CONTINUES FLIGHT A meeting of the working and technical group for the control of InUr39'

kosmos-3, launched on August 7, 1970 in accordance with the cooperation program was held on August 26. As is well known, Interkosmos-g is designed to study the radiational conditions and low-frequency electromagnetic vibrations in the outer ionosphere. By 1000 on August 26, the satellite had completed 279 circuits around the earth. The scientific equipment of the satellite, made in the USSR and Czechoslovakia, is functioning normally. The ground stations in Bulgaria, GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia, are successfully carrying out the scheduled program in recording the scientific data. From August 14 to 25 the scientific equipment functioned particularly strenuously because of the geomagnetic perturbations caused by a considerable increase in solar activity. A large amount of data has been received. The scientific experiments on the satellite Interkosmos-g continue. (TASS)
Pravda, August 27, 1970

ROCKET OF PEACE The research ship Akademik Shirshov is getting ready in Vladivostok for an unusual trip. It will deliver Soviet meteorological rockets to the Indian port, Cochin, for the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere. Pravda correspondent V. Shirokov requested the Director of the Central Aerological Observatory, G.I. Golyshev, to comment upon this event. In 1962, a group of Indian scientists, headed by Professor Vikram Sarabhai, suggested collaboration in the exploration of the upper layers of the atmosphere with the help of meteorological rockets. Soon the site for a research rocket range was selected in South India, in the region of the town, Trivandrurfl. This place is noteworthy because it is situated near the magnetic equator of the earth. At the request of the Indian Government, the range was organized under the aegis of the UNO. Besides Soviet specialists, scientists from the USA, France and Britain also took part in its construction. For the organization of the range we provided an electronic computer, a helicopter and several devices for testing and checking instruments. At the first stage of the work, the Soviet and Indian scientists carried out some experiments on the exploration of the composition of the air at great heights. The investigations were carried out with the help of Soviet instruments, namely, mass-spectrometers, fitted on the Centaur-type, French rockets. Now negotiations for further collaboration between Soviet and Indian scientists are over and an agreement has been signed. Meteorological rockets, scientific instruments and equipment are being sent to India on Akademik Shirshov, a ship of the Hydrometeorological Service, USSR, to organize
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regular observations of the upper layers of the atmosphere. Simultaneously, a group of workers from our observatory is leaving for India. Their task is to train Indian specialists, so they can later work independently with the meteorological rockets sent from the Soviet Union. The results of atmospheric investigations will be processed and analyzed jointly by Soviet and Indian scientists.
Pravda, September 6, 1970

INTERKOSMOS-3 CONTINUES FLIGHT A joint meeting of the working and technical group, consisting of Soviet and Czechoslovak specialists taking part in the experiment on Interkosmos-g, was held on October i, 1970, at the Institute of Space Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Having heard the reports of the scientific management of the experiment, the participants of the meeting noted that the scientific program was being successfully accomplished. On the morning of October i, Interkosmos-g had completed 807 circuits around the earth and had the following orbital parameters: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 1068 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 210 km; orbital inclination — 48.46 deg; orbital period —• 97.3 min. The most intensive work of the scientific equipment was carried out from August 7 to 13, August 19 to 26, and September 10 to 19. The ground stations of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and GDR, regularly received signals from the USW-FM transmitter. All the systems of the satellite are functioning normal] y. The participants of the meeting outlined the further program of the experiment, based on the uninterrupted functioning of the scientific equipment for a long time ahead. (TASS)
Pravda, October 2, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT INTERKOSMOS-4 IN ORBIT
Scientists of the socialist countries continue the joint exploration of the universe

In accordance with the cooperation program, an artificial earth satellite
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Interkosmos-4 was launched in the Soviet Union on October 14, 1970. The purpose of Interkosmos-4 K to continue the joint investigations of the ultraviolet and X-ray radiations of the sun and the influence of these radiations on the structure of the upper atmosphere of the earth, started by the satellite Interkosmos-1. The satellite has on board scientific equipment developed and manufactured by specialists from the GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia. The satellite Interkosmos-4 has been launched into an orbit with the following parameters: minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) —• 263 km: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) — 668 km; initial orbital period —• 93.6 min; orbital inclination —• 48.5 deg. While preparing for the launching of the satellite, specialists from the GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia took part in the assembly and testing of the scientific equipment on the satellite. The scientific equipment on board the satellite is functioning normally. The scientific organizations of the countries, participating in the joint experiment, are processing the data received. Simultaneously with the measurements on the satellite Interkosmos-4, the observatories of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian Peoples' Republic, German Democratic Republic, Polish Peoples' Republic, Rumanian Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic are conducting radioastronomical, ionospheric and optical observations according to the agreed program.
Pravda, October 15, 1970

INTERKOSMOS IN ACTION
A year ago, on October 14, 1969, an artificial earth satellite Interkosmos-1 was launched in the Soviet Union. Since then a new period started in the scientific and technical cooperation between the socialist countries. On the anniversary of the joint exploration of outer space, a new scientific laboratory Interkosmos-4 entered a near-earth orbit. This article describes the progress of the Interkosmos experiments. The launching of the first joint satellite of the socialist countries required a
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great deal of preparation. It included a large number of problems in the field of space physics, communications, meteorology, biology and medicine. The full Interkosmos program is shown by the fact that in the course of the year three more satellite were launched, the last of them only yesterday. The Interkosmos satellite have brought a large amount of data, a part of which has already been processed. The scientific task of Interkosmos-1 was the investigation of the shortwave X-ray and ultraviolet radiations of the sun and the upper layers of the terrestrial atmosphere. Let me remind you that the equipment on board included a Lyman alpha-photometer and a special radio transmitter, worked out by the scientists of the Central Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Relations of the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin, an X-ray polarimeter and an X-ray spectroheliograph of the Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences and X-ray and optical photometers, created at the Astronomical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. The measurements on the satellite were supplemented by ground observations by observatories in Bulgaria, GDR, Hungary, Poland, USSR, and Czechoslovakia. With the help of the X-ray polarimeter, it was established for the first time that X-ray radiation from, the solar flares is polarized This shows that in the emergence of solar flares—those astonishing processes taking place on our luminary, whose nature is not yet clear in many respects—-an important role is played by the powerful directed streams of accelerated particles. With the help of the other instrument, X-ray spectroheliograph, the jumps in the X-ray radiation at the time of solar flares, which cause changes in the terrestrial ionosphere, were recorded. As is well known, such changes cause disturbance to the remote radiocommunications of the earth. The Lyman alpha-photometer in combination with the optical photometer, enabled the determining of the contents of the molecules of oxygen and aerosols in the upper layers of the atmosphere on the basis of the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation at those moments when the satellite fell under the earth's shadow. It was discovered that the contents of oxygen at a height of 100 kilometers are several times less than was thought previously. These results have aroused great interest among Soviet scienti?ts as well as those abroad. The investigations of the shortwave solar radiation in the upper atmosphere of the earth will be continued on the satellite Interkosmos-4 in the years to come. It is important to make use of the i i-year phase of solar activity in order to penetrate deeply into the secrets of the emergence and development of solar flares, which play an important role in our life on the earth. Ionospheric experiments were conducted with the help of Interkosmos-2, launched on December 25, 1969. They included measurements of the socalled electron temperature by two different methods, and of the concentrations of electrons and ions. Moreover, integral electronic concentration was
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measured with the help of the signals received on the earth from the radio transmitter Mayak, developed and manufactured in the GDR. Instruments on this satellite worked for 50 days. The processing of a part of the results has shown that the concentration of the charged particles along the satellite orbit changed from 20 thousand to i million particles per cubic centimeter, while the temperature of electrons—from 800 to 3,000 degrees Kelvin. Also considerable increase in the electron temperature is noticed with the increase of the height of the satellite from perigee to apogee. These magnitudes considerably increase the temperature of neutral particles in the upper atmosphere determined by other methods. The data about the temperature of ionospheric electrons, obtained in this experiment by two methods, enables us to supplement the previously known data about the thermal characteristics of the ionosphere. Interkosmos-3, launched into orbit on August 7, 1970, continues to carry out the flight program. With its help, Soviet and Czechoslovak scientists are recording the low-frequency electromagnetic waves and signals which arise and spread in the outer ionosphere. For this purpose there is a receiver on the satellite for recording the electromagnetic radiation and a special transmitter for relaying the received signals to the ground observation centers. The experiment on the satellite is accompanied by the recording of the very low frequency radiations, which penetrate through the ionosphere to reach the terrestrial surface. These signals are received by stations in Bulgaria, GDR, USSR and Czechoslovakia. A large number of different signals were recorded in the course of the experiment. Thunder discharges are the cause of most of them. The effect of the reaction of the waves with ionized medium, as a result of which particular signals emerge, has been discovered. In different regions of outer space, a sharp increase in the intensity of the natural noise radiation of the ionospheric plasma has been discovered. Often, such an increase coincides with the increase of the flux of energetic, charged particles. Analysis of these data has still to be carried out. On the satellite there is equipment also for the study of the nature of the charged particles and the determination of their energy spectrum. The equipment was developed and manufactured in Czechoslovakia with the participation of Soviet specialists. The first data obtained with the help of this experiment enabled us to define more correctly the distribution of the flux of the charged particles at heights from 200 to 1,300 kilometers. As is well known, this distribution depends upon the phase of the n-year cycle of solar activity. The decrease in the solar activity, which is taking place now, is causing a change in the density of the upper atmosphere. This, in turn, changes the magnitude of the flux of particles in radiational belts. The investigations of sharper and quicker changes of the intensity of radiations taking place in the course of several days, are arousing great
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interest. For example, from. August 14 to 19 this year, active processes were observed on the sun, including some large eruptions, one of which was very strong. This strong eruption was accompanied by the appearance of intensive proton streams in near-earth space. On the earth also, strong magnetic storms, perturbations in the ionosphere and many other geophysical phenomena were observed. The instruments of the satellite Interkosmos-^ recorded during this period a number of changes in the flux of radiational belts. In particular, processes of dropping of electrons into the dense layers of the atmosphere were observed. The participation by the socialist countries in the Interkosmos experiments shows a high level of development of radio technology, electronics and instrument-making in these countries and success in preparing highly qualified cadres. Nowadays an increasing amount of equipment for satellite is being prepared in the countries taking part in the investigations under the Interkosmos program. This program has become an integral part of the scientific and technical collaboration between the socialist countries.
Academician B.N. Petrov President of the "Interkosmos" Council Praoda, October 16, 1970

