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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

CICR TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO: 13

Cotton Varieties and Hybrids


Dr. Phundan Singh Dr. MS Kairon

Central Institute for Cotton Research Nagpur


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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

COTTON VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS INTRODUCTION Cotton is a fibre, oil and protein yielding crop of global significance. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of more than 80 countries of the world. The major cotton producing countries are USA, China, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Brazil, Greece, Argentina and Egypt. These countries contribute about 85% to the global cotton production. India stands first in area, third in production and last in productivity among these countries. In India, there are nine major cotton growing states which are divided into three zones, viz. north zone, central zone and south zone. North zone consists of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh. Central zone includes Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. South zone comprises Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. These states cover about 95% of cotton area and also contribute about 95% to the total cotton production in India. Three cotton growing zones differ from each other in several aspects such as soil type and topography, irrigation facilities, species cultivated, productivity level etc. (Table-1). Besides these states, cotton is also grown on small areas in Bihar, Orissia, Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya. These states cover about 5% area and also contribute 5% to the national cotton production. Table-1: Comparison of three cotton growing zones. S.No. Particulars North zone 1. Soil type Alluvial 2. Soil topography Plain 3. Irrigation 98% 4. Species cultivated Hirsutum, arboreum 5. Hybrid cultivation Less than 1% 6. Area covered 20% 7. Production 40% 8. Yield level High CULTIVATED SPECIES There are four cultivated species of cotton viz. Gossypium arboreum, G.herbaceum, G.hirsutum and G.barbadense. The first two species are diploid (2n=26) and are native to old world. They are also known as Asiatic cottons because they are grown in Asia. The last two species are tetraploid (2n=52) and are also referred to as New World Cottons. G.hirsutum is also known as American cotton or upland cotton and G.barbadense as Egyptian cotton or Sea Island cotton or Peruvian Cotton or Tanguish Cotton or quality cotton.G.hirsutum is the predominant species which alone contributes about 90% to the global production. In USA and Uzbekistan, more than 90% area is covered by G.hirsutum. Perhaps, India is the only country in the world where all the four cultivated species are grown on commercial scale. In India, 45%, 30% and 24.7% area is covered by hybrids, upland cotton and diploid species respectively. G.barbadense is grown on a very little area (0.3%) in the state of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. G.herbaceum is limited to the states of Gujarat and Karnataka. G.hirsutum and G.arboreum are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India. Distinguishing morphological features of all the four cultivated species of cotton are given in Table-2. Gossypium arboretum Bracts are more or less triangular and closely invest bud and flower. Bracts have 4-5 teeth at the apex. Bolls are tapering and profusely pitted with prominent oil glands. Bolls open widely on maturity. This species is also known as Indian cotton.

Central Zone Black soils Undulating 15% All except barbadense 55% 55% 35% Low

South Zone Black and red soils Undulating 32% All the four species 50% 25% 25% Medium

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

Gossypium herbaceum Bracts flare widely from the bud, flower and boll. They have 6-8 teeth. Bolls are round and rarely with prominent shoulders. Bolls are smooth or with few shallow pits and few oil glands. Bolls open slightly when ripe.

Table-2: Distinguishing morphological features of cultivated species of Gossypium Linn. S.No Particulars Cultivated Species of Cotton G.hirsutum G.barbadense G.arboreum G.herbaceum 1. Leaves 1/2cut or less into 2/3 cut into 3-5 2/3-4/5 cut into 5-7 cut or less 3-7 3-5 lobes, not lobes, sinuses lobes long and lobes only slightly constricted, also thrown into folds, narrow constricted at the over lapping lobes lobes long and base. tapering 2. Bracteoles Triangular, 4-12 As long as broad, Closely investing Bracteoles not long teeth 10-12 acuminate the bud and investing bud, teeth flower, entire or usually broader with fewer teeth than long upper longer than broad. margin serrated. 3. Petal Light yellow to Sulphur yellow, White to yellow, Medium yellow yellow deep Yellow red 4. Bolls Round to Tapering, longer Moderate Round Rounded, smaller, moderately than broad 3-4 to tapering, 3 to 4 3 loculi smooth to tapering 3-5 usually 3 loculi, loculi, 3 common moderately pitted. locular, 4 common deeply pitted and smooth to deeply smooth to glanded often, pitted, rough moderately pitted. rough 5. Seeds Moderately large, 5-8 seeds/locule, Fuzzy, smaller Medium size to fuzzy to rarely tuft of fuzz on rarely naked, 6-17 small fuzzy, 11 naked, moderate seeds, seeds seeds/locule seeds/locule, short to long fibres, 5-11 often without a to medium fibres. seed/locule coat of a fuzz, lint fibres very long, seeds free Gossypium hirsutum Flowers do not have red spot at the base of petal. The staminal column is short. The anthers are loosely arranged on the staminal column. Anther filaments are larger in the upper region than in the lower region. The capsule surface is usually smooth. Gossypium barbadense Bracts are very large which cover the flower bud completely. The staminal column is long on which anthers are compactly arranged. The anther filament is of same length. Bolls are large and deeply pitted with black oil glands. Red spot is present at the base of petal. Bracts are united at the base in diploid cottons and free in tetraploid cottons. Diploid cottons have high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas tetraploid cottons have high yielding capacity and good fibre quality.

