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The Grammar of Modern Indo-European at the Indo-European Language Association

APPENDIX I. SYNTAX PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN


I.1. PRAYER
A prayer is a form of words that contain a statement, a question, an exclamation or a command. one. a prayer in the form of a statement is called a declarative sentence, as the racing dog. b. A prayer in the form of a question is called an Interrogative Prayer: as the dog run? c. A prayer in the form of an exclamation is called an exclamatory prayer: how, how fast the dog races! d. A prayer in the form of a command, an exhortation or a Prayer Request is called an Imperative: how, go, run through the Alps, or let the dog run.
NOTE. After Lehman (1974), "The fundamental order of sentences in PIE appears to be OV. Support for this assumption is evident in the texts of older material attested in early IE dialects. The fundamental order of sentences in these dialects can not be determined early only by frequency of prayer patterns. For, like other linguistic constructions, marked manifest patterns of prayer as well as unbranded order. Order is expected in selected literary materials. The documents that survive the early dialects are virtually all in verse or in literary forms of prose. Accordingly many of the individual prayers do not have the unmarked order, with the end of the verb. For this reason conclusions about the word order characteristic of PIE and the early dialects will be based in part on those syntactic patterns that are rarely modified for literary effect and rhetorical, comparative constructions, the presence of postposition and prepositions, and the absence of prefixes, (...)". Lehman has been criticized by Friedrich (1975), as Watkins (1976) and Miller (1975), supports a VO prehistoric situation, probably SVO (as they thought in these 'core' areas of IE), with results of non-SOV dialect -consistent. In any case (viz. Lehman and Miller), an older IE or IE I II V (VSO for Miller) would have been replaced by a younger VO (SOV for Miller, SVO later through a process of transposition of the verb). well, all Indo-European dialects attested evolved (and probably a common Late PIE trend) in a modern SVO.

Modern Indo-European as a modern language of IE, you can follow the stricter formal standards attested in older entries, ie (S) OV, as in Latin Greek, Sanskrit old, ancient Vedic and Avestan. A newer, general (S) VO order (found in Greek, Latin, Avestan, Germanic, etc..), Which reveals the change in PIE OV to a VO in Early Late PIE for the spoken language of Europe.and even some forms of Literary uses, for example. journalism. could be used in non-formal contexts.

I.1.1. TYPES OF PRAYERS


Prayers were either Nominal PIE, ie formed by nouns or verbal, whether they include a verb. U.S.. A subject and a predicate. The subject of a sentence is the person or thing spoken of. The predicate is that what is said of the subject. one. The subject is usually a noun or pronoun or a word or group of words used as a noun. b. The predicate of a sentence can be a word (like dog racing) or may consist of some form of es and a noun or adjective describing the subject ordefines (as good). Such a noun or adjective is called a noun or predicate adjective. II. In prayers proto-Indo-European, simple can be composed of only one word, a noun or a verb, as God, or (it) rains.
NOTE 1. Prayers of this type are usually nominal and vocative Interjections. Prayers of this type include verbal imperatives (at least 2 P.Sg.) and impersonal verbs have never had an issue in the older dialects attested, how to engineer (it) rains, cf. Gothic. Rignei, Lat. Pluit, Gk. ..., Skt vr.ati. It is believed that when IE dialects become SVO in structure, so that a subject was required, the third singular anaphoric pronoun corresponding to it, s German, French il, etc.. Was introduced as a subject in such condemns. Were introduced such pronouns because SVO languages must have subjects in sentences, as do intransitive verbs in any language OV. Such verbs could be supplemented by substantial in several cases, including the accusative. These constructions are especially prominent for verbs that draw on the emotions, as Lat. miseret, Pudeto, taedet, Skr Kitava. tat.pa. Also compare Lat Cicero. E.rum miseret of thes ns or Ganges Thiha nirthrzzi OHG. In case PIE condemns various forms that could be used with verbs. The most simple prayers may consist of verbs followed by nouns in seven of eight cases, only the vocative is not used well. The nouns fill the role of objects or, perhaps better said, add-ons. NOTE 2. Besides the simple prayer that consists only of a verb, a simple prayer in the early dialects and in PIE could consist of a verb followed by a noun or pronoun as complement. One subject was not yet compulsory. Nor were other constructions which may seem to be natural, such as indirect objects with verbs like 'give'. The root form * or earlier * deh-had in its simplest sense the meaning 'gift' and was often unaccompanied by any nominal expression (Lehman).

