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HIGHWAY

RESEARCH RECORD







NUMBER 34
General Report on
Road Research Work Done
In India during 2006-07
_____________________________________________________






















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IRC HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD



CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I. HIGHWAY PLANNING, MANAGEMENT,
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND
INSTRUMENTATION

1. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. National Data Centre for Managing Data for Planning, Design and
Management of Roads (CSIR Network Project)
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Road Network Planning Approach for Location of Urban Amenities in
Rural Areas- A Case Study of Laksar Block -Haridwar District
2. Development of GIS based National Highway Information System
3. Development of a Critical Infrastructure Information System in GIS
Environment for Maintenance of Bridges on National and State
Highways Case Study on Ghaziabad District
C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Development of Hill Highway in Kerala Socio Economic Impact of
Improving Connectivity in Hilly Region

2. PAVEMENT EVALUATION

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Investigation to determine the likely causes for development of
Slippage and Cracking on Noida Greater Noida Expressway and
Needed Remedial Measures

3. PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

SUMMARY

A. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Performance Study on proposed Flexible Pavement with Regular and
Modified Sub Bases
2. Study on Overloading of Trucks and its Effect on Pavement Design
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3. Use of Yellow Stone in Road Construction
B. NEW PROJECTS
1. R&D Studies on Performance Evaluation of Rigid Pavements on High
Density Traffic Corridors using Instrumentation Supported by
Laboratory Tests
2. Pilot Study on Effect of Overloading on Road Infrastructure
3. New Concept & Study of Tolerance Factors which Results in
Deterioration of Crust Thickness after Consolidation with regard to Old
as well as New Pavements
4. Study of Road Performance Constructed by Oversize Aggregates
5. Analytical Study and Review of Road Performance Parameters/ Ability
of Roads made by different types of Bitumens

4. INSTRUMENTATION AND MICRO-PROCESSOR APPLICATIONS

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Development of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System for Traffic
Management using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Tags and
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Technology
2. Design and Development of a System for Automated Measurement of
Deflection Basin under Truck Dual Tire Assembly

3. Design and Development of Roller Mounted Nuclear Density Gauge for
Continuous Measurement of Density at the time of Construction of
Pavement Layers
B. NEW PROJECTS
1. Performance Evaluation of Roughometer II under Indian Conditions

II. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING AND PAVING MATERIALS

1. SOIL STABILIZATION, LOW GRADE MATERIALS AND LOW
VOLUME ROADS

SUMMARY

A. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Use of Ash Generated from Surat Lignite Power Plant for Stabilizing
Different Types of Clayey Soils for Construction of Roads
2. Ground Stabilization Technique for Road Construction in Clayey Soils
of Kuttanad Region
B. NEW PROJECTS
1. Study & Measures of Road Construction in Presence of Harmful Salts
in U.P.
2. Study of Reconstruction of Rural Roads in place of Renewal Work,
where the proper design was not undertaken earlier

2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

v
SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Studies on the Use of Modified Bitumen Binders
2. Bitumen Modification through Packaging Technology
3. Study on the Utilization of Waste Plastic in Bituminous Pavements
4. Investigation for determining the causes of Distress/Rutting on Jaipur
Bypass (Zones C&D of NH-8)
5. Asset Management Study of Ahmedabad Mehsana Toll Road
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Shelf Life Studies of Bituminous Emulsion
2. Use of Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen (NRMB) in Bituminous
Surfacing in Various Climatic Conditions of India
3. Field Trial on Design and Construction of Stone Matrix Asphalt
Surfacing between Khajuri Chowk and Brij Puri Chowk on Road No. 59
in Delhi
4. Study to Prevent Reflecting Cracks on Bituminous Overlay over
Cracked Concrete Pavement using Geotextile
C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Investigation on Field Performance of Bituminous Mixes with Modified
Binders
2. Development of Quality Bitumen from Refinery Components of AOD
3. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Bituminous Products
4. Development of Polymer Modified Bitumen using Elastomeric
Thermoplastic Polymers
5. Construction and Performance Evaluation of Trial Sections laid with
Multigrade Bitumen
6. Development of Bitumen Emulsion based Cold Mix Technology for
Structural Layers of Flexible Pavement in different Climates
7. Laboratory study to evaluate the effect of Warm Asphalt on strength
properties of Bituminous Mixes
8. Blending of Non Biodegradable Plastic Wastes and their use in Road
Construction
9. Cost Effective Materials and Technologies for Construction and
Maintenance of Rigid and Flexible Pavement: Development of
Materials for Thin Surfacing for Flexible and Rigid Pavements
10. Creating Correlation between Soil Stiffness, Field Density and CBR

3. RIGID PAVEMENTS

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Studies on Flakiness and Elongation Indices of Aggregates in Different
Layers of Bituminous and Rigid Pavements
2. High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Construction and
Repair of Concrete Pavements
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Use of Sulfonated Melamine Formaldehyde Super Plasticizer (SMF)
and Fly Ash in Cement Concrete Roads
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C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Study of using lead zinc slag as fine aggregate for the construction of
embankments, granular sub-base, cement concrete and bituminous
layers


III. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Study on the Use of Copper Slag in Road and Embankment
Construction
2. GIS Based Subsurface Geotechnical Map of Delhi
3. Microzonation Map of Delhi
4. Suitability of Locally Available Materials for Road Construction in
Kerala Use of Waste Plastics for Road Construction
5. Suitability of Locally Available Materials for Road Construction in
Kerala Use of Coir Waste and Rice Husk Ash for Sub Grade Soil
Stabilization
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Investigation of Landslide at Kaliasaur on NH-58 and Design of Control
Measures for Long Term Stability
2. Investigation of Unstable slope on North Eastern Side of the IIRS
Campus and Suitable Measures for its Prevention
3. Use of Jute Geotextile for Efficient Road Drainage and Stabilization
4. Guidelines for Soil Nailing Technique in Highway Engineering
5 Analysis of Embankment Failures Due to Earthquake
C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Design of Railway Embankment using Pond Ash
2. Utilisation of Construction & Demolition (C&D) Wastes in Road Works
3. Erosion Control Measures for Roads in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
4. Investigation and remedial measures for sinking problem of NH-39 at
km.214.240
5. Geo-textile Sand Container Mattresses (GSCM) Lining for Temporary
River Diversion Channels
6. Study on the Effect of using Quarry Dust and Copper Slag in Sub Base
of Flexible Pavement

IV. BRIDGE ENGINEERING

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge Decks (B-25)
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Creation of National Test Facility, Formulation of Guidelines,
Specifications, Manual of Practice for Design and Execution of
Expansion Joints (B-34)
2. Determination of Scour Depth (for General Bed, within Channel
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Contractions and at Bridge Piers) in Boulder-Bed Rivers under High
Stream Velocities (B-33)
3. Creating Data-base on Bridges Information System for the State of
Tamil Nadu
4. Studies on Hard Topping for Distressed C.C. Wearing Coats &
Concrete Pavements
5. Fatigue Performance of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) and
Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Composite Girder Bridges under
Simulated Live Loading
6. Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete Bridges

7. Distress Diagnostic, Performance Evaluation and Bridge Management
System for Concrete Bridges. (A collaborative project with DST)


V. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION

1. PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Advanced Parking Management System installed at Connaught Place
2. Development of New Generation of Mode Choice Models using
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method
3. Design of Interchange at Kapashera Intersection
4. Periodic updating of Price Index for Stage Carriages Operation in
Kerala
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
1. Video Incident Detection System and Loop Based Traffic Incident
Detection System.
C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Preparation of Computerized Inventory of Roads for Muvattupuzha and
Vadavucode Block Panchayaths in Ernakulam District
2. Assessment of Rural Accessibility in different Terrains of Kerala
3. Studies on Operational Efficiency on KSRTC Mini Bus Services

2. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

SUMMARY

A. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Accident Abatement Measures for Urban Areas in Kerala
2. A Comparative Study of Psychomotor Performance of Drivers with and
without Usage of Alcohol
3. Accident Recording & Analysis Procedures in India
4. Driver Protection Strategies (Seat Belt and Helmet Use)
5. Air Pollution and Traffic Flow Characteristics along DelhiChandigarh
and Chandigarh Shimla Corridors
B. ON GOING PROJECTS
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1. Safe Road to School An Action Plan for promoting Road Safety
among School children
2. Further Studies on Accident Costing (IMRA T-7)
3. A comparative Study of Accident Risk Index (ARI) for Various Districts
of Gujarat State
4. Comparative Study of Accidents on N.H. 8 Passing from Baroda to
Ahmedabad Districts
5. Study of Noise Pollution due to Automobiles in Major Cities of Kerala
6. Design Norms for Safe & Environmentally Pleasing Pedestrian
Facilities
C. NEW PROJECTS
1. Spectrum Analysis of Road Accidents in Gujarat State
2. Safe Community Programme for Selected Panchayaths in Kerala
3. Road Safety Audit of Select National Highways / Expressway Sections
on Western Transport Corridor and East-West Corridors under National
Highways Development Project in India (Package D)
4. Study of Accidents on NH-45 (KM 0/0 56/0)
5. Traffic Accident Prevention Study in East Coast Road (km 11/0
135/500)
6. Road Safety Audit for Select Stretch on NH-205
7. Identification and Analysis of Black Spots on EVR Salai

VI. RESEARCH WORK DONE IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS RELATED TO
THESIS WORK

A. HIGHWAY PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION AND INSTRUMENTATION
1. A study on Road Maintenance Programmes in Maraimalai Nagar
Municipality of Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) using HDM-4
2. Roughness Progression Modeling using ANN Technique
3. Influence of Road Roughness on Speed
4. Study of Distribution of Axle Loads of Commercial Vehicles and its
Effect on Pavement Performance
B. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING AND PAVING MATERIALS
1. Investigations on Engineering Behaviour of Clayey Soil Reinforced with
Nylon Fibers and Sand
2. Stabilization of Clayey Soil using Fly Ash and Lime
3. Evaluation of Toner Modified Bituminous Binder
4. Viscometric Studies of Straight Run Bitumen
5. Improvements to Soft Clay Subgrade with Quarry Dust and Lime
6. Characterization of Healing of Asphalt Mixtures
7. Constitutive Modeling of Pavement Materials
8. Influence of Short Term Aging and Compaction Effort on the Tensile
Strength of Sand-Asphalt Mixtures
9. Study on Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Bituminous Mixes
10. Variability in Bitumen Properties between Production and Construction
11. Investigations on Field Performance of Bituminous Mixes with Modified
Binders
12. Experimental Investigation on Crumb Rubber Concrete
13. Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Performance of bituminous Concrete
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Mixes
14. Use of Recycled Bag Filter Dust in Hot Mix Plants for Bituminous
Pavements
C. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
1. Disaggregate Mode Choice Models for Intercity Travel
2. Optimization of Traffic Signal Timings along a Corridor
3. Uni Directional Traffic Flow Modelling Using Cellular Automata
4. Study of Critical Gap at 3 Legged Intersections
5. A Study on Travel Characteristics of Rural Commuters in Calicut
District
6. Traffic Volume Analyses and Prediction under Heterogeneous
Conditions.
7. Study of Traffic Flow Characteristics on Intercity Highways
8. Mode Choice and Accessibility in the extended areas of Chennai

9. Rural Bus Route Network Planning Based on Passenger Travel
Demand
10. Evaluation of Urban Road Network with Various Transport Alternatives
using EMME/2
11. Heterogeneity in Mode Choice across Individuals
12. GIS Based Road Accident Analysis System
13. Cluster Analysis of Improving of Road Accident Black Spots
14. Analysis of Highway Accidents using GIS and ANN
15. Development of Driver Workload Models for Evaluation of Highway
Geometric Design Consistency
16. Development of Speed Prediction Models and Evaluation of Highway
Geometric Design Consistency
17. Road Safety Studies on Rural Highways
18. Mobility and Accessibility Problems of the Transport Disabled
19. Transports, Energy and Environmental Planning A Systems
Approach
20. Study of Influence of Lane Restrictions on Vehicular Emissions under
Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions


LIST OF ORGANISATIONS



APPENDIX: Proforma Sheet for Reporting R&D Work for the General Report

1
INTRODUCTION

Highway Research Record No. 34 describes the General Report on
Road Research Work done in India during the year 2006-07. This document
has been prepared by compiling the progress of research work reported by 17
Research Organisations and Academic Institutions in the country. The names
of reporting organizations have been listed at the end of the report. As the
General Report on Road Research is intended to provide information on
research works carried out under various research projects, works reported
on routine investigations and laboratory / field testing have been omitted from
the document.

As per the classification, the entire material has been divided into five
Sections, namely, Highway Planning & Management, Performance Evaluation
& Instrumentation; Pavement Engineering & Paving Materials; Geotechnical
Engineering; Bridge Engineering and Traffic & Transportation Engineering.
The projects in each section are further classified in to three broad categories
namely (i) Completed Projects (ii) On going Projects and (iii) Projects
Reported First Time, i.e., New Projects. The research works carried out as a
part of Master and Doctoral thesis in the Academic Institutions have also been
reported separately in Section VI of the report.

The research work in each section has been reported as per the
standard Proforma for three broad categories of projects. The proforma along
with other related information are given in Appendix-I.

Each sectional report begins with a brief overview in the form of Summary
followed by a few salient points towards channelising the discussions during
the presentation of the report in the IRC Annual Session.

















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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


In the General Report on Road Research Work done in India for the
year 2006-07, published as the Highway Research Record No. 34, the
research work done by 17 organisations on various aspects has been
reported. The report has been compiled by CRRI. The R&D work is reported
under the following five major Areas and the Research work done in
Academic Institutions related to the thesis work is reported under Section VI.

I. Highway Planning, Management, Performance Evaluation and
Instrumentation
II. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials
III. Geotechnical Engineering
IV. Bridge Engineering
V. Traffic & Transportation Engineering

I. Highway Planning, Management, Performance Evaluation &
Instrumentation

1.1 Highway Planning & Management

As a part of the CSIR Network Project a study on National Data Centre
for Managing Data for Planning, Design and Management of Roads
has been reported. Under this project methodologies/ approaches has
been developed for development of GIS based database for various
types of roads.

A Case Study on Road Network Planning Approach for Location of
Urban Amenities in Rural Areas has been carried out. Objective of this
is to develop a rural road network planning approach to provide
connectivity to all villages in an optimal way to the urban facility center
in rural areas.

An important project on Development of GIS based National Highway
Information System has been reported. User friendly software will be
developed for monitoring, retrieval and updation of data. A case study
on Development of a Critical Infrastructure Information System in GIS
Environment for Maintenance of Bridges on National and State
Highways for Ghaziabad District has been reported. Under the new
project, a project on Development of Hill Highway in Kerala-Socio
Economic Impact of Improving Connectivity in Hilly Region with scope
containing delineation of hill highway influence area in the hill district of
Wayanad, study the existing land use, preparation of road inventory
and to observe the socio economic aspects of the region.

1.2 Pavement Evaluation

There is a single project reported under this area. It is to carryout
investigations to determine the likely causes for development of
3
slippage and cracking on Noida Greater Noida Expressway and the
needed remedial measures.

Based on laboratory and field investigation data, the probable causes
for development of pre-mature distress on Noida Greater Noida
Expressway were found out and remedial measures suggested.


1.3 Pavement Performance

Research works reported in the area of pavement performance mainly
comprise performance of regular and modified sub bases and
oversized aggregates and effect of overloading on road infrastructure
and use of yellow stone in road construction.

On-going projects are performance study on proposed flexible
pavements with regular and modified sub bases. New projects initiated
include R&D studies on performance evaluation of rigid pavements on
High Density Speed Corridors using Instrumentation supported by
laboratory tests, pilot study on effect of overloading on road
infrastructure, new concept and study of tolerance factors which results
deterioration of crust thickness after consolidation with regard to old as
well as new pavements, study of road performance of oversized
aggregates and analytical study and review of road performance
parameters/ability of roads made by different types of bitumen.

The experimental stretch, provided with modified sub base of quarry
dust and copper slag, is proposed to be tested for riding quality to
ascertain its performance. A pilot study on effect of overloading on road
infrastructure has been initiated to assess and highlight the excessive
costs incurred on various accounts due to overloading and to
recommend optimal / rational limits for legal axle loads and gross
vehicle weights. Analytical study and review of road performance
parameters / ability of roads made by different types of bitumen has
been taken up to compare the performance of penetration grade
bitumen 60/70with various binders such as bituminous emulsions,
polymer modified bitumen, crumb rubber modified bitumen and 80/100
grade penetration bitumen.


1.4 Instrumentation

A study on development of Development of Electronic Toll Collection
(ETC) System for Traffic Management using RFID Tags and Dedicated
Short Range Communication Technology has been reported as a
completed project. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an
automated data capture technology for identifying, locating or tracking
people and assets which normally consists of computer, a reader and a
tag that when used together provide a wireless communication system.
In another study a system for Measurement of Deflection basin under
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Truck Dual Tire Assembly has been designed and developed.
Deflections are measured at radial distances from the center of loading
using LVDTs. The deflection profile is useful for getting the parameters
such as maximum deflection, surface base curvature index. The
development of Roller mounted nuclear density gauge system has
been reported to make use of nuclear source of measurement of
density of compacted pavement layer as the road roller passes over
the pavement. A new project on Performance Evaluation of
Roughometer II, a high speed roughness measuring device developed
by Australian Road Research Board (ARRB), under Indian conditions
has been undertaken.


2. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials

2.1 Soil Stabilisation, Low Grade Materials and Low Volume Roads

The ash being generated, particularly from Surat Lignite Power Plant
(SLPP) has been used in many road constructions along with different
types of clay particularly of Kuttanad region for stabilization purpose.
Ash generated in SLPP is eco-friendly and gives better results when
mixed with different proportions of lime. It has been found out that
when a particular amount of ash is being mixed with lime it although
decreases density but it increases CBR value. Another study on round
stabilization technique for road construction in clayey soils of Kuttanad
region has been reported.

Study & control measures for the harmful salt contents present in the
soil for road construction have been taken into account this year.
Reconstruction of rural roads at the time of renewal works along with
redesigning of the road has been reported. The study of cost against
performance achieved of road shall be made for each rural and low
volume roads

2.2 Flexible Pavements

The research works reported encompasses many diversified aspects
but primarily concentrated on materials and mixes. A total of 4 studies
on modified binders have been reported covering natural rubber, SBS,
Eva and crumb rubber. Field performance of roads was also monitored
in a project reported and it was found that pavement performance
improved by the use of modified bituminous binders. The projects
reported on the use of waste plastic in bituminous pavement has
revealed that adding waste plastic during mix preparation is of marginal
significance and that blending with bituminous mix needs to be further
studied. Work on bitumen packaging in plastic is reported which aims
to save steel used for druma and thus has a significant potential.
Projects completed include asset management study of Ahmedabad-
Mehsana Toll Road. Findings emerging out of this study were used in
checking the adequacy of maintenance provisions / inputs planned in
5
the concession agreement for maintaining the assets as per pre-
determined requirements specified for the road.

Safe storage period and shelf life for bitumen emulsions including their
application in structural layers have been studied through two different
projects and results are found to be encouraging. A study on mix
design and field trials of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is reported in
which recommendations for the suitability of plants is made. Retarding
reflection cracks with the use of geotextile has been reported in a yet
another project. Developing quality bitumen from refinery components
of AOD has been reported with successful production of VG-10 and
VG-20 grade bitumens. Environmental hazard investigations and
energy savings through Warm Asphalt (WA) technology has been
reported in one project while continued field performance evaluation of
multigrade bitumen is reported in another study.


2.3 Rigid Pavements

Study on the use of flaky and elongated aggregates in Pavement
Quality Concrete indicated that neglecting the flakiness indices affects
the strength of concrete. According to the study, a limit of flakiness
index of 40% may be considered as maximum value for M40 and
higher grade of concrete. Another study on High Performance Fiber
Reinforced Concrete has indicated that such concrete is suitable for
making ultrathin white hopping for strengthening of bituminous roads
and also for the repair of concrete structures. The use of steel fibers,
polypropylene and polyester fibers resulted in better strength and
performance of concrete. A study carried out on the use of Zinc slag as
fine aggregate for the construction of embankments & granules sub-
bases indicated that a mix of 75% slag and 25% soil can be used in
embankments and subgrade while 15% slag along with 15% stone dust
can be mixed with conventional aggregates to arrive at the specified
gradation for wet mix macadam. The study has also indicated that
about 30% slag can be used in both pavement quality concrete as well
as in dry lean concrete mixes. It was also observed that about 15-20%
slag can be used in bituminous concrete mixes.

3. Geotechnical Engineering

Majority of the projects listed in record indicates that there various
major R&D areas being pursued by different organizations in the field
of Geotechnical Engineering which comprises of use of waste materials
for stabilization and ground improvement techniques such as Use of
Copper Slag, Construction and Demolition wastes, Use of Pond ash in
embankment construction, Erosion Control in Rann of Kutch,
Investigation and Remedial Measures for sinking problem of NH-39
and Geotextile Sand Container Mattresses (GSCM) lining for
temporary river diversion channels. Stabilization and ground
improvement techniques have been undertaken for Landslides also as
6
in Kaliasaur on NH-58 and Design of Control Measures for Long Term
Stability and Investigation of Unstable slope in North Eastern side
along with suitable preventive measures for the site. Combination of
geotechnical engineering along with GIS has also given some good
findings like a Geotechnical Map for Delhi has been prepared which
mainly gives the details of 1776 borehole pertaining to various aspects
of geotechnical properties of soil & rocks of Delhi. Microzonation of
Delhi has been done which gives various thematic maps for
Geological, Geomorphological, Rock depth, Water depth, Seismo-
tectonic and Population of Delhi. Research on Soil nailing techniques
have been conducted which will help in evolving guidelines for different
types of loading conditions including earthquake loading for different
soil conditions. Other major projects include, Impact of Digging by
Public Utility Departments on Urban Roads; Foundation investigations
of Grid Stations/Transmission Line Tower/Pump Houses/Bridges/
Buildings.



4. Bridge Engineering

One research project on Studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable
Stayed Bridge Decks (MOSRTH Research Scheme B25) has been
completed successfully by CRRI. The work completed and reported is
limited to aerodynamic stability of cable stayed bridge decks. More
efforts are to be carried out to investigate the aerodynamics of other
type of bridge decks used in long span cable stayed bridges. Further
wind tunnel studies are to be carried out to under stand the
aerodynamic effects on pylons of different configuration and cables of
different diameters.

Other Projects reported are ongoing and include Creation of National
Test facility, Formulation of Guidelines, Specifications, manual of
Practice for Design and Execution of Expansion Joints (B-34),
Determination of Scour Depth (for General Bed, within Channel
Contractions and at Bridge Piers) in Boulder-Bed Rivers under High
Stream Velocities (B-33), Creating Data-base on Bridges Information
System for the State of Tamil Nadu, Studies on Hard Topping for
Distressed C.C. Wearing Coats & Concrete Pavements, Fatigue
Performance of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) and Prestressed
Concrete (PSC) Composite Girder Bridges under Simulated Live
Loading, Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete Bridges,
Distress Diagnostic, Performance Evaluation and Bridge Management
System for Concrete Bridges, (A collaborative project with DST). In the
project on creation of National Test facility, Formulation of Guidelines,
Specifications, manual of Practice for Design and Execution of
Expansion Joints aims to develop the testing facilities to evaluate
bridge deck joints at CRRI Dynamic cum Heavy Testing Laboratory at
Ghaziabad. CRRI received three global tenders for setting up the
testing facility. CRRI is in progress of exploring the detailed
7
specifications of the testing facilities and estimating the total revised
cost of the scheme for comprehensive testing facility. However, with
the existing fatigue testing facility, CRRI carried out Fatigue Evaluation
of edge beams of Strip Seal, Slab Seal, and Modular type expansion
joints in an attempt to develop expertise at CRRI Dynamic cum Heavy
Testing Laboratory at Ghaziabad. Further, CRRI developed expertise
in carrying out field Ponding Evaluation of Strip Seal, Slab Seal, and
Modular Type bridge expansion joints. Field experiments were
conducted on all the Slab Seal expansion joints of Loni Road Flyover,
New Delhi. In the project on Determination of Scour Depth (for General
Bed, within Channel Contractions and at Bridge Piers) in Boulder-Bed
Rivers under High Stream Velocities (B-33) the draft final report
circumscribing the following activities has been submitted to the
Ministry:
- Identification of threshold condition for movement of boulders under
stream flow, qualification of transport rate under boulders and
estimation of scour in general boulder beds during high floods.
- Estimation of magnitude of scour within channel contraction in
boulder beds during high floods.
- Estimation of magnitude of scour in Bridge piers embedded in
boulder beds during high floods.

In the project on Creating Data-base on Bridges Information System for
the State of Tamil Nadu the particulars of bridges on various categories
of roads in Tamil Nadu, such as N.H, S.H., M.D.R. & O.D.R. have been
fed into the system using M.S. Access Program classifying the data
into 27 different aspects for each bridge. The data has been sent to the
concerned divisions for final check and for accuracy. On receiving from
the concerned divisions the same will be finalized. In the project
Studies on Hard Topping for Distressed C.C. Wearing Coats &
Concrete Pavements, Highway Research Station, Chennai is
developing proper Cement and Polymer based concrete for repair,
procedures to study their effectiveness. Laboratory studies have been
completed. The field experimental stretch has been laid and field
performance evaluation is going on. It may be complete by June 2008.
In the project Fatigue Performance of Reinforced Cement Concrete
(RCC) and Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Composite Girder Bridges
under Simulated Live Loading a bridge model is fabricated in the Lab
which consists of two number of10.5 m long prestressed girder and
cast-in-situ RCC slab (2.5 wide and 10.5 m long) over these two
girders connected by shear connector for fatigue test of simulated live
load as per IRC loading. The experimental results of fatigue tests on
bonded and unbonded beams shows the development of flexural
cracks along the depth & near to mid span portion of the beam under
designed live load after a number of million cycles which provides
information about the service span of a bridge under extreme loading
case. In the project Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete
Bridges, a FEM software has been developed for dynamic analysis of
prestressed concrete bridges incorporating various model of creep &
shrinkage. Validation of the software has been done with or without
8
consideration of creep and shrinkage effects by analysing various PSC
beams (Rectangular and T-shaped) and an existing simply supported
single cell box-girder bridge. Analytical study has been carried out to
find out the static as well as dynamic response of an existing bridge
(Lok Nayak setu bridge, New Delhi) considering effects of creep and
shrinkage under various loading conditions at various ages of concrete.
In the project, Distress Diagnostic, Performance Evaluation and Bridge
Management System for Concrete Bridges (A collaborative project with
DST) the detailed structural design, drawings and final report of the
visual inspection mobile unit of 10m long arm have been prepared. The
fabrication has been started for one prototype unit as a separate
project in joint collaboration with MERADO, Ludhiana and DST New
Delhi. Further, in regard of development of software for prediction of
residual life of abridge methodology and algorithm for assessing load
carrying capacity of the slab bridge considering the degraded system
i.e. deterioration modeling of corrosion of steel bars in concrete bridges
has been completed. The preparation of the software based on the
stated methodology using visual basic is in progress. The software
language so chosen would ensure integrity with the distress diagnostic
module.


5. Traffic and Transportation

5.1 Planning and Management

Under this section, a study has been reported on Advance Parking
Management System installed at Connaught Place, New Delhi. It was
observed that on an average about 2100 vehicles / day were parked
before the installation of the APMC (till July, 2006) which increased to
about 2600 vehicles / day after the installation (August 2006 January
2007). It was observed that overall there is overall 24 percent increase
(10% for two wheelers and 31% for four wheelers) in revenue
generation (parking fee collected) due to installation of APMC. It was
observed that 64% of the respondents are benefited due to the display
of parking space availability through VMS boards installed on the
leading approach roads while 81% respondents have shown
willingness to switch over to smart card payment system. It was
recommended to extend the scope of providing information on parking
status from VMS boards to FM radio and internet etc. Further it has
been recommended to carryout economic viability of this system in the
long run.

A project on Development of New Generation of Mode Choice Models
using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method has been reported. The
study has revealed that the ANN method has been used to predict the
mode choice behavior of the road user in the selected medium size
cities.

9
A study has been reported on design of interchange facility between
NH-8 and Dwarka Vasant Kunj Link, a part of Urban Extension Road
(UER) at Kapashera intersection, Delhi. It was observed that UER
would act as one of the major connectors between Dwarka and South
Delhi / Gurgaon. Considering that the proposal of developing
Mahipalpur bypass road linking with Indira Gandhi International (IGI)
airport it was considered prudent to integrate this bypass also with the
proposed four armed cloverleaf interchange at Kapashera. Taking into
considerations the observed and likely origin and destination pattern of
traffic across the interchange, it was estimated that the development
linking with Vasant Kunj and beyond upto Mehrauli Gurgaon Road
M.G. Road would help in diverting about 29% the traffic i.e. about
46000 vehicles per day in 2021 to urban extension Road and
Mahipalpur bypass. Four alternative proposals were considered from
various technical considerations and most appropriate was
recommended in consultation with DDA.

A study has been reported on periodic updating of Price Index for stage
carriages operations in Kerla Review of fair policy and pricing, latest
price lists trip details, sample road factor, latest cost data changes in
mechanic and maintenance system spare parts details has been
carried out through analysis. Revision of PISCO (Revised cost
modeling, cost tables) have been done. It has been recommended that
detailed costing should also be carried out on new technology vehicles.

On going project reported under this section include Video Incident
detection system and Loop Based traffic Incident detection system, a
pilot study being conducted at Delhi by CRRI, New Delhi.

Besides this three new projects have been reported on computerized
inventorisation of roads, assessment of rural accessibility and study of
operational efficiency of mini bus services of KSRTC.

5.2 Safety and Environment

Under this topic, studies related to recording, analysis and abatement
measures for prevention of road traffic accidents, road safety auditing,
pedestrian safety, psychomotor performance of drivers under the
influence of alcohol and air & noise pollution along highways and in
urban areas have been reported.