THE INTERKOSMOS "SWALLOW" A year ago, on October 14, the first collective rocket of the socialist countries, Interkosmos-1 was launched. When it was still being developed, the Czechoslovak scientists taking part in the construction of equipment on board, gave it the affectionate name of Swallow. At that time there were sceptics who predicted that the Swallow would not fly. But it flew and, in fact, turned out to be but the first of many to fly for cooperation between socialist countries in outer space. Last year the Interkosmos family was increased by three more satellite. On December 25, 1969, Interkosmos-2 was launched; on August 7, 1970—• Interkosmos-3 and on October 14—-Interkosmos-4. Collaboration between the scientist of different countries in the field of observation of the artificial earth satellite and use of these observations for the solution of scientific problems (for example, for the determination of density of atmosphere and more accurate determination of the form of the earth) was started as early as 1957. In a meeting of the representatives of socialist countries in Moscow in November 1965, the Soviet Union proposed that Soviet satellite and meteorological and geophysical rockets be used for joint experiments. A concrete
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program of collaboration with the use of Soviet rocket-space technology was determined at a meeting of experts from the socialist countries in April 1967. In this way, two and a half years passed between the working out of the program and the launching of the first satellite. This is a small period if one takes into consideration all the complex organizational, technical and scientific problems. To accomplish the task, national committees were set up in nine socialist countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Cuba, Mongolia, Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia and USSR). Their representatives met together periodically, discussed the progress of the work and planned future prospects. Concrete problems were discussed and decided in four permanent working groups: space physics, communications, biology and medicine. The program of exploration and use of outer space adopted jointly by the socialist countries, uses the name "Interkosmos". This same name has been given to the satellite launched under this program. The collaboration program takes into consideration scientific and technical potentialities and also the personal interest of its participants. The cooperation of many world-famous scientific institutions and industrial organizations of the socialist countries, was arranged. For example, the G. Herz Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics in the GDR, and the Astronomical Institute, Geophysical Institute and "Tesla" group of enterprises in Czechoslovakia. Specialists from these institutions developed and prepared sophisticated instruments, which proved their worth in the stern conditions of outer space. The Interkosmos experiments are meant for the study of the physical characteristics of outer space and exploration of the processes connected with the life and activity of man on earth. Thus, Interkosmos-1 spoke a good deal about the active processes on the sun and their effect on the terrestrial atmosphere. The measurements were carried out in a wave length band of the solar spectrum, which is available for the ground observatories. Results of investigations have aroused great interest among world scientists. These investigations are now continuing on Interkosmos-4. Interkosmos-2 was meant for the study of the physical characteristics of the ionosphere, a large region of near-earth space, connected with many areas of practical activity of man, especially with radio communications. The Soviet-Czechoslovak Interkosmos-^ was designed to accomplish a number of complex geophysical tasks: study of the radiational conditions in near-earth space, investigation of the relationship between the dynamic processes in the radiational belts of the earth and solar activity, and investigations of the nature and spectrum of the low-frequency electromagnetic vibrations in the upper atmosphere. The Interkosmos satellite are being handled by the command and measurement complex of the Soviet Union. A part of the data transmitted by the
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satellite is received in the territory of other socialist countries also. The control of the satellite flight and the ground observations are carried out by working groups composed of scientists from the countries taking part in the experiment. The processing and interpretation of the received data is also done jointly. The successful experiments on the study of helio and geophysical processes, carried out by the first Inter/cosmos satellite, will be continued by new satellite and research rockets. New countries and new collectives of scientists are joining the work on direct measurements in outer space. Collaboration is not only limited to the field of scientific study of outer space. It extends also to the practical field and the use of the achievements in outer space. The joint work in meteorology with the help of satellite, has been carried out for several years already, and has enabled specialists from the socialist countries to assimilate the methods of using the data obtained from outer space in improving the quality of weather forecasts. The data received from the Soviet Meteor satellite is processed with the help of electronic computers and is regularly passed on to the weather forecasting centers of the other countries through direct channels of communication. The specialists are collaborating also in the preparation of new instruments for meteorological rockets and in the perfecting of the methods of rocket measurements, used for the study of the upper atmosphere. The collaboration in the field of space biology and medicine is also going on successfully. Concrete results of collaboration have been achieved in solving the problems of space physiology, radiational safety of space flights and pharmaco-chemical safety from ionizing radiations. These results can have practical importance not only for ensuring the safety of the space flights, but also for aviation medicine, and for solving some problems connected with the prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. A creative atmosphere, a consolidation of efforts for solving complicated scientific problems, exchange of experience and mutual help—these are the characteristic features of the joint work under the Interkosmos program, which is helping the scientific and technical progress of socialist countries.
V. Vereshchagin Vice-President of the Council for International Cooperation in Space Research and Use under the USSR Academy of Sciences Ncdelya, October 12 to 18, 1970; No. 42

94 CIRCUITS BY A SATELLITE OF FRIENDSHIP A meeting of the working group for the control of the artificial earth
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satellite Interkosmos-j, was held on October 20, in the P N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The satellite was launched on October 14, under the cooperation program between the socialist countries in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space. Representatives of the USSR, GDR and Czechoslovakia took part in the meeting. The program of further work of the scientific equipment fitted on the satellite was reviewed, and problems of processing the telemetric data were discussed. On October 20, the satellite had completed 94 circuits around the earth. All the systems of Interkosmos-^ are functioning normally. Regular ground observations have been started in the countries participating in the experiment.
(TASS)
Pravda, October ai, 1970

ABOUT SOVIET-AMERICAN TECHNICAL TALKS On October 26-27, meetings were held in Moscow between specialists from the USSR Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, on the problems of combining the devices for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and space stations. In the course of the meetings, a preliminary exchange of opinions and data about possible ways of combining the devices for rendezvous and docking was carried out. Both sides acknowledged the value of continuing the exchange of technical views. (TASS)
Pravda, October 30, 1970

COOPERATION IN EXPLORATION OF OUTER SPACE A meeting of Soviet and French scientists and specialists, devoted to the review and development prospects of collaboration in the exploration and conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes, was held in Yerevan from October 27 to November 2. The Soviet delegation, headed by Academician B.N. Petrov, President of the "Interkosmos" Council under the USSR Academy of Sciences and the French delegation headed by Professor J.F. Dennis, President of the National Center for Space Research, France, declared in a joint communique that work in all fields in the collaboration was progressing successfully.
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It includes a new cycle of experiments at the magnetically conjugated points (Omega project) and exploration of the sources of radio emission in outer space with the help of a French radiotelescope and Soviet instruments. On Kheysa Island, nine Soviet meteorological rockets, carrying French and Soviet equipment on board, were launched. Reports of color TV, devoted to the visit to the USSR of the President of the Republic of France, J. Pompidou were transmitted from Moscow to Paris through the telecommunication satellite Molniya-i. A series of joint experiments will be carried out in 1970-1971. At the meeting, which was held in a businesslike and friendly atmosphere, new suggestions were made about conducting joint work. These suggestions will be considered by both sides. (TASS)
Pravda, November 3, 1970

TASS ANNOUNCEMENT LAUNCHING OF GEOPHYSICAL ROCKET VERTIKAL-i In accordance with the cooperation program between the socialist countries in outer space, a geophysical rocket Vertikal-i was launched on November 28, 1970, at 0830 hours Moscow time, from the European part of the USSR at medium latitudes. The rocket reached a height of 487 kilometers. Geophysical rocket Vertikal-i is to carry out multiple investigations of: —ultraviolet, X-ray and under millimeter radiations of the sun and absorption of these radiations in the terrestrial atmosphere; —high-altitude distribution of concentrations of electrons and positive ions, as well as electron temperature; —-meteoric particles. The nose-end of the rocket consists of a recoverable container and instrument compartment. The recoverable container has the following scientific equipment: —unit of X-ray camera obscura and X-ray spectroheliograph, worked out and manufactured in the Polish Peoples' Republic; —-X-ray spectrometers, worked out and manufactured in the Soviet Union; —equipment for the study of meteoric particles, worked out and manufactured jointly in the Hungarian Peoples' Republic, the Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The instrument compartment contained: Lyman alpha-photometer and radiofrequency capacitance probe, worked out and manufactured in the German Democratic Republic, and scientific equipment for the measurement of under millimeter radiation of the sun and parameters of the iono401

sphere of the earth, manufactured in the Soviet Union according to the joint technical instruments of the scientists of the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Soviet Union and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. In the region of launching of the geophysical rocket, the absorption of the radio waves at frequencies of i.o, 1.5 and 2.0 megahertz was measured with the help of the ground equipment "AMA", of the German Democratic Republic. In the descending phase, the recoverable container with scientific equipment was separated at a height of 100 kilometers and landed with the help of the parachute system. Specialists from the GDR, Poland, USSR and Czechoslovakia took part in the assembly and testing of the scientific equipment fitted on the rocket Vertikal-i, and also in its launching. Preliminary analysis of the materials obtained has shown that during the flight the equipment functioned normally. The scientific organizations of the countries participating in the experiment have started processing the data received.
Pravda, November 29, 1970

FRENCH SCIENTISTS PREPARING FOR EXPERIMENT
Paris, 30 (TASS). In accordance with the Soviet-French agreement for the peaceful conquest of outer space, a French laser reflector has been fitted on board Lunokhod-1. The French scientists who will take part in this experiment, are already at the observatory, situated in the Upper Pyrenees Department at Pic du Midi (height: 2,877 meters above sea level). However, there are a number of conditions for starting the experiment: —firstly, the moon must be in a phase suitable for its observation. This will be in the first week of December only; —secondly, the terrestrial atmosphere must be quiet and clean for ensuring faultless observation of the reflected laser beam. This condition worries the scientists, since it is winter and fog and rain are widespread over France. Orzac, the leader of the group of French scientists taking part in the experiment, declared that they intended to conduct investigations for a long period. This important work, which has been made possible by the delivery of the laser beam reflector by the Soviet Lunokhod-1, will enable us to measuie the exact distance between the moon and the earth. Hence we shall be able to determine more accurately the movement of the continents on the earth.
Pravda, December i, 1970
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f!'-"': .'..