I.1.2. PRAYER RATED


Nominal sentences in which a noun is compared with another noun, an adjective or a particle, compose one of the simplest type of prayer in PIE.
NOTE 1. Such a type of prayer is found in almost every dialect of IE, cf. Hitt. Atta. a.. u., "the father (is) good," Skr TVA. vru.a, "you (are) Varuna," O. Pers. D.rayavau adam., "i (is) Darius," Lat. praeclara rare for omnia, 'all the best things (are) rare, "etc. . In all dialects, however, such prayers were restricted in their use for a particular use of formal or on the contrary, they are found more frequently than originally PIE. Thus, in Latin and Germanic dialects they are found in proverbs and statements, as in Old Irish, is found in Greek epic and also in poetry. However, in Balto-Slavic dialects the pure nominal prayer became the usual kind of prayer par, even when the predicate is an adverb or an adverbial case. However, such a use that is more extended in modern dialects (and Russian) than in older (as Old Slavic), is considered the result of influence Ural-Altaic.

NOTE 2. Over time a prayer nominal required a verb, this development is as subjective characteristic of PIE and ends that came to replace the markers for individual qualifier early PIE. The various dialects no longer had a different kind of prayer equitable. Verbs might of course be omitted through ellipsis. And remarkably, in Slavic prayers, was reintroduced nominal, as shown by (1906-1908) Meillet. The reintroduction is probably a result of influence from OV languages, such as the Finno-Ugric. Illustrates this phenomenon should be studied those syntactic constructions and syntactic characteristics carefully before they could be ascribed to inheritance. In North Germanic also a characteristic of OV was reintroduced, with the loss of prefixes to the end of the first millennium AD.(Lehmann 1970). Yet despite these influences subsequent OV must be assumed for PIE nominal prayers.

A. There are traces of Pure Prayers Ratings with a predicate made by an oblique case of a noun or a prepositional combination, although they are not common to all IndoEuropean dialects.
NOTE. Just beyond the Balto-Slavic examples (due to the influence Ural-Altaic), are found some isolated examples, cf. Skr havyar Agnr mnu.a. raydhyai, "Agni is to be said with the sacrifices of men,"Gk. hpoige pair ka hlloi ke hi mean tim.sousi, "near me (there are) others who [particle] I (Mendoza)" praise.

B. In addition to these expansions through additional cases of nouns nonrequired, could be expanded through prayers of particles.
NOTE. For Lehman, three subsets of particles came to be particularly important. One of these is the game of preverbs as .. Another is the set of connectives of prayer, as Hitt. Naked. The third is the set of qualifier expressions, for example., M PIE. " (Should) not. " An additional subset, conjunctions introducing clauses will be discussed below in the section on clauses combination. Preverbs are characterized distinctly being closely associated with verbs and modifying their meaning / them. In their normal position / them if they arise directly before verbs (Watkins 1964).

Generally, therefore, ruled Concordance both members of the Pure Prayer Roll Call.
NOTE. Unlike the verb personnel and their complements (governed by inflection), the Prayer Nominal confidence showed a strong concordance between subject and predicate as a feature definitory: both require the same case and tended to have the same number and gender.

THE COPULA Es of the copula is only necessary when introducing categories in recent verbal morphology, like Time and Mood. So when is the Indicative Mood, and Time is neutral (no time or proverbs presented with neutral semantic) there s no need to use.
NOTE 1. The basic form of nominal sentences, however, was a matter of dispute. Some IndoEuropeanists propose that the absence of a verb in nominal sentences is a result of an ellipse, and assumes the underlying verb s - 'is' (Benveniste 1950). They support this assumption by pointing to the need for such a verb if the prayer is rated in the past tense, cf. Hitt. ABU.IA genzuu.ala. e.ta, "My father was merciful." On the contrary, Meillet (19061908), followed by Lehman and Mendoza, thought that nominal sentences did not require a verb but a verb could be included for emphasis. This conclusion can be supported by noting that the qualifiers could be used which were found in PIE in nominal sentences without a verb. As an example we may cite a Hittite prayer that is negative and imperative, 1-a. 1-l id.lu. menahhanda Edan, "One should not be bad for another. Even if a move were to be explicit, a form of es could