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

COTTON VARIETIES The varietal improvement work in cotton started as early as in 1904 when Agricultural Departments were established in various states. It was further strengthened in 1923 when Indian Central Cotton Committee (ICCC) was constituted. The varietal improvement work got momentum with the inception of All India Coordinated Cotton Improvement Project (AICCIP) in April, 1967. After inception of AICCIP, 90 varieties of upland cotton, 3 of Egyptian cotton, 39 of diploid cottons and 43 hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation in different states of India. A brief account of cotton varieties released from different states is presented below: North zone consists of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Western U.P. In Punjab, varietal improvement work is carried out at Ludhiana and Faridkot. Ludhiana is the main centre and Faridkot is the sub-centre. In Punjab, 18 varieties of upland cotton and six of arboreum cotton have been released so far. The currently cultivated varieties include LH 900, LH 1556, F846 and F 1378 in G.hirsutum and G.27, LD 327 and LD 491 in G.arboreum (Table 3 and 4). In Haryana, cotton improvement work is carried out at Hisar. From Hisar, 8 varieties of G.hirsutum and 5 of G.arboreum have been released so far. However, four varieties of former species (HS 6, H 974, H 1098 and HS 182) and three of latter (DS 5, HD 107 and HD 123) are presently under cultivation. In Rajasthan, cotton breeding work is done at Sriganganagar and Banswara. The former is the main research centre and the latter is sub-centre. In Rajasthan, six varieties of G.hirsutum and two of G.arboreum have been released for commercial cultivation so far. The presently cultivated varieties include RST 9, Ganganagar Ageti and RS 875 in G.hirsutum and RG 8 in G.arboreum. In Uttar Pradesh, cotton is cultivated in western part on few thousand hectares. Presently, the breeding work is carried out at Kanpur. The currently cultivated varieties include Vikas (upland) and Lohit (arboreum). Central Zone includes Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. In M.P., 8 varieties of G.hirsutum and 4 of G.arboreum have been released so far. Three varieties of former (Khandwa 2, Khandwa 3 and Vikram) and two of latter (Maljari and Jawahar Tapti) are currently under cultivation. In M.P., cotton breeding work is carried out at Khandwa and Indore. Khandwa is the main research centre and Indore is sub-centre. In Maharashtra, varietal improvement of cotton is carried out at Akola, Nanded, Rahuri and Jalgaon. The first three are main centres and the last one is the sub-centre. In Maharashtra, 14 varieties of G.hirsutum and 20 of G.arboreum have been released for commercial cultivation so far. The currently cultivated varieties include DHY 286, Purnima, AKH 081 and Rajat in G.hirsutum and AKH 4, AKH 5, AKA 8401, Y1 and PA 183 in G.arboreum. In Gujarat, cotton breeding work is carried out at Surat, Talod, Bharuch, Charodi and Junagarh. Surat is the main research centre and rest are sub-centres. In Gujarat, G.herbaceum is also cultivated besides G.hirsutum and G.arboreum. In this state, 7 varieties of G.hirsutum, 4 of G.arboreum and 11 of G.herbaceum have been released so far. However, two varieties of G.hirsutum (G.Cot 12 and G.Cot 16), three of G.arboreum (Sanjay, G.Cot 15 and G.Cot 19) and three of G.herbaceum (G.Cot 13, G.Cot 17 and G.Cot 19) are currently under cultivation. South Zone consists of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In A.P., cotton breeding work is carried out at Guntur and Nandyal. The former is the main centre. In A.P., 12 varieties of G.hirsutum and 8 of G.arboreum have been released for commercial cultivation so far. The currently