VI
SPACE MONITORING

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NEW EXPERIMENT IN OUTER SPACE ' In accordance with the program of exploration of near-earth space, a carrier-rocket with the vehicle Vertikal'nyi Kosmicheskii %pnd ("Vertical space probe") was launched in the Soviet Union on October 12, 1967. The last stage of the carrier-rocket launched the vehicle to a height of 4,400 kilometers. The vehicle ^ond had been launched to explore the upper layers of the atmosphere and ionosphere of the earth by the method of vertical probing. The main task of the experiment was to obtain data about the distribution of the following parameters at great heights: characteristics of the ionosphere (concentration of electrons and positive ions and the electron temperature); general intensity of cosmic rays and radiation doses behind different shields at the time of flight through the radiation belts; density of neutral hydrogen. In the course of the flight along the trajectory, the vehicle Vertikal'nyi Kosmicheskii ^pnd was orientated with great accuracy in space with the help of a special system. To achieve undistorted measurement data, the vehicle was constructed from special materials and the carrier-rocket, after introducing the vehicle into the precalculated trajectory, was removed to a great distance with the help of the propulsion system. This ensured the absence of the last stage of the carrier-rocket and ejection of gas from the vehicle into the medium under study. Besides the scientific instruments, the vehicle had on board a radiotelemetric system for transmitting scientific data, and equipment for the radio-measurement of the trajectory. All the scientific instruments and systems on board functioned normally
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Fig. 43.

Launching of the carrier-rocket Kosmos.

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during the flight. The program of scientific investigations has been accomplished and the data is being processed. Complex investigations at these heights are being conducted for the first time and have great scientific value. (TASS)
Pravda, October 14, 1967

aooTH KOSMOS IN ORBIT Kosmos satellite (Figs. 43-46) have told us a great deal during the past years. With their help, outer space in the vicinity of our planet has been investigated. They enable us to study better the radiation belts and magnetic field of the earth, investigate the ultraviolet and X-ray radiations of the sun, and formation and distribution of the cloud systems in the terrestrial atmosphere.

Fig. 44.

Solar satellite of /Cosmos-series.

While solving scientific problems, the Kosmos satellite help in solving many technical problems also. For example, what awaits the recoverable capsule at the time of entry into the terrestrial atmosphere? What will be the effect of outer space factors on the design of the space vehicle? How to shield the
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Fig. 45. Cosmos-series satellite with molecular generator.

Fig. 46.

/Cosmos-series satellite with aerogyroscopic system of stabilization.
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crew of the future interstellar vehicles from the dangerous radiations, ensure normal life-activities of the astronauts and accomplish landing in a predetermined area? The wide range of scientific problems and the need for a large number of launches, have made rather rigid demands on the designers of the Kosmos satellite. One of these demands is the maximum possible uniformity of the design and the auxiliary systems, which will make it possible to organize a serial production of the satellite to make them less costly. This is a rather difficult task. In fact, it is convenient to conduct some of the investigations with chemical sources of current. In other cases it is desirable to fit solar batteries, which would feed the equipment over a long period. The satellite can carry out exploration 'from above', i.e. their equipment can be directed downward, toward the earth. The most characteristic examples in this respect are the measurements of energy in the spectrum of the outgoing terrestrial radiation, distributions of the radiation in height and photography of the cloud cover of the earth. In this case the space vehicle must be orientated toward the earth. But while studying the processes taking place on our luminary, one of the satellite axes is constantly orientated toward the sun in the course of a long period with the necessary accuracy. Finally, with the landing of the container bearing the scientific equipment and results of the measurements, the braking propulsion systems and parachute systems are used. Thus it is clear that it is practically impossible to work out a single, universal space vehicle. However, it is possible to create certain modifications for a unified satellite to solve a group of similar or, at least, closely related problems. While changing over from one modification to another, the maximum possible continuity of design is maintained and the auxiliary system and control network does not depend on the task to be carried out by the satellite. The study of near-earth space in the Soviet Union with the help of rockets and satellite under the program of the International Geophysical Year has made it possible to get the first and general information about the parameters of the upper atmosphere and about the physics of the processes taking place in it. However, these investigations were carried out during the period of maximum solar activity. For studying the dependence of different physical processes taking place in near-earth and interplanetary space upon solar activity, it was necessary to systematically launch satellite and watch the phenomena taking place in outer space. Many facts had to be rechecked and confirmed. Also it became necessary to conduct specialized, multiple experiments, directed toward more complicated problems connected with the penetration of man into outer space. In this way, the accomplishment of a new, enlarged program of exploration of the upper layers of the atmosphere and near-earth space with the help of
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the Kosmos-series satellite was a logical continuation and evolution from the earlier stage of exploration. The main feature of Soviet space research is the endeavor to get the maximum results economically and rationally, with the minimum expenditure of energy and resources. With the help of the Kosmos-series satellite—more exactly, from the nature of their deceleration due to the forces of aerodynamic resistance—'parameters such as the density of the upper atmosphere and its variations with respect to the solar activity, were determined. One of the main tasks of the Kosmos satellite was the observation of the level of ionizing radiation, specially after the high-altitude nuclear explosions, which is necessary for ensuring the radiational safety of manned space flights. Thanks to the prolonged measurements carried out on a series of research satellite, the flight path of spaceciaft has been studied in detail, magnitudes of radiation doses have been determined with respect to solar activity and a radiational map has been drawn for particular heights. A big program of magnetic survey of the world was accomplished by satellite equipped with proton magnetometers. For the first lime, 75% of the terrestrial surface was covered in the global survey conducted almost simultaneously. These results have not only scientific but also practical value. The launching of a "solar" satellite, meant specially for the exploration of its shortwave radiation, became a link in the series of experiments on the exploration of the sun. The task of the experiment consisted in collecting systematic observations data on the solar X-ray 'splashes', dynamics of their development, establishing relationship with other manifestations of the solar activity, as well as on the explanation of the nature of the X-ray and optical eruptions and possibility of their forecasting. Great potential in meteorological satellite is demonstrated by the launching of Kosmos-122. At present the experimental meteorological system Meteor is functioning successfully. The new weather prospector, Kosmos-184 is being successfully used for observing the weather and conditions of ice in the southern polar region of the planet. Readers will remember the experiment on the automatic orbital docking of the satellite Kosmos-186 and Kosmos-188. Accomplishment of such experiments opens new and broad prospects for the creation of complicated space systems and multipurpose orbital stations for the exploration of outer space and for interplanetary flights. Among other explorations, it is worthwhile to mention the experiments with the molecular generator fitted on the satellite. Use of lasers—thanks to their exceptionally high stability—will make it possible to carry out faultless control and transmission of telemetric data at
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very great distances from the earth. It is expected that it will be possible to test experimentally some of the provisions of the general theory of relativity with the help of the molecular generator.
Yu. Gordeev

Pravda, January 21, 1968

Fig. 47. Layout of the scientific space probe Proton-4. 1—slave organs of the damping system; 2—magnetic tracing sensor; 3—solar power supply panels; 4—scientific equipment complex; 5—instrument container; 6—solar tracing sensors; 7—heat exchanger; 8—panel with control and automatic equipment; 9—container with chemical batteries.

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT PROTON-4 IN FLIGHT
Launching of largest automated scientific space probe in the world

In accordance with the space research program, the largest automated scientific space probe in the world, Proton-^ was successfully launched in the Soviet Union on November 16, 1968, with the help of a powerful carrierrocket. The total payload launched into orbit (without the last stage of the carrier-rocket) is about 17 tons. The scientific equipment weighs 12.5 tons. The space probe Proton-^ (Fig. 47) has been launched into an orbit with apogee at 495 kilometers and perigee at 255 kilometers. The orbital inclination is 51 degrees 30 minutes and the orbital period—91-75 minutes. The automated scientific space probe Proton-^ is designed to continue the exploration started by the scientific probes Proton-1, Proton-s and Proton-g on the study of the nature of cosmic rays of high and superhigh energies and their interaction with atomic nuclei. The program of scientific research includes: —study of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays up to energies of io 15 electron-volts and chemical composition of cosmic rays up to an energy of ioi 3 -io 14 electron-volts; —measurement of the probability of collision of the cosmic-ray particles with nuclei of the targets (hydrogen, carbon, iron) in the energy band of iO n -io 12 electron-volts; —study of the dynamics of collision of cosmic-ray particles with atomic nuclei of the targets at an energy of io13-io14 electron-volts; —search of particles with fractional electric charge (quarks) in the primary cosmic rays; —measurement of intensity and energy spectrum of high energy electrons. Besides the scientific and measuring instruments, the satellite has also on board a radio transmitter working at a frequency of 19.910 megahertz. According to the telemetric information data, all the systems and assemblies of the probe and the scientific equipment on board are functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the information received.
Pravda, November 17, 1968