A study related to psychomotor performance of drivers under the
influence of alcohol was carried over in the laboratory over the
approximately 250 light motor vehicle drivers under controlled
conditions. The study related the effect of alcohol concentration on the
psychomotor performance of the drivers and also related it with the age
of the driver.

A study related to accident recording and analysis procedures in India
has highlighted the importance of good accident data collection system
10
and critically evaluated the existing road accident recording and
reporting in the First Information Reports (FIRs) and analysis
procedure in India and abroad and highlighted the need for their
improvement. The study also recommended various measures to
improve the existing system of accident recording and analysis
procedure in India.

The study related to driver protection with seat belt and helmet has
been carried out in different cities of Kerala. The study highlighted the
increasing use of these measures in urban areas due to the safety
concerns. The use of these protection devices were also related with
income and age group of drivers and varies with individual cities.

Air pollution study carried out along Delhi-Chandigarh and Chandigarh-
Shimla corridor of NH-1 has observed strong relationship between
observed ambient air quality data(particularly CO and NOx) and traffic
flow as function of type of vehicles( category-wise and fuel type).


6. Research Work Done in Academic Institutes Related to Thesis
Work

The salient features of some of the completed projects are:

1. A study on Influence of Road Roughness on Speed revealed that
as the roughness value increases the speed decreases, journey
time increases, the wear and tear of the vehicle parts increases
and the fuel consumption also increases.

2. A Study of Distribution of Axle Loads of Commercial Vehicles and
its Effect on Pavement Performance revealed that Pavement
design based on the Vehicle Damage Factor estimated after
proper field studies will reduce the pavement maintenance cost.
Extra total transportation cost was found to be 100% due to
overloading. Percentage of overloaded vehicles is nearly 80% in
case of all types of commercial vehicles except tractor-trailer
combination vehicles. Maximum overloading was found to be 17 &
19 tonnes in case of 2 axle trucks and 3 axle trucks respectively.

3. Addition of a small percentage of nylon fibre along with sand
improves the strength of soft clay.

4. A combination of 20% fly ash and 6% lime is the optimum dosage
which assists in improving the strength characteristics of C.I.
TYPE OF SOIL.

5. Spent toner residue which is a waste material from used
print/copy cartridges improves the properties of bitumen and
bituminous mixes and thus can be suitably used as a polymer
modifier in bitumen.
11

6. Penetration grade bitumens (60/70 and 80/100) respond to
temperature changes (increase) and loads by way of increased
shear strains, deformations, changed rheology and increased
unrecovered strain.

7. Addition of quarry dust to clay plus lime mixture considerable
improves the engineering properties of soil. Problematic soils like
CH can be successfully stabilized using quarry dust in
conjunction with lime.

8. Healing of asphalt mixtures with rest periods.

9. Modelling of pavement materials will enable understanding of
behaviour of these materials.

10. The influence of compactive effort and short term aging on tensile
strength irrespective of bitumen mix types.

11. Sisal fibre reinforcement bituminous mixes assist in improving the
performance properties of mixes.

12. Possible variation in bituminous properties during construction vis-
-vis original properties at the time of production are planned to
be studies in a research project through Dynamic Shear
Rheometer and Rotational Viscometer.

13. Fatigue properties of fine graded bituminous mixes are better
compared to coarse graded mixes.

14. Recycled bag filter dust, as a waste in hot mix plants can be used
as filler to obtain satisfactory performance in the laboratory. Since
it matches the properties of those mixes produced with OPC as a
filler.

15. The study on disaggregate mode choice models for intercity
travel have explored the attitudinal variables that govern the trip
makers decision on mode choice based on intercity travel trips
and the modes available data. Mode choice models were
developed for intercity travel at some of the cities of Kerala.
Models developed were calibrated for work, business, social
recreational and other trips. Preference for train is more than that
of bus for all trips. Female passenger trips are reported to give
more importance to comfort of travel, whereas male passenger
trips have been reported to more importance to reliability and
convenience.

16. The study of optimization of traffic signal timings along a corridor
explores the optimization of signal timings in coordinated
signalized networks. The broad scope of this study covers the
12
design of coordinated signal system using different algorithms and
evaluation of these algorithms for different generated data sets of
one corridor in Calicut. There are four MATLAB inbuilt algorithms
such as Hill Climbing (HC), Simulated Annealing (SA), Genetic
Algorithm (GA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) plus Simulated
Annealing (SA) were used for designing the coordinated signal
system for a trial corridor. The difference in results from Hill
Climbing and Simulated Annealing was small because of both
algorithms uses a single point search method. GA alone and
combination of GA and SA produced results having small
difference in values.

17. A study on uni directional traffic flow modeling using Cellular
Automata (CA) have studied the ability of CA model paradigm to
capture the basic phenomena of traffic flow in the heterogeneous
traffic environment. The CA models were developed for three cell
sizes viz.7.5m, 5.0m and 1.0m for homogeneous stream of traffic
and 1.0m cell size was considered for heterogeneous traffic.
Experiments were conducted for these cell sizes by varying the
driver probabilities viz., 0.33, 0.5 and 0.9 and varying the
maximum speed from 1 to 6 times of cell size. The study results
indicate that speed-density relationship was found to be linear, the
flow-density plots follows a second order polynomial relationship.

18. A study on critical gap at 3-legged intersections have studied the
various factors that influence gap acceptance behaviour , effect of
intersection geometrics and stream characteristics on gap
acceptance behaviour. An attempt was made to estimate the
critical gap by Raffs method and Maximum likelihood method.
The study results were indicated that Raffs method of estimation
was found to be more reliable than obtained by Maximum
likelihood method. Effect of various intersection geometrics
indicates that critical gap was found to decrease with increase in
conflicting volume, increase with increase in major street
approach speed and increase with increase in turning angle.

19. The study on travel characteristics of rural commuters in Calicut
District explored the trip making behaviour of rural commuters of
Calicut district. The results indicate that trip rates are greatly
influenced the household size; trips would be increasing with
increase in household size. Percentage of trips would be
decreasing with increase in trip length and maximum trip length by
walk mode would be 3kms, whereas by bus it is 60kms, by two-
wheelers it is 35kms and by car it is 40kms.

20. A study on traffic volume analysis and prediction under
heterogeneous conditions studied the traffic volume
characteristics under heterogamous conditions, explores the use
of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for volume prediction and
compared the prediction capabilities of ANN with other field
13
methods such as Historic methods and Real Time Method. The
study results reveals that Historical method employed to predict
the traffic volumes gave an error value (MSE) of 33.39 reflecting
the need a good historic data for a better performance. A real-time
traffic volume prediction model found to the have an error value of
32.32 for one minute ahead prediction. An ANN model was
developed for short time traffic prediction having two-layers, 15
neurons; logsigmoidal transfer function gave MSE value for 1
minute prediction a lowest error value of 24.05.

21. A study on traffic flow characteristics on intercity highways have
attempted to study the traffic flow characteristics on intercity
highways for understating and application to develop the capacity
and service volume standards for intercity highways carrying the
heterogeneous traffic.

22. The study on mode choice and accessibility in the extended
areas of Chennai explored the mode choice based on
accessibility, and assess the socio-economic characteristics and
accessibility to public transport in the study area. The study
results reveals that residents of the extended areas use private
mode for their work, education and shopping purposes to save
time. Because of this the money spent by them for their
transportation needs would increase. Further to encourage the
public transport saving in travel time and money of the residents
feeder services in the form of mini bus would be provided.

23. The rural bus route network planning based on passenger travel
demand have attempted to develop an optimal bus route network
considering passenger travel demand and route length in multiple
depot environment and the spatial information needed of planning
of bus route network in the study area. The study results indicate
that the existing and proposed bus route networks indicated by
Kerala State Road Corporation is operating buses on a fewer
routes and also these routes are very long. The existing bus route
network has been serving only 34 villages, whereas the proposed
bus network will serves all the 52 villages and higher route length,
as compared total existing route length of 378.76 kms which is
much less than the route length covered by the proposed network.

24. A study on Evaluation of urban road network with various
transport alternatives using the EMME/2 have attempted to
evaluate the road network for the future traffic by various options
by developing various scenarios. In this study the road network
was evaluated and various options such as widening the
carriageway, introducing new links and with various modal mixes
without reduction in the number of passengers was evaluated for
the horizon year 2015 by developing scenarios using the
transportation planning package EMME/2.

14
25. The study on Heterogeneity in mode choice across individuals
studied the role of various sources of heterogeneity in mode
choice covering the responsiveness to subjective and objective
factors across different user segments. Influence of variability in
choice sets, heterogeneity in decision rules and evaluate the
impact of transportation controls measures and policy scenarios in
the presence of heterogeneity. The study results were stated in
the terms of policy analysis to assess the performance policy and
planning scenarios.

26. A study on GIS based road accident analysis system covering
the objectives to build the accident database and structured
reporting system , to store data, to develop a user interface in GIS
platform using Wide Area Network (WAN) programming and to
develop accident analysis as required by user agencies was
reported. This study would be useful to the various users which
require the accident information data and acts as interface to the
users on accident data information.

27. The cluster analysis of improving of road accidents black spots
study have explored the clustering technique best suitable for the
spatial distribution of road accidents, indentify the black spots
using the selected method of cluster analysis further to prioritize
the accident black spots for improvement. GIS interfacing was
used to plot the accident spots for performing the cluster analysis
using SPSS package. The study results states that the accident
black spots have been indentified using the clustering analysis &
GIS for a stretch of NH-45 and East Coast Road (ECR) in
Chennai.

28. A study on analysis of highway accidents using the GIS and ANN
have explored to develop a model that will identify the various
road variables that significantly effect accident rate and to develop
a toll to give the output of model on a map. In this study ANN
models with road geometrics, traffic flow and stream speeds as
explanatory variables have used to predict the accident rate.
Compared the results developed by ANN models and regression
models. ANN models have shown better predictive capability than
regression models. Accident Database manger Tool (ADMT) have
developed to record , store and analyze the accident data, further
this also accepts the GPS data of accidents location accordingly
database can be updated.

29. Development of driver workload models for evaluation of highway
geometric design consistency have attempted to develop models
realign to the drivers workload indices and road geometry further
to evolve the consistency limits for the indentified indices. In this
study the Deviation of lateral placement or DLP method was used
to quantify the workload of drivers. The study results indicate that
DLP decrease with increase in the radius of the curvature (R) and
15
with the increase in available Sight Distance (SD), DLP increases
with the increase in the Degree of the curvature (D) and with the
increase in the super elevation (e). Further the feasibility of eye
blink rate for quantifying the work loads have been proved and
used for evaluating the system design consistency, the eye blink
rate shows a negative correlation with the radius of the curves.

30. A study on development of speed prediction models an
evaluation of highway geometric design consistency have studied
highway geometric design consistency by developing the speed-
prediction models and the alignment indices. The study results
indicate that the classification curves based on speeds and speed
gradient indices showed that many curves are located in very
dangerous zone indicating the existence of poor consistency in
the highway geometric design. Further the evaluation based on
the alignment indices also indicated that the geometrics of the
selected highway stretches are having poor consistency.
Furthermore the operating speed prediction models developed
can used to estimate the operating speeds of any location
knowing the geometric details.

31. A study on road safety studies on rural highways have attempted
to develop road accident prediction models through statistical
analysis of the data. Further validation and application of the
developed models to identify the impact of different variables on
occurrence of the road accidents and suggest appropriate
remedial measures for the different site conditions. The
preliminary results indicate that the presence of non-motorized
traffic increases all types of accidents. Two-wheelers presence on
high speed highways is found to result in considerable increase in
major accidents. Further the increase in number of both private
(building/shops) and public (driveways) access points is found to
result in increase accidents frequencies.

32. The study on mobility and accessibility problems of the transport
disabled focused on indentify barriers to road users, develop
solutions to eliminate these barriers and promoting the research
on user friendly designs. Two questionnaires on different road
safety parameters were developed to assess the desired quality
for services from users perspective. The study highlighted that
the problems while walking and crossing on the road. There was
no significant differences found between the able-bodied persons
and persons with disabilities regarding their opinions on physical
barriers on cross roads and sidewalks further more the mobility
problems and accessibility problems increase with age.

33. A study on transport energy and environmental planning-a
systems approach have studied the impact of the composition of
transport models on energy utilization and environmental quality.
Further explored the judicious mix of transport modes so as to
16
achieve and sustainable transportation in terms of energy and
environment consideration.

34. A study on influence of lane restrictions on vehicular emissions
under heterogeneous traffic conditions have studied the impact of
lane restrictions by measuring on-road tail-pipe emissions (HC,CO
and NO) using the portable gas analyzer for three selected
vehicles. The study results reveal that lane changes carried out by
the vehicles in heterogeneous traffic condition was determined to
be an important contributor to emissions. Lane-restricted flow
generally produced reduced levels of tail-pipe emissions of HC,
CO and NO. Further multiple linear regression models developed
in this study have brought out the contributors to emissions in the
light of lane restrictions control (vis--vis lane-less flow) in
heterogeneous traffic conditions.






17
I. HIGHWAY PLANNING, MANAGEMENT,
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND
INSTRUMENTATION


1. HIGHWAY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT


SUMMARY

In the sub-section of Highway Planning and Management, there is a
project on National Data Center which is reported as completed. The reported
projects deal with GIS based applications as Information System/ Database
Development, providing connectivity to urban amenities in rural areas, and
socio-economic impact of improved connectivity. The research work reported
by an academic institute pertains to the application of HDM-4.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Development of National Data Center for Roads
2. GIS Application for Development of Road Information System
3. Rural Road Network Planning and Location of Urban Facilities in Rural
Areas
4. Application and illustration of HDM-4


















18
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS

1. National Data Centre for Managing Data for Planning, Design and
Management of Roads (CSIR Network Project)

Duration: April 2002 to December 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

- Establishment of GIS and Remote Sensing Laboratory at CRRI
- Development of Methodologies for Creation of Spatial Database
- Development of Methodology for Highway Information System in GIS
Environment.
- GIS Based Methodologies for Rural Road Network Planning
- Spatial road network data for the entire country in the scale 1:1 million
- Application of GIS in various project undertaken by CRRI
- Human Resources Development Activities
- Disseminated the GIS application knowledge to various road
development agencies such as MOSRTH, UP PWD, Delhi PWD,
Haryana PWD, Border Roads Organization and NRRDA in India.
- Participated in several Workshops/Conferences/Seminars organized on
the themes related to GIS Applications.

Conclusions

Comprehensive Spatial Database and Methodologies has been developed for
some sections of National Highways, State Highways and Rural Roads for
monitoring, retrieval and updating of Data. Further, GIS Database will be an
efficient tool/database for planning and management of roads.

Report/Publications

Report on National Data Centre for Managing Data for Planning, Design and
Management of Roads (CSIR Network Project).



B. ON GOING PROJECTS

1. Road Network Planning Approach for Location of Urban
Amenities in Rural Areas- A Case Study of Laksar Block -Haridwar
District

Date of Start: January 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
19
(ii) Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi (S)

Present Status and Progress

The Department of Science and Technology (DST) sponsored the project with
an objective to develop a rural road network planning approach to provide
connectivity to all villages in an optimal way to the urban facility center in rural
areas. Laksar Block of Haridwar district in Uttarakhand State has been
selected for case study application. A GIS based spatial data of the study
area with different layers have been developed and the attribute data related
to the villages were attached from the census data. The road details obtained
from the PWD were incorporated in the road network layer. Based on the
availability of the facilities, geographic locations and the accessibility to the
proposed ring road in the Block, a set of major rural centre is identified and
proposed as future growth centres which can provide urban amenities in an
optimal way to each village in the Block.

Conclusions

A concept will be developed for efficient planning, evaluation and
management of road network, which will provide optimum connectivity to all
the villages with urban facilities in a typical rural area.


2. Development of GIS based National Highway Information System

Date of Start: February 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi (S)

Present Status and Progress

It is proposed to develop a GIS based database and information system for
National Highways, which will include collection and collation of spatial (Geo-
referenced) data and the related non-spatial data. The system will enable
storing, retrieving and updating data and present the desired information
related to traffic and road assets. The entire study comprises of the following
four modules:

Module I: Development of GIS Based Highways Information System
Module II: Inventorisation of National Highways
Module III: Traffic Volume and Axle Load Surveys for National Highways
Module IV: Long Term Maintenance and Rehabilitation Strategies for National
Highways Based on HDM-4 Tool

To collect the primary data like road inventory data, distress data, riding
quality and GPS data, a sophisticated instrumented vehicle has been
procured from ARRB to collect the above data automatically.

20
Conclusions

User friendly software will be developed for monitoring, retrieval and updation
of data. This system shall be used for decision making process for planning
and management of National Highways.


3. Development of a Critical Infrastructure Information System in GIS
Environment for Maintenance of Bridges on National and State
Highways Case Study on Ghaziabad District

Date of Start: January 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi (S)

Present Status and Progress

This is an inter-area project sponsored by Department of Science and
Technology, Government of India with an objective to develop critical
infrastructure information system in GIS environment for allocation of funds for
maintenance, rehabilitation and strengthening of existing bridges. As a part of
the project activities, a digital base map of Ghaziabad district has been
prepared in the scale of 1:50,000 by referring SOI Toposheets with various
layers. The base map has been updated using the road network map
provided by the PWD Ghaziabad. It is also proposed to update the map using
satellite imageries and to locate various types of cross drainages provided
along the national and state highways passing through the district. This map
will form as a base for the critical infrastructure information system for bridges
being developed.

Conclusions

Comprehensive database will be developed for existing bridge sections on
National Highway 24, in Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh State for
maintenance, strengthening and rehabilitation of Existing Bridges.


C. NEW PROJECTS

1. Development of Hill Highway in Kerala Socio Economic Impact of
Improving Connectivity in Hilly Region


Date of Start: April 2006

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and Objectives
21

Scope of the study included delineation of hill highway influence area in the
hill district of Wayanad, study the existing land use, preparation of road
inventory and to observe the socio economic aspects of the region. The
analysis focuses on regional productivity and marketing surplus involving a
Social Cost Benefit Analysis

Methodology

Secondary data collection on socio economic factors
Existing and generated traffic
Computing VOC
Assessment of settlements and connectivity
Assessment of mobility and accessibility standards
Assessment of agricultural and industrial productivity including marketable
surplus
Socio Economic Impact Assessment
Cost- Benefit Analysis.

Interim Conclusions

- The regression analysis of Total Road length, Road length per 100 sq.kms
and road length per 10,000 population with independent variables in
composite as agricultural sector, demographic indicators including literacy,
public amenities and socio economic factors, showed strong relationship
indicating positive impact under an ex-post investment analysis of rural
road programme.

- The economic evaluation of the proposed hill highway in Wayanad yielded
only a negligible EIRR rate, while taking savings in vehicle operating cost
without considering savings in travel time and increase in aggregate
production surplus in regional agricultural sector it gave the rate of 19.56
% as EIRR. This along with increase in non-farm income benefiting
marginal workers locally showed an EIRR of 56.42 %.

- Economic evaluation of improvements of roads from earthen to all weather
connectivity to the highway by black topping based only on savings in
vehicles operating cost showed an EIRR of only 18.96%. Time savings
were not considered. Savings in VOC with increase in non-farm income
showed EIRR as 22.37%. The third scenario of increase in non-farm
income added to savings in marketable surplus and vehicle operating cost
returned EIRR as 28.22%.

Significance /Utilisation Potential

Considering the unique geography of the State, development of the proposed
Hill Highway will provide better accessibility to backward hilly regions of the
State. The study has quantified the benefits of the project per se (Cost-Benefit
Analysis) as well as from the secondary impact the project (Secondary impact
of connectivity improvements) for the development of road influence area.
22


2. PAVEMENT EVALUATION


SUMMARY

There is a single project which is reported as completed project. It is to
carryout investigations to determine the likely causes for development of
slippage and cracking on Noida Greater Noida Expressway and the needed
remedial measures.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Investigation of road failure and distress
2. Non-destructive test for structural evaluation of roads and airfield
pavements
3. Performance evaluation of pavements











23
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS


1. Investigation to determine the likely causes for development of
Slippage and Cracking on Noida Greater Noida Expressway and
Needed Remedial Measures

Duration: December 2005 to April 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)
(ii) New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA) (S)

Present Status and Progress

The project was taken up to evaluate the current condition of existing road
(both functional and structural) in order to determine the probable causes for
development of surface distresses on the Expressway and to recommend
needed remedial / rehabilitation measures. Field and laboratory data was
analyzed and report prepared.

Project has been completed.

Findings / Conclusions

The probable causes for development of slippage and longitudinal cracking on
Greater Noida bound carriageway were found to be as under:

- Lack of adhesion and / or bonding between the bituminous layers (DBM
and BC) was due to inadequate tack coat. This had resulted into BC layer
acting on its own without receiving any support from the underlying layers.
The heavy axle loads induced large tensile stresses causing BC material
to slip away under the action of loading.
- Excessive axle loads than anticipated during design were largely
responsible for the distress developed.
- It may be quite likely that either harder grade bitumen or overheated
bitumen had been used during construction of bituminous mixes
(particularly BC) which had caused loss of volatiles resulting into the
problem of slippage and longitudinal cracking.
- Slippage has occurred due to lateral movement of wearing course under
heavy axle loads and faster vehicular speeds due to its poor binding with
the lower layers.
- The high plasticity in GSB layer coupled with inadequate compaction might
have also been responsible for the distress developed.
- The grading of BC mix was fine and the mix didnt not have enough coarse
aggregates leading to reduced stability. In addition, the aggregates used
for production of BC had probably poor bitumen adhesion characteristics.
These types of aggregates are normally prone to stripping since they dont
have better bitumen adhesion properties.
24
- It was also found that the binder film or the coating of bitumen with
aggregates was not satisfactory making the mix vulnerable to stripping in
the presence of water.

Recommendations

- Based on the characteristic rebound deflection data and the projected
traffic loading, an overlay thickness of 50 mm DBM + 40 mm BC and 75
mm DBM + 40 mm BC for 10 and 15 years design life respectively was
recommended on Greater Noida bound carriageway.
- As regards treatment on Noida bound carriageway, no overlay was
required. However, resurfacing may have to be considered after few years
depending on the pavement surface condition and roughness level at that
point in time.
- It was recommended that tack coat should be applied properly, as per
MOSRT&H, 2001 Guidelines, prior to laying the suggested structural
overlay.
- It was suggested that Modified Bitumen be used as a binder in wearing
course instead of 60/70 penetration grade bitumen to retard / minimize
damage due to moisture in the lower layers beneath the surface course.
Its high resistance to temperature susceptibility also helps. However, for
DBM course in the lower layer, penetration grade bitumen 60/70 can be
used.
- Open and wide cracks shall be sealed with rubberised bitumen
immediately after they are observed on the surface. This would assist in
minimizing the damage / distress to the road and in extending the service
life towards ensuring improved performance of the Expressway in future.
- Overloading by heavy goods vehicles, particularly the 2-axle rigid chassis
trucks, should be controlled by adopting stringent enforcement measures
by Noida authorities because overloading causes extensive damage to the
pavement, consequently leading to early failure, reduced service life and
unsatisfactory performance, needing higher level of maintenance.

Reports / Publications

Investigation to Determine the Likely Causes for Development of Slippage
and Cracking on Noida-Greater Noida Expressway and Needed Remedial
Measures, Technical Report, April 2006



25
3. PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE


SUMMARY


Research works reported in the area of pavement performance comprise
of studies on performance study on proposed flexible pavement with regular
and modified sub bases, study on overloading of trucks and its effect on
pavement design, and use of yellow stone in road construction.
There are five projects that have been reported as new projects taken up.
These projects are very interesting such as R&D studies on performance
evaluation of rigid pavements on high density traffic corridors using
instrumentation supported by laboratory tests and a pilot study on effect of
overloading on road infrastructure. Other projects taken up are study of
tolerance factors which results in deterioration of crust thickness after
consolidation with regard to old as well as new pavements, study of road
performance constructed by oversize aggregates, and analytical study and
review of road performance parameters/ ability of roads made by different
types of bitumen.
The research work reported by academic institutes are Roughness
Progression Modeling using ANN Technique, Influence of Road Roughness
on Speed and Study of Distribution of Axle Loads of Commercial Vehicles and
its Effect on Pavement Performance


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Aspects related to Instrumentation for Performance Evaluation of Rigid
Pavements on High Density Traffic Corridors
2. Alternate materials for construction of roads
3. Performance Study on proposed Flexible Pavement with Regular and
Modified Sub Bases
4. Effect of Overloading on Pavement Design
5. Road Performance due to Oversize Aggregates











26
A. ON GOING PROJECTS


1. Performance Study on proposed Flexible Pavement with Regular
and Modified Sub Bases

Date of Start: January 2005

Highway Research Station, Chennai (R)

Present Status and Progress

The recently constructed experimental stretch, provided with modified sub-
bases of Quarry Dust and Copper Slag, is to be tested for its riding quality, as
a measure of ascertaining its performance.

Recommendations

The Trial stretch would be monitored periodically for its performance.


2. Study on Overloading of Trucks and its Effect on Pavement
Design

Duration: July 2006 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

- Conduct Axle Load survey for 24 hours on selected roads
- Analyse the data for estimation of Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) to
determine the extent of over loading and work out the economics of over
loading

Methodology

- Literature survey
- Axle load survey at 6 locations
- Data analysis and estimation of VDFs
- Collection of secondary data on transportation cost
- Study the effect of overloading on pavement design and crust
thickness
- Development of total transportation cost model and optimum axle load
- Analysis of data to reduce the stresses in different layers of pavement
structure
- Report preparation

27
3. Use of Yellow Stone in Road Construction

Date of Start: August 2003

Maharashtra Engineering Research Institute, Nashik (R)

Present Status and Progress

The test track on Sawada Railway Station to Hatnur dam (M.D.R. 15) near
Bhusaval, Dist. Jalgaon (Maharashtra) at Chainage 00/00 to 00/900 was
constructed in December 2003. Total length of the test track was divided in
three parts. Each part was of 300 meters in length. First part was constructed
by using only yellow stone. Second part was constructed by using yellow
stone & black basalt in equal proportion.

Third part was constructed by black basalt in W.B.M. road. The test track was
constructed as per the standard specification of P.W.D. Maharashtra state.
On this W.B.M. surface, 20 mm premix carpet with liquid seal coat (Hot Mix
Hot laid) was provided. Post construction observations were to be taken twice
in a year (Pre monsoon & post monsoon) for the period of three years. Post
construction observations were in progress.

Findings/ Conclusions

First post construction observation had been taken in May 2004. Second
observation had been taken in December and May 2005. Final observation is
being taken. It has been found that overall rating of the test track is Good as
per interim data.

Conclusions

The scheme is in progress. At present three stretches of test track are in good
condition.



B. NEW PROJECTS


1. R&D Studies on Performance Evaluation of Rigid Pavements on
High Density Traffic Corridors using Instrumentation Supported
by Laboratory Tests

Date of Start: December 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi (S)

Scope and Objectives

28
The aim of the study is to validate and verify the actual relationship between
various design parameters assumed in theoretical design and those as
actually observed under the Rigid Pavement in actual use.

The study would be conducted on 6 to 8 nos. of the test sections (the actual
no. is to be decided as per requirements), each of about 100m to 150m
length. Rigid pavement sections shall be laid commiserating to IRC:58-2002
provisions on high density corridors, under NHDP. Attempts shall be made to
cover sub-grade soils having different CBR/k values to study their impact on
design parameters. Strain gauges are to be embedded while casting the
concrete which would be calibrated for enabling periodic measurements of
strains during performance observations. Actual stresses vis--vis theoretical
stresses are to be compared using the values of E and , as per IRC: 58-
2002. FWD measurements would be taken to assess the value of E for
different structural layers including DLC and PQC and for their comparisons
with IRC: 58-2002 provisions. Verification of relations between flexural and
compressive strengths and coefficient of thermal expansion (o) are to be
done. Effect of 40 mm sizes aggregates and fly ash are to be separately
studied. Study of reduction in edge stresses shall be done if wheel is 25 cm
away from the edge while making 25-30 cm wide strip at the edges as rough
during construction in one/ some test section(s) to discourage the vehicles to
run close to the edges.

Observations on thermal stresses available in CRRIs study through
instrumentations and temperature monitoring (by thermocouples) of lab cast
specimens are to be made use of for assessment of the aspect of linearity/
non-linearity of temperature stress distribution for thick slabs, and
subsequently to make use of these values in test specimens to be cast on
high density corridors. It may be endeavored to actually measure the
temperature stresses in the edge region actually and comparison may be
made with theoretically calculated values. Calculation of total theoretical
design stresses (critical stress) at edges due to load and temperature and
corner stress due to load will be done and compared with actual stresses;
temperature stresses to be suitably adopted from lab test data on cast
specimens for the calculation of actual stress. Study of effectiveness of 1.5 m
wide paved shoulder to prevent erosion of support, and effectiveness of rigid
shoulders with and without tie bars are to be studied PQC to be laid over DLC
with polythene separation layer. Composite action shall be separately studied
by not placing the polythene separation layer as above (IRC: 58-2002 CI 5.7).
Separately to study structure composed of WMM overlaid with PQC with
intervening separation layer (polythene sheet). Effect of using 100mm DLC
instead of 150mm would also be studied. Effectiveness of using poly fibers in
PQC in increasing flexural strength and reducing cracks in concrete may also
be studied.


Methodology

Different tests sections shall be laid as per the above scope of work to study
the parameters considered as assumptions in IRC codes on Rigid
29
Pavements. Samples of concrete and other materials will be collected and
instrumentations will be placed at a separate control room.

Interim Conclusions

Sites for laying test sections have been identified.

Significance/ Utilization potential

The results of the study are proposed to be used for furthering the
understanding of actual design considerations vis--vis incorporating
modifications in the design methodology to be used in future.



2. Pilot Study on Effect of Overloading on Road Infrastructure

Date of Start: September 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi (S)

Scope and Objectives

Objective
- To assess and highlight the excessive costs incurred on various
components due to overloading
- To recommend optimal/ rational limits for legal axle loads and gross
vehicle weights

Scope
- Pavement deterioration and service life.
- Performance of bridges and structures.
- Exhaust emissions.
- Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC).
- Cargo safety and vehicle damage.