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

cultivated varieties include Kanchana, LK 861, L 389, L 603 and L 604 in G.hirsutum and Srisailam, Mahanandi and NA 1325 in G.arboreum. In Karnataka, cotton improvement work is carried out at Dharwad, Arbhavi and Siruguppa. Dharwad is the main research centre and rest are sub-centres. In Karnataka, 10 varieties of G.hirsutum and 7 of G.herbaceum have been released so far. Varieties which are presently under cultivation sharda, Abadhita and Sahana in G. hirsutum and DB 3-12 and Raichur 15 in G.herbaceum. In Tamil Nadu, cotton breeding work is carried out a Coimbatore, Kovilpatti and Srivilliputhur. Coimbatore is the main centre and others are sub-centres. In Tamil Nadu, 25 varieties of G.hirsutum, 3 of G.barbadense and 7 of G.arboreum have been released so far. However, 5 varieties of G.hirsutum (MCU 7, LRA 5166, MCU 5 VT, SVPR 2 and Surabhi), 2 of G.arboreum (K10 and K 11) and one of G. barbadense (Suvin) are currently under cultivation. COTTON HYBRIDS In India, hybrid cotton era started since 1970 with the release of worlds first cotton hybrid H 4 from Cotton Research Station Surat of Gujarat Agricultural University. This hybrid was developed by Late Dr.C.T.Patel who is rightly called as father of hybrid cotton. This hybrid, by virtue of its high yield potential and wide adaptability, became very much popular among the farmers wide adaptability, became very much popular among the farmers initially in the Gujarat state and lateron in other adjacent states such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Two years after the release of H 4, the worlds first interspecific hybrid between G.hirsutum and G.barbadense was released from the cotton Research Sciences, Bangalore under the name Varalaxmi. Initially, Varalaxmi was released for cultivation in Karnataka state, but later on spread to other states such as Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra under irrigated areas. With the success of these two hybrids, heterosis breeding got momentum in the country and several hybrids in tetraploid cottons and few in diploid cottons were released for commercial cultivation. Now hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation in all the major cotton growing states. Though the work for developing commercial hybrids especially in tetraploid cotton was initiated around 1930 at cotton Research Station, Surat, but the dream could be fulfilled after a gap of 40 years in 1970. The hybrids cotton era is divided into two parts, viz. (1) conventional hybrid era, and (2) male sterility based hybrid era. In the beginning, all the cotton hybrids were developed by conventional method i.e., by hand emasculation and pollination. However, the seed of conventional hybrids is very expensive as several labourers are engaged for emasculation. With a view to reduce the cost of hybrid seed, efforts were made to develop hybrids using genetic male sterile or cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The first genetic male sterility (GMS) based hybrid was released in 1978 from Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore in the name of the Suguna in upland cotton for Tamil Nadu state. However, this hybrid could not become popular in the state of Tamil Nadu, mainly due to poor yield than conventional hybrids. Efforts were also made to develop cytoplasmic genic male sterility (CGMS) based hybrid cotton. The first CGMS based cotton hybrid was released for commercial cultivation in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra under the name of PKV Hy3 while was developed at Cotton Research Station of Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (PDKV), Akola in 1993. However, yield of this hybrid is also 10-15 lower than conventional hybrid developed using the same parents. Now, concerted efforts are being made by various cotton research centres to release CGMS based cotton hybrids. Some CGMS based hybrids are already in the pipelines which are expected to be released in years ahead. There are several problems associated with CGMS hybrids such as low productivity, susceptibility to insect pests etc. efforts are on to overcome these problems are in the

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

pipeline. In diploid cotton, the main constraint in the spread of hybrid cultivation is non-availability of hybrid seed due to low seed setting. Cotton hybrids are cultivated in South and Central zones. In north zone less than 1% cotton area is covered by hybrids. The currently cultivated hybrids include H6, H8, H10 in Gujarat; DCH 32, DHB 105 and DHH 11 in Karnataka; Savita, TCHB 213, Surya and Sruthi in Tamil Nadu, LAHH 4 and JKHy-1 and JKHy-2 in Madhya Pradesh. Diploid hybrids cover very little area (1%). Table-3: Important Features of Tetraploid Cotton Varieties Released From Different States of India Variety/ Hybrid PUNJAB LSS P 216 F 320 F J 34 J 205 B.N. F 414 LH 372 F 286 LH 900 BC 761 (IARI) F 505 LH 886 Jurhad LH 1134 F 1054 F 846 LH 1556 F 1378 HARYANA H 14 H 655 C H 777 HS 45 HS 6 H 974 H 1098 HS 182 RAJASTHAN PST 9 RS 89 G.Ageti RS 513 RST 9 RS 875 U.P Pramukh Year of Release 1932 1948 1951 1961 1973 1976 1977 1980 1983 1985 1985 1986 1988 1990 1990 1993 1993 1996 1997 1954 1978 1978 1987 1991 1991 1995 1997 1965 1972 1978 1985 1991 1997 1965 Yield (q/ha) 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 15 21 27 20 24 26 25 22 26 26 21 30 10 18 18 21 22 21 19 22 13 14 14 16 26 30 10 Duration (Days) 215 200 180 190 195 170 180 175 165 170 160 170 165 170 170 170 170 170 175 165 190 180 175 175 170 175 165 210 210 190 190 175 175 180 Ginning Percent 31 31 30 34 34 33 33 33 33 34 35 34 35 35 35 36 35 34 35 35 34 34 34 36 35 35 36 33 33 33 34 36 35 33 M.H.L. (mm) 21 22 23 25 25 22 23 25 22 22 23 22 22 25 27 23 23 27 23 24 27 23 21 22 23 25 21 23 26 23 22 23 23 24 Spinning Counts 30 30 28 36 36 32 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 30 30 40 30 30 40 40 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 28 30 30 30 30 Area of cultivation Punjab, Haryana Andhra Pradesh Punjab,Haryana, Rajasthan Hisar Tract Punjab,Haryana, Rajasthan Whole Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Whole Punjab Punjab Punjab Haryana Sirsa Zone Whole Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Whole Haryana Whole Haryana North Rajasthan Rajasthan Sriganganagar North Rajasthan North Rajasthan North Rajasthan Western U.P.