PHYSICISTS' LABORATORY IN OUTER SPACE Cosmic rays, discovered over fifty years ago, remained a mystery for a long time. In the beginning they interested scientists only as one of the factors
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causing ionization in the atmosphere and creating conditions for the conductivity of the air. Soon, however, physicists understood that cosmic rays are the best medium to study the interaction of high energy particles. It is sufficient to state that the most important discoveries of elementary particle-physics were made in the course of the study of cosmic rays. For example, such particles as positrons, mesons and hyperons were discovered for the first time. As Academician V.L. Ginzburg has said, "Cosmic rays are one of the most powerful methods of studying the universe and its laws. Studying them means constantly watching the pulse of our stellar system." What are the cosmic rays? Mainly they are protons—nuclei of hydrogen atoms. They are mixed with nuclei of helium atoms in small quantity. Very rarely one comes across nuclei of heavier elements—lithium, berylium, boron. Now, almost no one doubts that one of the main and most important sources of cosmic rays are explosions, i.e the flares of supernew stars. The particles of extragalactic origin can also reach us. Absolutely new horizons in the study of cosmic rays were opened by the achievements of rocket and space technology. The prospects of their detailed study were infinitely broadened with the flights of the artificial satellite. It must be noted that those rays which reach the terrestrial surface and are captured by our instruments, are secondary products: they are formed in the course of the passage of the cosmic rays through a thick layer of the atmosphere. The information about the 'pure', the so-called primary cosmic rays, can be obtained by us only with the help of instruments lifted beyond the limits of the terrestrial atmosphere. Moreover, while passing through the terrestrial atmosphere, the primary cosmic rays intensively lose their energy. Thus, even at the heights of mountain peaks, the intensity of the cosmic ray particles is so low that practically, they can't be used for accurate quantitative measurements. So far as the accelerators are concerned, even the most powerful among them can only give us particles with an energy magnitude less by many orders than that contained in the stream of cosmic rays reaching the earth from the depths of the universe. But with the increase of the energy of interacting microparticles, one can expect the discovery of new fundamental laws in the mysterious world of elementary particles. The investigations carried out on the Soviet satellite and automated interplanetary probes have enabled us to collect new data about the composition of the stream of galactic cosmic rays. The effect of interplanetary magnetic fields on their intensity was studied. In the course of the flights of the probes ^ond-^, Venera-s and Venera-g, cosmic rays of solar origin were recorded. Their exploration is of great value for the study of the processes taking place on the sun. This is particularly important for predicting the safety of manned space flights. Exceptional possibilities for the extensive study of the high and ultra high4'3

energy cosmic ray particles emerged after the creation of heavy artificial earth satellite. It has been established that the number of primary cosmic ray particles decreases sharply with the increase of energy. The decrease of their intensity can be compensated by conducting prolonged investigations near the boundary of the terrestrial atmosphere or beyond its limits with the help of instruments of large area. The first step in this direction was taken by the Soviet Union by launching the Proton space probe series in 1965-1966. These probes had on board unique scientific equipment, which could automatically distinguish the particles on the basis of their energy, and select among all the cosmic ray particles those which possess very high energy only, measure the energy, determine the nature of the primary particle and study their interaction with the atomic nuclei of matter. The main instrument of the Proton probe was the so-called ionization calorimeter. It consisted of a large number of steel strips, between which the scintillators, made of a special plastic, were placed. When a high-energy particle strikes the ionization calorimeter, it interacts with the nuclei of the iron atoms. As a result of the collision, secondary particles are born, which in turn collide with the nuclei of iron and give rise to the next generation of particles and so on. Measurement of the electric charge of the particles was carried out with the help of special countries, fitted over the ionization calorimeter. Below the counters there was a carbon block in one half of the instrument and a polylene block in the other. These blocks were precisely the matter, with which the interaction of the high-energy particles was studied. The measurements of the effective cross-section of the inelastic interaction of the protons of the primary cosmic rays with the nuclei of carbon atoms were carried out in the energy band of 22 thousand billion electron-volts. Here such accuracy was ensured which had not been obtained earlier in any 'earthly' work with cosmic rays. Nuclear interaction cross-section is an important magnitude in elementary particle physics, which is a measure of the probability of nuclear processes. Measurement of this fundamental characteristic, carried out by the same instrument in different energy bands, has shown that in the energy band of 100 to 1,000 billion electron-volts, the effective cross-section of inelastic interaction increases by 20 %. If the data about the increase of the crosssection are confirmed in future experiments, they will have colossal importance for the formation of the theory of interaction of elementary particles. An extensive cycle of investigations of cosmic rays was carried out by the Proton space probes, which are of great importance for various sections of astrophysics also. In particular, they include investigations in the field of gamma-astronomy.
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During recent years, some physicist-theoreticians have proposed a hypothesis about the existence of certain particles, known as "quarks", having a charge equal to one-third of the elementary charge of electrons. According to this hypothesis, all the strongly interacting elementary particles—nucleons, mesons, hyperons—must be formed of three such fundamental particles. The search for "quarks" on accelerators did not lead to success. However, if they really exist, then they can exist in very small quantities in primary cosmic rays also. For the detection of "quarks" in the primary cosmic rays, an instrument was fitted on the artificial earth satellite Proton-g for recording the particles with fractional electric charge. The data from the processing of a part of the information received has not given any concrete result so far. However, it is important to .note that as a result of the work done on Proton-^, it has become possible to establish the experiments on the detection of the "quark" stream. There is no doubt that the detection of "quarks" in cosmic rays will be continued further. The future of the study of cosmic rays undoubtedly depends upon the satellite and automated interplanetary probes. The scale of these investigations will grow continuously. The present experiment by Proton-^, will make a substantial contribution to these investigations. (TASS)
Pravda, November 17, 1968

TELESCOPE ON SATELLITE Science opens new horizons With the development of rocket and space technology, for the first tims scientists had the chance to take the telescope beyond the limits of the terrestrial atmosphere. During the night of April 18-19, 19^ the Soviet Union astronomical laboratory Kosmos-2i5 entered into orbit as an artificial earlh satellite. This article describes this observatory and its tasks in extrateirestrial astronomy. The terrestrial atmosphere is opaque for ultraviolet (shortwave) and infrared (longwave) bands of light waves. About a hundred years ago, astronomers studying the solar spectrum, paid attention to the sudden break in the radiation in the wave length band of about 3,000 angstrom (angstrom is a unit of length, equal to one ten-millionth part of a millimeter). This indicated that in the terrestrial atmosphere there is some agent which absorbs shortwave ultraviolet radiation. About fifty years ago, the reason was detected. It was found that the layer of ozone at a height of 30-70 kilometers almost completely absorbs the solar radiation in the spec-

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tral band from 3000 to 1,800 angstrom. The radiation of still shorter wave length is mainly absorbed by the molecular oxygen, concentrated at heights above 150-200 kilometers. That is why it is not possible to conduct astronomical observations of the ultraviolet band of solar spectrum with the help of equipment fitted on balloons, high-altitude aeroplanes or at high-altitude observatories. The same is true of explorations of the X-ray band of the spectrum. Meanwhile, the ultraviolet and X-ray bands were of extreme interest to the scientists studying the sun, hot-young-stars, upper atmosphere of the earth, and interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic space. The brightest spectral lines, the so-called resonant lines, of almost all the elements lie in this band. The maximum radiation of hot stars, with the temperature of the surface more than 20 thousand degrees, is also situated in this band. It is contemplated that the rarefied gas, situated between the galaxies, must also radiate in this spectral band. The problem of this gas particularly interests the astronomers. Probably, most of the matter of the universe is concentrated in this region. Upon the actual density of the intergalactic gas depends the future fate of the universe: whether it will continue to expand infinitely as at present or whether this process will be replaced by contraction. According to the cosmological theories, if the density of the intergalactic gas exceeds 10 atoms per cubic meter, then the universe will again start contracting sometime in the future. If the density of the matter is less, its expansion will continue infinitely. But, probably the most interesting problem which can be solved by the telescopes fixed on artificial earth satellite or space probes, is the deciphering of the nature of the sources of X-ray radiation in outer space, discovered by American scientists about six years ago. Now about fifty such sources are known. A large majority of them have not yet been 'fixed' with known visible objects. Firstly it was thought that the sources of X-ray radiation are after all discovered neutron stars. These are objects that must possess fantastic characteristics: with a radius of only a few kilometers, but a mass comparable to that of the sun, which means an average density of 100 thousand tons per cubic millimeter. The temperature of the surface of such a star would have attained 10 million degrees. For the time being these hypotheses, attractive for the theoreticians, have not been proved, though neither can they be rejected outright. Two X-ray sources have, however, been "identified" with the remnants of "new" stars, burst long ago. Yet another is "tied up" with the nebula, left at the place of a supernew star, burst in 1054. This source, situated in the well-known Crab Nebula, has been studied in the most detail of all, in optical as well as radio wave bands. The telescope, lifted to outer space, will enable us to discover many other secrets of the X-ray radiation sources. We have enumerated the main problems studied by extraterrestrial
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astronomy, a young branch of experimental astrophysics. It is for the solution of some of these problems that the artificial earth satellite Kosmos-2i5 has been launched. It was launched into a comparatively low orbit, with the following initial parameters: orbital period—91.1 minutes; height of the apogee—426 kilometers; height of the perigee—261 kilometers and the inclination of the orbital plane to the equator—48.5 degrees. This orbit was selected so that the satellite flies below the belts of charged particles surrounding the earth. Otherwise, they would have created a strong "background" which would have introduced perturbations in the recording instruments and would have made the astronomical observations difficult. The satellite is equipped with eight small telescopes with 70 millimeter diameter of the mirrors. They are meant for the study of the radiations of hot stars in different bands—from the visible band of the spectrum to the ultraviolet band with a wave length of 1,225 angstrom. There is an X-ray telescope, which records radiations in the spectral band from 0.5 to 5 angstrom. Two photometers record the solar radiation scattered in the upper atmosphere of the planet. On board the satellite there is also equipment for the transmission of the results to the earth. Normally the satellite, at the time of separation from the carrier-rocket, attains a disordered rotation with a period from a few to dozens of seconds. In the course of the flight there are many perturbing forces acting on it, which tend to add to these rotations. These include the rotation of the motors situated inside the vehicle itself, non-symmetric action of the terrestrial atmosphere, tending to decelerate it. Meanwhile, the visual field of the telescopes is about i degree. Hence, because of the rotation of the satellite, the time for the observation of each star is about one-tenth of a second only. In other words, it would not be possible to observe the stars having low intensity of radiation because of the short period of exposure. Thus the rotation of the satellite had to be slowed down by about 100 times. For this purpose, a special magnetic system for damping was used on Kosmos-si5. A powerful permanent magnet is fitted on a bar of a few meters length, which reacts with the terrestrial magnetic field. It is fastened on special bearings which create great friction. Thanks to this device the energy of rotation of the satellite is soon transformed into thermal energy, heating up the bearings. During the whole period of the active existence of the satellite, its rotation is maintained at a sufficiently constant level: one rotation in 40 minutes to i hour. The satellite is equipped with chemical sources of current, which ensures its normal work for more than a month. About 150 sessions of communications were held, during which the data obtained was transcribed from the data-storage device and different commands were given for the switching over of the equipment as well as to
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the slave systems. All the equipment of Kosmos-2i5 functioned normally. The calculations of the designers were completely confirmed. In the transcriptions received from the satellite, the passage of the field of view of all the telescopes across the stars is well tracked. The crossing of the Milky Way zone—where there is a particularly large number of hot stars— was observed a number of times. On the dayside of the earth sometimes its bright surface is seen and in the region of the terminator—-the boundary between the bright and the dark side—-the narrow shining band of the atmosphere can be seen. The photometers, having a comparatively larger angle of view, recorded the luminescence of the lengthy hydrogen cover of the planet extending to tens of thousands of kilometers from the earth. The flight of the orbital astronomical observatory was completed very recently. But the systematic processing of the material obtained has already started. Its volume is so large that even a small fraction of the telemetric data cannot be processed without the help of fast electronic computers. First of all it is true for the calculation of orientation of the optical axis of the telescopes. Without computers, a human would have to.devote his whole life to work out the results. And a similar amount of calculations is required for the processing of the readings of the scientific instruments also. The material given by the satellite Kosmos-2i5 clearly indicates the trend in the development of contemporary scientific experiments. It consists of close cooperation between scientists and engineers of different specializations. The astronomers put forward the scientific task and work out the methods of measurement, the physicists solve the problems of construction of the recording instruments—the detectors, having prescribed characteristics, and the design specialists in the field of electronic instrument-making prepare the instrument complex, which is highly perfected and can function under the severe conditions of outer space. Finally, the mathematicians and dataprocessing specialists ensure the preparation of the programs for the electronic computers. Similar important tasks lie before the designers of the slave equipment and the artificial earth satellite itself; the demands of the astronomers are often difficult to fulfil and are sometimes even contradictory. The launching of the earth satellite astronomical observatory with observation devices is the first step toward taking big telescopes, equipped with modern measurement instruments, outside the terrestrial atmosphere.
Professors D. Martynov, V. Mikhailov, V. Matveev; V. Kurt, Kandidat of Physico-Mathematical Sciences Pravda, June 9, 1968