Methodology

(i) Effect of overloading on pavement deterioration and its service life:
Typical pavement structures subjected to varying loading conditions will
be analyzed by changing the vehicle damage factors (VDFs) ranging
from 4.5 to 16. The analysis will be done using Indian deterioration
models developed under pavement performance study and updated road
user cost equations. Based on the analysis, trade off approach
considering the least life cycle cost will be applied to recommend rational
axle loads and gross vehicle weight.

(ii) Effect of overloading on performance of bridges and structures:
Performance evaluation of one or two bridges already undertaken will be
30
analyzed thoroughly. Based on the analysis of data collected and
through analytical studies, the effect of overloading on bridges will be
established. Also, based on the visual inspections and non-destructive
tests, the nature and extent of distress will be ascertained in the selected
components of bridges.

(iii) Effect of overloading on exhaust emissions: Measurement of base line
realworld road emissions (gaseous pollutants, particulate matters) of
selected heavy duty diesel vehicles, with GVW and overloading of the
order of 10%, 20%, & 30% with the use of Portable Emissions
Measurement System (PEMS) (OEM-2100 Montana System).

(iv) Effect of overloading on Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC): The
methodology proposed for this sub study consists of the comparison of
two distinct operating conditions one as being operating in actual
practice and the other one under controlled conditions.

(v) Cargo safety and vehicle damage: For this study, views of truck industry
will be obtained on the current operating practices regarding prevalent
overloading for different category of vehicles, extent/ type of
modifications carried out in the vehicles to effect overloading etc.
Attempts will be made to suggest standard configuration, dimension of
vehicle, review of Motor Vehicle Act and suggestion on Administrative
measures required.

Interim Conclusions

The literature review has been completed. A preliminary draft report on effect
of overloading on road infrastructure has also been prepared.

Significance/ Utilization potential

A report on the effect of higher axle loads on pavements, bridges, exhaust
emissions, vehicle operating costs, cargo safety and vehicle damage etc. will
be prepared highlighting the related financial implications.

3. New Concept & Study of Tolerance Factors which Results in
Deterioration of Crust Thickness after Consolidation with regard
to Old as well as New Pavements

Date of Start: April 2006

Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow (R, I)

Scope and Objectives

In this project, reduction in crust thickness in old as well as new pavements
with the passage of time shall be studied. The study will be done on the newly
constructed road using different stone-ballast. Study of reduction in crust
31
thickness with the passage of time where local earth is being used in place of
screening material, as specified in IRC & MOSRTH codes is also proposed.

Methodology

(i) After scrapping the surface and removing the undulations in the first
500m reach of K.m. 3-5 of (MDR-52), WBM grade II, (10 cm loose) &
WBM grade III, (10 cm loose) (stone ballast from Mohanlalganj sources
to be used)shall be laid as per MOSRTH specification. First and second
coat surface dressing shall be laid over it.
(ii) In second 500 m reach WBM grades II & III shall be laid with local earth
instead of screening and binding material.
(iii) In first 500 m fourth km. reach, WBM grades II & III (with Shankargarh
stone ballast) shall be laid as per MOSRTH specification. Traffic shall be
allowed over it for a continuous period of 6 months without laying surface
dressing. Evaluation of deduction in crust thickness shall be made
(without painting work).
(iv) In the next 500 m reach of km. 4-5, Kabrai stone ballast shall be used.
Deduction in crust thickness shall be evaluated for this type of ballast
also.
(v) Lab testing for physical properties of the available stone ballasts such as
voids in loose state, density achieved in the case of graded and non-
graded stone ballasts etc. shall be found out and the comparisons of
fieldwork & the lab work shall be made.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

The study will provide new factual position regarding reduction in crust
thickness with the passage of time.


4. Study of Road Performance Constructed by Oversize Aggregates

Date of Start: April 2006

Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow (R, I)

Scope and Objectives

It is being observed that the aggregates being supplied for the construction of
roads are normally found oversized and also not in uniform shapes, which has
its impact on the performance of roads. The impacts need to be studied for its
effect on durability, serviceability and maintenance of roads.

Methodology

(i) To collect aggregates from two specified quarries.
(ii) Physical properties of the collected samples will be tested in the
laboratory, which will be compared with IRC specifications.
(iii) Density shall be evaluated before & after compaction in the laboratory.
32
(iv) To construct a section of 500 m on experimental basis with 7.5 cm
compacted thickness of WBM- III, according to MOSRTH specification.
(v) First coat surface dressing with 16-22.4 mm stone grit and second coat
surface dressing laying with 10-16 mm stone grit shall be done as per
MOSRTH specifications.
(vi) After WBM-III, first coat painting and second coat painting roughness
shall be evaluated.
(vii) Performance observations covering of longitudinal/lateral unevenness,
crack patterns, depressions, ruts, edge distortion & uneven settlement
etc. at every 6 months interval for a period of 3 years shall be taken.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

The study will provide new factual position regarding the road performance
constructed using oversize aggregates.


5. Analytical Study and Review of Road Performance Parameters/
Ability of Roads made by different types of Bitumens

Date of Start: April 2006

(i) Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow (I)
(ii) Research Development & Quality Promotion Cell, UP PWD, Lucknow (R)

Scope and Objectives

Comparative study of road performance constructed using different
bituminous binders penetration grade bitumen 60/70, bituminous emulsions,
polymer modified bitumen, crumb rubber modified bitumen and penetration
grade bitumen 80/100.

Methodology

This project is restricted to the performance parameters observations of the
painted surfaces in the same climatic condition using different types of
binders.

(i) It is proposed that the repairing of patches and potholes on 5 Km. long
Mohanlalganj-Maurawan road (MDR-52) will be done according to the
MOSRTH specifications.
(ii) For second coat painting and pre-coating in the first experimental Km.,
6mm gauge grit & bitumen emulsion will be used. Painting will be done
with the bitumen emulsion.
(iii) Second coat painting and pre-coating in second experimental Km. will be
using 10-16 mm gauge grit and 60/70 bitumen. Painting with bitumen
grade 60/70 will be done.
(iv) Second coat painting with 10-16 mm gauge grit and pre-coating with
60/70 bitumen will be done in third experimental Km. Painting will be
done with CRMB-55.
33
(v) In the fourth experimental Km., second coat painting will be done by 10-
16 mm gauge grit & bitumen 80/100. Pre-coating will be done by bitumen
80/100.
(vi) In the fifth experimental Km. for the second coat painting work will be
done by 10-16 mm gauge grit & PMB. For pre-coating, bitumen 60/70 will
be used.

Performance of road surface including smoothness, rut depth variation,
stripping, cracking patterns and other construction properties would be
studied at every 3 months interval for a period of 3 years in all the Kms.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

The study will provide new factual position regarding the use of different
bituminous binders in Uttar Pradesh under various climatic conditions. Life
cycle cost of these binders will be checked for effectiveness.
























34
4. INSTRUMENTATION AND MICRO-PROCESSOR APPLICATIONS


SUMMARY

In this section of Instrumentation and Micro-processor Applications,
there are three projects reported as completed. These are Development of
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System for Traffic Management using RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification) Tags and Dedicated Short Range
Communication (DSRC) Technology, Design and Development of a System
for Automated Measurement of Deflection Basin under Truck Dual Tire
Assembly, and Design and Development of Roller Mounted Nuclear Density
Gauge for Continuous Measurement of Density at the time of Construction of
Pavement Layers.
A new project on Performance Evaluation of Roughometer II under
Indian Conditions is also undertaken.



SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. New products/apparatus related to Instrumentation and Micro-
processor Applications
2. Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System for Traffic Management
3. Automated Measurement of Deflection Basin under Truck Dual Tire
Assembly
4. Roller Mounted Nuclear Density Gauge for Continuous Measurement
of Density











35
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS


1. Development of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) System for Traffic
Management using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Tags and
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Technology

Duration: August 2003 to March 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R. I)

Present Status and Progress

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automated data capture
technology for identifying, locating or tracking people and assets. An RFID
System normally consists of a computer, a reader, and a tag that when used
together provide a wireless communication system. A reader is a fixed or
mobile device that provides the communication functions and antennas
necessary to communicate with the tag. A tag is an application that are
specific integrated circuit with memory for data storage and an antenna. Tags
come in many sizes ranging from as small as a penny to as large as a brick
under this project. The following equipments, required for electronic toll
collection, have been procured from ID micro, USA with operation frequency
of 2.45 GH
2


1. RFID Tags
2. RFID Reader
3. RFID Antenna
4. AVERA Software

The equipments have been installed and field studies with RFID system using
CRRI vehicles, which includes commercial vehicles, were carried out.

Findings/Conclusion:

- RFID System has been successfully installed and tested.
- The frequency used for the tag to reader communication i.e. 2.45 GHz is
suitable for detecting the vehicle up to a distance of 10 meters.
- The detection of vehicle is not dependent on the speed of the vehicle.
- RFID Tag can be used to detect commercial vehicles such as TATA
Trucks.


2. Design and Development of a System for Automated
Measurement of Deflection Basin under Truck Dual Tire Assembly

Duration: August 2003 to March 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)

36
Scope and Objectives:

The scope of the project is to develop an Automatic Road Parameter
Measurement System (RPMS) for measurement of deflection basin under
truck dual tire assembly. In this system, deflections are measured at radial
distances from the center of loading using LVDTs. The deflection profile is
useful for getting the parameters such as maximum deflection, surface
curvature index, base curvature index, spread-ability and radius of curvature
etc.

Present Status and Progress

Automated road parameter measurement system measures the deflections
and analyses the data accurately. In order to evaluate the performance of the
System (RPMS), laboratory tests and field trials were being carried out using
eight numbers of LVDTs. Laboratory tests were carried out with different sets
of Brass Spacers of known thicknesses. Thicknesses of the spacers were
computed using LVDTs. The System is working perfectly and the results
obtained are reliable. Field trials were conducted with the RPMS within the
CRRI premises on a flexible pavement under a loaded truck. The air pressure
in the tire was kept 5.6 Kg/cm
2.
The load in the truck was kept 10.2 tonne. The
tip of the LVDT beam was kept within the dual tire so that the LVDT core
remains in the central position between the tires. The truck battery using an
inverter provided power for the system. The results obtained were
encouraging.


3. Design and Development of Roller Mounted Nuclear Density
Gauge for Continuous Measurement of Density at the time of
Construction of Pavement Layers

Duration: August 2003 to March 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)

Present Status and Progress

Roller mounted nuclear density gauge has been developed. Laboratory
studies have been carried-out with the gauge. To check the consistency of the
readings as the gauge revolves, the readings were obtained when the drum
touches the density standards at various points on its circumference. The
results show that there is no change in the readings as the drum revolves.
Studies were also conducted with changing the speed at which the gauge
moves and it was found that there is no effect of change of speed on count
rate.

Field trials were conducted at Dwarka construction site. Soil densities
obtained in the field using the gauge were compared with the soil densities
obtained in the field by conventional method. The results obtained were
encouraging.
37

B. NEW PROJECTS

1. Performance Evaluation of Roughometer II under Indian
Conditions

Date of start: July 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R,I)

Scope and Objectives

- Performance evaluation of Roughometer-II, a high speed roughness
measuring device developed by Australian Road Research Board
(ARRB), on different roads having varying surface conditions,
- Comparison amongst Roughometer-II, Bump Integrator and Dipstick
- To study the effect of different speeds on roughness index obtained by
Roughometer-II

Methodology

Roughness measurements would be undertaken on selected road sections
having different levels of roughness ranging from Excellent to Poor (Say from
about 1500 mm/km to about 10000 mm/km) by using Fifth Wheel Bump
Integrator and Dipstick. Roughness measurements would also be taken on
the same road sections by using Roughometer-II at different test speeds from
30 to 80 KMPH. Data will be analyzed and suitable calibrations will be
developed between these devices.

The project is currently under advanced stage of progress and is expected to
be completed very soon.

Significance / Utilization Potential

The outcome of this research would assist in selecting the appropriate
roughness measuring device / system.

38
III. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING AND PAVING MATERIALS



1. SOIL STABILIZATION, LOW GRADE MATERIALS AND LOW
VOLUME ROADS


SUMMARY


Use of waste materials like fly ash is available is abundance. The road
construction techniques need to consider such materials for improving the
function of the structure. The construction of roads, where soil contains
harmful salt is another area, which needs to be addressed by the highway
professionals. The stabilization of ground with coir and coir fibre has also
been reported. Another new study is being taken to study the reconstruction
of rural roads in place of renewal work, where the proper design was not
undertaken earlier.
The research work reported by the academic institutes pertains to the
investigations on engineering behaviour of clayey soil reinforced with nylon
fibers and sand, stabilization of clayey soil using fly ash and lime and study on
improvements to soft clay subgrade with quarry dust and lime.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Use of ash for stabilization of clayey soils
2. Construction of roads in presence of harmful salts
3. Reconstruction of rural roads
4. Ground stabilization in clayey soil regions






39
A. ON GOING PROJECTS

1. Use of Ash Generated from Surat Lignite Power Plant for
Stabilizing Different Types of Clayey Soils for Construction of
Roads

Date of Start: May 2003

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

Laboratory work is in progress. Preparation of report is under progress.

Findings/Conclusions

Conclusion can be made after completion of laboratory works.

Limitations

Looking to the results of mixes of ash and lime with different types of clayey
soils, it is found that there is significant change in decrease in density but
increase in CBR value, which plays an important role in design of road
construction. The crust thickness depends upon CBR value & finally it affects
the cost of road construction.

2. Ground Stabilization Technique for Road Construction in Clayey
Soils of Kuttanad Region

Date of Start: April 2005

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

The study is to analyse various methods of stabilizing the clay in the road
embankments of Kuttandu. The objectives are to analyse the engineering
properties of clayey soils in Kuttanadu region, study the effect of ground
improvement technologies such as sand drains, geotextile drains and to study
the field performance of coir reinforced small clay embankments under
wetting and drying conditions.

The laboratory studies include basic properties of coir geotextile, model
studies on coir geotextile and reconsolidation using sand drains and geotextile
drains. Field studies are conducted for coir reinforced clay dykes and side
slopes.

Clayey soil of Kuttanadu has a plasticity index of 38.9% with 30% silt and 70%
clay and belongs to the class of silts and clays of high compressibility. The
40
permeability is 2.83 x 10
-7
cm /sec, unconfined compressive strength in 0.189
kg/cm
2
and Co-eff, of consolidation is 5.87x10
-3
cm2/sec. When tested with
coir fibre called Texsol, the UCC value is 0.386 kg/cm
2
, thus increasing the
compressive strength by 104%.

B. NEW PROJECTS

1. Study & Measures of Road Construction in Presence of Harmful
Salts in U.P.

Date of Start: April 2006

Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow (R, I)

Scope and Objectives

Harmful salts are sometimes found in soil. It damages the roads & its
ingredients badly. The present study is to develop the new method of
construction of road in presence of harmful salts & to study the efficacy of the
existing technique for construction of road in harmful salts area.

Methodology

(i) Collection of soil samples from salt affected area.
(ii) Soil classification & testing of present harmful salts in collected soil as
per Indian Standards.
(iii) Study of the salt present in the soil (salt-soil profile with the change of
the season).
(iv) Study & analysis of prescribe standard limit of the salt presence.
(v) Four reaches of 500 mtr. length each shall be taken for the treatment.
In first reach, polythene sheets of 0.8 mm thickness & borrowed earth
shall be provided. In second reach, soil stabilization with hydrated lime
shall be carried out and after stabilization Australian Babool shall be
planted. In third reach, cement of bitumen cutback shall be used to
stabilize the soil & after soil & local grass shall be laid over it. In fourth
reach, coir-rope/coir-net shall be used for the stabilization of the soil.
(vi) At every sixth months interval for 2 years, the samples shall be
collected & the presence of harmful salts shall be evaluated.
(vii) In addition to this, effect of salts on bricks used in brick edging shall be
evaluated. Decomposition of the size & shapes of the bricks shall be
studied.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

The study will provide new factual position regarding measures to be taken for
the road construction in presence of harmful salts.


41
2. Study of Reconstruction of Rural Roads in place of Renewal Work,
where the proper design was not undertaken earlier

Date of Start: April 2006

Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow (R, I)

Scope and Objectives

The intended study is proposed to be carried out to reveal the comparative
merit of reconstruction versus application of renewal coat on the existing
roads. The study of cost incurred vis--vis achievement performance of road
shall be made.

Methodology

(i) Two different Kilometer stretches of the same village road shall be
selected for research proposal.
(ii) In one km. renewal work shall be carried out after repairing pot holes &
patches. Bitumen grades 60/70 shall be used for this purpose.
(iii) In another km, after scrapping painted surface strengthening of the road
shall be done with WBM grade III as per design requirement (In present
proposal one coat 7.5 cm, compacted thick WBM is proposed).
(iv) After WBM first & second coat paint will be done.
(v) After every 6 months for continuous 4 years road conditions shall be
studied for longitudinal & lateral ruts & cracks over a space of 1x3.0 m
area at every 100 m interval.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

The study will provide new factual position about reconstruction of rural roads
in place of renewal work.




42
2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

SUMMARY

In the recent past, significant advancements have been made in
bituminous construction both in materials and technologies, which aim to meet
the present days demand for better quality roads. The focus of research is
concentrated on development of new and modified binders and evaluating
their performance for achieving long lasting and durable pavements. Apart
from developing and using specialized bituminous binders, development of
new specifications for bituminous mixes has been a major activity. However,
before these new materials get into our specifications, the performance
characteristics are essential in deciding the appropriateness of applications of
these new generation materials and techniques.
Use of modified bitumen has been the main focus of research in
projects reported while technologies like cold emulsion and waste plastics
have been tried. The effect of aggregate on pavement performance gradation
and development of modified mixes have been reported. One of the important
areas reported in the use of multigrade bitumen under different climatic
conditions. Reinforcement in bituminous layers and recycling has also been
reported.
The research work reported by the academic institutes pertains to
different types of studies such as evaluation of Toner Modified Bituminous
Binder, Viscometric Studies of Straight Run Bitumen, Constitutive Modeling of
Pavement Materials, Influence of Short Term Aging and Compaction Effort on
the Tensile Strength of Sand-Asphalt Mixtures and so on.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION


1. Modified and new binders and bitumen modifications
2. Specifications such as Stone Matrix Asphalt and Warm Asphalt
3. Effect of aggregate gradation in pavement performance
4. Use of waste plastic
5. Use of by-products from industrial base in sub-base
6. Efficacy of thin bituminous surfacings
7. Use of cold mixes in structural layers

43

B. COMPLETED PROJECTS

1. Studies on the Use of Modified Bitumen Binders

Duration: April 2003 to December 2006

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

- Representative samples of modified bitumen by adding Natural Rubber,
SBS, EVA and aggregates from Sevalia area quarry were collected.

- Following tests of modified Bitumen were carried out in the laboratory.
(i) Penetration test (IS:1203)
(ii) Softening point (IS:1205)
(iii) Ductility test (IS:1208)
(iv) Sp. Gravity test (IS:1204)
(v) Elastic Recovery test (IRC:53)

- Loss on Marshall stability (as per ASTM: D:1559) was carried out with
different modified binders.

- Field work:
(i) Experimental sections for P-5 scheme were selected between 23/200
to 25/0 on Waghodia Rustampura road km (450 m stretch for each
modified binders and control section)
(ii) Evaluation of existing road was completed using Benkelman beam,
FDD and FMC tests etc.
(iii) Modified bitumens viz. Natural Rubber, SBS and EVA based were
prepared in Tiki Tar Industries, Halol.
(iv) Four stretches using the specifications of 25 mm premix carpet + seal
coat (0.18 cmt / 10 sqm.) were laid.
(v) Performance study for a period of three years has been completed.

Findings/Conclusions

LABORATORY FINDINGS:

(i) The values of Marshall Stability, Retained Marshall stability, Softening
point and Coating of aggregate increase by using all three modified
binders as compared to plain bitumen.
(ii) Physical requirements of all three modified bitumens observed are in
accordance with specifications of modified bitumen laid in IRC SP-53 &
IS: 15462-2004.
(iii) Strength and durability characteristics of bitumen and bituminous mixes
can be achieved with the use of modified bitumen.

FIELD FINDINGS:
44

(i) From the field performance data collected after three years on distress
and roughness for the experimental stretches, it seems that the life of
road increases with compared to the field performance data of
conventional stretch using 80/100 pen grade bitumen. No renewals on
experimental stretches were allowed during the performance period.
(ii) Best performance has been observed for the experimental section with
EVA based modified binder amongst all the three test sections.
(iii) Performance evaluation amongst the three experimental stretches has
been observed as Good to Average with SBS based PMB / 40 and EVA
based PMB / 40 binders as compared to NRMB based binder. Also,
improved performance has been observed with all the three modified
binders compared to conventional stretch with 80 / 100 penetration grade
bitumen.
(iv) Use of modified bitumen binders in the road construction technology will
be beneficial in terms of increased life, improved durability and
temperature susceptibility and improved strength and performance.
(v) Impervious layers like Bituminous concrete or Dense Bituminous
concrete would give better performance than open graded mixes like
Premix or Seal coat.


2. Bitumen Modification through Packaging Technology

Duration: December 2005 to March 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (I)

Scope and objectives

The broad objectives of the study are as follows:

- To explore the application of using plastic packaging film samples for
packaging of bitumen.
- To prepare modified bitumen through packaging technology.

Based on the laboratory test results, it is expected that packaging technology,
when implemented at full scale, would be able to save steel which is currently
used for packaging bitumen in drums. Also, the use of polymeric packaging
material for modification of bitumen would avoid 4-5% wastage of bitumen.
45
Methodology

(i) Blending of packaging film with bitumen
(ii) Study of various physical properties of modified bitumen such as
Softening Point, Penetration and Elastic recovery tests, as per IRC:SP
53:2002.
(iii) Preparation of Marshall samples using conventional bitumen and
modified bitumen with optimum binder contents (i.e. 5.5%).
(iv) Determine Marshall stability, Indirect tensile strength and Rutting
potential using Wheel Tracking Machine.

Conclusions

The properties of modified mixes were marginally improved. CIPET, Chennai
is currently working towards improving the quality of packaging films so that
modified binder produced through the process can meet BIS/IRC
specifications.

Significance/Utilization potential

The technology, when implemented at full scale, would result into savings of
steel which is presently used for packaging bitumen in drums. In addition, the
use of polymeric packaging material for modification of bitumen would also
avoid 4-5% wastage of bitumen.

Reports /publications

A report entitled Cost Effective Materials and Technologies for Construction
and Maintenance of Flexible and Rigid Pavements (Modification of bitumen
through packaging technology) has been prepared in March 2007.


3. Study on the Utilization of Waste Plastic in Bituminous Pavements

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Present Status and Progress

The stripping properties of aggregate and plastic blends were studied and a
report was sent to I.R.C.

Findings/Conclusions

To mix the plastic waste arbitratarly at the time of heating yields no good
results on the mix properties.

Recommendations

46
Characterization of Plastics and its blending with bitumen is to be studied.



4. Investigation for determining the causes of Distress/Rutting on
Jaipur Bypass (Zones C&D of NH-8)

Duration: January 2007 to March 2007

(i) National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), (S)
(ii) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

A detailed report submitted to NHAI for implementation of recommendations.

Findings/ Conclusions

The section of highway around Jaipur on NH-8 has been constructed as
bypass to Jaipur city, which is about 48 km in length and got completed in two
different Phases. C-Zone of Jaipur By pass (i.e., Phase-I) is13.7 km long and
was opened to traffic during the year 2000. D-Zone of Jaipur Bypass (i.e.,
Phase-II) is 34.7 km long and was opened to traffic during the year 2005.
Sometime after the road was opened to traffic, some sections of Jaipur
bypass (NH-8) developed distress. Since then the pavement has deteriorated
severely and has started showing signs of pre-mature distress/failure,
especially in the form of cracks, settlements/deformation and excessive
rutting.

The main objective of the study was to investigate the causes of distress
(mainly rutting) on the pavement and to suggest remedial measures. The
detailed investigations carried out on various affected road sections of Jaipur
bypass(zones C & D), included both field studies and laboratory evaluation,
viz., assessment of current pavement surface condition, structural thickness,
traffic volume and axle load surveys, roughness measurements and
Benkelman beam deflection measurements. In addition, materials used for
construction of road in various layers of the pavement structure were also
retrieved from the test pits for determining their in-situ properties.

The findings include identification of the probable causes of distress and
recommendations on remedial/rehabilitation measures.

Conclusions

Structural evaluation was carried out on representative locations/sections
only.

Recommendations
47

The corrective measures, as suggested, may be carried out and performance
of road pavement may be monitored.


5. Asset Management Study of Ahmedabad Mehsana Toll Road

Duration: October 2005 to August 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)
(ii) M/s Consolidated Transportation Networks Limited, Mumbai (S)

Present Status and Progress

Data collected through the field studies viz. visual assessment of pavement
surface condition, Benkelman Beam deflection studies, axle load survey,
traffic volume survey and roughness measurements etc. was analyzed by
applying HDM-4 software to study / evaluate the likely performance of road
corresponding to future / projected traffic loading under planned / defined
maintenance inputs.

Project has been completed and a detailed report prepared.

Findings / Conclusions

Findings emerging out of the study were used in checking the adequacy of
maintenance provisions / inputs planned in the concession agreement for
maintaining the assets as per pre-determined requirements specified for the
road.

The results facilitated planning corrective measures in situations where
maintenance inputs intended to be applied were found to be incomplete /
deficient during the concession period.

The project output was helpful to know the effect of maintenance strategy on
the serviceability level and other performance indicators in advance to
facilitate revisions of maintenance provisions planned to achieve the pre-
defined functionality.

Limitations

Lack of availability of data on maintenance works that had been carried out on
the road.

Recommendations

Based on the data / information collected and results obtained through HDM-4
analysis done under the study, the following recommendations were made:

48
- The output summary data on road works and cost components obtained
through HDM-4 analysis had shown a slight deviation of one to two years
from the proposed schedules with regard to the application of 40 mm thick
BC overlay, indicated in O&M Manual, for all the four sections. Since
HDM-4 analysis is dependent upon a large number of technical and
economical parameters / models, which require numerous coefficients and
variables, the small deviations, as noticed, were not very significant and
were neglected.
- The present study was directed primarily to ascertain the adequacy of
maintenance provisions, as planned in O&M manual. The provisions made
were found to be adequate, by and large.
- The maintenance manual formulated under O&M would serve the intended
purpose planned for the project road.
- The calibration factors for applications of HDM-4 in different zones of the
country need to be derived covering different operating conditions
prevailing so as to gain confidence in their applications for investment
analysis and also for taking appropriate technical decisions.
- It is suggested that similar studies / analysis need to be done for all other
BOT projects undertaken in the country in order to evaluate the O&M
provisions stipulated in these concession agreements. It is suggested that
there may be a need to go in for condition responsive type maintenance
alternative rather than pre-defined frequency alternative in future, once a
number of such projects are analysed under different maintenance
schemes and under different operating conditions of traffic and
environment.

Reports / Publications

Asset Management Study of Ahmadabad Mehsana Toll Road, Technical
Report, CRRI, May 2006


B. ON GOING PROJECTS

1. Shelf Life Studies of Bituminous Emulsion

Date of Start: April 2005

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad (R)

Present status and Progress

All the five grades of bituminous emulsions namely RS1, RS2, MS, SS1 &
SS2 were prepared and tested after six months, one year and one & half year
of storage as per IS: 8887-2004 specification.

Findings/ Conclusions

All the five grades of bituminous emulsions have been found meeting IS:
8887-2004 specification after one & half year of storage period.
49

Interim Conclusions

All the five grades of bitumen emulsions will be further evaluated after every
six months of storage up to a period of three years.


2. Use of Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen (NRMB) in Bituminous
Surfacing in Various Climatic Conditions of India

Date of Start: September 2005

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Last Report: GRRRI 2005-2006

Present Status and Progress

Performance observations on test sections laid in heavy rainfall area
completed. The study is continuing in hot and cold climatic areas.

- Hot Climate: Test sections were laid on Hanumangarh- Sangaria Bypass
in June, 2006 using NRMB 70, CRMB 55 and S-65(60/70) , each of 100 m
length. The performance observations are currently in pogress
- Heavy Rainfall Area: Test sections were laid near Kilarihat on NH-44 in
Meghalaya using NRMB 70, CRMB 55 and S-65(60/70), each of 100 m
length. Performance observations are complete with the last one made in
February, 2007.
- Cold Climatic Area: Site visits and discussions held with Project Beacon
(35 BRTF, BRO), for laying of test sections on NH-1A in J&K which is
likely to be taken up shortly.

Interim Conclusions:

The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of NRMB
vis--vis CRMB and neat bitumen in thin surfacing under different climatic
conditions. The useable results are yet to emerge in terms of relative
performance of test sections laid with different modified binders under
different climatic conditions

3. Field Trial on Design and Construction of Stone Matrix Asphalt
Surfacing between Khajuri Chowk and Brij Puri Chowk on Road
No. 59 in Delhi

Date of Start: October 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

50
Laying of test sections has been completed. A report is currently under
finalisation.

Findings/ Conclusions

A detailed laboratory study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of
Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mix vis--vis draft specification of Indian Roads
Congress (IRC). Marshall Mix design method was performed to determine the
Optimum Binder Content (OBC) of SMA mixtures. The mix was designed
using 50 blows to sustain heavy traffic, using three different binder contents of
6.5, 7.0 and 7.5 percent by the weight of mix. The target mixing and
compaction temperatures were 175C and 143C respectively. SMA mixtures
were prepared with two different stabilizing additives, by adding it (at the rate
of 0.3 percent by weight of total mixture) with 60/70 penetration grade paving
bitumen. The OBC has been estimated at which the air voids (V
a
) and the
minimum voids in mineral aggregates (VMA) are 4.5 and 17 percent
respectively.