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

SH 131 Vikas M.P Indore 1 Indore 2 Narmada (A 51-9) Badnawar 1 Khandwa 1 Khandwa 2 Vikram Khandwa 3 MAHARASHTRA Buri 107 Buri 0394 Buri 147 B 1007 DHY 286 Purnima KOP 498 AKH 081 Nagnath CNH 36 JLH 168 NH 452 Rajat Arogya GUJARAT Deviraj (170CO2) Devitej (134CO2M) G 67 SRT 1 (G.Cot 10) Vishnu (G.Cot 100) G.Cot 12 G.Cot 16 A.P. Krishna (AC 122) Mahal Laxmi Amrawati (AV 1661) Sangam (V 14) Fedraj NA 247 NA 920 L 389 L 603

1977 1987 1945 1950 1959 1961 1967 1971 1981 1984 1948 1950 1960 1971 1975 1985 1986 1987 1990 1993 1993 1994 1994 1995 1951 1952 1963 1974 1974 1981 1995 1968 1978 1978 1978 1982 1988 1993 1997

11 20 8 6R 5R 6R 6R 8R 9R 9R 4R 4R 5R 5R 10 R 10 R 24 10 R 12 R 10 R 10 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 12 R 8R 10 R 13 R 20 6R 16 R 10 R 1972 23 6R 11 25 8R 25 25 23

170 160 190 200 200 190 200 160 160 180 220 220 200 220 200 190 155 160 190 175 180 180 175 180 235 240 250 160 240 220 140 145 5R 170 140 150 150 170 170 155

36 33 30 35 35 34 36 36 33 34 33 34 36 34 36 40 37 38 41 35 36 37 39 35 36 35 33 37 32 36 37 33 180 35 33 36 35 38 35 35

23 23 22 24 24 25 24 24 24 23 24 25 26 25 25 23 25 24 25 25 24 25 25 21 27 27 30 25 29 24 25 25 35 27 25 24 25 24 27 28

30 30 27 30 30 36 40 30 35 36 30 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 40 40 34 40 12 43 36 50 40 50 23 40 36 23 40 40 30 40 34 50 40

Western U.P. Western U.P. Rajasthan Nimar& Malwa Area Nimar Region Malwa region Nimar Region Nimar & Hoshangabad region Malwa Region Nimar Region Vidarbha & Nimar M.P. Vidarbha & Nimar M.P. Vidarbha area Vidarbha region Vidarbha & Marathwada Marathwada Deccan Canal Area Vidarbha Region Marathwada Marathwada, Gujarat Khandesh Marathwada Vidarbha Region Vidarbha, Gujarat Whole Gujarat Middle Gujarat South & Middle Gujarat Whole Gujarat South Gujarat Waged area Middle Gujarat Rice Fallows, A.P. 24 Rainfed, A.P. NSP and Coastal Rainfed Areas Rice Fallows, A.P. Rabi Areas, A.P. Rayal Seema, A.P. Rayal Seema, A.P. NSP Tract,A.P. Nagarjuna Sagar Tract

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

L 604 KARNATAKA Laxmi Hampi Mysore Vijay Bhagya DS 51 Sharda Sowbhagya(DS 59) Abadhita JK 119 Sahana TAMIL NADU CO2 CO4 MCU 1 MCU 2 PRS 72 MCU 4 MCU 5 Sujata * MCU 6 MCU 7 MCU 8 Suvin* Suman MCU 9 Supriya KC 1 TNB 1* MCU 5 VT MCU 10 LRA 5166 MCU 11 SVPR 1 Paiyur 1 ADT 1 LRK 516 SVPR 2 Surabhi KC 2

1997 1948 1968 1968 1972 1980 1981 1981 1988 1988 1996 1929 1939 1950 1955 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1972 1974 1974 1976 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1982 1982 1988 1991 1991 1992 1992 1996 1997 1997

26 12 8 14 5R 16 12 R 19 25 25 20 7 9 9 10 8 10 19 14 5R 12 15 15 14 18 18 9 13 20 8R 10 R 22 16 R 11.5 12 12 R 16 35 7.5

160 180 190 210 170 170 180 165 180 180 170 190 190 180 180 125 165 165 180 160 145 160 190 150 165 145 180 170 165 165 180 155 135 150 125 160 160 170 150