be used, as in Skr Nakiri indra HDTV Uttar n jy.y. asti, "nobody is taller than you, Indra, nor greater." NOTE 2. In the original meaning of s, since Brugmann (1925) originally meant "there is" therefore its use as a copula constructions in which the predicate expressed the existence of the subject, as in Hom.Gk. Oduses Laertides eim, "I am Odysseus son of Laertes (Mendoza)." In times of PIE had apparently other verbs (with similar meanings of 'exist') that could be used as a copulative, compare bh IE.,"there is, become, grow" (cf. O. Ind. bhavati, or as supletives in Lat. I went past, O.Ir. ba, O. Lith. bvo, fut. bus, OCS Impf. Beas, etc..) Wes Germanic 'alive, more. "

I.1.3. PRAYER VERBAL


The simplest structure of Indo-European common prayer consists of a verb, ie driving out of an action. This should be expressed none of the actors verbal (Subject and Object). the subject is usually not mandatory and appears only when the object is attached to the nature of the lexical verb.
NOTE. We expressed the older morphological categories, even while, in PIE by lexical means and are found many remains of such a system, cf. Hitt. - Za (reflexive), modal particles in Gk. and O. Ind., modal negation in some dialects of IE or the simple change in intonation that made imperative interrogative or a declarative sentence. indeed, the imperative lacks a brand of its own.

The relationship between subject and object is expressed by the case. There is no clear morphological distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs in Proto-Indo-European.
NOTE. Some Indo-European dialects specialize some verbal suffixes as transitive (causative) or intransitive, as Gk. - En, Gmc. - Io, Lat. - A, etc.., While in some others a preverbal combined with a verbal root is the basic verb transitive or intransitive.

When subjects are explicitly expressed, the nominative case is used.


NOTE. Expression of the matter is the most prominent extension of simple prayers to include more than one noun phrase. Besides such explicit mention of the subject, predicates may consist of verbs accompanied by two or more nouns, in cases that complete the meaning of the verb (vi). Such constructions must be distinguished from the inclusion of additional nouns whose pack forms indicate adverbial use.

Few verbs are mandatorily accompanied by two nouns. 1. the use of the dative addition of the accusative, as in Skr andin of t.bhi.m. dehi of Paris, the 'Deliver to these two. " 2. the instrumental and ablative, as Skr v.trm Ahan ... Indro vjre.a, 'Indra killed ... Vr.tra screw with him. "Skr.tv. dsy.mr kaso AGNA. ja., 'You drove the enemies of the house, O Agni. "
NOTE. While the addition to these sentences in which nouns are indicated by the instrumental and the ablative is essential to the meaning of the lines in their context / them, need not be included in prayer for syntactic reasons.

3. The causative accompanied by two accusative, as Skr dev.n. u.ata. p.yay. havi., 'Do the gods wish to drink the libation. "

In that condemns the agent-accusative represents the object of the causative element: as Arthur A. Indicated Macdonell (1916), corresponding to a simple prayer would have been given this noun in the nominative, as Skr dev.hav. pibanti, 'The gods drink the libation. "

Accordingly a simple verb in PIE was accompanied at the most before a noun, unless the additional substantive was complementary or adverbial. LOCAL CASES: PREDICATES WITH TWO OR MORE NOUNS Nonmandatory pack forms are found in great variety, as can be determined from studies of substantive inflections and their uses / them. It identifies five groups of adverbial elements: (1) circumstance, purpose or outcome, (2) time, (3) place, (4) way, (5) means. 1) If additional forms can be used to indicate the purpose, results or circumstances of an action. So for example. Instrumental in the m. Skr. ay. on. suast, "Be gracious to us for our well-being." The Dative was generally used in this sense, as in the infinitive form Skr practical. The . J.vse yur sum of tr 'Extend our years, sum, to sustain us [so that we can live a long time].'
NOTE. See Hitt. Kuin mNana of Luin-nu-kan ANA DUMU.LUGAL stop Haluk of mNuwanza nehhun, 'and Prince NanaLUi. Nuwanza whom I had sent to carry the message 'where Hittite dative nounHaluk. (Raman 1973).