Production of SMA is quite similar to standard hot mix asphalt (HMA). All the
feed system for HMA facility must be carefully calibrated prior to the
production of SMA. Manufacturers of stabilizing additives generally assist in
setting up, calibrating and monitoring the additive delivery system to the hot
mix producer. Production temperatures of SMA mixtures will vary according to
aggregates moisture content, weather conditions, grade of bitumen and type
of stabilizing additives used. A temperature of 145C-155C can be used for
production of SMA. While adding stabilizing additives (fibers) to aggregate
mixture, the mixing time should be increased slightly. This additional time
allows for the fiber to be sufficiently distributed in the aggregate mixture. After
that the required amount of bituminous binder should be injected and mixed
thoroughly. In a batch type hot /mix plant. The additional time, in both the dry
and wet mix cycles, may be increased from 5 to 15 seconds each.

Interim Conclusions

Due to the use of continuous type drum mix plant during the production of
SMA, the exact proportions of different constituent ingredients could not be
maintained properly and slight deviations occurred in the grading from the
specified limits, though best efforts were made to check all possible
combinations by taking the mixed material from the delivery and conveyor
belt. It was found that the system of controlling proportioning / blending
through the volt meter/ rpm is not satisfactory in terms of the output obtained.
In countries abroad, batch type hot mix plant is used for production of SMA. It
is suggested that in future if longer stretch is to be constructed with SMA, it
should be done through a drum mix plant having computerized control panel
duly regulating the exact quantity of proportioned ingredients or by a batch
type hot mix plant system in order to achieve the desirable grading of SMA.


51
The above test sections will be monitored at six months interval for two years
(pre-monsoon and post-monsoon) to find out the performance of SMA
surfacing on intersections in one of the busiest corridor of Delhi Roads.

Reports/Publications

1. C. Kamaraj, Dr. P.K. Jain, Dr. V.K. Sood and Prof. P.K. Sikdar Design
of Stone Matrix Asphalt Using Different Stabilizing Additives. Journal of
Indian Roads Congress, April 2006, Vol-67(1).

2. Dr. S. Bose, C. Kamaraj and Dr. P.K. Nanda, Stone Mastic Asphalt
A Long Life Pavement Surface, International Seminar on Innovations
in Construction and Maintenance of Flexible Pavements, Agra, 2-4 Sep
2006, Indian Roads Congress.

3. C. Kamaraj, B.M. Sharma, P.K. Nanda and S.C. Raghav Stone Mastic
Asphalt An Overview, National Conference on Road Making,
Methods, Materials and Machines for Economy, Quality and Speed,
Sponsored by All India Council for Technical Education and Co-
Sponsored by Govt. of M.P. Deptt. of Public Works held at Lakshmi
Narain College of Technology, Bhopal, April 21-23, 2007.


4. Study to Prevent Reflecting Cracks on Bituminous Overlay over
Cracked Concrete Pavement using Geotextile

Date of Start: May 1999

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

The performance study of experimental stretches constructed using different
techniques on Kim Mandvi road will be continued during the year and the
analysis of data is under progress.


C. NEW PROJECTS

1. Investigation on Field Performance of Bituminous Mixes with
Modified Binders

Date of Start: March 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi (S)

Scope and Objectives

52
- To study the performance of bituminous mixes with crumb rubber, natural
rubber and SBS & SBR Polymer modified binders and waste plastics only.
- The total length to be covered under the present study will be 20 km
located in the state of Karnataka, which will be identified by the Regional
Officer, Bangalore.
- The total length of 20 km whose performance evaluation is to be carried
out will be divided into four parts and each part will be treated with different
binders namely ordinary bitumen, PMB, CRMB and the bitumen mixed
with waste plastic.
- Supervision on the plant site at the time of the mixing of the plastic waste
with bitumen as well as during laying of mixes in the field in the entire 20
km length to be carried out.
- The bituminous layer constructed using the modified binders will be
evaluated for their performance in terms of rut depth, crack area, pot hole
area, structural adequacy in terms of deflections and riding quality
measurements in terms of unevenness index.
- The performance of various modifiers will be quantified in terms of
pavement condition index and unevenness index. The life cycle cost of
various modified binders will be evaluated duly considering the traffic,
climate and environmental conditions.

Methodology

(i) Marshall specimens will be prepared in the laboratory and the properties
of bituminous concrete mixes will be studied.
(ii) The properties of various binders will be studied in the laboratory and
their variations in their performance will be evaluated.
(iii) Core samples will be taken from the test tracks constructed using
modified binders and their properties will be evaluated.
(iv) Fatigue performance of bituminous mixes using various modified binders
will be studied over a period of three years and will be evaluated in terms
of rut depth, crack area, pot hole area and riding quality.
(v) Models will be developed to predict the performance of pavements
overlaid with different mixes using modified binders.
(vi) To ensure appropriate application of binders, specifications for various
types of construction using PMB, CRMB and the bitumen mixed with
waste plastic will be prepared.
(vii) The cost comparisons for 25mm SDBC and 40mm BC laid with ordinary
bitumen, PMB, CRMB and bitumen mixed with waste plastic shall be
carried out.
(viii) The longevity of the bituminous concrete mixes overlaid with various
modified binders will be quantified.

Interim Conclusions

The stretch of about 20 km length on which performance evaluation is to be
carried out has been identified.

Significance/ Utilization potential

53
This study envisages evaluating the performance of various modifiers used in
bituminous concrete layers in terms of rut depth, crack area, pot hole area,
structural adequacy in terms of deflections and riding quality measurement in
unevenness index. The performance of various modifiers will be quantified in
terms of pavement condition index and unevenness index. The life cycle of
various modified binders will be evaluated which will be of great help in
selecting various kinds of modified binders considering the traffic, climate and
environmental factors.


2. Development of Quality Bitumen from Refinery Components of
AOD

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad (R)

Scope and Objectives

To develop quality bitumen, meeting IS: 73 specification, using refinery
components of AOD.

Progress

Different refinery streams from AOD & other refineries were procured and
evaluated for determining their properties. Paving grade bitumens VG-10 &
VG-20 were developed meeting IS: 73-2006 specifications.

Conclusions

Paving grade bitumens VG-10 & VG-20 were successfully developed meeting
IS: 73-2006 specifications.


3. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Bituminous Products

Date of Start: April 2006

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad (R)

Scope and Objectives

To evaluate and compare the mechanical properties like dynamic creep,
indirect products tensile strength, stiffness modulus and Marshall strengths
etc. using bituminous products namely conventional bitumen, crumb rubber
modified bitumen, polymer modified bitumen & multigrade bitumens through
Materials testing apparatus & Marshall apparatus.

Methodology

54
The aggregate gradation of Bituminous Concrete (Grade 1), as per MOSRTH
specification, will be used for the mix preparation. Bituminous specimens will
be prepared with bituminous products using Marshall apparatus and Gyratory
compactor. Marshall specimens will be tested for Marshall strengths and flow.
Specimens prepared with gyratory compactor will be tested for dynamic
creep, indirect tensile strength and stiffness modulus etc.


4. Development of Polymer Modified Bitumen using Elastomeric
Thermoplastic Polymers

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad (R)

Scope and Objectives

To develop three grades of Polymer modified bitumens namely PMB-40,
PMB-70 and PMB-120 using SBS.

Methodology

PMB-40, PMB-70 and PMB-120 formulations developed using conventional
penetration grade bitumen 80/100, other refinery streams and Styrene
butadiene-styrene polymer in the pilot plant, meeting IS:15462-2004
specification.

Conclusions
All three grades of polymer modified bitumens meet IS:15462-2004
specification.


5. Construction and Performance Evaluation of Trial Sections laid
with Multigrade Bitumen

Date of start: May 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)
(ii) Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad (S)

Scope and objectives

Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) has developed a new type of bitumen that may
be suitable for a wide range of climatic conditions varying from very hot to
very cold. IOC requested CRRI to evaluate this product and render technical
advise on design of bituminous mixes and construction supervision including
quality control during production of hot mix, its laying and compaction on trial
sections. Subsequently, it is planned to undertake evaluation of trial sections
at an interval of 6 months for a period of about 3 years.

55
- Evaluate the Multigrade for its ability to show superior mix performance as
compared to the conventional mix, and check whether it affects the
properties like, Optimum asphalt content, Structural strength of asphalt mix
such as Marshall stability, Rutting potential, Fatigue properties and Creep
etc.,
- Lay trial sections using Multigrade bitumen and conventional bitumen and
then compare the performance of control section and trial section

Progress

The test sections have been laid between km.26.800 to 28.000 on Jaisalmer-
Ramgarh road using four different types of bituminous surfacing namely
Premix carpet(20mm), Mix seal surfacing(40mm), Semi dense bituminous
concrete(40mm) and Bituminous concrete(40mm). Each surfacing has been
laid for a length of 300 m using three types of binders namely 80/100 pen.
grade, 60/70 pen. grade and multigrade (100 m each).

Interim Conclusions

The 1
st
performance evaluation of test sections through visual inspection has
been done in Oct 2006. The surface condition shows no signs of ravelling or
cracking. However, all the surfacing types laid with multigrade bitumen and
60/70 bitumen are performing better than the surface laid with 80/100
bitumen. The functional and structural evaluations such as Benkelman
Deflection study (BBD) and Roughness by Bump Integrator (BI) were also
done.

Recommendations

Performance evaluation of trial sections will continue.


6. Development of Bitumen Emulsion based Cold Mix Technology
for Structural Layers of Flexible Pavement in different Climates

Date of Start: July 2005

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R,I)
(ii) Mizoram PWD (I)
(iii) Border Roads Organisation (I)

Scope and Objectives

The objectives and scope of this study are given as under:
- To develop emulsion formulations for different types of aggregates
available in India for design of Bituminous Macadam (BM) and Semi
Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using bitumen emulsions
- To develop performance based mix design procedure
56
- Field trials by laying test sections with bituminous macadam and semi
dense bituminous concrete in desert, cold and high rainfall areas using hot
mix plant and paver
- To develop guidelines/ specifications for design and construction of
structural layers using cold mixes.

Progress

- The cold mix designs of BM and SDBC have been carried out to optimize
water content and bitumen emulsion.
- Test sections with BM + SDBC and BM + MSS using cationic bitumen
emulsion laid on Dantaur- Khajuwala Road in Rajasthan.
- Test sections with BM + SDBC using cationic bitumen emulsion laid in
Aizawl (Mizoram in N.E. Region)
- These test sections are currently under performance observations.
- Test sections in cold climate are still to be laid.
- The tentative specifications of SDBC, BM and MSS with bitumen
emulsions are currently being prepared.


Interim Conclusions

- The cold mix of bituminous macadam using bitumen emulsion can be
produced with Hot Mix Plant without heating arrangement.
- The performance of test sections laid with BM + SDBC and BM + MSS
using emulsion in Rajasthan has been good so far.

Significance/Utilization Potential

- Tentative specifications of SDBC, BM and MSS with cationic bitumen
emulsions are currently being prepared.
- The cold mix technology can be conveniently adopted for BM as binder
course and for SDBC as wearing course in cold, humid and wet climates.
- This technology can also be suitably used with marginal aggregates in
N.E. Region.

Test sections in cold climate are still to be laid.

The tentative specifications of SDBC, BM and MSS with bitumen emulsions
are currently being prepared.


7. Laboratory study to evaluate the effect of Warm Asphalt on
strength properties of Bituminous Mixes

Date of Start: July 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (I,R)

57
Scope and Objectives

Production of hot mix asphalt in urban areas is a serious environmental
problem due to high emissions at high temperature. It is thus logical to reduce
mix production temperatures without compromising with the mix properties.
Towards this end, the concept of warm-mix asphalt has been introduced in
different parts of the world, over the last few years. Warm-mix asphalt is
produced at temperatures in the range of 115
o
C to 135
o
C, lower than the
typical hot-mix asphalt temperatures. Hence, temperature reduction in mix
production would substantially reduce emissions and result in energy savings.

Limited studies in the laboratory have been undertaken to quantify the effect
of low mix temperature on pavement performance. The objectives and scope
of the work are stated as follows:
- Evaluate admixture used for production of warm asphalt for its ability to
bring down the mixing and compaction temperatures as compared to the
conventional mix. Also, check whether it affects the properties like,
Compactability of asphalt mix, Optimum asphalt content, Strength of
asphalt mix such as Marshall stability and on performance characteristics
such as Rutting potential, fatigue and Creep etc.
- Compare the level of emissions of some gases like NO, Styrene, Toluene,
Xylene and Benzene at low and high temperatures in the laboratory using
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analyzer.

Progress

The laboratory study has been conducted on Bituminous concrete mixes by
preparing samples using Marshall method. The samples were casted in the
laboratory for mixes obtained with 60/70 bitumen and warm asphalt at
different temperatures and tested for moisture sensitivity, fatigue life, rutting
potential and indirect tensile strength to determine the effect of warm asphalt
on performance.

Laboratory study on warm mixes has been completed and further works
related to the laying of trial sections are under progress.


Interim Conclusions

The optimum binder contents for conventional and modified (warm asphalt)
mixes were found to be the same. The optimum content of admixture in the
warm mix was found to be about 3% by the weight of bitumen. The optimum
mixing and compaction temperatures for warm mix were found to be 120
o
C.
The other performance parameters like indirect tensile strength, creep, fatigue
and rutting potential of warm asphalt mix compacted at different temperatures,
were also comparable with reference to conventional mix compacted at
155
o
C.

Significance/Utilization Potential

58
Warm asphalt mixes will conserve energy and thus will be more economical
and environmental friendly in comparison to the conventional hot mixes.


8. Blending of Non Biodegradable Plastic Wastes and their use in
Road Construction

Date of start: February 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (I)
(ii) Indian Centre for Plastics in the Environment, ICPE (S)

Scope and objectives

The study would evaluate the feasibility of using non bio-degradable plastic
wastes for development of modified bituminous mixes for use in road
construction. Various types of non-biodegradable polyolefin plastic wastes
(supplied by M/S Indian Centre for Plastic in the Environment, New Delhi)
would be tried for dispersal in bitumen. Design and characteristics of modified
bituminous mixes containing waste plastics would be carried out.

Progress

Samples of Polyethylene and Polypropylene, non-biodegradable plastic
wastes in the form of pellets, were supplied by the Indian Centre for Plastic in
the Environment, New Delhi. Different dosages (1 to 4% by the weight of
bitumen) of these samples were mixed with hot melt 80/100 penetration grade
paving bitumen and the resulting blend was stirred at 160 degree Celsius for
two hours. Properties of the neat bitumen and blended bitumens were
determined in the laboratory, as per BIS 15462. Marshall samples with
optimum binder content of 5.5% by weight of mix, both for conventional
bitumen and modified bituminous binder, were tested to evaluate Marshall
Stability, Retained Stability and Indirect Tensile Strength. The rutting
behaviour at 50
0
C, until 20,000 cycles, was studied using Wheel tracking
system, as per BS: 598.

Interim conclusions

Based on the R&D studies carried out, the following conclusions were drawn:
Polyethylene (PE) and Polypropylene (PP) were partially dispersible
(miscible) in hot bitumen. Marshall Stability, Retained Stability and Indirect
Tensile Strength of Modified Bituminous Concrete (BC) mixes were
significantly higher than the conventional BC mixes. Modified mixes
containing 3% PE modified binder have shown marginally higher stability
and indirect tensile strength as compared to the mixes prepared with PP-
modified binder. Insoluble pellets in partially modified binders were
accommodated in graded aggregates in BC mixes and these mixes were
found to be having better engineering properties including rut resistant.

Significance/Utilization potential
59

Disposal problem of plastic waste will be solved for the benefit of environment
and society as a whole.


9. Cost Effective Materials and Technologies for Construction and
Maintenance of Rigid and Flexible Pavement: Development of
Materials for Thin Surfacing for Flexible and Rigid Pavements

Date of Start: April 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (I)

Scope and objectives

To check the quality of ingredients used for thin surfacing (Microsurfacing)
and performance evaluation of Microsurfacing on Delhi roads.

Methodology

Micro surfacing using SBS based modified bitumen emulsion was executed
on various road locations in Delhi. Quality control was also exercised during
the laying of Microsurfacing by checking the grading of dry aggregates,
cement and quality of modified emulsion used. Cationic bitumen emulsion
(slow setting grade) was used for micro surfacing work. Various tests such as
Storage Stability, Residual on 600 micron, Viscosity by Saybolt furol
Viscometer, Particle charge, Coagulation of emulsion at low temperature,
Residue by evaporation and tests on residue like Elastic Recovery,
Penetration and Softening Point were carried out. The rate of application of
constituent ingredients (per square meter) was also checked during the
execution of work. Benkelman Beam Deflection and Roughness studies using
Bump Integrator on various roads before and after the laying of Micro
surfacing, were also carried out. Performance of these roads will be monitored
for a period of about three years.

Interim conclusions

Quality of binder, aggregate and cement used for microsurfacing were found
to be as per the specifications. Rate of application of constituent ingredients
were also found to be as per the specified quantity.

Significance/Utilization potential

Being a cold mix process, microsurfacing is an environmental friendly
technology which improves the performance of roads. As a thin layer (6 to 10
mm), microsurfacing is an effective technology towards reducing the levels of
road besides arresting the propagation of distresses.

Reports /publications

60
1 Report entitled Development of Materials for thin surfacing for Flexible
and rigid pavements has been prepared in March 2007.

2 Research paper entitled Evaluation of Materials for Quality Control during
Microsurfacing on Delhi Roads, Sangita, S. Bose and P.K. Nanda,
International Seminar on Innovations in Construction and Maintenance of
Flexible Pavements, 2-4 September, 2006, Agra


10. Creating Correlation between Soil Stiffness, Field Density and
CBR

Date of Start: August 2006

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R, S, C, I)

Scope and Objectives

Flexible pavement is designed based on the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of
subgrade soil and traffic intensity. Long time is required to conduct the field
and laboratory tests to find out the CBR values.

Considering the present day requirement, it has been proposed to find out a
reliable alternative quick method to find out the strength of subgrade soil.

The object of this scheme is to create a correlation between Soil stiffness,
Field Density, Moisture content and CBR.

Methodology

Field tests will be carried out to find out the soil stiffness, field density and field
moisture content.

Conducting laboratory tests to find out Proctor density, CBR at Proctor density
and Field density.

On completion of field and laboratory tests, all the data will be analyzed and
correlation(s) will be developed.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

Soil stiffness could be quickly found in the field. If correlation(s) can be
developed between Soil stiffness Field Density and CBR, then flexible
pavement can be designed very easily.

The correlation will also be useful for carrying out quality control checks
during construction and also ensuring percentage of compaction of
embankment (fill) material.
61


3. RIGID PAVEMENTS


SUMMARY

The progress of work reported in the area of rigid pavement comprises
use of high performance materials, marginal material in concrete work.

Under the completed projects, highlights are on the Fibre Reinforced
Concrete for Construction and Repair of Concrete Pavements, Studies on
Flakiness and Elongation Index Indices of Aggregates in Different Layers of
bituminous and rigid pavements.

Work had been taken up on Study of Using lead Zinc Slag as fine
Aggregate for the Construction of Embankments, Granular Sub-base, Cement
Concrete and Bituminous Layers.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Effect of Flakiness and Elongation Indices of Aggregates in Different
Layers of bituminous and rigid pavements
2. High performance concrete for construction & repair of rigid pavements
3. Use of Zn-Pb slag in road work

62
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS

1. Studies on Flakiness and Elongation Indices of Aggregates in
Different Layers of Bituminous and Rigid Pavements

Duration: July 2005 to October 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

- Engineering properties of aggregates (quartazite) and other constituents of
bituminous and concrete mixes were determined, and results were
analyzed
- Cement concrete mixes containing up to 100% flaky and bituminous mixes
containing up to 60 % flaky aggregates were studied.
- One day workshop on Aggregates- Flakiness and Elongation Indices
(WSOA-2006) was organized on June 13, 2006 by CRRI at New Delhi.
Recommendation were prepared and circulated.

Findings/Conclusions

The study indicates that neglecting the flakiness indices affects the strength of
concrete pavement.

A limit of flakiness index of 40 % may be considered as maximum value for M
40 and higher grade of concrete.

Recommendations

Further studies are required on different types of aggregates for different
grades of concrete before fixing any limitation on flaky aggregates.

Report/Publications

Final Report has been prepared and as a outcome of the project, research
paper entitled Effect of Flakiness Indices on the Properties of Aggregates and
Cement Concrete by J.B Sengupta, Satander Kumar submitted to IRC for
publication in the IRC Journal.


2. High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Construction and
Repair of Concrete Pavements

Duration: April 2002 to March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, C, I)
(ii) Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai (I)
(iii) Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur (I)

63
Present Status and Progress

The evaluation of the road stretches laid in the CRRI campus, HRDC campus
Ghaziabad, Meethapur (Badarpur), Mumbai, Mool Chand Underpass, New
Delhi, Pune etc, made with fibre reinforced concrete using various types of
fibres viz. poly propylene fibres, steel fibres, and polyester fibres was made at
an interval of six to nine months upto March 2007.

Final Reports have been prepared on different objectives.

Findings/Conclusions

- There is a saving of natural conventional materials.
- Saving in energy by use of fly ash / silica fume etc.
- Make the environment less polluted by making the roads or their repairing
with high performance materials vis-a-vis conventional materials.
- Synthetic/polymeric fibres both polyester and propylene give almost the
same performance during service in concrete pavement and marginally
enhances the properties such as strength and minimizing plastic shrinkage
cracking.
- Demonstration stretches using high performance fibre reinforced concrete
have been laid in different parts of the country.

Recommendations

High performance materials are being used now for making city and low
volume roads in the country, thereby achieving good quality roads with a
saving in life cycle cost. High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete is
suitable for making Ultra Thin White Topping (UTWT) for strengthening of
bituminous roads and for repair of concrete structures.


B. ON GOING PROJECTS

1. Use of Sulfonated Melamine Formaldehyde Super Plasticizer
(SMF) and Fly Ash in Cement Concrete Roads

Date of Start: March 2004

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

The agency for the construction work of experimental stretches is finalized.
On start of execution, the monitoring of work will be taken up on hand.


C. NEW PROJECTS


64
1. Study of using lead zinc slag as fine aggregate for the
construction of embankments, granular sub-base, cement
concrete and bituminous layers

Date of Start: October 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Hindustan Zinc Limited, Chanderiya Lead Zinc Smelter, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan (S)

Scope and Objective

To evaluate the use of Zinc slag as fine aggregate in embankment, subgrade,
granular sub-base, bituminous mixes, dry lean concrete and pavement quality
concrete.

Methodology

Different proportions of zinc slag were used as fine aggregate in soil-slag
mixes, bituminous mixes, dry lean concrete mixes and pavement quality
concrete mixes to see the effect of using slag on the properties of all the
mixes and the optimum content of slag to be used in different pavement
layers was determined.

Conclusions

- Slag soil mix with 75 % lead zinc slag and 25 % soil can be used in
embankment and subgrade construction.
- A mixture of 50 % slag and 50 % soil has better CBR and permeability
characteristics and can be used in sub-base layer.
- About 15 % slag along with 15 % stone dust can be mixed with
conventional aggregates to arrive at the specified gradation of Wet Mix
Macadam (WMM).
- About 10 % slag along with 5 % stone dust can be used to satisfy the
gradation requirements both for Bituminous Macadam Grade I and Grade
II.
- In both grades of Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM), about 25 % of
conventional fine aggregates can be replaced with slag.
- In both grades of Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC), 15 % slag
can be used along with 20 % stone dust.
- About 20 % slag along with 20 % stone dust can be used in Grade I
Bituminous Concrete (BC). For Grade II BC, 5 % slag along with 46 %
stone dust can be used.
- About 30 % slag can be used in both pavement quality concrete and dry
lean concrete mixes.

65


III. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING



SUMMARY


Landslides Investigations, use of geotextiles, slope protection works
and use of waste and marginal material management are major areas in
geotechnical engineering, which have received major research thrust during
the year 2006-07. The progress of research work reported in the geotechnical
engineering comprises of the following studies like, stabilization and long term
stability for landslides, GIS based subsurface geotechnical map of Delhi, soil
nailing techniques, geotextile mattresses, erosion control measures,
investigation and design of railway embankment using fly ash, use of copper
slag in road and embankment construction, use of jute geotextile for efficient
road drainage and stabilization.



SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1 Investigation of landslides and problems of sinking in hill roads
2 Instrumentation and monitoring of landslides to have a quantitative
relationship of different factors affecting slope stability
3 Soil Nailing techniques for slope stabilisation
4 GIS Based Subsurface Map
5 Use of waste materials produced such as copper slag, fly ash and
construction /demolition wastes etc in road and embankment
construction
6 Use of jute geotextile for stabilization, separation and drainage in road
pavements





66
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS


4. Study on the Use of Copper Slag in Road and Embankment
Construction

Duration: January 2006 to November 2006

(i) M/s Sterilite Industries (India) Ltd., Tuticorin, Tamilnadu(S)
(ii) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

Finding/Conclusions

Based on detailed laboratory investigations on the physical and chemical
characteristics of copper slag, different alternative design specifications were
evaluated in the laboratory for the possible use of copper slag in bound and
unbound bases and sub-bases of a road pavement. The laboratory studies
have indicated that copper slag can be used in various layers of road
pavement, such as in granular sub-base/base and in bituminous bound bases
and wearing course. It was also found to be suitable for use in cement
concrete pavements.

Recommendations

It is recommended that experimental test tracks be laid near copper plant to
evaluate the performance of various specifications developed during
laboratory tests. The result of field trials would eventually help in evolving
suitable specifications for use of copper slag in different layers of road
pavement.

Publications

1. A report on Use of Copper Slag Wastes in Road and Embankment
Construction, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
2. Feasibility of Copper Slag-Flyash-Soil Mix as a Road Construction
Material by Dr Vasant, Sudhir Mathur, P.S. Prasad: Transportation
Research Board (TRB), No 1989, Volume 2, 2007

5. GIS Based Subsurface Geotechnical Map of Delhi

Duration: March 2002 to March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Department of Science & Technology (S)

Present Status and Progress
67

Completed

Finding/Conclusions

A database of 1776 borehole data pertaining to various aspects of
geotechnical properties of soil & rock of Delhi was finalized and attached with
GIS map of Delhi.

The data has been distributed district wise so as to understand the
characteristics of soil/rock in each district and compare each other. Delhi has
nine districts and accordingly the data has been also distributed.

Each district is represented with the borehole data falling within their territory
and each borehole is attached with the GIS database so that on query
database of any borehole can be seen.

Maps pertaining to some properties of soil, important for estimating the
probable effect of earthquake, have been prepared such as N value, Density,
Type of soil, Water depth, Rock depth etc. The data got programmed in such
a way that different ranges of N values are highlighted based on their depths.
GIS based N value maps of each districts at different depth were prepared as
and when required using the database.

The short listed data has been provided to Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre
(EREC) and IMD. EREC has prepared liquefaction potential map of Delhi
based on data provided under the project.

Recommendations

The attempt of preparing subsurface database of Delhi based on the
information available with many private/public/government organizations is
first of its kind initiated by CRRI. The database prepared has already been
used by Earthquake Research and Evaluation Centre and IMD for preparing
liquefaction potential map of Delhi. The data has been finalized on the basis
of 1776 boreholes data collected from different organization/agencies. It is felt
that still much more data is available with many other organizations, which
has not been provided/made available due to various reasons. If all the data is
collected and the current database is updated, it is believed that the strong
database will be far more useful for estimating the degree of risk to the
infrastructure during the earthquakes of given magnitude. These
recommendations are being given to DST so that the projects are funded for
collecting more data for this purpose.

Publications

A report on GIS Based Subsurface Geotechnical Map of Delhi submitted to
Department of Science and Technology.


68
6. Microzonation Map of Delhi

Duration: August 2004 to March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Department of Science and Technology (S)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

Finding/Conclusions

- Various thematic maps such as Geological, geomorphological, Rock
depth, Water depth, Seismo-tectonic, Population, have been prepared
for microzonation map of Delhi.
- Subsurface geotechnical map of Delhi supported with database having
depth wise information about the type of soil, rocks and their various
properties for integrating with other thematic information layers and
analysis for preparation of microzonation maps of Delhi.
- First cut microzonation map of Delhi was released by Earthquake Risk
Evaluation Centre (EREC) using the above inputs

Recommendations

CRRI, along with EREC has prepared above mentioned thematic maps based
on which the first cut microzonation map of Delhi. The map prepared is in the
scale of 1:50,000, which may be used just for preliminary assessment
purposes but we require a map in such a scale which can be used for
estimating the risk to infrastructures including the buildings in case of any
earthquake of given magnitude. For this purpose DST has already initiated
the programme and EREC has taken the responsibility to produce large scale
microzonation map of Delhi.


4. Suitability of Locally Available Materials for Road Construction in
Kerala Use of Waste Plastics for Road Construction

Duration: April 2005 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

The aim of the project is to conduct field and laboratory investigations to
identify the locally available materials for road construction in the coastal belt
of Kerala.

69
Soil samples are collected from the identified locations along coastal road and
tests are conducted for identification, shear, compression, swell
characteristics, CBR, compaction etc. Materials like red earth, laterite soil,
quarry dust etc. will be added in different proportions and the properties
studied. Sand replacement method is used to find out the field density.
Benkelman Beam Deflection test at the locations are also done to find out the
rebound deflection.

Subgrade soil from 6 locations along three roads in coastal area is collected,
and is being tested.

Findings/Conclusions

The field density conducted in the subgrade soil of the above roads reveals
that they are very loosely compacted and the field density is well below the
normal subgrade density. The grain size analysis shows that the subgrade
soil consists of native sandy soil.

The findings of the study will help in adopting more scientific solutions to the
problems encountered for road construction in the coastal belt of Kerala.


5. Suitability of Locally Available Materials for Road Construction in
Kerala Use of Coir Waste and Rice Husk Ash for Sub Grade Soil
Stabilization

Duration: April 2005 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

- Study the feasibility of untreated coir wastes for modifying the design
parameters of pavement layers.
- Study on the use of rice husk ash in road construction.
- Performance evaluation of the test track laid using the above mile
stones.
- Collection of waste material from RUBCO and soil samples from
selected locations.
- Laboratory tests on natural soil and fibre mixed/ ash mixed soils with
different percentages.
- Design of the optimum fibre / ash content for maximum strength
characteristics.