36 35 34 36 38 38 38 36 37 40 40 31 34 32 35 36 37 35 30 37 35 35 30 38 36 38 34 32 34 36 35 35 35 37 34 36 36 35 37

26 23 23 26 24 28 28 25 27 27 26 24 24 27 27 25 28 30 32 25 23 28 36 26 30 29 23 33 29 25 24 26 25 23 22 25 25 29 25

40 30 34 40 36 50 40 40 50 40 40 24 24 36 36 40 50 50 90 40 30 50 120 40 50 50 40 80 50 40 34 50 40 40 40 36 30 55 40

Rice Fallows, A.P. Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Rainfed Tungbhadra area Karnataka Tungbhadra Tract South Zone T.N.Winter Crop T.N.Summer Crop Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Summer Tract Tamil Nadu, A.P. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu TN Rice Fallows Summer Tract Tamil Nadu T.N.,A.P.,K.S. Winter Tract T.N. and A.P Tamil Nadu Tamil NaduWinterTract, T.N. Rainfed areas TN,AP,MS,KS Winter Tract Summer Tract WinterRainfed Tract Rice Fallows Maharashtra, Gujarat Summer Tract South Zone Tamil Nadu

R=Rainfed yield *G.barbadense varieties.

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Table-4: Important Features of Diploid Cotton Varieties Released from Different States of India Variety/ Hybrid PUNJAB 231 R G 27 LD 133 LD 230 LD 327 LD 491 HARYANA HD 11 DS 1 DS 5 HD 107 HD 123 U.P Shyamali Lohit RAJASTHAN Ganganagar 1 RG 8 M.P Malvi 9 Bhoj Maljari Jawahar Tapti MAHARASHTRA Jarila V 434 Gaorani 6 Virnar H 420 Gaorani 12 Gaorani 46 Gaorani 22 Daula t AK 235 AK 277 Y1 Jyoti AKH 4 AKA 5 Eknath (PA 32) Rohini AKA 8401 PA 183 Year of Release 1959 1969 1978 1981 1987 1996 1978 1984 1987 1996 1997 1965 1969 1942 1986 1935 1942 1954 1992 1930 1933 1936 1949 1949 1950 1953 1955 1955 1959 1959 1962 1973 1975 1981 1981 1984 1989 1996 Yield (q/ha) 10 10 12 20 20 14 10 20 23 36 23 4R 4R 9 17 4R 4R 6R 15 4R 3.5 R 4R 5R 5R 3R 4R 4R 3R 4R 5R 5R 6R 7R 7R 9R 8R 10 18 Duration (Days) 180 165 170 170 170 175 155 180 170 175 165 180 170 180 180 180 190 180 150 200 210 210 220 210 180 180 180 180 220 200 190 190 190 180 180 175 200 180 Ginning Percent 35 37 35 38 41 39 40 38 40 38 39 39 38 40 39 33 32 33 35 34 29 32 38 33 31 36 37 36 40 41 39 39 39 39 39 39 38 39 M.H.L. (mm) 16 16 17 18 16 20 15 18 16 18 18 19 18 17 16 20 21 21 24 22 19 22 22 22 22 22 23 22 23 23 24 24 24 22 21 24 25 27 Spinning Counts 8 9 9 9 8 10 9 9 9 10 10 14 10 9 9 14 21 20 30 22 20 26 20 20 26 32 30 20 29 30 30 26 30 30 20 26 40 35 Area of cultivation North Punjab Punjab, Haryana Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Haryana Western U.P. Western U.P. Sri Ganganagar area Sri Ganganagar area Malwa and Nimar Tracts Malwa and Nimar Tracts Malwa and Nimar Tracts East and West Nimar Khandesh Vidarbha Marathwada, A.P. Khandesh,Vidarbha, M.P. Vidarbha, A.P., K.S. Marathwada Western Maharashtra Western Maharashtra Parbhani, M.S. Vidarbha Buldhana Khandesh Khandesh Vidarbha and Marathwada Vidarbha and Marathwada Marathwada Marathwada Vidarbha region Marathwada region

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AKA 7 GUJARAT Waged 8* Vijay* Kalyan* Variety/ Hybrid Pratap Vijalpa* Digvijay* Sanjay V 797* Sujay* G.Cot11 (1449)* G.Cot 13* G.Cot 15* G.Cot 17* G.Cot 19* G.Cot 21* A.P N 14 Gaorani 6 Cocanada 1 Cocanada 2 Rayal Seema 1 Srisailam Mahanandi Saraswati NA 1325 KARNATAKA Jayawant* Western 1* Selection 69*

1998 1930 1943 1947 Year of Release 1947 1952 1956 1958 1966 1971 1979 1981 1989 1995 1997 1998