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WITH COSMIC VELOCITIES IN THE ATMOSPHERE Soviet scientists have recently completed another series of experiments in the ionosphere of the earth which has great importance for the ultra-highaltitude and ultra-high-speed aviation of the future. The instruments fixed on the Tantar-type flying laboratory recorded an unusually high velocity of flow of a gas jet stream from the nozzle of the engine, namely 120 kilometers per second With the help of the automated spacecraft Tantar, Soviet scientists are exploring the prospects of controlled flight in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In this series of experiments, the electrical jet engines of the Tantar-type vehicles worked on the atmospheric nitrogen, i.e. the free "fuel"—the most widespread gas of the ionosphere—used for forming the jet thrust. It experimentally proves the real possibility of using plasma-ionic engines with nitrogen for the creation of efficient modes of transportation for flights in the upper atmosphere. Judging from the telemetric data, the processing of which has been completed, the engines of this type work sufficiently steadily at different heights and under different conditions. The principal novelty of this experiment is that for the working of such an engine there is no need to take either the fuel or the oxidizer from the earth. The vehicle equipped with this engine, has only to be taken to the ionosphere and given initial acceleration at a height above 100 kilometers. Then the whole of the further flight can be carried out by using only the nitrogen contained in the atmosphere. The results of the investigations by Soviet scientists were received with great interest by the participants of the aoth International Astronautical Congress, which is being held in Mar del Plata (Argentina). (TASS)
Pravda, October 21, 1969

IN THE ULTRALONG WAVE BAND
The earth is surrounded by an ionized shell, namely the ionosphere, the study of the characteristics and structure of which has great practical importance for radio communications. The work of satellite and other space vehicles with measurement instruments on board has substantially broadened the prospects of studying the ionosphere.

Our knowledge about the ionosphere has substantially advanced since the launching of the first Soviet artificial earth satellite. It has been found out that it extends approximately from a distance of 50-70 kilometers to 20 thousand kilometers above the terrestrial surface.
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At the same time, several regions of the ionosphere have been insufficiently studied. There are the lower regions, situated at heights up to 120-130 kilometers, and the upper regions, situated far away from the earth. During the last years, the methods used for their exploration are those based on the analysis of the effect caused by the ionosphere on the propagation of ultralong radio waves, having wave lengths from a few to several hundred kilometers. What are the interesting characteristics of the propagation of ultralong waves in the ionosphere? It has been found out that due to the action of the terrestrial magnetic field the ionosphere is becoming substantially "transparent" for them. Moreover, the weakening of the ultralong waves, penetrating into the ionosphere from the earth's surface, depends mainly upon the condition of its lower regions. The satellite measurement of the intensity of radiation emitted by the ultralong wavelength band, makes it possible to determine the absorptior of waves and calculate the concentration of charged particles in the lower regions of the ionosphere. The terrestrial magnetic field accounts also for the second characteristic of the propagation of ultralong waves in the ionosphere: the lines of magnetic force act as the guidelines along which the radio signals move. After entering the ionosphere, say from the northern hemisphere, these signals move away from the terrestrial surface to a distance of 3-4 times the radius of the earth and return to the earth in the southern hemisphere, near the point known as the magnetically conjugated points. Since the major portion of the path of ultralong waves lies in the upper regions of the ionosphere, signals of this frequency band are a kind of peculiar and sensitive probe for the exploration of these regions. The measurements conducted by a satellite enable us to study the structure and parameters of the upper atmosphere, after excluding the additional effect of its lower regions, which cannot be avoided in case of ground measurements. The experiments on the exploration of the effect of ionosphere on the propagation of the ultralong waves were carried out on the satellite Kosmos-i42 and Kosmos-zSg launched on February 14, 1967 and December 14, 1968. For this purpose, special equipment for the reception of radio waves in the frequency-band of 15-45 kilohertz were fixed on the satellite. The signals were studied by the ground radio stations of the USSR, working at several frequencies in this band. The satellite orbits enabled the conducting of measurements in the region between 50 degrees north and south from the equator, at heights from 200 kilometers to 1,350 kilometers above the terrestrial surface. The measurements were taken during the passage of the satellite over the zones where radio stations were situated, as well as at great d'stances from them, such as the magnetically conjugated points. Data-storage devices were used for recording the results of measurements. When the satellite passed over Soviet territory, these results were transmitted to the earth through a radiotelemetric channel of communication.
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In the process of the experiment, which was conducted at different hours of the day, signals from the radio stations were received in outer space in the whole frequency band selected for the explorations. The measurements have confirmed the results of the theoretical calculations, according to which the weakening of the ultralong radio waves due to passage through the lower ionosphere is small at night and does not depend upon the frequency, while in the daytime the weakening is much more, and sharply increases with the increase of frequency. The data obtained enabled us to find out the dependence of the concentration of the charged particles in the lower regions of the ionosphere upon the time of the day and other factors.

The measurements carried out in the magnetically conjugated regions are of great interest for the study of the structure of the upper atmosphere. During the past years a number of famous scientists have surmised that the upper ionosphere is not homogeneous and has a "fibrous" structure. Moreover, the different "fibers" are orientated along lines of a terrestrial magnetic field, forming regions of increased ionization. If this hypothesis is correct and such "condensations" of ionization really exist, then they must affect the propagation of the ultralong waves, which have trajectories close to the line of magnetic force. The measurements carried out on the satellite Kosmos142 and Kosmos-25g, have shown that the intensity of signals, received in the magnetically conjugated regions, sharply changes with time and has a "broken" form. Moreover, the "splashes" of this intensity are separated in many cases by distances of several hundred kilometers. These experimental results may indirectly confirm the heterogeneous structure of the upper atmosphere. The investigations carried out by the satellite have given extensive experimental data about the propagation of the ultralong waves in the ionosphere. Future space experiments in this direction will lead to a deeper understanding of the structure of the ionosphere and the physical processes taking place in it.
Professor L. ^hekulin; Professor V. Mikhailov; B. Aksenov, I. Lishin—Kandidats of Technical Sciences Pravda, October 29, 1969

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TASS ANNOUNCEMENT MAN-MADE CONSTELLATION IN ORBIT The artificial earth satellite Kosmos-^6, Kosmos-33j, Kosmos-^8, Kosmos-339, Kosmos-gjO, Kosmos-34i, Kosmos-342, and Kosmos-343 were launched in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1970. All the eight satellite were launched into orbit by the same carrier-rocket. The satellite have scientific equipment on board meant for the continuation of the exploration of outer space in conformity with the program announced by TASS on March 16, 1962. All the eight satellite are moving along orbits close to those calculated, with the following initial parameters: maximum distance from the earth (at apogee) —• 1,500 km; minimum distance from the earth (at perigee) — 1,400 km; orbital inclination — 74 deg; orbital period —• 115 min. Besides the scientific equipment, the satellite have on board, radio systems for the accurate measurement of the orbital elements and radiotelemetric systems for transmitting data about the working of the instruments and scientific equipment to the earth. The equipment mounted on the satellite is functioning normally. The center for coordination and computation is processing the data received.
Pravda, April 28, 1970

