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SILENCERS AND MUFFLERS

By, ARUN B(06M606), IV BE SW MECHANICAL.

INTRODUCTION:

Acoustic silencers or mufflers are devices designed to attenuate and/or absorb airborne sound waves propagated in a flowing medium.

Typical applications include air handling systems, exhaust and intake units, pumps, compressors etc..

Most powerful weapons available to the acoustical engineer.

INTRODUCTION:
Most powerful weapons available to the acoustical engineer. Despite the terms and myriad of configurations , the device can be broken into three fundamental groups. The Dynamic Insertion Loss - DIL - is the difference between the sound power or intensity levels measured in the same point of the duct work before and after the insertion of the silencer.

CLASSIFICATION:
Absorptive/dissipative silencers- contain fibrous materials and depend on dissipation of acoustical energy. Reactive silencers self destruction as the basic noise reduction mechanism. Dispersive/diffuser silencers-diffusion action.

DISSIPATIVE SILENCERS:
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DISSIPATIVE SILENCERS:

Dissipative silencers employ a sound absorbing material to attenuate the sound waves.

The thickness of acoustical linings should be selected based on the predominant frequency of the noise.

The incident sound energy is partially

DISSIPATIVE SILENCERS:
Absorptive silencers include,

Lined duct attenuators, Packaged cylindrical and rectangular attenuators,

Acoustic louvers and Lined plenum chambers.

LINED DUCTS:
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LINED DUCTS:

Lining the inside walls of a duct with sound absorbing materials is one example of a dissipative silencer. Lined ducts are commonly used to attenuate fan noise and duct transmission between adjoining spaces for noise control in buildings. The material may either be bonded to the duct wall or held in place using special

For better insertion loss performance, cylindrical and rectangular splitter silencers are use.

RECTANGULAR SILENCERS:
Addition of splitters into an airway can greatly improve the static insertion loss performance of a silencer, but this is achieved at the expense of a greater pressure drop.

CYLINDRICAL SILENCERS:
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RECTANGULAR AND CYLINDRICAL SILENCERS: The acoustical performance of such


silencers is a function of the length and thickness of the baffle sections, space between the baffles, and absorption coefficients of the material used in the baffles.

Higher frequencies are attenuated more than lower frequencies. In cylindrical silencers, the splitter consists

REACTIVE OR REFLECTIVE SILENCERS:

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REACTIVE OR REFLECTIVE SILENCERS:

Reactive silencers consist of one or more non-dissipative elements arranged either in parallel or in series. Typical elements include expansion chambers, side-branch resonators, and perforated tubes. The primary function of reactive silencers is to reflect sound waves toward the source.

REACTIVE SILENCERS:
Energy is dissipated in the extended flow path resulting from internal reflections, and by absorption at the source. Reactive silencers are used for low-frequency applications. In general reactive silencers are used for fixed speed machinery.

Reactive resonators:

A reactive or cavity resonator is a vessel containing a volume of air that is connected to a noise source such as a piping system through a neck. When sound wave is propagated along the pipe, the air in the vessel expands and contracts. By proper design of the area and length of the neck, and volume of the chamber,

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DISPERSIVE OR DIFFUSER SILENCERS:

Dispersive or diffuser silencers are pressurereducing devices that fit in the downstream of an orifice. They are also called pneumatic silencers. Dispersive silencers act to drop the gas pressure, hence reducing the velocity and straighten the flow, reducing the turbulence which is the prime cause of aerodynamically induced noise.

DIFFUSER SILENCERS:
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DISPERSIVE OR DIFFUSER SILENCERS:

Since the jet sound intensity is proportional to the eighth power of the jet velocity, a small reduction in velocity can reduce the noise levels substantially. These silencers usually have the form of a slotted or perforated metal cage or a covering of porous materials around the exit of an air line.

ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL:

Active control of noise is the process of reducing existing noise by the introduction of additional noise.

The additional noise may be introduced by any one or a combination of different mechanisms.

The most common mechanism is that of noise cancellation, where the introduced control sound is anti-phase to the original

ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL:

This signal is then sent to a controller where a new signal is generated. This control signal activates a control source (loudspeaker) which produces destructive interference with the undesired noise. An error sensor detects the residual sound after control and feedback an error signal to the controller, which adjusts or modifies the control signal to optimize the cancellation

Active noise control:


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