10 6R 4.5 R 6R Yield (q/ha) 3.5 R 5R 6R 5R 8R 6R 10 R 8R 16 R 11 R 11 R 11 R

150 230 220 220 Duration (Days) 220 220 170 165 160 250 140 190 150 210 140 215

41 37 39 39 Ginning Percent 32 36 39 34 39 40 38 39 38 37 34 42

22 19 21 20

25 14 24 20 M.H.L. (mm) 19 22 23 23 22 24 24 23 22 23 23 22

Vidarbha region Waged area Middle Gujarat North Gujarat Spinning Counts 18 26 38 36 30 35 37 30 30 40 30 30 Area of cultivation Mathio Tract South Gujarat Middle Gujarat Mathio Tract Waged Zone Middle Gujarat South& Middle Gujarat Waged Area Mathio Tract Middle Gujarat Mathio Tract Part of Waged Area Kurnool District Rayal Seema A.P. A.P. RayalSeema, A.P Kurnool, A.P. A.P. A.P. Andhra Pradesh Raichur and Gulbarga Karnataka South and Central Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka North East Karnataka Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu

1918 1936 1947 1951 1952 1976 1978 1978 1993 1928 1930 1942

3.5 R 4R 5R 5R 3R 5R 5R 5R 8 6R 3R 2.5 R

200 180 220 220 220 150 180 180 180 230 190 230

25 32 28 30 33 35 32 36 36 28 29 30

24 23 20 20 20 22 22 25 24 21 21 20

32 27 18 18 24 26 26 36 30 26 24 20

Jayadhar* Suyodhar* Raichur 51* DB 3-12 TAMIL NADU K5 K2 K7

1950 1963 1968 1979

4R 3R 3R 4R

180 180 200 170

30 28 34 33

23 22 21 22

30 35 26 30

1944 1947 1964

2R 2.5 R 4R

200 210 200

27 31 34

23 23 25

26 26 34

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K8 K9 K 10 K 11

1971 1978 1984 1992

5R 5R 7R 8R

160 150 145 135

35 37 38 35

26 25 24 24

37 35 30 30

Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu

R=Rainfed yield *G.herbaceum varieties

Table -5: Important Features of Cotton Hybrids Released from Different States of India Variety/ Hybrid GUJARAT H4 Species involved Year of Release Yield (q/ha) Duratio n (Days) Ginning Percent M.H.L (mm) Spinnin g Counts 50 Area cultivation of

HH

1970

35

230

33

28

H6 DH 7 DH 9 H8 H 10 KARNATAKA Varalaxmi

HH hA hA HH HH HB

1980 1985 1988 1989 1995 1972

35 15 R 15 R 35 18 R 30

210 190 190 180 150 210

34 37 34 36 35 35

27 22 28 28 26 31

60 30 40 50 40 80

Gujarat,A.P.,Ka rnataka, Maharashtra Gujarat,Mahara shtra, A.P. Gujarat State Gujarat State, M.P. Gujarat State Gujarat State South Zone and Maharashtra South Zone and Maharashtra South Zone South Zone South Zone

DCH 32

HB

1981

35

190

36

33

80

DDH 2 DHB 105 DHH 11

hA HB HH

1992 1996 1996

12 R 30 30

180 190 190

34 34 35

22 33 27

20 80 50

Variety/ Hybrid TAMIL NADU CBS 156 Suguna KCH 1 Savita HB 224 TCHB 213 Surya Sruthi MAHARASHTRA Godavari (NHH 1) Savitri (RHR 253) PKV hy2

Species involved HB HH HB HH HB HB HH HB HH HB HH

Year of Release 1974 1978 1980 1987 1989 1990 1997 1997 1978 1978 1981

Yield (q/ha) 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 30 15 R 28 12 R

Duration (Days) 180 150 150 170 170 190 170 150 180 175 180

Ginning Percent 32 35 34 34 33 32 38 33 35 32 36

M.H.L (mm) 33 25 31 30 31 33 31 37 28 30 27

Spinning Counts 100 40 60 60 80 80 60 80 50 60 40

Area of cultivation Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu TN and AP Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu South Zone South Zone Marathwada Region Deccan Canal Area Vidarbha

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

NHH 44 RHH 195 (Sampada) NHB 12 CICR HH1 Variety/ Hybrid NHH 302 PKV Hy-3 PKV Hy-4 Pha 46 M.P. JKHY-1 JKHY-11 JKHY-2 A.P. NHB 80 LAHH 1 LAHH 4 PUNJAB Fateh LDH 11 LHH 144 HARYANA Dhanalaxmi Om Shankar AAH 1 RAJASTHAN Maru Vikas

HH HH HB HH Species involved HH HH HH Ha Hh Hb Hh

1983 1986 1989 1991 Year of Release 1991 1994 1996 1996 196 1782 1997

23 21 30 25 Yield (q/ha) 20 15 R 20 17 25 18 30,15 R 20 28 30

180 160 180 185 Duration (Days) 170 180 165 180 210 240 180

35 36 33 35 Ginning Percent 35 37 35 32 35 31 34

24 24 33 25 M.H.L (mm) 25 25 28 28 27 31 27

50 40 80 36 Spinning Counts 40 40 50 40 50 60 50

Marathwada Deccan Canal Area Marathwada Marathwada Area of cultivation Marathwada Marathwada and Gujarat Vidarbha Region Marathwada M.P.,A.P. Irrigated areas M.P. M.P.