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FROM THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF CPSU, THE PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET, USSR, AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, USSR The Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, announce with deep sorrow that the first conqueror of outer space, the renowned Pilot-Astronaut of the USSR, member of CPSU, Deputy of the Supreme Soviet USSR, Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel Yurii Alekseevich Gagarin has tragically died as a result of an accident during a training flight in an airplane. In this aviation accident the commander of the aviation wing, member of CPSU, Hero of the Soviet Union, EngineerColonel Vladimir Sergeevich Scregin also died. The Central Committee of CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, and the Council of Ministers, USSR, express their deep condolences to the families and relations of the deceased comrades.
Central Committee of the CPSU Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Pravda, March 29, 1968

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VII

SATELLITE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

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OUTER SPACE WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE Soviet satellite for people on the earth Space meteorology is a young, new branch of modern weather-forecasting. It has substantially increased the potential of meteorology in the observation of the atmospheric processes on a global scale and enables us to make a quicker, more accurate, and qualitatively better weather forecast. For example, it is sufficient to say that only in one circuit the Soviet weathersatellite can collect data about the temperature of the surface and cloud cover of about one-fifth of the planet. The experimental meteorological system Meteor, which has been functioning for more than two years, is a result of the successful accomplishment of a big program of work on the use of artificial earth satellite for the country's economy. TASS correspondent D. Dmitriev requested the Director of the World Meteorological Center in Moscow, Academician V.A. Bugaev of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences to speak about the working of the Meteor system and how effective it has turned out to be. V.A. Bugaev said: "Before the meteorological satellite (Fig. 48) came into existence, meteorologists studying the physical phenomena in the atmosphere, of course knew a good deal about what is going on in the air cover of the earth. However, the study of weather from outer space and the measurements carried out by satellite have substantially enriched our knowledge. "I do not want to repeat in detail what has already been said. However mention must be made of data about the cyclones of temperate latitudes and about tropical hurricanes. Cloud vortexes, which reflect the motion of
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Fig. 48.

Meteorological satellite of the /Cosmos-series, a part of the Meteor system.

air in typhoons and cyclones, at once attracted our attention and served as reliable sources of information about these menacing weather phenomena. Now no tropical hurricane, no dangerous cyclone can escape the steady gaze of the satellite. By the way, the Soviet weather satellite Meteor, launched on March 26, 1969, on its i,62gth circuit recorded a "Bernike" typhoon, which soon lashed California. A warning in time made it possible to take the necessary safety measures. "With the use of observations from satellite, meteorologists have started to understand the nature and insidious habits of typhoons. Although there are several characteristic features of the cyclonic cloud vortexes, no two cyclones are completely identical. With the development of technology in recent times, we have been able to change over from the recording of global natural phenomena to the concrete forecasting of weather in different regions of our country. Now we are in a position to give not only a general reply to the question of change of climate but also to say precisely at what time it will start raining, when it will stop, when the sky will be clear and for how long. .. . The Soviet meteorological satellite are well equipped for the solution of precisely such problems, since they give a very detailed picture of the atmospheric phenomena (Fig. 49). Even clouds which extend to 2-5 kilometers—-the most typical formations of the cloud banks—are captured by the satellite from a height of 600 kilometers.
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"The A"osmo5-series satellite, which form a part of the Soviet experimental system of space weather forecasting have proved their reliability and fully meet the demands of meteorologists. On the present weather satellite Meteor, besides the data-storage system, the method of direct transmission of image (DTI) is also used. For example, while passing over Moscow or near it, the satellite transmits one after another exposure of the telecast of the clouds, which it sees at the moment. These images retain all the freshness, all the reality of the given moment for the meteorologist. While preparing photographs of the so-called mesometeorological processes, which have a size of a few kilometers or a few dozen kilometers, big enlargements can be made. Examples of such processes are individual storms or local strengthening of rain. It has also become possible to watch the effect of weather on the outskirts of a big town.

Fig. 49. A photograph of the clouds in the region 57° southern latitude. 16° eastern longitude, taken by the AES Meteor-1 on its 117th circuit, at 1101 hours, on April 3, 1969.

"The exploration of the mesometeorological processes by combining satellite data with the observations of meteorological radar is becoming particularly fruitful. "Probably people have noticed that in Moscow and Leningrad sometimes warnings about sharp changes of weather (cloudburst, thunderstorm, squall), about to take place in a particular area of the city, are broadcast every 2-3
429

hours on the radio. Experience has shown that these warnings are highly effective and soon they will be broadcast in other places in the Soviet Union also. "The Soviet astronauts have made a large contribution to the study of local meteorological processes. They carried out fine work on the photography of the cloud cover of the earth according to our programs. "No less interesting is the information about the reserves of water in the zone of permanent snow in the mountains. Last winter saw heavy snows in the Pamirs and Tien Shan and only by taking the reserves of moisture into account did it become possible to make hydrological forecasts about the spring and summer high waters. Since it was a difficult year because of excess of water, all the technical resources had to be mobilized for revealing detailed information about the beds of snow in the mountains. Here big help was rendered by Meteor. "Space meteorology, which is successfully developing in the Soviet Union, is one of the bright examples of the very large possibilities of using the satellite for meeting the urgent needs of the people." (TASS)
Pravda, August 2, 1969

ORBITA—COMMUNICATIONS THROUGH OUTER SPACE
System of ultralong-distance telecommunications starts functioning

The 5Oth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the loth anniversary of the era of space research have been marked by a big, new success of Soviet science and technology. A new network of Orbita stations (Fig. 50), i.e. centers for the reception of TV programs transmitted by the communication satellite Molniya-i (Fig. 51), has started functioning. The directives of the 23rd Congress of the CPSU envisage that the programs of Central Television will be transmitted to Magadan District, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Yakutsk and other distant areas through artificial earth satellite. And this has been accomplished. Now, within a short period, 20 receiving stations have been installed in the distant regions of Siberia, the Soviet Far North, Far East and Central Asia. Thanks to this, now more than 20 million people will be able to watch theprograms of Central Television. Establishment of a network of Orbita stations is one of the forms of direct use of cosmic research carried out in our country for the benefit of the Soviet people.
Organization of network of receiving stations

A TV program contains an amount of i nformation, about i ,000 times more
430

Novosibirsk i7 Kemerovo iAshkabad

Fig. 50. A map showing the Orbita centers.

Fig. 51. Communications satellite Mo/niya-1.

431

than the information contained in telephonic conversations. Thus it can be transmitted only through those communication channels that possess very large traffic capacity. Till now, radio relay or cable lines with a large number of intermediate amplifying stations were used for the transmission programs and many telephonic conversations to distant places. With the development of space research emerged another possibility of high-quality transmission of information to distant places, namely, communication through artificial earth satellite. The earth satellite, which "sees" and irradiates one-third of the whole terrestrial surface, can become a powerful intermediate station for communications between any two points at large distances, including the whole territory of our country. Technical and economic analysis shows that the satellite communication system is the most advantageous for the transmission of one-way (circular) information (TV programs, radio broadcasting, newspaper matrices, meteorological maps etc.), since the satellite relay irradiates a large area simultaneously, and saves the construction of new centers thus saving expenditure for the satellite and transmitting center. The economic advantage of the circular system of satellite communications is particularly great in the case of places difficult to reach because of natural obstacles like oceans, mountains, forests. Another advantage of the satellite system is the possibility of organizing communications in a very short period. While using the ground main lines of communications, extending to several thousand kilometers and having a large number of intermediate stations, difficulties arise in providing reliable communications. But the satellite communication line consists of only three elements: transmitter, satellite and receiver. Transmission of TV broadcasts between two points with the help of Molniya-i is already being carried out in our country. These broadcasts have created a base for the development of satellite telecommunication. However, for constructing an extensive network for TV broadcasts over the huge territory of the Soviet Union through satellite, some absolutely new technical problems had to be solved for providing higher quality with less expenditure. The Orbita network has been constructed in the following way: The ground transmitting station (Fig. 52) gives a signal, directed toward the satellite Molniya-i, which receives it, amplifies it and relays it to the receiving stations of the Orbita network. The signals are transmitted in the regime of frequency modulation. The ground transmitting station has the power of a few kilowatts. It has a big antenna with parabolic mirror. The communications satellite Molniya-i has a directional antenna orientated toward the earth. The power of (he transmitter is 40 watts, the maximum among all the existing communication satellite. The satellite Molniya-i is launched into an elliptic orbit, the height of the apogee being about 40 thousand kilometers, perigee—500 kilometers and
432

Fig. 52. Outer view of the Orbita station.

orbital period—12 hours. The angle of inclination of the orbit to the equatorial plane is 65 degrees. The breadth pattern of the antenna is such that the antenna beams cover the whole of the visible terrestrial surface. Because of such an orbit, the whole territory of the USSR is irradiated for about 8-10 hours during each circuit, and the angular velocity of the satellite with respect to the earth is not large at the time of conducting the communication sessions. The ground stations receiving the radio broadcasts from the communication satellite, must detect the useful signals, separate them from the noise created not only by the radio emission of the earth but also from galactic sources.
433

The signal received by the Orbita center is transmitted through trunk lines to the local TV center, which in turn carries out the TV broadcasts for the consumers, who receive these broadcasts in the usual way. All the Orbita centers are connected by channels of auxiliary communication with the central point of control.
Orbita station