B. ON GOING PROJECTS


70
3. Investigation of Landslide at Kaliasaur on NH-58 and Design of
Control Measures for Long Term Stability

Date of Start: April 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Department of Science and Technology (S)
(iii) Border Roads Organisation.

Scope and Objectives

- Detailed topographical, geological, Geomorphological, geotechnical
investigation and mapping of the area.
- Field and laboratory Investigation for geological and geotechnical
properties of slope materials.
- Installation and Monitoring of instruments.
- Analysis of data.
- Design of remedial measures.
- Preparation of final report.

Present Status and Progress

- Topographical map (base map) of the area is prepared using total station
on a scale of 1:500. Total area surveyed was 81.67 Ha.
- Preliminary Geological, Geomorphological and material distribution
mapping of the area was also done in the scale of 1:500 using the base
map.
- 20 numbers of specially designed steel Pedestals were installed on the
slope for monitoring the movement. All the pedestals have been marked
on the base map locating them on the field by the Precision Differential
Global Positioning System (DGPS).
- 10 numbers of bench marks have also been placed on the ground for
future reference purposes. Geographic location of the entire bench marks
have been fixed on the ground using Survey of India coordinates DGPS
results and Total station.


4. Investigation of Unstable slope on North Eastern Side of the IIRS
Campus and Suitable Measures for its Prevention

Date of Start: April 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun(S, I)

Scope and Objectives

- Detailed topographical, geological, Geomorphological, geotechnical
investigation and mapping.
71
- Field and laboratory Investigation for geological and geotechnical
properties of slope materials.
- Analysis of data & calculation of factor of safety of the slope with and without
seismic considerations.
- Design of remedial measures.
- Preparation of final report.

Present Status and Progress

- Topographical map of the area is prepared using total station on a scale
of 1:500 with 0.5m contour intervals. Total more than 5000 point data was
collected using precision total station.
- Laboratory testing of the slope material is completed.
- Factor of safety calculation was done using GEO 4 Software with and
without consideration of seismic factor
- Suggested suitable remedial measures for prevention of slope like Soil
Nailing, Vegetative Turfing, Stone Pitching, Provision of drainage etc
- Draft report submitted to the client


3. Use of Jute Geotextile for Efficient Road Drainage and
Stabilization

Date of Start: July 2005

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Jute Manufacturers development Council (S)
(iii) National Rural Road Development Agency (I)

Scope and Objectives

The main objective of the R&D project is to evaluate the beneficial effects of
the use of jute geotextile in the road construction. The following aspects have
been considered in the study.

- To assess the performance of the jute geotextile as a separation layer,
preventing the intrusion of subgrade material into the sub base/base and
improvement in the bearing capacity of the subgrade.
- To assess the performance of jute geotextile as a drainage layer, draining
away the water that percolates down the upper layers of the pavement.
- To assess the benefit of jute geotextile as a supporting system for
constructing embankment on soft ground (slushy soil, marshy soil)
- To assess the benefit as a facilitator of growth of turf on embankment
slopes and earthen slopes and earthen shoulders and hill slopes.
- Preparation of guidelines for use of agro based geotextiles and,
dissemination of findings.

Present Status and Progress

72
In order to determine the above benefits ten roads have been identified in five
states namely West Bengal, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Assam and Madhya
Pradesh. The construction of test tracks under the supervision of respective
state authorities, Central Road Research Institute Jute Manufacturers
Development Council is presently under progress and is at different stages of
completion. The completed road sections shall be monitored over a period of
2 years to assess the beneficial effects of jute geotextile in a road pavement
in terms of its performance both structurally as well as functionally.


4. Guidelines for Soil Nailing Technique in Highway Engineering

Date of Start: December 2006

(i) Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi ( S)

Present Status and Progress

- Appraisal of design and analysis methods for soil nailing with reference to
some case studies in India and abroad.
- Analysis for failure modes for soil nailing technology.
- Analysis of construction methods for soil nailing, and
- Development of guidelines for different types of loading conditions
including earthquake loading.

Interim Conclusions

The study will help in evolving guidelines for different types of loading
conditions including earthquake loading for different soil conditions. It will also
help in development of specifications for the application of soil nailing
technology related to Highway and Bridge Engineering for different soil and
drainage conditions.

Reports/ Papers

1. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Vikas Pratap Singh (2007) Stabilization of
Vertical-Cut using Soil Nailing A Numerical Analysis (2007) National
Confefence on Geotechnical Engineering, (GEOTECHNICA), Central
Soils and Materials Research Station, New Delhi.
2. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Vikas Pratap Singh (2007) Finite element
analysis of prototype soil nailed walls a case study, submitted for
possible publication in journals of IRC.


5 Analysis of Embankment Failures Due to Earthquake

Date of Start: February 2005

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (R)
73

Present Status and Progress

- Review of methodologies for assessment of dam failures due to
earthquakes.
- Collection and synthesis of data of dam failures of Bhuj Earthquake. The
data includes sections before and after failure, soil properties etc.
- Analysis of failures, and
- Development of design guidelines considering methods for soil
improvement and improvement of liquefaction resistance.

Recommendations

Design of dams for seismic stability needs to incorporate rigorous design and
analysis procedures for liquefaction resistance of foundation soils, proper
constitutive models for soils and under static and dynamic behavior.

Reports/ Publications

1. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Rajaparthy (2005) Analysis of earthquake
induces displacements of embankments, Indian Geotechnical Journal,
35(4), 349-364.
2. Analysis of stability of earthen dams in Kachchh region, Gujrat, India,
Engineering Geology Journal (Elseiver publication) in print


C. NEW PROJECTS

1. Design of Railway Embankment using Pond Ash

Date of Start: March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
(ii) National Thermal Power Corporation
(iii) RDSO, Lucknow

Scope and Objectives

- Geotechnical characterization of pond ash and soil samples.
- Design of different types of cross sections of embankment for field
construction.
- Preparation of method statement for construction of railway embankment
along with quality control procedures.
- Scheme for installation of instruments and monitoring of railway
embankment.
- Analysis of field data for final recommendation.

Methodology

74
In this project, feasibility of pond ash as a fill material in railway embankment
is investigated. In a railway embankment, the settlement of fill material should
be negligible in order to maintain the level of railway track. Drainage of
embankment should be well maintained in order to avoid development of any
pore water pressure. In view of these points, an efficient, economic and
suitable cross sections of embankment should be designed. Pond ash and
local soils shall be collected and characterized for their geotechnical
characteristics. The data of sub soil characteristics of site where the
embankment has to be constructed would be collected. Using the laboratory
data and sub soil data different types of cross sections shall be designed. The
coal ash railway embankment would be designed as a composite structure
with coal ash in the core and with good earth cover on the sides. The
feasibility of cement concrete/gabion retaining wall at the toe of the
embankment would also be investigated. Stability analysis of embankment
would be carried out considering saturation/sudden draw down conditions, live
load, and seismic factors. The feasibility of use geogrids, geotextiles in railway
embankment especially in Reinforced earth wall construction shall also be
investigated. The section would be designed as per BS 8006. The finalized
cross sections would be constructed and properly instrumented. Different
instruments that would be installed include: piezometers, settlement gauges
and inclinometer. The monitoring of instruments over a period of time would
establish the performance of pond ash as a fill material.

Significance/Utilisation potential

The success of the project would definitely increase the percentage utilisation
of coal ash. The technology would not only provide alternative to good earth
which is at present widely used for construction of railway embankment but
also results in economy and environmental protection.


3. Utilisation of Construction & Demolition (C&D) Wastes in Road
Works

Date of Start : Nov 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
(ii) Municipal Corporation of Delhi (S)

Scope and Objectives

Construction & Demolition (C&D) Wastes consists of the materials generated
during the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and other
structures. The present project has been taken up to evaluate feasibility of
using C&D waste materials for road construction as fill material, in stabilized
form and as a component of concrete and bituminous pavement layers. The
objectives of the project include characterisation of C&D Wastes to determine
its physical, chemical and engineering properties and laboratory feasibility
study on usage of C&D waste in stabilized mixes, cement concrete and
bituminous mixes
75

Methodology

C&D wastes will be collected from MCD dumping yards. Detailed laboratory
tests will be carried out to determine the strength properties of C&D waste
and effect of brick/tile particles on strength properties. The improvement in
strength properties due to cement and lime stabilisation would be evaluated.
Usage of C&D waste for bituminous and concrete pavements will be
assessed.

Conclusions

The results of the test conducted so far, showed that C&D waste is a marginal
material having some of its strength properties slightly lesser than the
specified limits as per IRC/MOSRTH. However at the same time, it is non-
plastic, permeable and its strength can be improved by stabilisation. The
reduction in strength due to partial replacement of conventional aggregates in
a concrete mix with C&D aggregates is also on the lower side. However the
tests involving use of these aggregates in bituminous mixes have not yielded
satisfactory results. Hence C&D waste has the potential for utilising it in
Embankment, subgrade, Sub-base, Base and Concrete mixes of road
pavement.

Significance/ Utilisation Potential

Delhi city itself produces about 3000 tonnes of C&D waste every day.
Management of such huge quantity of waste puts enormous pressure on solid
waste management system. Use of C&D waste for road construction can be
actively considered by various municipal agencies of our country.

Recommendations
Field performance of C&D waste needs to be studied by constructing test
sections. To make a beginning in this direction it has been advocated that
C&D wastes be used for construction of low traffic volume colony roads/
widening works to be taken up by MCD in Delhi.
Reports/ Publication

A Report on Feasibility Study on Utilisation of Construction and Demolition
Waste for Road Works submitted to MCD, Delhi.

3. Erosion Control Measures for Roads in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat

Date of Start : Oct 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
(ii) Central Public Works Department (S)
(iii) National Buildings Construction Corporation (S)

Scope and Objectives

76
CPWD and NBCC are presently executing road works in Rann of Kutch,
Gujarat. Due harsh climatic conditions (high temperature, scanty but high
intensity rainfall), flooding in the flat plains of Rann, fast winds which produce
waves of high velocity and high salt content in soil/ponded water lead to
severe erosion of roads embankments constructed in this region. During
2006, the monsoon rains were of exceptional intensity and as a result vast
stretches of roads were affected due to erosion. This study has been taken up
for field investigation of affected stretches to determine causes of
embankment erosion, laboratory testing on soil/fill material samples and
design of erosion control measures for road/embankment side slope.

Progress

Field investigations were undertaken to record the damages suffered by the
road pavement/embankment due to recent floods. During field investigation,
fill soil, GSB, aggregate, moorum, sand and other construction material
samples were collected. These samples were tested at CRRI to establish their
engineering properties. Design of remedial measures was carried out by
dividing the affected areas into severely affected having a high degree of
vulnerability to flooding and not so severely affected areas where rill and
gulley erosion was noticed. Stability analysis of the embankment sections with
the proposed remedial measures was carried out using stability analysis
software.

Conclusions

The soil in the study area consists of silty clay. When this soil comes in
contact with salt, it loses its plasticity completely and it becomes highly
vulnerable to erosion. Due to harsh climatic and unsuitable soil conditions,
vegetation growth is also non-existent. The terrain in this area is also quite
flat. The road embankment height is also very nominal. As a result
overtopping also takes place at some locations. Such locations have been
identified and options for raising the height of embankment will be examined.
Toe wall construction will protect the embankment from erosion due to wave
action. Due to construction of gabion toe wall, stability of embankment is
expected to improve and the erosion due to wave action would be
considerably reduced. Non-woven polymeric geotextile will be adopted for
erosion control of embankment side slopes.

Significance/ Utilisation Potential

The terrain conditions in Rann of Kutch are unique. The remedial measures
developed can be adopted for erosion control of road embankments in similar
situations.

Recommendations

It has been proposed to monitor the performance of suggested erosion control
measures.

77
Reports/ Publication

A Report on Erosion Control Measures for Roads in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
submitted to CPWD and NBCC.

4. Investigation and remedial measures for sinking problem of NH-39
at km.214.240

Date of Start: March 2006

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R, I)
(ii) Border Roads Organisation (S)

Scope and Objectives

The problem of landslides, debris flow, debris slide, surface erosion, etc.,
frequently occurs in the hill areas of our country. If the shear stress due to
sliding mass exceeds the shear strength of the resisting soil along the failure
surface, the slope fails. The present studies were taken up for undertaking
field investigations to determine causes of Landslide at km.214.240 on NH-39
and to suggest suitable remedial measures to stabilize the landslide

Methodology

The CRRI team visited the site and conducted geological and geotechnical
investigations. Cross sections of slopes prone for sliding were plotted and soil
samples were collected. Seepage points, tension cracks in the ground, nature
of rocks, drainage pattern of the area, vegetation cover, repair measures
carried out by BRO, damage to existing building and other structures, bulk
density of in-situ soil, etc were noted. Laboratory tests were conducted at
CRRI on soil samples to determine their shear strength and other index
properties. Based on the data collected, stability analysis of unstable slopes
was carried out and various measures to improve the stability of unstable
slopes were suggested.

Conclusions

Although considerable amount of construction work has already been done by
the BRO for restoration of NH39, yet the area will require further
implementation of additional remedial measures at several deteriorated failure
prone locations to achieve improved stability condition of the slide area.
Remedial measures suggested for uphill slope above the existing NH-39
alignment included construction of road side drains, culverts at the end of
landslide affected portion, constructing stepped drainage chutes to safely take
away run-off water, sealing tension cracks, erosion control through promotion
of vegetation growth, etc. On the down hill slope remedial measures like
construction gabion toe wall, promoting vegetation growth through jute
netting, etc were suggested.

Significance/ Utilisation Potential
78

The National Highway 39 connects the Plains of Assam with the states of
Nagaland and Manipur and thus forms the main artery and life line of
communication between these states. NH39 is a National Highway which is
strategically very important. The NH-39 in the stretch between km 174.00 in
Nagaland and km 236.1 in Manipur experiences several landslides at different
locations which cause disruption to the traffic and damages to the structures
and agricultural land. One such severely affected location is at km 214.240.
The remedial measures proposed by CRRI are expected to stabilise the slope
at this location.

Recommendations

The landslide at km 214.240 on NH-39, is a complex landslide involving a
very wide area, comprising of several individual smaller slides. The remedial
measures suggested would help to stabilise the new alignment of NH39, but
they may be considered as short term measures. The catchment area for
surface run-off is very vast. Deforestation in the uphill area would cause
havoc for the buildings and road (NH39) below in the down hill side.
Domestic sewage water from the population settled on the uphill side adds to
the instability problem. It has been suggested to carry out regular monitoring
of the slide through settlement markers.

Reports/ Publication

A Report on Investigation and Remedial Measures for Sinking Problem of
NH39 at km 214.240 submitted to BRO, Nagaland.


5. Geo-textile Sand Container Mattresses (GSCM) Lining for
Temporary River Diversion Channels

Date of Start: October 2006

Hindustan Construction Company Limited (HCCL), Mumbai (R, I)

Scope and Objectives

This work was carried out to find and execute an alternative to the traditional
boulder in concrete ribs lining for diversion channels and river training and
protection. The method had to be cheaper and easy to execute without being
detrimental to the environment. The concept of geotextile sand container
mattresses (GSCM) was developed for the purpose. Design of all
components (filter lining, wire crates, geo-textile bags filled with local river bed
material), identification of appropriate materials and material suppliers, and
development of suitable construction methodology were carried out in the
project.

Progress

79
The GSCM lining can be considered to be made up of the following
components filter lining, MS crates, and, geotextile bags filled with river bed
material placed within the crates.

Unwoven geo-textiles were used as filter linings because of their excellent
properties, in terms of filtration, strength, etc. M.S. wire crates served as the
basic skeleton for the mattresses, and geo-textile bags filled with locally
available river bed material were placed within these crates, which were
secured with lids.

Design of components was carried out using principles of hydraulic and
geotechnical engineering considering parameters such as maximum
discharge, depth of flow, velocity impact of rolling boulders, properties of local
soil (permeability, cohesion) etc.

As far as construction is concerned, the geo-textile filter is first laid on the
excavated channel bed and sides, and made continuous by stitching across
joints using hand held industrial stitching machines. M.S. wire crates are then
placed on the filter, and, pre-stitched geo-textile bags filled with river bed
material are placed inside taking care that the voids are kept to a minimum.
The crate lid is closed and tied with M.S. lacing wires. Care was taken to
ensure that the filter was held in place at interface with structures, etc.

Interim Conclusions

The GSCM lining has been used successfully in the diversion channel of the
Teesta Low Dam Hydro Electric Project Stage-IV in Jalpaigudi, West Bengal.

The work involved 42424m
2
and 32327m
2
of lining in the bed and sides
respectively, over an approximately 800m long channel designed for a
maximum discharge of 5000 m
3
/s. The execution of total of about 74000m
2
of
lining was completed in only 40 working days.

Significance / Utilization Potential

Some of the salient features of GSCM lining are briefly mentioned below.
- Work upto 50000m
2
can be executed in a month, as against a normal
productivity of about 14000 m
2
in the case of traditional boulder lining.
- The method is estimated to result in 15 to 20 % savings in cost.
- The method is environment-friendly in terms of using indigenous river bed
material, and not relying on boulders, that need to be queried and
transported from other locations.
- Being labour intensive, the method also generates employment for local
population, besides reducing pollution levels through reduced use of heavy
machinery.
- Resource utilization can be optimized to a high degree because of multiple
fronts available for work, convenience of handling material and simplicity
of methodology
- The GSCM lining offers a lower value of Mannings coefficient n thereby
requiring lesser cross sectional area for a given discharge.
80
- The possibility of local damage to the lining (as seen in traditional linings
by way of removal or dislodging of boulders) is greatly reduced as the
complete lining acts as a homogeneous body. Being flexible, GSCM can
negotiate differential settlement effectively. These factors contribute for
reducing the maintenance of the channel, making it more reliable and
economical to maintain.
- The performance of geo-textile filter is known to be better than that of
traditional graded filter.

Limitations

Though the method has so far been implemented for a river diversion in a
hydroelectric project, the technology can be easily adopted in bridge
construction, river training and protection projects, leading to speedier, more
reliable and cheaper construction. It can be adopted for variable field and
climatic conditions, and can also be used outside India. It can be expected
that more widespread use of the method along with minor modifications to suit
specific projects will greatly benefit the construction industry at large and
contribute to timely and economic construction.

6. Study on the Effect of using Quarry Dust and Copper Slag in Sub
Base of Flexible Pavement

Date of Start: May 2006

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R, S, C, I)

Scope and Objectives

Quarry fines resemble sand in physical properties. Scarcity and increasing
cost of sand necessitates an alternate material, which can be used in sub
base layers of flexible pavement. Similarly, Copper slag, a waste byproduct in
the manufacture of copper is available in abundant and creates requirement
of disposal. It resembles sand in physical properties and is proposed to be an
alternate for sand in conventional Sand-Gravel mix of sub base.

Methodology

The study involves laying three types of sub bases viz.1) conventional Sand
+Gravel + 6mm aggregates, 2) Quarry dust + Gravel + 6mm aggregates 3)
Copper slag + Gravel + 6mm aggregates mix in three different stretches
consecutively in a road to enable comparison / evaluation easy.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

The demand for sand is increasing day-by-day, necessitating an alternate for
it. If copper slag proves to be a suitable alternate material, economically it
would be cheaper than sand in the proximity, where the copper industries are
situated.

81
Limitation

In view of its chemically processed extraction, necessary clearance from
Pollution Control Board would be needed.

82

IV. BRIDGE ENGINEERING


SUMMARY


Research work reported in the area of bridge engineering comprises a
variety of projects covering structural investigations, laboratory investigations,
foundation investigations and structural design. A project is reported as
complete and seven projects are reported as on-going.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION


1. Studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge Decks (B-25)

2. Creation of National Test Facility, Formulation of Guidelines,
Specifications, Manual of Practice for Design and Execution of
Expansion Joints (B-34)

3. Determination of Scour Depth (for General Bed, within Channel
Contractions and at Bridge Piers) in Boulder-Bed Rivers under High
Stream Velocities (B-33)

4. Creating Data-base on Bridges Information System for the State of
Tamil Nadu

5. Studies on Hard Topping for Distressed C.C. Wearing Coats &
Concrete Pavements

6. Fatigue Performance of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) and
Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Composite Girder Bridges under
Simulated Live Loading

7. Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete Bridges

8. Distress Diagnostic, Performance Evaluation and Bridge Management
System for Concrete Bridges. (A collaborative project with DST)







83
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS

1. Studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable Stayed Bridge Decks
(B-25)

Duration: December 1999 to March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi(S)

Findings/ Conclusions

A methodology has been developed for wind tunnel testing of the cable
stayed bridge decks in India using sectional model investigations. The
methodology and the computer program developed would be helpful for wind
tunnel studies in India in future. The guidelines for the aerodynamics design
have also been laid down.

1. Bridge Deck

For highway bridges with single plane cable system, single box girder is a
standard solution on account of its high torsional rigidity. For highway bridges
with double plane system, depending on the span and width of the bridge, the
selection of the deck can be made as follows:
- For spans upto 200m with deck width in the range of 15m to 20m, simple
solid concrete slab without edge beams is the best solution.
- For wider decks between 20m to 25m, and spans in the range of 200m to
500m, T or I-beam supported deck with cross beams is more economical.
- Orthotropic bridge deck made of all-steel is preferable for deck width
greater than 25m and span above 500m as the dead load gets reduced.
- For very long spans between 500m to 1500m, shallow box sections with
wind nose or fairing is preferred as the fairings help to reduce the wind
loads and increase aerodynamic stability.
- For concrete bridges with double plane cable system, there is no danger
against wind induced oscillation for a deck with fairing, if B> 10d or B>L/30
(where B and d are the width and depth of the deck and L is the main
span of the bridge).
- For steel bridges with lightweight deck and spans above 400m, it is
preferable to have B>L/25 or use a deck with fairing for aerodynamic
design.

Vortex Induced Oscillation

- Vortex Induced Oscillations may not have immediate catastrophic
consequences for the bridge structure itself, but are unacceptable to
users, and may cause structural fatigue and wear in joints and bearings.
- The vortex-induced response of a bridge deck is influenced by a tiny
change in the configuration of leading and trailing edge of cross-section.
Installation of handrail on the deck section increases the aerodynamic
instability. Horizontal bars of handrail played an important role in the
84
vortex-induced oscillation. It was observed that the effect of handrail shape
on the vortex-induced oscillation was much greater than that of its solidity
ratio.
- The presence of movement of traffic on the bridge can alter the response
due to vortex shedding.
- Accumulation of ice or snow may effectively change the aerodynamic
shape in the critical areas of the bridge deck like edges and alter the
response of the bridge deck due to vortex-induced oscillation
- During the design cable stayed bridges, it may be appropriate to keep the
ratio of the depth of the girder to clearance under girder more than 2 to
minimize the effect of vortex-induced oscillation
- New Jersey type crashes barrier used in the cable stayed bridge deck acts
as a flow tripper and causes vortex-induced oscillation motion. Therefore,
it is imperative for designers contemplating use of this type of crash barrier
to perform wind-tunnel tests for confirming stability of proposed deck
cross-sectional configuration. Alternatively, the bridge may be made
aerodynamically stable with the help of fan configuration of cable
arrangement in double plane.
- The two efficient ways to suppress the vortex-induced oscillation are to
restrict the formation of separation bubble very close to the leading edge
of bridge deck or make it spread very far of wake. Practically, this is
achieved with the help of aerodynamic appendages such as flap.
- A box girder deck section, symmetrical about the vertical center plane and
featuring rounded off edges or use of streamlined box section, is
preferable to minimize the effect of vortex-induced oscillation. In case,
unfavorable downstream flow may develop, which can be compensated by
the introduction of guide vanes. The aerodynamic functions of the guide
vanes are as follows:
(a) To reduce or avoid formation of coherent large-scale vortices in the
wake of girder due to relatively abrupt change of surface angle, and
thus eliminate vortex-induced vibrations at low speed.
(b) To increase the aerodynamic damping in torsion and thus enhance the
critical wind speed for vortex shedding.
- In the case of truss-stiffened deck, plate girder support decks, box-girder
decks, good aerodynamic performance of bridge deck could be achieved
by use of shallow sections, close sections, edge streamlining and other
minor and more subtle changes to the cross-sectional geometry. Provision
of high torsional stiffness by the use of box sections and A-frame towers
are helping in raising the critical wind speeds to safety levels.
- In bridge decks supported with 2 edge I-girder and 2 edge box girder can
be effective countermeasure for vortex-induced vibration.
- A damper could be used as a temporary measure to prevent vortex-
induced oscillation of a cable stayed bridge under construction.


Buffeting

85
- The buffeting response does not generally lead to catastrophic failures.
However, it is important from serviceability considerations as well as
fatigue of structural materials.
- Buffeting response of cable stayed bridges at their erection stages could
be greater under wind with the skew angles rather than a wind coming
normal to the bridge axis.
- Buffeting response of bridge deck to fluctuating wind depends on the
steady state drag (C
D
), lift (C
L
) and moment (C
M
) coe3fficients as well as
the derivative of lift (dC
L
/do) and the moment coefficient (dC
M
/do) with
respect to angle of attack of wind. By selecting a cross-section for bridge
deck such that these aerodynamic design parameters and their derivatives
are a minimum could lead to lower buffeting response.
- The buffeting response is a function of frequency of vibration as well as
damping of cable stayed bridge. By increasing the modal structure
damping with installation of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) or multilevel type
tunes damper (MTMD), the buffeting response can be controlled. The
advantage of the MTMD is that it requires lesser space for installation as
compared to traditional hanging type or TMD.

Flutter

- For the bridges with bluff deck sections, the flutter condition is identified
with the help of negative aerodynamic damping in the critical torsion mode,
as identified by the flutter derivative of the bridge deck section.
- Flutter stability of a long span cable stayed bridge could be greatly
increased by separation of vertical and torsional modes, high torsional
rigidity for deck and streamlined bridge deck cross-sections.
- In an open-slotted bridge deck by providing a lateral bracing system
torsional strength could be enhanced thereby increasing the aerodynamic
stability.
- The aerodynamic instability in long span bridges may be reduced, and in
some cases eliminated, through use of proper combination of slots
(openings on the bridge deck floor) and fins (lateral projections). Since the
lateral or central slots eliminate vertical instability and outside fins or
eliminate torsional instability, a combination of the above two in suitable
proportions have been found to yield curve in both vertical and torsional
instability.
- Critical velocity for flutter of bridge deck with H, and flat type cross-
section can be augmented by the installation of open grating in the deck.
Further, it is better to locate the open grating as outer as possible in the
section with area of opening more than 30% of the deck area.
- Bridge decks with the impermeable railing are likely to be prone to single
degree of freedom flutter in torsion. Since railings are required to guard the
rails of traffic, it should be made permeable for better aerodynamic
stability.
- During the erection stage of long span suspension bridge with box girder
bridge deck, torsional instability due to flutter could be controlled by
provision of eccentric ballast on bridge deck.
86
- Aerodynamic stability of super long span bridge could be achieved by
controlling the stiffness distribution along the span of the bridge deck i.e.
by flutter mode shape control.
- The critical flutter wind speed of long span flexible bridge could be
increased by installation of tuned mass dampers.
- Active control systems are envisaged in the future as common elements in
wind sensitive bridges to enhance the comfort of the bridge users and to
reduce fatigue damage.

2. Ratio of main span to side span

It may be appropriate to keep the ratio of main span to side span as follows in
cable-stayed bridges with different types of bridge decks:
- For highway bridges with concrete bridge decks, the ratio of side span to
main span can be about 0.42.
- For cable-stayed bridges with steel decks, this ratio is in range of 0.3-0.42.
- For cable-stayed bridges with composite decks, the ratio of side span to
main span is about 0.4.

3. Cable Spacing

The cable spacing to be selected in design of cable stayed bridges depending
on the material of construction of bridge deck is given as follows:
- For a concrete deck the stay spacing is of order 5m to 10m.
- For composite deck in the range of 10m to 15m, and
- For steel deck it is usually in the range of 15m to 25m.

4. Cable Layout

While designing the cable-stayed bridge, following points may be kept in view
when deciding the layout of cables.
- Bridges with single plane cable system will have low torsional natural
frequencies and low torsional damping. Therefore, to overcome this
problem, the box grider deck is used.
- Bridges with double plane cable system provide high degree of resistance
to torsional oscillation with high natural frequencies as well as damping in
torsional mode.
- In very long span cable-stayed bridges, long inclined cables in tension are
prone to wind, wind-rain-induced vibration and wake galloping. Structural
damping expressed as logarithmic decrement of 0.02 seems to be enough
to suppress rain-wind- induced vibration and 0.05 to suppress wake
galloping cables. These values may be used as a reference damping
values while designing a damper to minimize the wind induced oscillatory
effects in cable-stayed bridge.
- The dampers to prevent cable vibrations should be installed at some
distance from the anchors.
- Cables having hexagonal gross-section are subject to severe vibration
caused by wind. Connecting the cables with wires would solve this
problem.
87
- Crossties between cables are useful in minimizing the oscillations under
wind.
- To minimize the wind-induced vibrations the application of oil dampers
could be used.

5. Tower

The following points may be considered during the design of pylons in a
cable-stayed bridge so as to achieve aerodynamic stability.
- The general ratio of height of tower to main span is 1:6 to 1:2.5.
- For very long span bridges located in zones of high winds, A-shaped tower
is the ideal solution for wind stability. The upper level and deck level struts
connecting the tower legs further help to improve the resistance in torsion.
- In towers aerodynamic design is achieved with the help of comer
deflectors, central slit in cross section as well as corner cuts.
- To alleviate the wind-induced oscillatory problems of tower, tuned mass
dampers (TMD) be installed.

6. Bridge Deck Connections

Floating deck and elastically supported connection between deck and tower
are appropriate for aerodynamic consideration.

Reports / Publications

User manuals for computer programs developed under research scheme:
B25: Studies for Aerodynamic Stability of Cable-Stayed Bridge Decks,
Dr.(Mrs.) Lakshmy Parameshwaran, December 2006.