Hb Hh Hh

1982 1987 1997

170 150 170

34 35 35

27 29 31

50 60 40

NSP area Whole A.P. All three zones Punjab Punjab Punjab Haryana North zone Haryana Rajasthan

HH AA HH HH HH AA HH

1994 1994 1998 1994 1996 1999 1994

30 20 28 25 28 24 30

180 175 180 180 165 180 180

34 36 35 35 34 38 34

25 22 28 26 25 16 24

30 20 50 40 40 Below 10 30

R=Rainfed yield HH=Intra-hirsutum, HB=hirsutum x barbadense, AA=Intra-arboreum, hA=herbaceum x arboreum

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS In India, remarkable progress has been made in cotton breeding after independence. The major achievements of cotton breeding include: (1) improvement in yield, (2) improvement in quality, (3) resistance to insects and diseases, (4) earliness, and (5) adaptability. These aspects are briefly discussed below.

Improvement in yield

Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

In cotton, yield is measured in two ways, viz seed cotton yield and lint yield. Seed cotton yield refers to yield of cotton before ginning. It includes both lint and seed. On the other hand, lint yield refers to yield of fibre after ginning. In cotton, fibre or lint is the main product. In cotton, boll number per plant and boll weight are the major yield components. Ginning per cent is an important component of lint yield. In India, significant improvement has been achieved in cotton yield after independence. The present average (1999-2000) lint yield of cotton is 320 kg/ha which was only 81 kg/ha during 1947-48. Moreover, the present average seed cotton yield of best variety/hybrid is 40 q/ha which was only 15 q/ha during 1947-48 (Table-6). This increase in cotton yield could be achieved through development of high yielding varieties and hybrids. India is the pioneer country in the world for successful exploitation of heterosis (hybrid vigour) in cotton on commercial scale. The first hybrid was released in 1970 from Cotton Research Station, Surat of Gujarat Agricultural University by late Dr.C.T.Patel. Since then several cotton hybrids have been released for cultivation in south and central cotton growing zones. Recently, some hybrids have been released in Punjab (Fateh, LHH 144, LDH 11), Haryana (Dhanalaxmi and AAH1) and Rajasthan (RAJ HH 16). Hybrid Omshankar has been released for cultivation in the entire northern zone. Besides hybrids, superior varieties have been released in all cotton growing states of India. The first cotton hybrid i.e. H4 which was developed at Surat, recorded seed cotton yield up to 100 q/ha under telephone system of cotton cultivation under Gujarat conditions. Hybrids with high yield potential have also been released in diploid cottons (DH 7, DH 9, Pha 46, LDH 11 and DDH 2) from Surat, Parbhani, Ludhiana and Dharwad. All India Coordinated Cotton Improvement Project (AICCIP) has played significant role in the development of high yielding varieties and hybrids. Improvement in Fibre Quality

In cotton, fibre or lint is the main product. Fibre quality includes fibre length, strength, fineness, maturity and uniformity. The spinning capacity is also an indication of fibre quality. Significant achievements have been made in fibre quality especially fibre length and spinning capacity. The MCU 5 was the first extra long staple variety of G.hirsutum released in India. Lateron, still better variety known as MCU 9 was released. In G.barbadense, release of variety Sujata resulted in significant breakthrough in quality improvement. It was capable of spinning 100 counts and was comparable to several Egyptian and Sudan types. In G.barbadense release of another variety named as Suvin which is capable of spinning 120 counts, is a distinct landmark in the quality improvement in India. This variety is cultivated in Tamil Nadu and is comparable to Egyptian Giza 45 in quality. At present, the staple length of best variety is 37 mm and spinning ability is 120 counts which were 24 mm and 28 counts in 1947-48. Thus, significant improvement has been made in fibre length and spinning cspacity. Moreover, long staple varieties have also been released in G.arboreum. The long staple varieties of G.arboreum include K 8, K 9, K 10, K 11, Saraswati and AKA 8401. In cotton, there is an increasing demand for easy care fabrics that are washed easily and need little pressing. Some varieties have been developed which have easy care properties. Insect and Disease Resistance

Cotton crop is attacked by several diseases and insect pests resulting in considerable losses in yield. The genetic resistance is the cheapest and the best way of reducing such losses in yield. In India, work on insect and disease resistance breeding has been extensively reviewed by various workers. In upland cotton, variety MCU 5 VT resistant to Verticillum wilt was released from Coimbatore. In G.arboreum and G.herbaceum, all the varieties released after 1967 are resistant to Fusarium wilt. In G.hirsutum, some jassid resistant varieties (B 1007, SRT 1, Khandwa 2, DHY 286, PKV 081) and hybrids (PKV hy2 and NHH 44) have been released. Varieties LK 861 and Kanchana are resistant to white fly. In USA, Monsanto Seed Company has developed transgenic cotton which is resistant to Helicoverpa armigera.

Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

Table-6 : Progress of cotton breeding from 1947 to 1999-2000 Particulars 1947-48 1999-2000 Area lakh hectares 43 87 Production lakh bales 23 164 Lint yield (kg/ha) 81 320 Yield potential (seed cotton) of 40 100 the best variety/ hybrid (q/ha) Average seed cotton yield of 15 40 the best variety/ hybrid (q/ha) Highest spinning capacity 37 120 (count) Spinning spectrum (count) 6-40 6-120 Egyptian cotton varieties No Yes Hybrid cotton No Yes Long staple varieties in No Yes G.arboreum Earliness

Remarks Roughly double About seven times Nearly four times Two and half times More than double Significant milestone Significant achievement Acclimatization Significant milestone K 9, K 10, K 11, AKA 8401 significant achievement

Earliness is a desirable character which has several advantages.Early varieties permit multiple crossing system, escape from late season pests, reduce costs on pesticidal sprays and crop management resulting in reduction in the cost of cultivation. In cotton, maturity duration has been significantly reduced. Most of the earlier cotton varieties used to mature in 240-270 days. Similarly, hybrids had maturity duration of 230-240 days. This maturity duration has been reduced from 270 days to 170 days in case of varieties and from 240 days to 180 days in case of hybrids. Variety LRK 516 matures in 170 days and hybrid H 8 matures in 180 days. Early varieties/ hybrids have less incidence of pink bollworm compared to long duration varieties. Adaptability

Adaptability refers to capacity of a variety for adaptation over a wide range of environmental conditions. In other words, it refers to suitability of a variety for general cultivation over a wide range of environmental conditions. Adaptability of a variety is measured in terms of phenotypic stability over multilocations. Varietal adaptability is important for stabilization of production over regions and seasons. In cotton, some varieties and hybrids with wide adaptability have been released from 1970 onwards. Examples of adaptable varieties are Bikaneri Narma, MCU 5, SRT 1 and LRA 5166. Variety Bikaneri Narma was developed in Punjab, which spreads to Haryana, Rajasthan and Northern Madhya Pradesh due to its wide adaptability. Variety SRT 1 was released in Gujarat but also became popular in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Similarly, varieties MCU 5 and LRA 5166 released for Tamil Nadu state spread to Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh by virtue of their wide adaptability. Hybrid H 4 was released for Gujarat state in 1970 but by virtue of its wide adaptation it spread to other states like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Similarly, hybrid DCH 32 (Jayalaxmi) was released for Karnataka state, but to its wide adaptability it spread to Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Western Maharashtra. FUTURE THRUSTS The present mills requirement of cotton in India is about 140 lakh bales per annum. This will be about 190 lakh bales by 2001 A.D. To keep pace with the increasing cotton demands, the future breeding efforts have to be made on the following thrust areas. 1. Development of cytoplasmic genic male sterility (CGMS) based hybrids for irrigated and rainfed conditions.

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Cotton Varieties and Hybrids

2. Development of short duration (165 days) tetraploid or diploid hybrids with 4 tonnes of seed cotton yield / hectare for northern zone. 3. Development of hybrids and varieties suitable for machine picking. 4. Development of short duration, short statured and compact cultivars in tetraploid cotton to achieve quantum jump in the productivity by adopting closer spacing (population explosion). 5. Development of hybrids and cultivars resistant to moisture stress conditions. 6. Development of transgenic cotton varieties / hybrids resistant to bollworms using B.t gene. 7. In North zone, there is an increasing incidence of leaf curl virus in upland cotton (G.hirsutum). Hence, there is need to develop varieties of upland cotton resistant to leaf curl virus for northern zone. 8. Development of cotton cultivars suitable for late sowing. 9. Development of cotton hybrids and cultivars with wide adaptability. 10. Development of varieties / hybrids with high fibre strength suitable for high speed (jet and rotobar) spinning. Development of such cultivars is also necessary to compete in the global market. 11. Development of G.barbadense varieties better than suvin. 12. Development of neps and motes free intra-barbadense hybrids for irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu. 13. There is an increasing demand of naturally coloured cotton. Hence, efforts have to be made to develop high yielding and good quality varieties and hybrids of naturally coloured cotton. 14. There is demand from some countries like Germany and U.K. for organic cotton. Hence, there is need to develop varieties and hybrids of cotton suitable for organic cultivation.

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Technical Bulletin from CICR (www.cicr.org.in)

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