An Orbita station is situated in a circular reinforced-concrete building, which is at the same time a base for the antenna system with a parabolic reflector of 12 meters diameter. In the central hall of the station, there is receiving equipment, antenna guiding equipment and the panel of the trunk line. In various rooms around the central hall there are systems for ventilation and air-conditioning, and electric driving equipment for guiding the antenna and other outfits. The antenna follows the satellite with the help of driving mechanisms controlled by the guiding equipment. Since the sound tracking signal is transmitted in the same band of frequency as the video signal, the receiving center has equipment for the separation of the picture and the sound. From the equipment for separation, the TV signal and the sound tracking signal enter the terminal equipment of the trunk line The center has also the apparatus for conducting the measurements to check the parameters of quality of the whole receiving circuit. Antenna A less noisy parabolic antenna, with a mirror of 12 meters diameter and focal length of 3 meters is fitted on a special supporting and rotating device. The antenna is guided with the help of an electric tracking-driving mechanism. The control is either fully automatic (with a programing device) or semi-automatic. The antenna can function normally under the stern climatic conditions of Siberia, the Soviet Far East, Extreme North and Central Asia without a wind screen. The antenna and the station can function normally up to a wind velocity of 25 meters per second and in the temperature range from minus fifty degrees to plus fifty degrees centigrade. As is well known, the antenna system is required to give the highest possible level of useful signal, which is then amplified in the receiving apparatus, and the minimum level of noise, created mainly by the thermal radio emission of the earth, atmosphere and the elements of antenna itself. Thanks to the peculiarities of the design, the antenna will attain in the working frequency band an average coefficient of efficiency of the antenna surface equal to 0.7 which is so far the highest in the Soviet Union and abroad. Here, the
434

general noise temperature of only the antenna and the antenna-feeder circuit is not more than 30 degrees Kelvin when its radio beam is directed toward the zenith. The parabolic mirror of the antenna is made of aluminum alloy and weighs about 5.5 tons. Here the accuracy of manufacture of the mirror and its inflexibility is such that under operating conditions and in the course of accelerations while working, the root mean-square deviation of its surface from the parabolic shape is not more than 1.5 millimeters. The supporting and rotating device ensures the tracking of the satellite in any region of the sky. The total weight of the metallic constructions of the supporting and rotating device along with the mechanisms and engines, antenna mirror with the counterweight, wave guides and the irradiating unit, is about 50 tons. The accepted range of the velocities of rotation of the antenna ensures the uninterrupted broadcasts for any trajectory of the communication satellite, including those which pass through the zenith. The high accuracy of the electric tracking-driving machine is ensured in the whole range of frequencies of rotation and at maximum permissible wind loads on the antenna. Such an accuracy is achieved by using an original system for exciting the generator, which feeds the engine of the tracking drive. The control panel provides for the checking and if necessary, correction of the angular position of the antenna. The automatization of the control and guiding of the antenna increases the reliability and convenience in the operation of the antenna in the case of prolonged as well as regularly repetitive communication sessions.
Low-noise input amplifiers

In space radio-communication, one of the most important problems is the construction of highly sensitive receiving devices. At ultrahigh frequencies the sensitivity of the receiving device in most cases almost completely depends upon the level of thermal noises of the input circuits of the receiver. One of the most promising low-noise amplifiers is the parametric amplifier. For the Orbita ground station, a two-stage parametric amplifier was worked out. The switching on of the amplifier in stages enables us to get the necessary amplification with steady functioning as well as to decrease the noise temperature of the receiving device as a whole. For obtaining the maximum sensitivity of the system, the first stage is cooled to a temperature of liquid nitrogen (minus 196° C). The development of the cooled parametric amplifier, suitable for serial production and operation, is a remarkable achievement. This achievement is directly connected with the creation of a cryogenic device, which can maintain the temperature of liquid nitrogen for a long period.
435

Outer space "listens" to earth The main amplification of the signals received (up to 100 million times) is carried out at a frequency of 70 megahertz with the help of an intermediatefrequency amplifier. A special system of automatic control of amplification and a noise-disturbance-proof detector which works under the conditions of high level of noises and disturbances are used in the receiving device. The transistor video amplifier has instruments for the correction of the frequency as well as filters for the measurement of the main components of quality—-the level of noise and background of the alternating current—-during the period of preparation for the communications session. The receiving complex includes equipment meant for the operative control of the efficiency of the complex. It is a low power transmitter which imitates the signal received from the communication satellite Molniya-i and enables us to measure the parameters of the signals received from the satellite. Sound is switched on .... While organizing the sound channel for telecasts through the satellite, the method of transmission of sound in a separate frequency channel, common in TV broadcasting, is not the best. Thus in the Orbita system, the pulse method of transmission of sound tracks, which does not require a broadening of the radio-channel frequency band and is based upon an excess of TV signals, is used. In a TV signal there are intervals during which the picture is not transmitted (the "line quenching pulse" intervals). In these intervals, the pulses carrying the information about the sound are transmitted. At the receiving end of space communication lines these pulses are separated from the TV signal and are transformed into sound signals in a special device. Orbita on the map The signals of pictures and sound tracks of TV programs are transmitted from the Orbita receiving center to the local TV center through trunk lines. For large distance a one-way radio relay line is used as trunk line. The necessity of direct connection with the local telecenter and the guarantee of absence of disturbances because of the presence of the radiotechnical devices near cities, are taken into consideration while selecting the place for the construction of the Orbita receiving center. Moreover, the facilities for the operation of the Orbita receiving center, particularly in the case of the towns of the Soviet Far North, are also taken into consideration. In most cases, the receiving center is situated at a distance of less than ten kilometers from the local telecenter. The selection of the platforms below the
436

Orbita receiving center from the point of view of their noise-proofing was based on the calculation of the highly directional characteristics of the antenna. Televiewers like it.... As the calculations show and as has been confirmed by the measurements at the time of reception, the quality of TV and sound track signals received by the Orbita centers from the artificial earth satellite is sufficiently high. All the Orbita centers have already conducted dozens of sessions of reception and millions of televiewers have watched the broadcasts from Moscow. The general opinion is that the quality of the picture and the sound, transmitted from a distance of thousands of kilometers, is the same as from the local studio. For further decreasing of the level of noise in the channel of transmission and reception of the telecast, an original system of processing the TV signal has been worked out for Orbita and is being used. It decreases the strength of the noise by two to four times, which is equivalent to a corresponding increase in the power of the satellite retransmitter. Another specific feature of the Orbita system is the use of a complex of TV controlling and measuring equipment for the satellite radio communications. It enables the timing and regular checking of the characteristics of the transmitting and receiving equipment of the system at the time of broadcast by introducing special, standard transient signals, which do not disturb the reception of the picture into the video signal. Space telecasts are entering the daily life of the Soviet people. The Orbita network will play an important role in the development of the culture in the distant regions of the country and in the further development of the Soviet Far East and the Far North. The inhabitants of Magadan, Norilsk, Vorkuta, Sakhalin, Ashkabad and other towns and regions of the country are getting the opportunity to watch telecasts from Moscow and relays from other towns of the Soviet Union and from abroad. When the soth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was being celebrated, millions of people watched the parade and gathering of workers in the Red Square. The' construction and commissioning of over twenty Orbita centers was accomplished in one year. The construction of the Orbita network in the USSR denotes the beginning of the massive use of space technology in the national economy. (TASS)
Pravda, October 29, 1967

437

Appendix i KOSMOS SERIES SATELLITE LAUNCHES From October i, 1967 to December 31, 1970

s.
No.

Date of launching

Name of vehicle

Orbital period in min.

Apogee Perigee Inclinain km. in km. tion of orbit to equatorial plane in deg.
5 6 7

Radio communication frequency in mhz

i

2

3

4

8

1967

i.
2.

October

34. 56. 78. 910.

11 16 18 25 27
27

28 3° ,» 3° November 3
„ 21

1 1.
12.

1314.
1516. 17. 18. '920. 21. 22. 2324. 2526. 2728.

23 25 December 3 16 „ '9 26 27 1968 January 16
20

Kosmos-i8i 182 '83 '84 '85 186 „ '8? '88 '89 „ '9° „ '9' „ igx '93 '94 '93 „ '96 '97 „ igS

89-7 89-9
97-'4 98.7 88.7

344 355
212

200
210 H5 522 2O9

'-'635

888 235
2IO

276 88.97 6OO 95-7 89.8 347 92.2 5'8 99-9 '—760 89-9 354 89-7 333 go. i 375 887 95-5 9'-5 5°5 89.8 281

H5 200 535 20 1 281 203 205
211 225 22O 265

65.6 65 5° 81.2 64.1 51.7 5° 51.68 74 65-7 7' 74 65-7 65-7 65.7 49 48-5 65-1 65-7 74 65 48.4 74.08 7' 65-7

19-995 19-995

20.008

'9-995

'9-995 19-995 19-995 19.365 ? 9-995 '9-995

'99
200 201

February
». „

6
20 20

„ „

March

5 5 '4 16
21

»

202 303 204 205 206 307 208

386 90.2 95-2 ~536 89-9 355 502 9'-5 109.4 '— i, 200 873 95-9 310 89.4 ^630 97 89.8 342 3°5 89-4

204

2IO 220

282

2O I
210 2O7

81

'9-995 '9-995 '9-995

65.6

65

438

I

a
March April 22 3 9 "4 '5 "8 19 20 24 25 26 7
24 30
,, ,,

3

4
8. 96 90-3 102.5

5
282

6
250 217
210 210 205

7
65-" 81.2 81.9 5"-7 5"-4 81.4 48-5 5"-8 62.2 50 48.4 74 48.4 7" 72-9 5"-8 48-4 81.2 51-8 5'-6 72.8 48.5 65 65 82 5"-8 5"-8 56 65.4 51.7 5'-8 5"-8 65-4 71 7'-3 5° 71 65-4 65-4 62.3 62.4 74 65 61.9 65-4 65-4 65-4 74.06

8

293334-

Kosmos-2og
2IO 211 212 213
24 ' 215

30. 3132.
353G. 3738.
394. 0 41. 42. 43444546. 474. 8

„ „ „

» »

8.5 87 89.16
9°-3 91.1 89-"

216

217
216
„ „ » ,, „ „ „ „ „ „ » ,,
!J

93-4 104.7 99-2 108.3 92-3 90.1 89 92.2 96-9 89-" 89 89-9 93 89-7 89.8
102. 1 8. 95 8. 94 96-9 89-7 8. 85 8. 92 8. 93 8. 97

395 i,574 239 291 403 426 277 520
2IO

"9-995 20.008 "9-995 "9-995

311 261 199 396 144
222 6 0 7 220 277

May

2ig 2 2O 221 222
223

",77° 760
2, 1 08

528

June
,,

i 4
'2 "2


,,

18
21 26

4950. 5"52. 53545556. 5758. 5960. 61. 62. 6364. 6566. 67. 68. 6970. 7'72. 73747576.