Excited when a noun is involved, this use of the dative has been labeled the indirect object, as Skr ri.kti k. ... ra.u.. pnth.m ya, 'Black Night waive the way the red sun. "
NOTE. How can these examples indicate, the dative, like the other cases must be interpreted with reference to the lexical properties of the verbal element.

2) an additional prayer adverbial segment indicates the Time of Occurrence. The cases in question are various, as in Skr div. nkta. . Asmd yuyotam arum, 'day and night to protect us from the arrow. " NOTE. The div nominal form., which with change of accent is no longer an instrumental but
an adverbial form outside the paradigm and nkta accusative. differs significantly. The instrumental and the locative, refers to a point in time, however the "dot" can be extended, the accusative, for an extension of time. Discrepant cases provide different meanings for nouns marked properly during the time of lexical category.

3) Place also indicate that nouns differ significantly according to the event as:
A. The Accusative indicates the goal of an action, as in Lat. R.mam. Re 'go to Rome', Hitt. You. tarnahhe of alki.tan 'and those (birds) I release the branch' (Otten and Sou.ek 1969:38 37). B. The Instrumental indicates the place "upon which an action extends" (Macdonell 1916: 306): srasvaty. y.nti 'they go along the Sarasvati. "

C. The Ablative indicates the starting point of the action: s rth.t pap.ta 'he fell from his chariot', and the following example from Hittite (Otten and Sou.ek 1969): i. mit. Az (.) L. AN.BARa lan. [D]. I, 'He takes the language of their mouths iron / them. " D. The Locative indicates a point in space, for example., Skt divided 'in heaven' or the locative kardi the following example of Hittite (Otten and Sou.ek): .mi kardi-would-akan dahhun, 'And I took out that [disease that was] in his heart. " Nouns with lexical features for place and time because they can be used in the same sentence, as in Skr stam Upa nktam eti, 'It will overnight at the house. " Although both nouns are in the Accusative, the differing lexical features lead to different interpretations of the case. In this way, inflect markers combine with lexical features to yield a wide variety of adverbial elements. 4) between the adverbial elements that are very diverse in surface forms is using this way. Several cases are used as follows. A. The Accusative is especially frequent with adjectives such as Skt k.iprm 'fast' Bahu 'greatly' Nyak 'descending'. B. The Instrumental is also used in the plural, as in Skt mhobhi. 'Powerful', but also in the singular, Sahas. " of suddenly. " Similar to the phrase so is the instrumentation used to express the sense of accompaniment: Skr devbhir Devo .. gamat, 'May the god come [in such a way that he is] accompanied by the other gods. C. The ablative is also used to express certain way to a restricted number of verbs such as expressing 'fear': rjante v.v. bh k.trm of i. .. .., 'All creatures tremble fearfully. " 5) Means of adverbial expressions are especially expressed by the instrumental, as Skr Ahan Indro v.trm ... vjre.a, 'Indra killed ... Vr.tra with screw him. " The noun often involved using an instrument, cf. Hitt. Kalulupu. . Mu. hulaliemi of gapinit, 'I air the thread around their fingers / them. They can also be used so excited nouns. When they are, they indicate the agent: agnn. turv.a. Yadu. par.vta ugr.deva. hav.mahe, 'Why we call it Agni Turvasa far, Yadu and Ugradeva. This use led to the use of instrumental as the agent in passive constructions.

I.2. DAMN MODIFIERS I.2.1. INTONATION PATTERNS


The prayer was characterized in PIE by patterns and by Order of Selection.

One class selection was partly determined by turning, in part because the majority of
lexical categories that were covered.

NOTE. Some lexical categories were characterized at least in part by formal features, such as
abstract nouns marked by - you -, nouns in the religious sphere marked by - u - and collectively marked by *- h.