B. ON GOING PROJECTS

1. Creation of National Test Facility, Formulation of Guidelines,
Specifications, Manual of Practice for Design and Execution of
Expansion Joints (B-34)

Date of Start: June 2005

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi(S)

Present Status and Progress

CRRI received three global tenders for setting up the testing facility. CRRI is
in progress of exploring the detailed specifications of the testing facilities and
estimating the total revised cost of the scheme for comprehensive testing
facility.

However, with the existing fatigue testing facility, CRRI carried out Fatigue
Evaluation of edge beams of Strip Seal, Slab Seal, and Modular type
88
expansion joints in an attempt to develop expertise at CRRI Dynamic cum
Heavy Testing Laboratory at Ghaziabad.

Further, CRRI developed expertise in carrying out field Ponding Evaluation of
Strip Seal, Slab Seal, and Modular Type bridge expansion joints. Field
experiments were conducted on all the Slab Seal expansion joints of Loni
Road Flyover, New Delhi.

Interim Conclusions

Scanty information is available regarding the detailed Specifications of Test
facilities like Braking Test, Fatigue Test, Cycle Motion Test. These facilities
are not available in our country. Exposure to any of the existing Test Facility
at Global level may be extremely useful for the development of such Test
facility.

Recommendations

The scope of work will be extended to cover the Comprehensive Test
Facilities for Expansion Joints under one umbrella at CRRI. Subsequent to the
development of these testing facilities, R&D activities related to expansion
joints, suited to industrial requirements will be undertaken.

Reports / Publications

1. Detailed Project Report (DPR), Creation of National Test Facility for
Bridge Expansion Joints in Highway Bridges, CRRI Publication, March
2005.
2. State of Art Report (SOAR), Performance Evaluation of Bridge Expansion
Joints, CRRI Publication, June 2005.
3. S.S. Gagarwar, Ram Kumar, P.K. Nanda, A Rationalized Approach for
Performance Evaluation of Expansion Joints, IIBE National Seminar on
Innovative Foundations and Load Transfer Devices, 13
th
14
th
January
2006.
4. S.S. Gagarwar, Ram Kumar, P.K. Nanda, Salient Considerations for the
Fatigue Design and Testing of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints (MBEJ),
National Seminar on Fatigue and Fracture of Aerospace Structures- XIV
NASAS, Nagpur, 30
th
31
st
January 2006.
6. S.S. Gagarwar, Ram Kumar, P.K. Nanda, Performance Evaluation of
Bridge Expansion Joints as per the IRC Guidelines, National Seminar on
Advances in Bridge Engineering, IIT, Roorkee, 24
th
25
th
March 2006.
7. S.S. Gaharwar, Ram Kumar, et al, In-Situ Performance Evaluation of
Expansion Joints of Loni Road Flyover, New Delhi, for suggesting
Rehabilitation Measures, CRRI Project Report No.
QSP/CRRI/BAS/CNP1385/2007, March 2007.


2. Determination of Scour Depth (for General Bed, within Channel
Contractions and at Bridge Piers) in Boulder-Bed Rivers under
High Stream Velocities (B-33)
89

Date of Start: February 2002

(i) Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (R)
(ii) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi(S)

Present Status and Progress

The draft final report circumscribing the following activities has been
submitted to the Ministry:
- Identification of threshold condition for movement of boulders under
stream flow, qualification of transport rate under boulders and estimation
of scour in general boulder beds during high floods.
- Estimation of magnitude of scour within channel contraction in boulder
beds during high floods.
- Estimation of magnitude of scour in Bridge piers embedded in boulder
beds during high floods.

Findings/ Conclusions

Findings are described as:

Guidelines

1. General Bed scour
(i) The maximum depth of scour in boulder-bed river is equal to the one-
diameter of the boulder size (average) below the original bed level.

2. Local Scour Within Channel Contraction
(i) The maximum equilibrium scour depth d
sm
(in m) below original bed
level in long contractions having gravel or boulder beds can be
calculated as:
d
sm
= h
1
[1.28(b
1
/ b
2
)
0.78
-1)


Where h
1
is the upstream flow depth (in m), b
1
is the approaching
channel width (in m), b
2
is the width of channel in contracted zone (in
m).
(ii) For Layered Beds: The Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth below
original bed level in long contractions having layered beds can be
estimated by multiplying d
sm
obtained from the equation given in 2.1
for gravels/ boulder-beds by a factor 3.2 and for sand beds by a factor
3.6.
(iii) The size of the gravels/ boulders that are suitable for pitching as a
suitable scour protective measure for long contractions can be
estimated as:
U
2
= 4.893d
p
Where U
2
is the velocity in the contracted zone (in m/s) and d
p
is the
size of pitching stone (in m).
3. Local Scour at Bridge Piers
90
(i) The maximum equilibrium scour depth d
sm
(m) at piers embedded
at piers embedded in gravel or boulder beds below original bed
level can be calculated as:
d
sm
= 2.15b
where b is the pier width (m).
(a) For square piers, the maximum equilibrium scour depth can be
determined by multiplying d
sm
obtained from equation 3.1 by
multiplying the pier shape factor1.1.
(ii) For layered beds: The maximum equilibrium scour depth at piers
below original bed level can be determined by multiplying d
sm

obtained from equation given in 3.1 for gravel/ boulder-beds by a
factor 1.2 and for sand-beds by a factor 1.6
(iii) The riprap pitching around the piers is most suitable scour
protective measure. The size of riprap can be determined as:
d
p
= 0.692U
1
2
/ g
where U
1
is the upstream flow velocity (in m/s), and d
p
is the size of
riprap (in m), is (s-1), s is the relative density of gravels/
boulders, and g is the gravitational acceleration.

Recommendations

General-Bed Scour

1. The critical shear velocities at threshold condition for the movement of
boulders can be obtained from Dey (1999b) curve in rough regime, for
which non- dimensional shear stress u
cr
= 0.045.

u
cr
= Non dimensional critical shear stress,

2. The quantity of bed load transport rate (q
s
) of boulders under stream flow
can be calculated using following equations:

| = (0.461 0.022+ for +s16.5

| = (0.522 0.025+ for +s16.5

where + is the flow intensity parameter (=1/u
cr
); and | is the bed-load
parameter (=q
s
[p
s
/ P
s
P)gd
50
]
0.5
/
s
), P
s
is the mass density of gravels
/boulders (In kg/m
3
), P is the mass density of water (in kg/m
3
), g is the
gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s
2
), d
50
is the median particle diameter
(in m) and
s
is the specific weight of gravels/ boulders (=P
s
g).

3. The maximum depth of scour in Boulder-bed Rivers under high stream
velocity is equal to the one-diameter of the boulder size (average) below
the bed level.

Local Scour Within Channel Contraction

1. The formula for estimation of Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth.The
formula for estimation of maximum equilibrium scour depth d
sm
(in m)
91
below original bed level in long contractions having gravel or boulder beds
is:
D
sm
= h
1
[1.28(b
1
/b
2
)
0.78
1] K
o
where K
o
= coeff due to sediment gradation

Where h
1
is the upstream flow depth (in m), b
1
is the approaching channel
width (in m), b
2
is the width of channel in contracted zone (in m) and K
o
if
the coefficient determined for the known value of O
g
.
where O
g
= Geometric Standard deviation
2. Design Curves/ Charts for Estimation of Maximum Equilibrium Scour
Depth.
The design chart can be used to estimate the equilibrium scour depth d
sm.
3. Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth within Long Contractions having
Layered Beds. The Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth below original bed
level in long contractions having layered beds can be estimated by
multiplying the scour depth in gravel/ boulder-beds by a factor 3.2 and the
scour depth in sand beds by a factor 3.6.
4. Effective Protective Measure
To reduce the maintenance cost and to increase the life span of the
contractions, it is most appropriate to use pitching in the contracted portion
with large size gravels/ boulders that limit the extent of scour depth within
the channel contractions effectively. The size of the gravels/ boulders that
are suitable for pitching can be worked out using the equation given below:
U
2
= 4.893\d
p
Where U
2
is the velocity in the contracted zone (in m/s) and d
p
is the size
of pitching stone (in m).

Local Scour at Bridge Piers
1. Regression Formula for Estimation of Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth
The formula for estimation of Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth at piers in
boulder-beds is

78 . 0
50
1 . 0 13 . 1

346 . 0
d bc s bm
b h F K K d
o
=

Where K
s
= pier shape factor
F
bc
= Critical pier fraude number
For uniform gravels or boulders (o
g
s 1.4), K
o
=1 on the other hand, for non
uniform gravels or boulders (o
g
> 1.4) the coefficient k
o
for the known
value of O
g

h^= h
1
/b
b
d50
=b/d
50
where b= pier size (width)
2. Formula for Estimation of Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth Based on
Envelope Curves
The Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth at the piers can also be estimated
using the following design formula, which is obtained by fitting the
envelope curves to the experimental data

d
s
= K
h
K
l
K
d
K
s
K

where K- factors can be obtained by envelope curves / charts. The values
of the shape factor K
s
are 1 and 1.1 for circular and square piers,
92
respectively. This equation is the most appropriate to estimate the
maximum equilibrium scour depth at piers as it accounts the effect of all
parameters.
Where
K
h
= flow depth factor
K
I
= flow intensity factor
K
d
= sediment size factor
3. Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth at Bridge Piers in Layered Beds
The Maximum Equilibrium Scour Depth below original bed level at bridge
piers having layered beds can be estimated by multiplying the scour depth
in boulder and gravel-bed by a factor 1.2 and the scour depth in sand beds
obtained from IRC 78 (2000) or HEC 18 (Richardson and Davis 2001) by a
factor 1.6.
4. Effective Protective Measure
The reduction in scour depth at bridge piers using riprap pitching is about
30% in average, whereas that at pier fitted with a circular collar of diameter
three times pier diameter at the river bed level is 100%. However, the
riprap pitching is most suitable as it is economical and simple to provide
the reduction of maintenance cost and to increase the life span of the
bridge piers. The size of riprap can be worked put using the equation given
below:
g U d
p
A = / 0692
2
1

where U
1
is the upstream flow velocity (in m/s), and d
p
is the size of riprap
(in m), is (s-1), s is the relative density of gravels/ boulders, and g is the
gravitational acceleration.

3. Creating Data-base on Bridges Information System for the State of
Tamil Nadu

Date of Start: April 1998

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Present Status and Progress

The particulars of bridges on various categories of roads in Tamil Nadu, such
as N.H, S.H., M.D.R. & O.D.R. have been fed into the system using M.S.
Access Programme Classifying the Data into 27 different aspects for each
bridge. The data has been sent to the concerned divisions for final check and
for accuracy. On receiving from the concerned divisions the same will be
finalized.

Findings/Conclusions

The Bridges will be given numbers and the same will be intimated to the
(Maintenance Wing) D.E.s of Highways.

5. Studies on Hard Topping for Distressed C.C. Wearing Coats &
Concrete Pavements

93
Date of Start: August 2001

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Present Status and Progress

The study is aimed at developing proper Cement and Polymer based concrete
for repair, Procedures to study their effectiveness. Materials needed for the
same have been purchased and Laboratory studies completed. The field
experimental stretch has been laid and field performance evaluation is going
on. It may be completed very soon.


5. Fatigue Performance of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) and
Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Composite Girder Bridges under
Simulated Live Loading

Date of Start: April 2004

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Constructed a bridge model in the Lab which is consisting of two number
10.5 m span prestressed girder and cast-in-situ RCC slab (2.5 wide and
10.5 m long) over these two girders connected by shear connector for
fatigue test of simulated live load as per IRC loading.

The various sensors (embedded and surface mounted) such as strain
gauges, crack gauge, LVDT, Load cells etc are installed in the bridge for
continuous recording the fatigue testing data in the dynamic data logger
and observe the distress in PSC girders caused by flexural stresses.

Parametric evaluation and experimental investigation has been carried out
on fatigue performance of PSC beams as pilot study and one M. Tech.
Thesis has been reported in this study.

Finding/ Conclusions

The experimental results of fatigue tests on bonded and unbonded beams
shows the development of flexural cracks along the depth & near to mid span
portion of the beam under designed live load after a number of million cycles
which provides information about the service span of a bridge under extreme
loading case.

Limitations or Conclusions

There is a Laboratory constraint of spacing between portal frames, which can
be use for Fatigue test of single lane single span bridge model at the most.

94
Recommendations

- The present study will establish failure criteria under flexural fatigue
loading of composite bridges.
- It will provide design guidelines (effective width etc.) for composite bridges
under serviceability conditions.
- Finally, the expecting findings will predict the fatigue distress and will
provide Guidelines and recommendations in the form of a report for
designing and safeguarding the structure from fatigue failure has to be
prepared.

Reports/Publications

1. Suraj Parkash, Rajeev Goel, Ram Kumar (2005 ), Design of single lane
10 m span composite bridge (consisting of two PSC girders and cast-
in-situ RCC deck slab over these girders and connected by shear
connectors), BAS Div., CRRI, New Delhi.

2. Suraj Parkash, Rajeev Goel, Ram Kumar (2005), detailed project
report on Fatigue performance of reinforced cement concrete (RCC)
and prestress (PSC) composite girder bridges under simulated live
loading, BAS Div., CRRI, New Delhi.

3. B. B. Sharma, Assistant Engineer, CPWD, New Delhi (2006): Fatigue
performance of prestressed concrete girder under simulated live
loads, M.Tech. Thesis, Post Graduate Structural Engineering Section,
Department of Civil Engineering, Punjab Engineering College,
Chandigarh, March 2006.

4. Suraj Parkash, Rajeev Goel, Ram Kumar (2006 ), Fatigue performance
of prestressed concrete bridges: State-of-the-art, Advance in Bridge
Engg., March 24-25, 2006, IIT, Roorkee.

5. Suraj Parkash, Ram Kumar, B.B. Sharma (2006), Prestressed concrete
beams under fatiue loading, Advance in Bridge Engg., March 24-25,
2006, IIT, Roorkee.

6. Suraj Parkash, Roshan Lal, Ram Kumar and B.B. Sharma
Experimental Fatigue Study on Prestressed Concrete Beams
Accepted in the Journal of the ING-ABSE The Bridge & Structural
Engineer, vol.37, no.2, June 2007.

7. Suraj Parkash and Ram Kumar Fatigue Damage Study of Prestressed
Concrete BridgesAccepted in IABSE Symposium to be held at
Weimar, Germany during Sep 19-21, 2007.

6. Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete Bridges

Date of Start: April 2004

95
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Developed software for dynamic analysis of prestressed concrete bridges
incorporating the following:

- Following five analytical models to predict the creep and shrinkage strains
in concrete:
(i) ACI-209 recommendation
(ii) B3 model
(iii) CEB-FIP model code 1990
(iv) Muller model 1999
(v) GL 2000 model

- Material model of concrete, reinforcing steel and prestressing steel.
- Mathematical modelling of prestressing cable lying inside the concrete 3D
element.
- Defining the geometry (i.e. local coordinates of the various points of cable
profile with respect to 20-noded brick element from the global coordinates
of the cable profile) of the prestressing cable in the PSC bridges,
computation of forces applied by the prestressing cable and addition of
stiffness of the prestressed cable at various nodes of the concrete
element.

Validation of the software has been done with or without consideration of
creep and shrinkage effects by analysing various PSC beams (Rectangular
and T-shaped) and an existing simply supported single cell box-girder bridge.

Analytical study has been carried out to find out the static as well as dynamic
response of an existing bridge (Lok Nayak Setu Bridge, New Delhi)
considering effects of creep and shrinkage under various loading conditions at
various ages of concrete.

Further Proposed Work

- Case study of different type of bridge using the developed software
- Experimental studies in the laboratory
- Comparison of the experimental results with the results obtained by the
software
- Compilation of reports

Reports/Publications

1. Rajeev Goel, Ram Kumar, and D.K. Paul (2006), A study of effects of
creep and shrinkage on prestressed concrete beams, Proc. of 13
th

Symposium on Earthquake Engineering, IIT, Roorkee, December,
pp.642-649.

96
2. Rajeev Goel, Ram Kumar and D.K. Paul (2007), Comparative study of
various creep and shrinkage prediction models for concrete, ASCE
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol.19, No.3, March, pp.249-
260.

3. Rajeev Goel and Ram Kumar (2006), Mathematical modelling of
reinforcing steel and prestressing steel in PSC, Report No.
CRRI/BIE/OLP-0409(03)/2006-07, CRRI, New Delhi.

4. Rajeev Goel and Ram Kumar (2006), Nonlinear material properties of
prestressed concrete SOAR, Report No. CRRI/BIE/OLP-
0409(04)/2006-07, CRRI, New Delhi.



7. Distress Diagnostic, Performance Evaluation and Bridge
Management System for Concrete Bridges. (A collaborative
project with DST)

Date of Start: March 2004

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
(ii) Department of Science and Technology (S)

Present Status and Progress

Development of Visual Inspection Mobile Unit- Design:

The main frame of the visual inspection mobile unit of 10m long arm has been
designed. The mechanisms (joints) and balance of the unit using counter
weight have been designed by MEARDO/ CMERI. Detailed structural design,
drawings and final report have been prepared. The fabrication has been
started for one prototype unit as a separate project in joint collaboration with
MERADO, Ludhiana and DST New Delhi.

Progress for deterioration model:

The methodology for deterioration modeling of corrosion of steel bars in
concrete bridges has been completed. The algorithm has been prepared for
assessing the parameters for degraded system for a slab bridge.

Module for strength assessment/ load carrying capacity/ remaining life
assessment:

Methodology for assessing the current strength of bridges has been evolved
based on recommendations made by IRC and illustrated with the help of a
case study. Further, methodology and algorithm for assessing load carrying
capacity of the slab bridge considering the degraded system i.e. deterioration
modeling of corrosion of steel bars in concrete bridges has been completed.
The preparation of the software based on the stated methodology using visual
97
basic is in progress. The software language so chosen would ensure integrity
with the distress diagnostic module.

Reports/Publications:

1. Strength assessment of existing bridges for bridge management
system. Proc. Adv. In Bridge Engg. March, 2006, IIT Roorkee, pp. 301-
311.

2. Sensors and Actuators for Bridge Management Recent Trends. ING-
IABSE Journal -The Bridge and Structural Engineer. Vol. 36(2), June
2006, pp. 1-21.

3. Design Of Visual Inspection Unit (including Structural Analysis and
Mechanical Joints) Final Report: GAP4413/CRRI-MERADO-DST
(BMS)/06, December, 2006.

4. Modeling of Degradation (Corrosion) of Steel in Concrete and
Remaining Life Assessment of Bridges for Bridge Management
System. Interim Report- CRRI/BAS/GAP4413/DegModStrAss/Feb
2007.











98
V. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION


1. PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT


SUMMARY

Research work reported in the area of Planning and Management
under the broad area of Traffic and Transportation includes Advanced Parking
Management System, Development of Mode Choice Models using Artificial
Neural Network (ANN) Method, Design of Interchange, Video Incident
Detection System and Loop Based Traffic Incident Detection System,
Assessment of Rural Accessibility and Studies on Operational Efficiency on
KSRTC Mini Bus Services.
There are number of studies reported by Academic Institutions in this
area with wide spectrum such as Disaggregate Mode Choice Models for
Intercity Travel, Uni Directional Traffic Flow Modelling Using Cellular
Automata, Study of Critical Gap at 3-Legged Intersections, Study on Travel
Characteristics of Rural Commuters, Traffic Volume Analyses and Prediction
under Heterogeneous Conditions, Rural Bus Route Network Planning Based
on Passenger Travel Demand and so on.



SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION


1. Feasibility study for Traffic Infrastructure
2. Advanced Parking Management System and its economic viability
3. Video Incident Detection System and Loop Based Traffic Incident
Detection System


















99
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS


1. Advanced Parking Management System installed at Connaught
Place

Duration: April 2003 to February 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)

Progress

The project is completed and final report has been submitted.
On an average 2000 2200 vehicles/day were parked before the installation
of the APMS system (i.e. till July, 2006). After the installation of APMS, the
numbers of vehicles parked are ranging between 2500 2700 vehicles/day
during the months of August 2006 January 2007. This substantial increase
can be directly attributed to the dissemination of information on parking space
availability through the VMS boards installed at strategic locations.

The total revenue generated due to the daily parking fees and monthly passes
for New Delhi Municipal Corporation was considered for a period of three
months before the installation of APMS i.e. for the months of May 2006 to July
2006. With a view to assess the effectiveness of APMS the revenue collected
by NDMC after the installation of APMS (August 2006 onwards for six
months) was critically analyzed by comparing the revenue generated before
and after the installation of APMS.

Findings/ Conclusions

On the basis of the present study the following summaries are drawn.

- Survey of parkers in Palika Parking reveals that 64% of the respondents
are benefited due to the display of parking space availability through VMS
boards installed on the leading roads to Palika Parking lot. 81%
commuters have shown willingness to switch over to smart card payment
system.
- Survey of parkers at On-street parking lots reveals that 42 percent of the
respondents have noticed VMS display boards installed on the leading
roads to the Palika Parking lot and therefore it can be inferred that parkers
in the parking lots other than Palika Parking are now familiar with VMS. 44
percent are daily parkers and out of which 18 percent are pass holders.
Out of the total daily parkers in the other parking lots 62 percent prefers to
switch over to Smart Card payment system.
- After the installation of APMS, there is an increase of around 9 percent in
two-wheelers, 22 percent in four-wheelers thereby contributing to an
overall increase of the 15 percent in the total number of vehicles parked in
Palika Parking lot.
- There is an increase of around 10 percent and 31 percent increase in
revenue generation due to parking of two-wheeler and four-wheelers
100
respectively. Overall, the increase in revenue generated is of the order of
24 percent.
- The number of four-wheelers and two-wheelers, which have been parked
overnight, are very negligible on all the days of the week. Considering this,
it was felt that the vehicles that are parked overnight have little bearing on
the system and hence there is no need to provide a seed value while
starting the APMS on each day of the week.

Recommendations

Presently, the information on the parking space availability is being
transmitted from central server to the VMS boards. It is proposed that further,
this information would also be transmitted via the mobile phone network and
FM radio. Information on parking locations, costs, space reservation, and
regulations can also be available via the Internet. Congestion is a problem
also inside parking facilities and therefore it is proposed to use VMS within the
parking facility to guide drivers to empty parking spaces. Having assessed the
effectiveness of the APMS installed at Palika Parking, it is proposed to carry
out the Economic Viability of this system.


2. Development of New Generation of Mode Choice Models using
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method

Duration: April 2001 to March 2007

(i) Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

The objective of the study is to develop a new generation mode choice
models using artificial neural network (ANN). Mode choice model computes
the proportion of the trips between origin and destination using a particular
mode of transportation. In normal practice, four stage urban transportation
planning system models shall be used to predict the mode choice. Artificial
neural network is being used as an alternative to the traditional mode choice
models, and is developed to handle a multiplicity of interrelated variables and
its estimation process of the relationship between input and output variables
taking place naturally.

In this study, the ANN method has been used to predict the mode choice
behavior of the road users in the selected medium size cities such as Gwalior,
Durgapur and Nagpur. The household data has been collected on sample
basis for 14 parameters on travel and socio-demographic characters. The
data were processed using the MATLB 2006a software.

Conclusions

101
Using the optimum neural network (NN) model, the outputs for different cities
were calculated. The comparison of model outputs and the actual outputs is a
cumbersome process because the output is an array with seven columns and
not a single output. To overcome this problem, a programme has been
developed in C++ language to calculate the prediction success rate of the NN
model. This programme compares the actual and NN model predicted mode
choices. Finally, it prepares a Prediction Success Table and exports it into
Microsoft Excel format for further analysis.

Report/Publications

Report on Development of New Generation of Mode Choice Models Using
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method.


3. Design of Interchange at Kapashera Intersection

Duration: April 2006 to February 2007

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Findings/ Conclusions

The proposed Dwarka Vasant Kunj Link basically forms a part of the
proposed Urban Extension Road (UER) as planned by DDA and it would act
as one of the major connectors between Dwarka and South Delhi / Gurgaon
besides helping traffic bound for NH-2 in bypassing Delhi. Further,
considering that it is proposed to develop Mahipalpur bypass road linking with
Indira Gandhi International (I.G.I.) airport, it is considered prudent to integrate
this bypass also with the proposed four armed clover leaf intersection near
Kapashera.

Taking into account the above scenario, it was considered essential to assess
proportion traffic on Dwarka Vasant Kunj Link which would utilise the
proposed Kapashera four armed Clover leaf flyover interchange in the horizon
years. Also, the Container Depot which is being proposed to be developed
near Barthal in Dwarka would generate substantial goods traffic of heavy
vehicles including tractor-trailers bound for NH-8, NH-2 and NH-10. This traffic
is also expected to ply through the proposed Kapashera Interchange.
Necessary traffic studies were accordingly conducted at judiciously selected
locations on NH-8 and other adjoining link roads to arrive at reliable estimates
of the Dwarka and airport bound traffic. Considering the projected traffic
volume, present Origin Destination (O-D) pattern and taking into account
Per Capita Trip Rate (PCTR) from the earlier studies of CRRI, future traffic
projections from Dwarka and Airport for the horizon years (i.e. 2011, 2016 and
2021) were estimated. The O-D pattern observed in this study has been used
as one of the inputs for the estimation of traffic on the proposed interchange
near Kapashera Intersection. Based on this study, it is estimated that the
development of the link connecting Dwarka sub-city and bypass alignment
linking with Vasant Kunj and beyond up to Meharauli Gurgaon Road (M.G.)
102
road would help in diverting about 29 % of the traffic i.e. 45924 vehs. per day
in 2011, 55873 vehs. per day in 2016 and 67978 vehs. per day in 2021 to
Urban Extension Road and Mahipalpur bypass, which otherwise would be
needlessly entering in to Delhi in the horizon years. Keeping in mind the
above quantum of estimated traffic and their composition and the ground
situation at site, technical feasibility of locating the four armed cloverleaf
flyover as near as possible to the Kapashera intersection was critically
examined. For this purpose, four alternative proposals were considered from
various technical considerations at the specified chainages namely Km
20/625, 20/720, 20/800 and 21/100 by CRRI in consultation with Delhi
Development Authority (DDA) and they were presented in the meetings at
DDA. Out of these alternatives, the proposed cloverleaf flyover at chainage
21/100 has been selected as the most suitable considering that it is located
on the straight section of NH-8 ensuring that the ramp bound traffic would
maneuver at the straight section at grade on all the loops.

Limitations and Conclusions

In the light of above, the proposed cloverleaf flyover at chainage km 21/100 is
considered to be the best option amongst the four locations considered for
that purpose, as it is located on the straight section of NH-8 ensuring efficient
ramp bound traffic maneuvers at the straight section at grade on all the loops
bound for NH-8. In addition to the above, this design has the following
inherent advantages and one minor disadvantage.

- Since it is proposed to develop this flyover, integrating with proposed
Mahipalpur bypass alignment and the Urban Extension Road,
development of the flyover at this chainage would be ideally suited in
providing adequate geometrics as compared to the other chainages. This
location would also help to locate the rotary or flyover at the meeting point
of Mahipalpur bypass and the proposed Urban Extension Road, providing
straight alignment for the proposed Urban Extension Road. UER can be
taken above the Mahipalpur bypass in the form of a flyover by integrating it
with the flyover across NH-8.
- As per the reconnaissance survey carried out by DDA, the number of
properties that would be possibly affected due to implementation of the
design would be minimal as compared to the other three locations.
- This alternative, however suffers from the minor drawback that cost to be
incurred for the construction of the Dwarka bound approach road would be
relatively higher as the length of this road is long.

Recommendations

Development of the proposed cloverleaf flyover at chainage 21/100 would be
the best alternative not only because it would ensure proper weaving
diverging of the ramp traffic on the straight weaving section on the service
road of NH-8 at grade but also due to safe and efficient movement of traffic on
account of sufficient weaving length provided on NH-8 which is not the case
with other alternatives.

103

4. Periodic updating of Price Index for Stage Carriages Operation in
Kerala

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

The project has been completed.

Scope and Objectives

To update the price index for stage carriage operation (PISCO) for
understanding the periodical movements of prices of vehicle operating cost,
and other inputs for different types of stage carriage operations.
- To determine the variation in average passenger load factor.
- To determine the fare structure of various categories of services of stage
carriages.
- Literature survey.
- Review of report Fare policy and pricing of stage carriage operations
- Vehicle data collection from RT Offices.
- Field surveys (Latest price list, trip details, sample passenger load
surveys, discussions with selected fleet operators, sample cost auditing of
returns, latest cost data, changes in mechanic and maintenance system,
spare part details).
- Analysis on passenger load factor change.
- Calculation of revised passenger load factor.
- Revision of PISCO (Revised cost modeling, preparation of revised cost
table, Presentation and discussions with Government, Report preparation.

Conclusions

PISCO methodology will be useful for periodical revision of bus fares in other
states as well.

Recommendations

The detailed costing should also be carried out on new technology vehicles.


B. ON GOING PROJECTS


1. Video Incident Detection System and Loop Based Traffic Incident
Detection System.

104
Date of Start : April, 2003

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, S)

Findings/ Conclusions

By applying the statistical approaches like chi-square tests on the observed
and system data, the effectiveness of VIDS for traffic data and automatic
incident data collection for the Indian traffic conditions has been determined.
Further, inductive loops have been installed at the same location on NH-2 to
detect the incidents using the loop based incident detection system.
Subsequently, the traffic flow data collected from the video based and the
loop based system have been compared.

Interim Conclusions

- The goodness-of-fit plot between the observed data and the system data
was done to understand the reliability of the incident detection system. It is
interesting to observe that the plot between observed data and system
data are reasonably close to each other, thereby signifying the reliability of
the system.
- Volume count obtained using the CITILOG software is almost matching
with the ground counts but always showing with lesser values. This may
be attributed to the basic condition in the software to account for the
vehicles, which only follow lane discipline, which is seldom followed on
Indian roads.
- The automatic incident detection system performed through CITILOG
software exhibits accuracy up to a level of 85 %.
- Error in traffic data collection is more during peak hours and less
difference in non peak hours in the traffic volume. This may be due to
extreme congestion and non adherence of lane discipline.
- CITILOG software can be used in India for the process of traffic flow
analysis and incident detection, if the traffic moves in accordance with the
designated lanes.
- Comparison evaluation conducted for the traffic data collected (for 3
working days of the week) from the video based and loop based incident
detection systems (at the same location) revealed that the quantum of
traffic volume obtained from the loop based system is slightly on the higher
side. This may be due to non-adherence of lane discipline which could be
a major contributory factor and thus directly resulting in double counting of
the vehicles in case of the loop based system.