Ju'y

5

224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231
2 2 3 2 3 3 2 4 3 2 5 3

16 18 30 August 9 27 27 28 September 5 "4 "6

20 23

236 2 7 3 2 8 3 2 9 3

, ,

2 O 4 241 242 2 3 4 2 4 4 2 5 4

„ „

9"-3 89.6 92.1 894 89-9 94-8
112. 2

374 270 53° 650 281 259 354 580 330 352 ",545 310 3°3 655 343 219 282 293 343 440 3"9
212

212 2OO 257 603

'9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 '9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995

"94 206
210 29O

211
202 210 210 2O7 6OO

2OI

"99
202

'97
201 280

2IO 140 282 '7 4 205 4° 9 5"4 523 I98 538 2O6 203 201

October

2

3 7

246 2 7 4


""
'9
20

S48 2 9 4


November

3"

„ „ „ » »

250 251 252 253 254 2 5 5 2 6 5

3"
i

"3

21

29 3°

95-3 89." 112.5 89-9 89.8 89.7 "°9-3

509 348 362 55' 2,177 556 270 2,172 355 35° 336 ",234

19.15° "9-995 "9-995 "9-995

1,168

439

I 7778.

2

3
257 258 259 260 ,, ., 261 262

4

5

6

7 7' 65

8

7980. 81. 82. 8384. 8586. 87. 88. 89. 90. 9192. 9394-

December 3 „ 10 ,, 14 16 ,,
,, „ 20 26
12 23

470 9"-7 89-6 3=5 100.3 ".353 1 1 hrs. 39,600 52 mjn. 670 93-" 8t8 95-2

282
210 2K) 500

"9-995

48-5

65
7'

217 263

48-5 65.4
70

9596.
9798.

99IOO. IOI. 102. 103. 104. 105.

106. 107. 108. 109.
no. in.

"969 January ,, February ,, „ March „ ,, „ „ „ „ „ April ,, ,, ,, ,, May „ ,, ,, June ,. ,, >t

7 25 26 5 5 (i 15 "7
22 24 28

4 4
9 '5 -'3 '3
20 27 29

3
'5 24 27 10
22 6 14

July
August
tj

Kosmos-263 „ 264 „ 265 266 „ 267 268 „ 269 2 » 7° „ 271 „ 272 273 „ 274 275 „ 276 „ 277 „ 278 279 280 281 „ 282 „ 283 284 „ 285 286 „ 287 288 289 290 ,, 2gr
,, 2Q2 293 294 295

89.8 89-7 9"-9 89-9 89-9 109.2 95-3 89.8 89-7 "09.35 89-9 89.6 95-2 90.4
92

346 33<J 485 358 34<> 2,186 558 35° 342 1,220 356 323 805 410

205 2'9 283 208 210 2H) 526 205 200

"9-995 i9-"5o "9-995 "9-995

7"
72-9

65
48.4

74
65.4 65-4
"9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 '9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995

","95

74
65-4

494
33« 280 272 3'7 343 ">539 308 5"8 349 268 281 350 352 574 786 270 348 500 322 334
212 3" 208

89-7 89-" 89.1 89.4 89.8
102. 1 89-5 92-2 89.8
89

205 213 284 214 280 203 '94 206 '94 209
210 207 279 2d6 190

65
7'

81.4

7" 65
5'-8 5"-6 65-4 65-4

82
5"-8

71
65-4 51.8 5"-8 65.4 65.4 62.3

89-2 89.8 89.8

2O I
200 200 153

na.
""3114. ""5116. 117. 118. 119. 1 20.
121.

,, ,, ,, ,, September ,, „ „

16 '9
22

9'-5 99-9 89." 89.8

747 208
202 282 211 211 240 2I4 K)0

74
5"-8 65-4
'9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995 "9-995

92
89.6 89-7 89-5 88.24

29
2 '5

18 23

,,

296 297 298 299 500 301

7" 65
72-9

50 65
5" deg. 30 min.

24

307

'97

"9-995

440

122. 123. I24. "25126. 127. 128. I2g. 130.

October

17

18
21

22 24 24

4

November 1 2

"3"132. 133134"35136. "37-

' 5 24 24
December 3 ,, 11
2 0

23 23
'7 9°

3°* 303 3°4 3°5 36 ° 3°7 308 Kosmos-30g 3° ' 3" 3* ' 33 ' 34 ' 35 ' 36 ' 37 ' 38 ' 39 ' 32° 3s' 322 3*3 324 3*5 326 3*7 3*8 3*9 33° 33r 33* 333 334 335 336 337 33S 339 340 3' 4 34* 343 344 345 346 347

89-7 9'-9 99-9 89-7

109.1
9'-3 go. i 89.8 92 1 08.6 89.1 9"-9 95-3 102.7 89-4 89-3
102 9<> <)2

340 492 774 205 332 2,178 422 384 347 496 1,187 276 4!)i 556 1,650 302 295 i,537 342 5" 7 337 333 492 348 393 855
34° 240 548

202 282

747 193
20« 22O 28l 203 20» 2 4 8

''5 ,4 204 282 521 154 209
204 209 240 280
200 2O6 283 207 212 279 213 202 54 ' 213

65-4 7' 74 5i-5 65 48.4 71 6. 54 65 7i 74 65-4 7i 7.6 40 49-5 65-4
65 82 48-5 7" 6. 54 65-4 7' 65-4 81.4 7' 72-9 81-3 74.1 65 74-5 81.4 7" 4. 87 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 72.9 51-8 51-8 4. 84

'9-995

"9-995

19-995

"9-995

9 138. January '5 139140. "6 20 141. 21 142. "43- February 10 » 27 "444 "45- March 146. 13 18 147148. 27 3 "49- April 150. 7 8 15"152ii 15 "53i, 23 "5415524 25 156. 25 "5725 .8 5. 25 15925 160. 25 161. 25 162. 25 .63.

19-995

„ „ ii ,, „

89-7 8. 97
92

19-995 "9-995 19-995 "9-995

8. 98 90.2

95-6 89-7 88.8 95-2 89-9
IOO

ig-995 "9-995

89.1
92.1

9'
"5 115 115 US »5 »5 "5 "5 89.8 89.1 89.3 1 08

164. .65.
1 66. 167.

May

12
20

June
,i

10
12

347 786 265 508 45 ' 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 347 276 289 203 ,7

755 217 281 254 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400
20()

'93 20 1 223

"9-995 19-995 '9-995

441

i68. 169. 170. 171. 172. «73174. '75176.

June

13 17 26 27

July
August

7
9 29 7
10

Kosmos-348 349 35° 35' 352 353 354 355 356

93 89.8 89.06 92 89-5 89.4

680 350 267
494 3°9 309 208 342 600

212 203 204 282 205 211 I44 202 240

7' 65.4 51-8

19-995

89-7 92.6

71 51-8 65-4 50 65-4 82
71 74 5^5 65 72-9 71 65 65.4 49-5 65 65.3 65 7' 65

19-995

'9-995 20.005; 30.0075; 90.0225

'77178. 179180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 1 86. 187. 1 88. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. "94'95196. 197198. 199200. 20:. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209.

19 20
22 29

September 8 „ 16 17
22

„ » „ » „ „

October

25 i 3 8

„ „ ,, „

8 9 12 16
20

»

23 30 30 November 1 1 '7 24 24 December 2
„ 2

„ „

357 358 359 360 36' 3®2 3®3 3^4 365 366 367 368 369 370 37' 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 38' 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389

92 95-2 95-5 89-5 89.6 95-7 89.6 89.6

500

282 5'7 2IO 2O9 207 28l 210 211 I 44 206 932 212 278 208

549 910 3:8 326 854 324 330
210 310

19-995

89.5 104.5 90.6 92-3 89-5 99-9 100.8 94-8 112.3 112.4 89-5 89.4 105 88.7
IO2.2
105 H3

1,030
421

19-995 19-542

534 3°7 780 828

553 2,153 2,164 3'1 3°5 1,763 253 1,548 1,023 5,04° 293 3H 1,005 275 560 532 699

754 786 490 536 538 216 208 241 198
210 985 320

74 74 62.9 63 63 65-4 65 74 51-6 82 74
51 dq 35 mi 65.4 72-9

19.995

3
10

89.3 89.5
104.8

208 212 982 207 528 28l 655

„ „ „

'9-995

12 15 16 18

89.2

18

95-3 92-3 98.1

74 65 74 7i 81

442

Appendix 2 MOLNIYA-i SERIES SATELLITE LAUNCHES From October i, 1967 to December 31, 1970

S.No.

Date of launch

Orbital period

Apogee in km.

Perigee in km.

Orbital inclination to equatorial plane in degrees

i.

a. 3456. 78. 910. 11.
12.

1967 October October 1968 April

3 aa 21

11 " II II II II II n n II II II

hrs. „
„ » ,, „ „ ,, „ „ „ „

52 54 53 55 52 53 51

min. .,
,, „ >, „ ,,

39,600 39.740 39.700 39.770 39,600 39,700 39,540 39,175 39,280 39,300 39,430 39,600

465 456 460 470 49° 470 520 487 470 480 435 480

65 64.7 65 65 65 65 64.9

July
October 1969 April July 1970 February June September November December

5
5 11 22 ig 26 29 27 25

43 45 46 47 52

„ „ „ ,, „

5-3 65 65.5 65-3 65

6

443

Appendix 3 METEOR SERIES SATELLITE LAUNCHES From October i, 1967 to December 31, 1970 S.No. Date of launch Orbital period in min
Apogee in km. Perigee in km. Orbital inclination to equatorial plane in degrees

i. 2. 3 4. 56.

"969 26 March October 6 1970 March "7 28 April »3 June October 15

97-9 97-7 96.4 98..
1 02

7'3 690 643 736 906 674

644 630 555 637 863 633

81.2 81.2 81.2 81.2 81.2 81.2

97-5

444

ss

M»st*.-*-'s ** •'

(Ainiigrtad)