B. In addition to characterization by means of order and categories of selection, the prayer was also delimited by intonation based on variations in pitch. To the extent that the phonemes of PIE have been determined bid, a bid can be posited that high could be in one syllable per word and a low bid that was not so restricted.
NOTE. The location of the high bid is mainly determined by the Lehman evidence in Vedic; the theory that this was inherited from PIE received important confirmation of Karl Verner's demonstration of its maintenance in German (1875). So the frequently cited correlation between the position of the Vedic accent perfect and the differing consonants in Germanic provided decisive evidence for reconstruction of PIE accent bid but also to Verner's law, as in the perfect forms (past tense) the root deik - , show.

PIE 1 sg. 1 pl. dedika

Vedic did.a

OE th

OHG zh

dedikm didi.im tigon zigum

Were characterized by a syllable words in a tone of high bid, unless they were enclitic, that is, without a mark for accent. Sharp words could lose the accent of their high bid / them if they were placed at specific positions in sentences. Vocative One of them lost the accent / them if they were median in a sentence or clause, and finite verbs have lost the accent of them / them unless they stand up initially in an independent clause or in any position in a dependent clause in Vedic. These same rules may be assumed for PIE. On the basis of two characteristic patterns of loss of accent for verbs, characteristic patterns of intonation may also be posited for the prayer of IE. Judging on the basis of loss of high bid accent of verbs in them, independent clauses were characterized by flow final bid. In order for the verb was unmarked in the last clause. However, clauses that are marked to indicate emphasis or subordination load, do not suffer such a lowering. They can be distinguished with final
NOTE. The intonation pattern indicated by apparently carried the notion of an emotional or emphatic utterance or requiring a supplement, such as by another clause. These findings are supported by the patterns found in Germanic alliterative verse. For, as is well known, verbs were frequently placed by poets in the room, nonalliterating, metrically prominent position in the line: Thrym eodcyninga gefr.non of the people's-of-kings boast-we hear of, 'We hear of glory of the kings of the people. This placing of verbs, retained by metrical convention in Germanic verse, presumably maintains evidence for IE intonation pattern. For, by contrast, could alliterative verbs when they arise initially in clauses or in subordinate clauses; Eorl of egsode, syan weard of. rest, he-terrified men since first he-was, 'He terrified the men he was the first time [think]'. wordum of enden w.old Scyldinga entertain, as long-as-a-word with the

he-friend-of-the-governed Scyldings. The patterns of alliteration in Germanic verse older support the conclusions that were derived from Vedic accentuation on the intonation of the Indo-European pray properly, as do patterns in other dialects. Among such patterns is the preference for enclitic in second position in prayer (Wackernagel 1892). Words found in this position are particles, pronouns and verbs that have no accent in Vedic texts.Wackernagel This observation supports the conclusion that the tone of the prayer was characterized by high initial bid, his voice trailing off the end. For the enclitic elements were not placed initially, but rather they occupied positions in which unaccented portions were expected of words, as in Skr pr.vep.mbhat m.dayanti, 'The high tree pendant make me happy. " The m pronoun. 'I', such as other enclitic, makes up a sentence with the word original, in this way it is comparable to unaccented syllables of individual words, as in Skr prav.tej.ri.e vrv.tn, '[born] in a windy place, rolling on-board data'

A simple prayer then consisted not only in a unit accompanied by an intonation pattern, but also subunit or phrases. These were identified by their accent / them and also by patterns of late allowed.

I.2.2. PRAYER THAT LIMITS PARTICLES


The particles concerned are PIE naked, so for, all introductory particles.
NOTE. The homonymity them / them with the adverb nu, nun and the anaphoric pronoun was one of the reasons earlier Indo-Europeanists did not acknowledge their role and / them. Although Delbrck had already noted the role of clause-introducing Skr sa (1888), as in Skr tasya t.ni.. r. .. i cicheda practical. Sa yat tata of somap.nam.sa. kapjala. abhavat Sam, 'He hit it out of their heads. Who drank the soma, was created brown chicken. " Delbrck identified sa in this and other prayers as a particle and not a pronoun, for it does not agree in gender with a noun in prayer. But it remained for Hittite to clarify the situation. In Hittite texts the introductory use of the particles is unmistakable (J. Friedrich 1960), and ta. U happen especially in early texts, naked in the latter, as illustrated in the following Old Hittite example (Otten and Sou.ek 1969): wandering- a pe.iemi. u-u. Lu-an. natta au.zi 'I throw a cloth over it and nobody will see. "