Recommendations

Having tested their accuracy, it has been proposed to shift 3 out of 4 cameras
to strategic locations on NH-2 (between CRRI and Ashram) and another
camera to Capt. Gaur Marg Road for traffic congestion monitoring purposes.
Also, it has been proposed to shift one Variable Message Sign System from
the present location to a strategic location on NH-2 near CRRI.

105


C. NEW PROJECTS


1. Preparation of Computerized Inventory of Roads for
Muvattupuzha and Vadavucode Block Panchayaths in Ernakulam
District

Date of Start: April 2006

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and Objectives

The scope of the study is limited to rural roads coming under the rural local
bodies comprising of Grama Panchayaths, Block Panchayaths and District
Panchayath. Within the scope, the objectives of the study are:

- Identification of all sub settlements (wards) within each Grama Panchayath
in the study area.
- Listing of all roads passing through the settlements (all categories).
- Inventory of Grama Panchayath roads (roads having a minimum width of
six meters that can be developed to motorable standards and a minimum
length of 500 metres.).
- Preparation of digitized road maps with supporting data for each Grama
Panchayath using the GIS format.

Progress

(i) Settlement level data- sub settlement (within each Panchayath)
identification, road availability, location of facilities.
(ii) Road level data- connecting settlements, population benefited facilities
along the road.
(iii) Road inventory- length, width, surface type, settlements connected.
(iv) Road mapping-base maps(cadastral) provided by the Kerala State Land
Use Board.
(v) These maps were further modified by Digitizing, Mosaicing,Geo-
referencing, Scaling using GIS format and development of attribute
tables.

Interim Conclusions

- Assessment of settlement level connectivity
- Total settlements
- Connected/unconnected
- Road length required for connectivity improvements

Significance /Utilisation Potential
106

Development of an authentic spatial database on Grama Panchayath roads
together with supporting information is required for the development of plan
documents and rural road management system in GIS platform

Recommendations

Updated road details along with settlement level data can be used for the
preparation of Road Development Plan required for PMGSY, Bharath Niramn
or NABARD funded road development schemes


2. Assessment of Rural Accessibility in different Terrains of Kerala

Date of Start: April 2006

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and Objectives

Considering the peculiarities of settlements in the State such as huge
size and the scattered spread of habitats unlike the concentrated pattern
observed in other parts of the country, a study was undertaken to assess the
level of service offered by rural roads by making an objective assessment of
the accessibility of typical households to all weather motorable roads. in the 3
typical Grama Panchayaths, one each from coastal, midland and hilly regions
of the State. The objectives of the study are:

- Identification of all sub settlements (wards) within each Grama Panchayath
in the study area.
- Listing of all roads passing through the settlements (all categories).
- Detailed inventory of Grama Panchayath roads.
- Assessment of household level demographic, socio-economic & travel
characteristics.
- Assessment of household level accessibility.
- Assessment of the entire road network roads- motorable/non motorable,
lane.
- Develop models on physical accessibility for different regions.
- Suggest appropriate road development plans for improving accessibility.

Methodology

- Settlement level data collection- sub settlement (within each Panchayath)
identification, road availability, location of facilities.
- Road level data- connecting settlements, population benefited facilities
along the road.
- Road inventory- length, width, surface type, settlements connected.
107
- Household level surveys to assess socio economic characteristics
including travel characteristics and accessibility to motorable roads.
- Suggest appropriate strategy to improve accessibility.

Interim Conclusions

- Assessment of settlement level connectivity.
- Total settlements.
- Connected/unconnected.
- Road length required for connectivity improvements.

Significance /Utilisation Potential

Evaluation of all weather road accessibility levels in typical geographical
regions and development of strategies for the improvement of mobility of rural
population.

Recommendations

Updated road details along with settlement level data can be used for the
preparation of Road Development Plans under PURA, IRAP etc.


3. Studies on Operational Efficiency on KSRTC Mini Bus Services

Date of Start: April 2006

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To study the routing pattern and scheduling of KSRTC mini bus services.
- To study the passenger load and load characteristics during peak and
non-peak periods.
- To analyse the operational efficiency of mini-bus services.
- Suggesting measures to enhance operational efficiency.

Methodology

- Literature survey
- Secondary data collection (Vehicle data collection from RT offices,
- Identification of the routes operated by KSRTC mini bus in Trivandrum
district, Discussions with stake holders)
- Primary data collection (Preliminary investigations and survey on these
routes, Selection of sample routes for detailed survey)
- Field Surveys (Demand survey on existing routes, road user operating
cost details)
- Data analysis
108
- Detailed cost analyses
- Arriving at norms for a new effective route pattern for KSRTC minibus
service
- Cost modeling
- Preparation of cost table
- Report preparation

Interim Conclusions

Mini buses are not performing its due role of providing connectivity as the
feeder routes but act as supplementary service to large buses.

Significance /Utilisation Potential

The study would be useful to streamline the routes and performance of mini
bus service in other parts of the State

Limitations

Detailed surveys on feeder routes not conducted







109
3. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT


SUMMARY

Research work reported in the area of Safety and Environment under
the broad area of Traffic and Transportation include studies related to traffic &
accident analysis, accident recording and analysis procedures in India,
accident abatement measures in urban areas, Case studies related to road
accident analysis on highways and in urban areas, accident prevention,
psychomotor performance of drivers under the influence of alcohol, Road
safety for school children, Accident costing, Safe community programmes for
local communities, Road Safety auditing, Design norms for safe &
environmentally pleasing environmental facilities, air pollution along highways
and Noise pollution in urban areas. Studies on general road safety related
issues are reported to stress upon the criticality of road safety aspects.
Academic Institutions have also reported some works on accident and
environment related aspects.


SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Critical evaluation of existing accident recording and analysis
procedures in India
2. Methodology for accident costing
3. Issues related to pedestrian safety & training of drivers for safer roads
4. Recent advances in road safety auditing studies along
highways/expressways
5. Air & noise pollution management along highways






110
A. COMPLETED PROJECTS



1. Accident Abatement Measures for Urban Areas in Kerala

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and Objectives

The study aims to identify accident black spots in selected urban areas,
evaluate the causes for accident proneness of these locations and evaluate
the impact of the schemes after implementation. To this end the major
objectives of the study include
- Compilation of location-wise accident data of selected urban areas
- Analysis of accident data and identification of accident-prone locations
- Evaluation of accident trends along with factors effecting road safety
- Preparation of schemes to improve accident prone locations
- Providing technical support to local bodies for implementation of schemes.
- Evaluation of impact of the accident abatement measures

Progress

Time series accident data were collected to identify and prioritize the accident
black spots of the selected urban areas. Detailed traffic surveys, site
investigation and topographic surveys were carried out to assess the existing
scenario. Suitable short term and long term accident abetment measures
were worked out for each of the selected locations. Technical support was
provided to the implementing agencies for the execution of schemes

Conclusions

Based on traffic flow and topographic condition of the accident prone
locations, suitable design for some of the accident prone locations in Kerala
State including KMML junction in Kollam city, Vazhapally and railway station
junctions in Changanasserry town, Palluruthy area in Ernakulam city have
been completed. Reports containing improvement proposals have been
forwarded to the implementing agencies for necessary action. Once the
proposals are implemented, an after effect study would be carried out to
assess the accident proneness of the area.

Significance

Proposed improvement schemes for the identified accident prone locations
are expected to reduce accidents and smoothen the flow of traffic at these
locations.

111
Recommendations

- Improvement proposal for KMML junction in Kollam city
- Improvement proposal for Vazhappally and railway station junctions in
Changanasserry city


2. A Comparative Study of Psychomotor Performance of Drivers with
and without Usage of Alcohol

Duration: April 2006 to March 2007

Central Road research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed.

The research reports findings of a study of 250 Light Motor Vehicle drivers of
same educational background and economic status, highlighting the effect of
alcohol and age on drivers eye-hand coordination movements. Present study
was conducted to compare the psychomotor performances of drivers who
consumed alcohol while driving with the other group of drivers who did not
consumed alcohol while driving.

Findings/Conclusions

The study was conducted on drivers who were seated comfortably inside the
laboratory. Firstly the drivers hand steadiness and grip tests were
administered on the driver prior to the consumption of alcohol to test his grip
strength and steadiness under normal conditions. Then these tests were
repeated after 45 minutes of the alcohol consumption (i.e. one peg of wine)
and drivers breathe alcohol level along with grip test and hand steadiness
test were recorded after every 15 minutes.

From the laboratory study this was analyzed that as the drivers breath alcohol
level slowly increases with the time the performance of the driver in the
psychomotor abilities decreases.

The drivers were tested for breath alcohol analyzer firstly then other two
psychomotor ability tests were administered on them one after another. The
data of the Alco meters were recorded automatically by the system itself while
the raw data of other two instruments i.e. hand grip and hand steadiness
tester were recorded manually with the help of traffic police personnel on the
site along with the age and other demographic characteristics of the drivers.

From the field study this was analyzed that Drivers steadiness in hand and
grip performance reduced with the increase in the BrAc levels, increase in the
age of the driver, grip test performance of non alcoholic subjects with various
112
driving experiences showed better performances as compared to the drivers
who consumed alcohol.

Reports/Publication

Report is available in CRRI.


3. Accident Recording & Analysis Procedures in India

Duration: April 2002 to March 2006

Central Road research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

Completed

Findings / Conclusions

- Importance of good accident data collection system was brought out for
creating awareness amongst policy makers and decision-makers about its
utility.
- Elements of the accident data system were specified.
- The review of the accident recording & analysis procedures in the
developed world was done and a State-of-Art report on the subject was
prepared.
- Review of the accident recording and analysis procedures at the National,
State and City level in India was done. At National level review of accident
recording by MOSRTH and National Crime Bureau was done.
- Review of the existing accident recording forms A1 and A4 in India was
done.
- The short-falls in the existing recording and analysis procedures which is
mainly by First Information Reports (F.I.Rs.) were listed. Also the shortfalls
in accident analysis procedures and dissemination of the accident data
among users were listed.

- A new simplified form for accident recording was designed.
- The new form was tested in two states of India.
- Suggestions were provided for improving the existing system of accident
recording and analysis procedures in India.

Recommendations

1. Creating Awareness:
The awareness regarding the usefulness of accident statistics is to be
created. At present, accident reporting and analysis work is given a very
low priority in most of the Traffic Police organizations and only one or two
persons are deployed in maintaining the records of accidents. The policy
makers, planners, engineers, enforcement agencies, insurance
113
companies, vehicle manufacturers all are awfully unaware of the utility of
good accidents data. Though recently in the Road Safety Policies project
good accident data is taken as one of the eleven-point programme of
Road Safety Action Plans.

2. Use of Simplified Form for National Accident Statistics:
For National data on accident recording a simple uniform form has to be
used by all the states. At present, there is wide discrepancy in the
accident statistics reported by MOSRTH, National Crime Bureau and
different citys Traffic Police organizations, which can be removed by
following a simpler and easy to fill form for some important national
accident parameters. The parameters should be selected based on the
viewpoint of different stakeholders of road safety.

3. Creating Special Accident Recording & Investigation Units:
In every Traffic Police organization, a special team is to be created for
accident recording and analysis work and they should be specifically
trained for it. Barring few cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata, etc., other
cities do not use computerized accident recording and analysis system.
These units are to be linked to the National Accident Data Centre so that
the data can be transferred on-line and there should be no time lag in
publishing the national accident records as is the case at present. There
is a need to have single unified form for all and it has to be computerized.
The trained personnel should have permanent posting in these units.
These units should possess trained personnel, computers, accident
analysis software, etc.

4. Involving Research Institutes & NGOs:
For in-depth analysis, some fatal accidents are to be analyzed by
Research Institutes or some other NGOs. One department should take
over this work so as to evolve scientific road safety countermeasures.
Every year some minimum number of fatal accidents should be analyzed
in details and should be stored. This will help in identifying accident black-
spots, vulnerable road users, faulty road user behavior, vehicle defects
and the like and based on this, some scientific road safety
countermeasures suited to the local environments can be applied.

5. Dissemination of Accident Data:
The accident data dissemination should be done scientifically. The user
agencies of accident data are to be identified and they should be involved
in the accident reporting and analysis work.

6. Creating national Accident Data Bank:
Every state should be asked to computerize its accident recording and
analysis work and this data should be transferred at least quarterly, if not
monthly, to the national data bank. There has to be some system of
rewards or penalty for complying and non-complying states for this work.
At the National Accident Data Bank, a team of specialized personnel
should analyse the and publish the data. It should disseminate this
114
information to all the user agencies and it should be available on their
websites.

Reports / Publications

1. State of Art Report on Accident Recording and Investigation in India,
August, 2005.
2. Accident Data Recording & Analysis form & Related Document June,
2006
3. Final Report on Accident Recording & Analysis Procedures in India
October, 2006.


4. Driver Protection Strategies (Seat Belt and Helmet Use)

Duration: April 2005 to March 2007

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present status and progress

The project is completed

Findings/ Conclusions

It was found that the highest percentage of two wheeler riders wearing
helmets is in Kochi (29%) and the lowest is in Pathanamthitta (4%). Wayand,
Thrissur and Kottayam are also having higher percentage of helmet wearing.
The effect of income on helmet ownership also shows a common trend in
most of the districts, middle-income group is having the highest ownership.
The age group also matters in the use of helmets in most of the districts.

In case of seat belt use, the lowest percentage (1%) was observed for Kochi
where as it was the highest (7%) in Palakkad. Use of seat belt among the
youngster was encouraging in most of the districts.

Conclusions

The findings of the study are pertaining to some of the selected towns of the
state of Kerala. Same conclusions may not be true for other parts of the
country.

Recommendations

Such studies may be undertaken for other parts of the state and the country.


5. Air Pollution and Traffic Flow Characteristics along Delhi
Chandigarh and Chandigarh Shimla Corridors
115

Duration: April 2006 to December 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Present Status and Progress

The study was carried out to evaluate the air pollution and traffic flow
characteristics along the ~280 km long Delhi-Chandigarh (NH-1) and
Chandigarh-Shimla (NH-22) highway Corridors. The objectives include
measurement of roadside (kerb side) air quality and study of traffic related
attributes and to find relationship between vehicular traffic (emissions) and
observed roadside air pollution levels at 5 selected locations Rai (Sonepat),
Gharaunda (Karnal), and Shahabad (Kurukshetra) on NH-1 and Kalka
(Panchkula) and Rabon (Solan) on NH-22.

Pollutants SO
2
, NO
x
, CO, HC, O
3
, particulate matter (SPM, PM
10
, PM
2.5
, and
PM
1.0
), benzene and toluene and micrometeorological parameters were
measured simultaneous with traffic counts.

Findings/Conclusions

The comprehensive roadside air pollution measurement and classified traffic
volume study at five selected locations (Rai, Sonepat, Gharaunda, Karnal,
Shahabad, Kurukshetra; Kalka, Panchkula and Rabon and Solan has
provided for the first time the empirical and base line information on roadside
air pollution and classified traffic flow characteristics study along ~270 km long
Delhi-Shimla corridor (Delhi-Chandigarh (NH-1) and Chandigarh-Shimla (NH-
22) corridor. The study observations are described below.

- Concentrations of most of the pollutants did not exceed the ambient air
quality standards except for oxides of nitrogen (NO
2
) and occasionally for
PM
10
at almost all the locations. The magnitude of pollutant levels,
although, vary amongst measured locations.
- Traffic volume and compositions, although vary in magnitude
predominantly, have more or less similar pattern. Share of diesel powered
vehicles were observed to be higher than gasoline powered vehicles
except at one location (Kalka, Panchkula). It may also be stated that non-
transport vehicles dominated the traffic compositions at all the locations.
- Reasonable correlation between hourly traffic flows and respective hourly
concentrations of key pollutants was observed. However, no consistent
relationship (correspondence) was noticed. Suggesting that roadside air
quality does not depend simply on traffic volumes but other factors also
could significantly alter the understanding of interplay between traffic and
roadside air quality.
- It was observed that wind pattern at site could explain better way the
resultant air quality particularly with reference to CO and NO
x

concentrations. This tool has been used to explain the distribution pattern
of roadside pollution levels although in a restricted way.

116
The study observations revealed that roadside air quality along this section of
the national highway (NH-1 and NH-22) has not deteriorated to a great extent.
Even expected growth rate of 8-10% per annum in traffic flow at this corridor
is not expected to worsen the roadside air quality in near future.

Limitations of Conclusions

The study findings are based on a limited data set in terms of number of
observations. It would be of significance to carry out survey covering all the
seasons of the year.

Recommendations

It would be of significance to carry out surveys covering all the seasons of the
year. It might be of significance to carry out similar studies along other
National highway corridors in drawing useful conclusions.

Reports/Publications

The Final Report was submitted in December 2006.



B. ON GOING PROJECTS


1. Safe Road to School An Action Plan for promoting Road Safety
among School children

Date of Start: January 2005

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

Road Safety Action plan and Report completed for 25 schools and submitted
to the implementing authorities

Findings/ Conclusions

Improvement in safe behavior of children by about 40% has been noticed as
measured by Pre-Training and Post Training Safety Score. Major problems
faced by the students while commuting to school have been identified and
also their travel needs have been analyzed.

Limitations

117
The survey of school children indicated that majority of children either walk to
school or use public/school buses. Children have also explained about over
crowding in public buses and unsafe roads.

Recommendations

Further work is being taken up to cover more schools in the State.

Reports/Publications

The following Road Safety education books have been published

- Traffic Education and Road Safety for Children (English and
Malayalam)
- Safe Road School Principles for Road Safety for children (English and
Malayalam)
- Safe Cycling
- All about Lane Driving
- Two wheeler and Auto Rickshaw Driving Manual for School
autorikshaw drivers
- Safe Bus Driving (for school bus drivers)

Road Safety action plans for 25 schools have been prepared and these are
being implemented by PWD, Govt. of. Kerala.


2. Further Studies on Accident Costing (IMRA T-7)

Date of Start: September 2002

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

The report is under submission.

Findings/Conclusions

Various costs of road accidents have been worked out.

Limitations

Cost of road accidents were drawn from available data from Insurance
companies, workshops, hospitals & private companies.

3. A comparative Study of Accident Risk Index (ARI) for Various
Districts of Gujarat State

Date of Start: March 2003
118

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Progress

Data collection regarding accidents, area, population, registered motor
vehicles and the road length for the 25 districts in Gujarat State from 1996 to
2003 is completed.

Data about factors affecting ARI values is completed. Report writing is in
progress.

Findings/Conclusions

ARI is highly co-related with severity i.e. Number of persons killed & injured.
The conclusion about computation of ARI values & comparison of ARI values
with different factors will be drawn for the available data only.

Recommendations

Planning about new construction of roads will be carried out from road
severity aspects for districts with high ARI values.


4. Comparative Study of Accidents on N.H. 8 Passing from Baroda to
Ahmedabad Districts

Date of Start: March 2005

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Present Status and Progress

Road accident data analysis is in progress.


5. Study of Noise Pollution due to Automobiles in Major Cities of
Kerala

Date of Start: April 2005

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Present Status and Progress

Sound level instrument has been procured. Literature survey, model selection
and preparation of survey formats completed. Eleven survey stations are
identified. Data collection completed for analysis.

119
Findings/ Conclusions

Work in progress.


6. Design Norms for Safe & Environmentally Pleasing Pedestrian
Facilities

Date of Start: April 2006

Central Road research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Progress

State of Art report has been written. Surveys on around 10 intersections
Four arm intersections, Y and roundabouts have been carried out. Physical
inventory, Video recording and Opinion Surveys have been carried out.
Further study is in progress.

Findings / Conclusions

- Of the 47 roads surveyed, in around 55% roads zebra crossing was
missing.
- Around one third (34%) foot-paths near intersections were encroached.
- Pedestrian signal was lacking in 98% intersections
- In around 80% cases pedestrian refuge island was missing.
- In around 77% cases, foot-bridge or subway was not available.
- Side walk width was found to be below 1.8m in around 29% cases.
- In around 53% of the surveyed roads near the intersections, footpath
height was found to be more than 30cm which is difficult to be negotiated.
- One third of the footpaths were found to be aesthetically displeasing
(28%), uncomfortable to walk (37%), having sever cracks (33%).

Reports / Publications

State of Art Report on Design Norms for Safe & Environmentally Pleasing
Pedestrian Facilities is being prepared.


C. NEW PROJECTS


1. Spectrum Analysis of Road Accidents in Gujarat State

Date of Start: March 2007

Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara (R)

Scope and Objectives

120
To find out the detailed causes for the accidents in the Gujarat state and have
proper concept of preventive measures.

Methodology

The information about road accidents from the year 1999-2005 will be
collected and analyze in different classification for Time spectrum, Vehicle
spectrum, Road spectrum, Road and Environment spectrum.


2. Safe Community Programme for Selected Panchayaths in Kerala

Date of Start: April 2006

National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (R)

Scope and objectives

The Project Safe Community Programme for Panchayats is to encourage
local community to initiate and proactively seek ways to reduce accident risk
and increase road safety. Initially the study will be confined to some of the
selected panchyats of Kerala State.

The objectives are as follows:
- To achieve community involvement and ownership
- To target local resources and effort to road safety risk
- To develop and motivate local partnerships
- To contribute to road safety outcomes
- To integrate road safety activities
- To identify local road safety issues
- To suggest road safety measures for local road safety issues

Methodology

Methodology includes discussion with panchayat officials and establishment
of road safety cell in each panchayat. Volunteers would be trained in
conducting road safety programmes and preparing road improvement
proposals.

Interim conclusions

At panchayat level accident/injury data pertaining to the road accident is not
available. Hence accident/injury surveys have been conducted on sample
household basis in two selected Panchayats viz., Vizhinjam and Kazhakuttam
in Trivandrum district. The analysis of data is in progress.

Significance/ Utilization Potential

121
The improvement proposals would be pursued to be implemented by the
Department of Rural Development, NABARD (RIDF), Bharat Nirman Yojana
(Central Government progamme similar to PMGSY


3. Road Safety Audit of Select National Highways / Expressway
Sections on Western Transport Corridor and East-West Corridors under
National Highways Development Project in India (Package D)

Date of Start : August 2005

(i) CRAPHTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad in Assoc. with Road
Safety Audits, Australia (R)
(ii) National Highways Authority of India (C)

Scope and objectives

The task involved carrying out Road Safety Audit (RSA) for nearly 600 kms. of
completed / under construction sections of National Highways between
Poonamallee in TN and Harihar in Karnataka. The Consultants were to
suggest short term mitigation measures for identified hazard locations while
making overall recommendations towards having safe road for all. Preliminary
cost estimate for implementation of short term measures was also to be
prepared. Nearly 50% of the project road was under construction, while
construction work for the balance 50% had already been completed.

Methodology

1. To evolve a detailed check list to highlight the safety issues specific to the
project road (under construction and constructed);
2. To conduct RSA as per international practice;
3. To consolidate the findings, identify short comings and suggest mitigation
measures

Conclusions

Serious aberrations were noted for user information and guidance system,
Protection works and barricades, In handling traffic around construction areas.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

The study clearly brings out the lack of safety consciousness amongst various
agencies and suggests low cost measures towards mending the deficiencies
so caused.


4. Study of Accidents on NH-45 (KM 0/0 56/0)

Date of Start: April 2006

122
Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To identify the black spots on NH-45 from the past 5-years accident
records.
- To conduct traffic volume count, speed studies and related studies.
- To carry out the existing site condition Studies.
- To rank and prioritize the black spots based on the Accidents and the
existing Site conditions.
- To conduct a comprehensive computer-based Accident Analysis, based
on the factors causing accidents.
- To suggest possible remedial measures and recommendations to reduce
the accident rate and the conditions to be evaluated and monitored for
further Period of time.

Methodology

The Accident Data for the past five years to be collected and based on the
data and the existing site conditions, the Accident-prone black spots to be
identified. The Black-spots to be prioritized based on the number, frequency
and severity of the accidents. A comprehensive Computer-based analysis is
to be conducted to find out the causative factors of the accidents. Suitable
remedial measures and recommendations, with a view to reduce the
accidents would be suggested and the situation monitored further.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

The causes for accidents, if studied can even be extended for similar field
conditions.

Recommendations

After the study period of two years is over, the study stretch is to be monitored
by acquiring periodical data and observing the situation, for any reduction in
the rate of accidents.


5. Traffic Accident Prevention Study in East Coast Road (km 11/0
135/500)

Date of Start: April 2006

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To identify the black-spots on E.C.R. from the Accidents Records.
- To conduct Traffic Volume and Speed studies.
- To study the existing site conditions in detail.
123
- To rank and prioritize the black spots (based on severity of accidents,
existing site condition) and conducting computer based comprehensive
accident analysis based on factors causing accidents
- To suggest suitable remedial measures to contain the increased accident
rate.

Methodology

The study would be conducted for a period of two years. The data regarding
Volume Count, Spot Speed and Accident particulars would be collected for
the study stretch and would be analyzed with the existing site conditions. The
black-spots identified would be prioritized with suitable numerical weight ages.
Based on the analysis, suitable remedial measures would be suggested.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

Ascertaining Causes for accidents are useful in possible prediction of
accidents


6. Road Safety Audit for Select Stretch on NH-205

Date of Start: August 2006

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To assess the adequacy of geometric features of existing road junctions
and
- Mid-block sections.
- To study the black spots and suggest counter-measures to reduce the
accidents
- To study and appreciate the existing road signages, road markings, road
safety components, signals, lighting and side objects.
- To give suggestive measures to improve the safety aspects of the existing
road conditions

Methodology

The existing road geometric condition and the details pertaining to the road
safety be critically audited with reference to the codal provisions. The
secondary data on accidents from the Police Department would analyze to
find out the characteristics of road accidents. Based on the above, the Black-
spots in road environment with respect to codal provision is to identify. The
major causes of the accidents would be determined and finally counter-
measures would be suggested to reduce the accidents.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

124
Road Safety Audit is a valuable tool to make a critical assessment of the
existing site conditions, which are unsafe for the road-users.


7. Identification and Analysis of Black Spots on EVR Salai

Date of Start: August 2006

Highways Research Station, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To identify the black spots on EVR Salai from accident records.
- To rank the black spots according to the number and severity of accidents.
- To carry out the existing site condition studies.
- To suggest possible remedial measures and recommendations to reduce
the accident rate.

Methodology

Based on the accident data collected from the Police records, the Black Spots
would be prioritized and the existing site conditions at such Black-spot
locations, studied in detail. The Traffic Volume and Accident Data would be
comprehensively analyzed for preparing the report.

Significance / Utilisation Potential

Black-spot identification is useful for prioritising improvement activities, to
reduce the rate of accidents.
125
VI. RESEARCH WORK DONE IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS
RELATED TO THESIS WORK

A. HIGHWAY PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION AND INSTRUMENTATION


1. A study on Road Maintenance Programmes in Maraimalai Nagar
Municipality of Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) using HDM-4

Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To study the present pavement condition of selected roads and observe
the pavement failure through pavement condition survey.
- To suggest a Budget Based Pavement Maintenance System using HDM-4
software by prioritising the roads.
- To study the conditions of the pavements subjecting the roads to
Improvement / Maintenance works.

Methodology

The project involves collection of existing pavement condition like the area
cracking, raveling, rut depth, no. of potholes and road inventory data and
traffic data and the data is analysed using HDM-4 software by assigning
various maintenance and improvement standards. This study estimates the
cost required for the maintenance and improvement of the roads.

Findings/Conclusions

The year wise road maintenance works are found out under two conditions
without budget constraint and with budget constraint. The condition of the
roads is studied under maintenance and improvement options.


2. Roughness Progression Modeling using ANN Technique

Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To develop roughness progression model to predict the roughness of
roads under the stated traffic condition and pavement composition using
ANN technique.
126
- To develop most versatile model to facilitate the field engineers to use it
without any difficulty.
- To validate the model by comparing the actual to the predicted.

Methodology

This study is carried out in 5 stages. In the first stage, roads with varying
traffic, pavement composition and soil conditions are identified. In the second
stage, roughness measurements are made on identified roads using
ROMDAS (Road measurement and Data Acquisition system). In the third
stage, roughness progression model is developed using ANN technique. In
the fourth stage, validation and sensitivity analysis of model are carried out.
Finally conclusions are drawn.

Findings/Conclusions

The Roughness Progression Model of this study is found to be
Y = X
1
2
+ X
2
-1
+ cos X
3
+ (log X
4
)
-1


Where Y = Roughness
X
1
= Structural Number
X
2
= Last renewal year (year)
X
3
= Width of the road (m)
X
4
= Traffic (CVPD Three years)

The model estimates the progression of roughness with a fair degree of
accuracy with R
2
value of 0.9909.


3. Influence of Road Roughness on Speed

Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To measure the roughness of the different road stretches
- To identify the effect of road roughness on the passenger car
- To identify the effect of road roughness on capacity of standard lane
- To establish the relationship between roughness and speed

Methodology

- Need for the study
- Study area description
- Taking roughness measurements on selected road stretches by using
MERLIN
127
- Measuring the free flow speed of the vehicles by using Radar gun at every
200 m interval of a km to find the average speed for the entire km
- Analysis of data to establish the relationship roughness and free speed of
passenger car

Findings/Conclusions

- In this study survey has been conducted in the road with roughness value
ranging from 1300mm/km to 9100mm/km
- As the roughness value increases the speed decreases, journey time
increases, the wear and tear of the vehicle parts increases and the fuel
consumption also increases.