Besides such an introductory function (here as often elsewhere translated 'and'), these particles were used as the first element in a chain of enclitic, as in in-.i '-and that for him ", nu-mu-za -kan 'and ego-self in' and so on.
NOTE 1. In Homeric Greek such strings of particles follow different orders, but reflect the IE construction, as in: SOI nude Etoro of Oude by Philon of entrpetai, Olmpie, 'But your heart does not notice, Zeus. As the translation of perhere indicates, some particles were used to indicate the relationships between clauses marking the simple prayer. NOTE 2. Many simple sentences in PIE would then be similar to those in Hittite and Vedic Sanskrit, such as those taken by the charming story of Delbrck. Atapathabr. Hma . To. Among the simplest is toSkr Indro didve.a tam, 'Indra hated him. " Presumably tam is a conflated form of the taand the enclitic particle accusative singular pronoun, the combination is attested in Hittite as ta-an (J. Friedrich 1960).Besides the use of prayer-delimiting particles, these examples illustrate the simplicity of prayer PIE. Of the fifteen prayers in history, only two have more than one verb and noun form of these are adverbial as observed above. Similar examples could be cited of other dialects early, as the inscription of Praeneste Italica, or Gallehus German inscription: Ek HlewagastiR HoltijaR tawido Horn, 'I Hlewagastir Holt made the horn. " In these recent texts, the subject was required and properly two nominal forms had come to be

standard for prayer. If however the matter is not taken into account, many prayers contained only one nominal element with verbs in dialects as well as in early PIE.

I.3. VERBAL MODIFIERS I.3.1. DECLARATIVE SENTENCES


The injunctive has long been identified as a form unmarked for mood and was only scheduled for stem and person. It may well be compared with the simplest form of OV languages. By contrast the Present indicative indicates "humor." We associate this additional feature with the suffix - i and to assume that the declarative meaning.
NOTE 1. Yet it is also clear that until the Vedic Sanskrit and, we assume, Late PIE, the injunctive no longer directly contrasted with the present indicative. We must conclude then that the declarative qualifier was expressed by other means in prayer. We assume that the means of expression was an intonation pattern. For, in normal cleared simple sentences, finite verbs were not pronounced in the last clause of them / of them, as did the predicative elements of nominal sentences; Delbrck repeatedly used example may be cited to illustrate the typical pattern once more: VI.A. Bali k.atry.ya. Harant, 'The villagers pay tribute to the prince. "Harant Since the word was not pronounced, ie not had any high bid, we can deduct the prayer for a normal intonation pattern in which the final elements in prayer were followed by low bid. NOTE 2. Lehman supports this assumption by noting that a distinctive suprasegmental was used in Vedic distinguish a contrasting feature, interrogation or request (Wackernagel 1896). This marker, called Pluto by native grammarians, consisted of extra length, as in gn.3i 'the burn' (3 indicates extra length). But a more direct contrast with the intonation of simple sentences may be exemplified by the accentuation of subordinate clauses. These stressed verbs, as in the next line of the Rigveda: tapir. AC pr.g. bhav.si add, 'If you came in, you will be additive. As the emphasis in bid g.indicates, verbs in subordinate clauses remained high bid, in contrast with verbs of independent clauses as bhav.si. We can conclude that the high bid was an element in an intonation pattern which indicated an incomplete state, a bit like the pattern of contemporary English.

Evidence from other dialects supports the conclusion that, Declarative sentences were indicated by an intonation pattern with a drop in stress at the end of the clause in recent PIE.
NOTE. In Germanic verse, verbs of unmarked declarative sentences tend to occupy unaccented positions on the line, notably the final position (Lehmann 1956). Although the expression of surface stress patterns in Germanic is stress, rather than the flight of Vedic and PIE, the coincidence of accentuation pattern supports our conclusions concerning PIE intonation.