4. Study of Distribution of Axle Loads of Commercial Vehicles and
its Effect on Pavement Performance

Date of Start: May 2006

(i) National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)
(ii) National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram (C)

Scope and Objectives

The specific objectives of the present study are:

- To identify the methods for quantification of effect of axle load distribution
on pavement performance.
- To collect axle load data from selected locations through axle load
surveys.
- To determine the Vehicle Damage Factors (VDF) from the axle load
spectrum data.
- To assess the effect of axle load pattern on pavement performance.

Methodology

Collection of axle load data through field survey at six locations, at
Kazhakkootam near Trivandrum on NH-47, at Venjarammood near
Trivandrum SH-1 (Main Central Road), at Pampady near Kottayam on NH-
220, at Kundanoor near Ernakulam on NH-47-A, at Thevara near Ernakulam
on NH- 49A and at Feroke near Kozhikode on NH-17, in Kerala for 24 hours.

(i) Collection of classified traffic volume data along with axle load survey at
the study locations.
(ii) Determination of axle load spectrum for each survey location.
(iii) Determination of ESAL for each class of vehicles.
(iv) Estimation of Vehicle Damage Factor.
(v) Estimation of the economic impact of the heavy loading of commercial
vehicles based on total transportation cost that includes the initial
128
pavement cost, pavement maintenance cost and vehicle operating cost
for design life.

Findings/Conclusions

- Single axle as well as tandem axle trucks gross vehicle weight is
exceeding the legal limits by considerable amount.
- Equivalent Single Axle Load varied depending on the axle configuration
of trucks.
- Distribution of load between the front and rear axles is nearly balanced
and the higher VDF is not due to unbalanced loading.
- Equivalent Single Axle Load and Vehicle Damage Factor are direction
dependent.
- Damaging effect of single axle trucks can be reduced by introduction of
multi axle trucks.
- Pavement design based on the Vehicle Damage Factor estimated after
proper field studies will reduce the pavement maintenance cost.
- Extra total transportation cost was found to be 100% due to
overloading.
- Percentage of overloaded vehicles is nearly 80% in case of all types of
commercial vehicles except tractor-trailer combination vehicles.
- Maximum overloading was found to be 17 & 19 tonnes in case of 2
axle trucks and 3 axle trucks respectively.




















129



B. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING AND PAVING MATERIALS



1. Investigations on Engineering Behaviour of Clayey Soil
Reinforced with Nylon Fibers and Sand

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The main objective of this study is to assess the suitability of nylon fibers for
stabilization of clayey soil in the presence of sand by studying the changes in
the engineering properties of soil with the addition of randomly oriented nylon
fibers and sand.

The study is limited to laboratory investigations on clay of intermediate
plasticity. Sand selected for study is river sand of medium size, passing
through 2.00mm sieve and retained on 400 sieve.

Methodology

(i) Evaluation of the index properties of soil.
(ii) Determination of optimum dosage of sand based on Compaction test on
soil and sand mixture.
(iii) Study the influence of reinforcement of randomly oriented nylon fibers on
the strength properties of the soil by conducting Compaction Test,
Unconfined compression Test, C.B.R. Test, Permeability Test and Direct
Shear Test for the selected percentages of fiber content and optimum
sand content.
(iv) Nylon fibers are of 0.4mm dia and of 20mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm
lengths.
(v) Fiber contents tried are 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% & 1.5% by the weight of dry
soil.

Findings/Conclusions

10% sand is found to be optimum sand dosage for the present study based
on the results of compaction tests done with different percentages of sand.

The increase in UCS is 270 to 340% for 20 mm long fiber with different
percentages of fiber content.

130
The maximum CBR value obtained is for 40 mm length fiber reinforcement
and is 2.9 times as compared to that of unreinforced soil. Therefore, 40mm
long fiber is identified as the optimum length of fiber.

The CBR tests conducted on soil with optimum fiber length (40mm) optimum
sand dosage (10%) have shown that there is 312% to 359% increase in
unsoaked CBR values. In soaked condition, the maximum CBR value
obtained for clay+sand+fiber mixture is 4 times than that of virgin clay.

Coefficient of permeability increased by 4 times with the inclusion of fiber and
sand.

Value of cohesion is decreased due to inclusion of nylon fiber and sand, both
individually and collectively. The shear strength and angle of internal friction
increased with the addition of sand and fiber.

It can be concluded that addition of a small percentage of nylon fibers
improves the strength of soft clay. Hence, CBR value of clayey soils as sub
grades can be improved by reinforcing with randomly oriented nylon fibers
and with addition of sand.


2. Stabilization of Clayey Soil using Fly Ash and Lime

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The following are the objectives of the study:

- To examine the suitability of fly ash and lime for stabilization of clayey soil.
- To find out the changes in engineering properties after addition of fly ash
and lime.
- To evaluate the improvement in strength of the soil by mixing fly ash and
lime.

The study is limited to laboratory investigations on finding out the influence of
fly ash & lime on properties of soft clay. Fly ash used in this experiment was
brought from Mettur Thermal Power Station, Mettur (Tamilnadu).

Methodology

(i) Evaluation of the index properties of soil.
(ii) Determination of physical properties of fly ash.
(iii) Determination of optimum lime dosage based on Eads and Grim pH test.
(iv) Determination of optimum moisture content for various percentages of fly
ash.
131
(v) Study of effect of curing period on strength characteristics of soil-lime-fly
ash mixture.
(vi) Study the effect of addition of fly ash and lime on strength characteristics
of soil by conducting UCS test, CBR test, Direct shear test and
Permeability test on mixture at 10, 20 & 30% of fly ash by weight of soil.

Findings/Conclusions

- Soil used in the study is classified as CI (as per IS 1498-1970) i.e clay of
medium compressibility.
- Optimum dosage of lime is found to be 6% by dry weight of soil.
- Addition of lime to clay results in reduction of maximum dry density with
increase in optimum moisture content.
- Similar trend, as above, was also observed with addition of fly ash.
- From the UCS test, it was observed that the addition of lime and fly ash to
the soil increases the stiffness and peak strength.
- Maximum UCS was obtained at 20% fly ash for both soaked and
unsoaked conditions.
- Maximum CBR was obtained at 20% fly ash for both soaked and
unsoaked conditions.
- Maximum Shear strength was obtained at 10% fly ash at different normal
stresses.
- A combination of 20% fly ash and 6% lime has been identified as optimum
dosage for the soil used.


3. Evaluation of Toner Modified Bituminous Binder

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

Spent toner residue from copiers and printer cartridges, is dumped into
landfills since there is no other better way of utilizing this material. As a fine
powder, toner can remain suspended in the air for some period and is
considered to have ill effects on the human health. Toner contains polymers
and so addition of waste toner is expected to improve the desirable properties
of bitumen. The objectives of the study are as follows:

- To identify the effects of waste toner on bituminous binder, through
literature review.
- To evaluate the suitability of waste toner as a modifier of bitumen by
laboratory investigations.
- To arrive at the optimum dosage of waste toner.

The study is limited to investigation of properties of 80-100 penetration grade
bitumen modified with waste toner using standard laboratory tests.
132

Methodology

(i) Determination of properties of plain bitumen and aggregate.
(ii) Preparation of using blends waste toner and bitumen with 8, 10, 12, 14
and 16 % of toner by weight.
(iii) Determination of optimum binder content for Dense Bituminous
Macadam.
(iv) Conduct Marshall test on modified bitumen and aggregate mixtures.
(v) Evaluation of rutting characteristics and moisture susceptibility of
modified mixtures.
(vi) Determination of optimum dosage of waste toner.

Findings /Conclusions

- Values of Penetration and Elastic recovery decreased with increase in %
of waste toner.
- Softening point and specific gravity increased with increase in % of waste
toner.
- Flash and Fire point were found to be more than the specified limits for all
percentages of waste toner.
- Optimum binder content is 5.20 % by weight.
- Optimum dosage of waste toner is 12.67% by weight of bitumen.
- Marshall Stability increased by 100% for toner modified bituminous mix.
- Rut resistance is excellent for toner modified bituminous mix, while it is
poor plain bituminous mix, as per IRC specifications.
- Tensile Strength Ratio as indicator of moisture susceptibility is higher by
nearly 10%, for specimens prepared with modified bitumen compared to
specimens prepared with plain bitumen.
- Laboratory investigations demonstrated that the addition of waste toner in
bitumen bring about changes in the properties of bitumen and bituminous
mixes.


4. Viscometric Studies of Straight Run Bitumen

Duration: August 2004 to December 2006.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Findings and Conclusions

(i) For penetration grade bitumens (60/70 or 80/100), the shear strain or
deformation increases with increase in temperature for a constant load.
For instance, 60/70 grade bitumen at a constant load of 100 kPa
exhibited an increase in deformation by 200 % for a rise in temperature
from 20 to 25C and by 700% when the temperature was increased
from 20 to 30 C.
133
(ii) For penetration grade bitumens (60/70 or 80/100), the deformation
increases with load at a constant temperature. In a creep and recovery
experiment on 60/70 grade bitumen at 30C, the shear strain increases
from 800% for 100 kPa to 810 % for 200 kPa and 840 % for 300 kPa
load.
(iii) From the above two observations, it is seen that the influence of
temperature is more pronounced on the material behaviour when
compared to the load applied.
(iv) The nature of bitumen changes from a non-linear visco-elastic material
at 15 and 20 C to a non-Newtonian material at 25 and 30 C for both
60/70 and 80/100 penetration grade bitumens.
(v) The un-recovered strain, in case of creep and recovery test increased
exponentially with temperature and the applied load had very little
influence. For instance, residual strain of 60/70 grade bitumen at 110
seconds exhibited 589 % increase (from 202 % to 791%) for a rise in
temperature from 25 to 30 C at 100 kPa. However, the shear strain
increased marginally an increase of 31% from 791% at 100 kPa to 822
% at 200 kPa at 30 C.
(vi) The 80/100 grade bitumen exhibited more deformation for the same
loading and temperature conditions when compared to 60/70 grade
bitumen. For instance, 60/70 grade bitumen exhibited a shear strain of
284 % for 25 C and constant load of 100 kPa at 10 seconds, where as
80/100 grade bitumen exhibited a strain of 327 % under the same
conditions.
(vii) Under all the conditions of the creep and recovery test, both the grades
of bitumen exhibited non-linear response.
(viii) Time-temperature superposition was also found to be not valid under
the testing conditions for the grades of bitumen tested.
(ix) It was observed that as the initial strain increases, the time for stress
relaxation also increases. For instance, for 60/70 grade bitumen, the
relaxation time was found to be 0.477 seconds up to 10 % of applied
stress at 35 C for an applied strain of 5 %, where as, it was 0.839
seconds for 10 % strain.
(x) It was observed that relaxation time decreases with increase in
temperature. For instance, the relaxation time reduces to 0.21 seconds
from 0.477 seconds up to 10 % of applied stress for an applied strain of
5 % for the 60/70 grade bitumen when the temperature was increased
from 35 to 40 C in stress relaxation.
(xi) The relaxation time (for 10 % stress) decreased with increase in
temperature and increased with increase of strain for both the grades
of bitumen. Also the influence of temperature is more pronounced on
the material behaviour in stress relaxation.
(xii) The 60/70 grade bitumen takes more time to relax than 80/100. In case
of stress relaxation at 35 C, the relaxation time for 60/70 grade
bitumen is 0.477 seconds for 5 % strain, where as it is 0.36 seconds for
80/100 grade bitumen.
(xiii) The non-linear visco-elastic constitutive model (Krishnan and
Rajagopal, 2005) predicts the constant strain portion of the stress
relaxation data to a reasonable accuracy.

134

5. Improvements to Soft Clay Subgrade with Quarry Dust and Lime

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The main objective is to explore the possible use of quarry dust and lime to
improve soft clay subgrade with the following specific objectives:

- To study the changes in engineering properties of clayey soil by adding
quarry dust and lime.
- To determine the optimum lime dosage for the stabilization of soft clays.
- To examine the suitability of quarry dust- lime treated soft clay in highway
construction.

Methodology

(i) Evaluation of the index properties of soil and quarry dust.
(ii) Determination of optimum lime dosage based on Eads and Grim pH test.
(iii) Conduct Compaction test, Unconfined compressive strength test, Direct
shear test, Permeability test and CBR test on Soil and Soil-lime-quarry
dust mixture.
(iv) Evaluation of the effect of curing period on various properties of soil-lime-
quarry dust.
(v) Evaluation of engineering properties of mixture for 10, 20 and 30% of
quarry dust by weight.

Findings/Conclusions

- Soil used in the study is CH (as per I.S. 1498-1970) i.e. clay of high
plasticity.
- Optimum lime dosage is found to be 6% by dry weight of soil.
- Optimum moisture content decreases with increase in quarry dust content
and varied between 30 to 24 %.
- UCS of mixture increased with increase in curing period.
- UCS of mixture increased with increase in percentage of quarry dust.
- Water absorption decreased with the increase in percentage of quarry
dust.
- Shear strength increased with increase in percentage of quarry dust.
- CBR value increased from 4 for soil to 12 for soil+lime+30% quarry dust
mixture.

Addition of quarry dust to clay plus lime mixture considerably improves the
engineering properties like strength and water absorption. Problematic soils
like CH type can be successfully stabilized using quarry dust in conjunction
135
with lime. The increase in UCS and CBR values and reduction in water
absorption suggests the suitability of this mixture for subgrades construction


6. Characterization of Healing of Asphalt Mixtures

Date of Start: July 2002

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

- To quantify healing of asphalt mixtures through experimental studies.
- To model healing of asphalt mixtures based on a thermodynamic
framework and corroborate it through the experimental studies.
- To corroborate healing model based on a thermodynamic framework with
the existing experimental results of Kim and Little (1990).

Methodology

Cyclic triaxial tests were carried out to quantify of asphalt mixtures in the
laboratory with varied confinement conditions. A healing model based on the
continuum theory of multiple natural configurations was used to corroborate
the laboratory investigations.

Findings/Conclusions

The results obtained through laboratory investigations have adequately
proved the healing of asphalt mixtures with rest periods. The amount of
healing was observed to depend on the air voids, loading time, lateral
pressure applied on the specimen in the triaxial test and also on the
magnitude of the lateral pressure. The experimental observations closely
matched the model predictions.


7. Constitutive Modeling of Pavement Materials

Date of Start: January 2005

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

To develop models that predict the behaviour of pavement materials,
specifically

- To characterize the behaviour of materials used in pavement construction.
- Carry out experiments on granular materials similar to the ones used in
Wet Mix Macadam, analyse the results and create a model for it.

136
Methodology

The study involves the measurement of deformation to loading conditions and
analysis of the response. The experimental procedure is based on the
protocol developed for Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) by the
State Highway Research Program (SHRP). The testing process is adopted
similar to this protocol 46, Resilient Modulus of unbound granular base/ sub-
base materials and sub-grade soils, which is based on AASHTO T 292 91I,
Resilient Modulus of sub-grade soils and untreated Base/ Sub-base.

The experiment is to be done on a Tri-axial loading setup. The sample size of
70mm diameter and 140mm height is to be used. The loading cycle consists
of 1 second loading and 0.9 second rest period with a have sine loading form.
The stress conditions applied are, in fact, those, which occur when an isolated
wheel load is applied to the pavement directly above the element of material,
which is simulated in the test.


8. Influence of Short Term Aging and Compaction Effort on the
Tensile Strength of Sand-Asphalt Mixtures

Date of Start: August 2006

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

- This work aims to determine the influence of compaction effort and short
term aging on the tensile strength of sand-asphalt mixes and semi dense
bituminous concrete. This thesis can be further extended by studying, in-
depth the influence of temperature, voids ratio, asphalt type, asphalt
content, etc. on tensile strength.
- To compare the tensile strength of short term aged mix with that of un-
aged mix for both sand asphalt mixes and semi dense bituminous
concrete.
- To study the influence of compaction effort on the tensile strength of sand
asphalt mixes and semi dense bituminous mixtures.

Methodology

Sand-asphalt specimens with asphalt content of 6 and 8 percent (by total
weight of mix) and Semi dense bituminous concrete specimens with asphalt
content of 5 percent (by total weight of mix) were cast in the laboratory.

(i) Specimens were compacted according to standard Marshall method.
(ii) Influence of compaction effort on the tensile strength was compared by
applying 75 blows and 100 blows to identical samples.
(iii) Short term aging condition was simulated by placing the prepared
mixes in a hot oven maintained at 130
0
C for three hours, before the
compaction process.
137
(iv) Specimens were extruded from the moulds after cooling them to room
temperature.
(v) Specimens were packed air tight in plastic bags until they were tested
in indirect tensile testing equipment.
(vi) Static compressive load at the rate of 50mm per minute was applied
until the specimen failed.
(vii) Load at failure is noted and the tensile strength of cylindrical specimen
is calculated by applying the following formula
St = (2000*P) / (*t*D)
Where,
St = Tensile strength in (kPa).
P = Maximum load in Newton.
T = Specimen height immediately before test (mm).
D = Specimen diameter (mm)
(viii) Specimens were tested at room temperature of 30
0
C.

Findings and Conclusions

There is an increase in tensile strength upon short term aging irrespective of
the mix type.


9. Study on Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Bituminous Mixes


Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To study the effect of sisal fiber reinforced on the
properties of bituminous mixes.
- To determine the optimum dosage of sisal fiber reinforced
by using Marshall method

Methodology

(i) Need for the study
(ii) Description of materials used
(iii) Preparation of samples and laboratory tests for 180 samples
(iv) Analysis based on the results

Findings/Conclusions

- The properties of sisal fibre reinforced bituminous mixes such as stability,
flow, volume of air voids, voids filled with bituminous and voids in mineral
aggregate are showing satisfactory improvement, when compared to the
conventional mixes.
- The optimum dosage of fibre is found to be .1% by the weight of mix.
138
- The effect of length of fibre on the properties of mixes is significant.
- The stability value is sufficient in service for an axle load of 10.2 tons. In
this case, the maximum of 9.0 KN stability test value is 17.53KN. So we
can allow axle load of more than 10.2 tons.
- Axle load of higher magnitude is allowable.
- Thickness can be reduced due to higher value of stability



10. Variability in Bitumen Properties between Production and
Construction

Date of Start: January 2006

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

- To measure and analyze the changes that take place in bitumen during
the process of its journey from production site (refinery) to the construction
site (hot mix bituminous plant).
- To characterize the variations in chemical composition of bitumen using
sophisticated chemical analytical tools and to correlate its effect on the
rheological properties.
- To identify and recommend an appropriate quality control and quality
assurance system for bitumen between production and construction.

Methodology

In this research, it is proposed to use Dynamic Shear Rheometer and a
Rotational viscometer to evaluate the materials response parameters such as
creep, stress relaxation and dynamic shear of the binder at various stages
during its journey from production to construction. The initial strategy is
collection of real life samples of bitumen from different tankers, transit lines
and storage points at different time interval with their thermal history during its
journey between production and construction. A series of experiments will be
conducted and the response of the binder samples will be quantified.
An appropriate chemical analytical procedure to quantify the change in the
material composition will be carried out. Statistical analysis of the
experimental data will be conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or
such suitable techniques to detect the statistically significant of these effects.

11. Investigations on Field Performance of Bituminous Mixes with
Modified Binders

Date of Start: October 2006

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives
139

The objective of this study is to compare the performance of different modifier
laid over test sections so as to quantify the improvements in the pavement
performance under actual traffic, climate and environmental conditions when
compared to conventional neat binders. The specific objectives are listed
below:
- Characterization of the modified and conventional neat binders and mixes
through laboratory investigations
- Quantifying the effect of using modified binders as compared to
conventional neat binders in terms of pavement performance by field
investigations on surface distress
- Identify the conditions or site features (traffic levels, layer thickness,
climate and supporting soils) that maximize the effect of modified binders
on performance
- Predict and compare the performance of test sections with modified and
conventional neat binders

In this investigation modified binders like Polymer Modified Binder (PMB),
Natural Rubber Modified Binder (NRMB), Crumb Rubber Modified Binder
(CRMB) and conventional neat binder (60/70 grade) will be considered. Field
sections will be overlaid using the binders in consideration. Mechanistic
characterization of binders and mixes using MoSRT&H recommended
aggregate gradation in the laboratory would be carried out. Field performance
of the test sections will be monitored periodically. The effect of short and long-
term aging on the performance on the bituminous mixes will be studied on all
binders. From the distress data collected from the field and laboratory
investigations model will be developed to predict the field performance.

Methodology

The proposed methodology will be an attempt to study the performance of
modified binders, which includes visco-elastic characterization of the binder
and performance evaluation of modified binder mixtures in laboratory, which
will be correlated with the field performances of the modified binders from
functional and structural condition evaluation to estimate or quantify the
improvement of pavement performance with use of modified binder.

Finding and Conclusion

An attempt has been made in this investigation to compare the benefits of
bituminous binders modified using Styrene Butadiene-Styrene (SBS)
polymer over neat binders. Based on the experimental investigations the
following conclusions are summarized.

(i) The SBS polymer modified binder showed lower penetration value, but
an increase in softening point and ductility value. Polymer modified
binder (PMB) mixes are likely to offer more resistance to permanent
deformation at high temperatures. The increase in elasticity of the SBS
modified binder helps in reducing the residual deformation.
140
(ii) The viscosity of 60 / 70 grade binder at 135
0
C was found to be 3.93
poise, which is approximately equal to the value of 3.97 poise for PMB-
70 at 150
0
C. This shows that the mixing and laying temperatures for
polymer-modified binder should be higher by approximately 15
0
C when
compared to neat bituminous mixes.
(iii) The viscosity of modified binders was found to be higher than neat
binders, indicating that the temperature susceptibility of the SBS
modified binder decreased with the addition of polymer. Higher viscosity
of PMB means that these are more thick and viscous material that
results in thicker binding coating on aggregates. Thicker binder usually
takes longer times to oxidize and hence durability is increased.
(iv) Marshall Stability of polymer modified bituminous mixes was higher by
27% when compared to bituminous mixes with neat binder. This
indicates that the modified mixes are likely to withstand more traffic loads
than neat mixes.

12. Experimental Investigation on Crumb Rubber Concrete

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

Use of rubber in concrete is an effective solution to alleviate environmental
issue connected with the disposal of millions of tons of waste tyres rubber
which are available on earth in abundance each year. Thers is an acute
scarcity of ingredients of concrete viz. fine and coarse aggregates because of
over exploitation of natural resources. The addition of waste tyre rubber, as a
partial substitute to aggregates can lead to an improvement in mechanical
properties like toughness, flexibility, capacity to absorb energy, sound
absorption, permeability, light weight, thermal insulation etc although there
may be likely reduction in other properties like compressive strength, flexural
strength etc. Due to improved properties, rubber concrete can be made use in
transportation field like stabilizing base layer of pavements, runways,
construction of medians, barriers, to absorb sound energy to reduce noise
pollution, paving tiles for walk ways, railway platforms, facades, architectural
applications, retaining walls, etc The study is limited to laboratory
investigations on 1:2:4 concrete mix. It is also expected to improve the
frictional characteristics of concrete pavements.

The objectives of this study are

- To determine changes in the mechanical properties of M15 grade concrete
when the aggregate is partially replaced by crumb rubber of different
percentages (by volume).
- To measure the impact resistance of rubber concrete for different
proportions of rubber content.
- To study the effect of additives like Gypsum and Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA)
on rubber concrete.
141

Methodology

(i) Characterisation of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, rubber
particles of fine & coarse aggregate size.
(ii) Evaluation of rubber concrete with respect to compressive strength,
splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, impact
energy absorption properties.
(iii) Study the effect of curing on the gain in strength of rubber concrete.
(iv) Study the strength characteristics of rubber concrete with fine aggregate
being replaced by fine rubber particles @ 10%, 15%,20%, 25% and 30%
by volume.
(v) Study the strength characteristics of rubber concrete with coarse
aggregate being replaced by coarse rubber particles @ 10%, 15%,20%,
25% 30% by volume.
(vi) Study the strength characteristics of rubber concrete with fine and coarse
aggregates being replaced by rubber particles @ 10%, 20% and 30% by
volume of each.
(vii) Study the effect of admixtures such as Polyvinyl Alcohol and Gypsum on
strength characteristics of rubber concrete
(viii) Determination of optimum dosage of admixtures.

Findings/Conclusions

- Compressive strength of concrete decreased with increase in fine rubber
content (by 25% to 70% for 10 to 30% of fine aggregate replaced by fine
rubber particles)
- Splitting tensile strength of concrete decreased from 3.32 MPa for control
mix to1.3 MPa for rubber concrete with 30% of fine aggregate replaced by
fine rubber particles.
- Water absorption increased from 2% for control mix to 3.5% for rubber
concrete with 30% of fine aggregate replaced by fine rubber particles.
- Compressive strength of concrete decreased from 36 MPa for control mix
to 9 MPa for rubber concrete with 30% of coarse aggregate replaced by
coarse rubber particles.
- Splitting tensile strength of concrete decreased with increase in coarse
rubber content (by 34% to 65% for 10 to 30% of fine aggregate replaced
by fine rubber particles).
- Water absorption increased from 2% for control mix to 5.1% for rubber
concrete with 30% of coarse aggregate replaced by coarse rubber
particles.
- Impact resistance (fracture energy) increased from 345 N-m for control mix
to 1510 N-m for rubber concrete with 30% of fine aggregate replaced by
fine rubber particles.
- For rubber concrete with coarse aggregate replaced by coarse rubber
particles, the impact resistance was found to decrease from 552 N-m for
concrete with 10% coarse rubber particles and 400 N-m for 30% coarse
rubber particles.
- Strength characteristics were found to improve with addition of PVA up to
certain percentage of PVA.
142
- Impact resistance was found to decrease with addition of PVA.
- Similar trends were observed when Gypsum was added as an admixture.
- Optimum content of PVA was obtained at 1.4% by the weight of water.

The high impact resistance of rubber concrete makes it a potential material for
use in construction of runways, medians, crash barriers, machine foundations
to absorb vibrations, railway sleepers.

13. Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Performance of bituminous
Concrete Mixes

Date of Start: January 2006

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

- To study the effect of aggregate gradation and air voids on fatigue
behaviour of bituminous concrete mixes.
- To evaluate and quantify the influence of material passing 2.36 mm and
1.18 mm sieve on fatigue resistance of bituminous concrete mixes.
- To study the effect of aggregate gradation and air voids on permanent
deformation behaviour of bituminous concrete mixes.
- Selection of optimal aggregate gradation for bituminous concrete mixture
offering longer fatigue life and minimum rut depth.

Methodology

(i) The aggregate gradation selected for the study can be BC Grade I (lower
limit to upper limit, covering fine gradation to coarse gradation), as per
MoSRTH.
(ii) Mixture composition; mixtures need to be prepared at binder content of
5.5%
(iii) Compaction of specimens; all the mixtures will be compacted using
gyratory compactor, each gradation type will be compacted to achieve
desired air void content (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8%).
(iv) Volumetric analysis to be carried out as per AASHTO T-166.
(v) All the mixtures need to be studied for their fatigue and permanent
deformation behaviour.
(vi) Selection of optimum aggregate gradation; optimum aggregate gradation
is the one, which offers longer fatigue life and minimum rut depth.

Findings/Conclusions

From fatigue studies, it was noticed that the fine graded mixes offered longer
fatigue life compared to coarse graded mixes. Studies on permanent
deformation behaviour for these mixes are yet to be carried out and will be
reported at a later stage.

143
14. Use of Recycled Bag Filter Dust in Hot Mix Plants for Bituminous
Pavements

Duration: August 2006 to December 2006

Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (R)

Scope and Objectives

To investigate the recycling of bag filter dust in hot mix plants
which is otherwise disposed off as a waste material.

Methodology

Laboratory investigations were conducted to examine the feasibility/
consequences of utilizing bag filter dust in bituminous mix design.

Findings/Conclusion

- Bag filter dust is a fine-grained material, which is expelled out from hot mix
plants.
- It can be used as filler in place of OPC in bituminous mix design to
produce matching results and field performance. Its plasticity index, for
use, shall be less than 4%.
- This will help to recycle a waste product which would add to the overall
economy of bituminous pavements.
- Its inclusion enhances the surface texture and more balanced air voids.

Bulk density, percent air voids, VMA, VFB, Marshall stability and flow of mix
having recycles bag filter dust as filler are well comparable with the properties
of mix having OPC as filler.



C. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION


1. Disaggregate Mode Choice Models for Intercity Travel

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

Intercity transportation directly affects urban and regional transportation with
strong and positive relationships between intercity travel and socio-economic
activity of city pairs. The share of passenger trips within a given intercity
corridor among the available modes of transport is of great importance in
planning intercity transport services. Therefore, to facilitate the desires of the
144
people, it is imperative to improve the regional infrastructure facilities. Reliable
prediction of total intercity travel demand and its distribution among modes is
an important exercise in the concept of sustainable mobility.

The objectives of the present study are as follows:

- To evolve a strategy for modelling intercity passenger mode choice based
on an extended literature review.
- To design and conduct studies along transport corridors and analyze the
characteristics and attitude of intercity travellers.
- To develop disaggregate intercity passenger mode choice model structure
incorporating user perceptions.

The scope of the study can be stated as follows:

- To identify the significant explanatory variables that governs the trip
makers decision on mode choice.
- To establish the role of attitudinal variables in prediction of passengers
mode choice behaviour.
- To formulate the mode choice models and to calibrate the models on the
data obtained from a set of cities.

Methodology

(i) Identification of study corridors.
(ii) Model formulation.
(iii) Collection of information pertaining to the Intercity transportation service
characteristics, Trip maker characteristics, Trip characteristics and
Access/Egress service characteristics through primary and secondary
surveys.
(iv) Quantification of attitudinal variables.
(v) Estimation of model parameters.
(vi) Evaluation of significance of the estimated parameters through
Likelihood Ratio Index(LIR), t-test statistic and Akaike Information
Criteria(AIC).
(vii) Estimation of intercity mode choice elasticities.

Findings/Conclusions

- Mode choice models were developed for intercity passenger travel
between Calicut, Palghat, Thrissur and Cochin cities of Kerala.
- Separate mode choice models were calibrated for Work and Business trips
(WB) and Social, Recreation and Other trips (SRO) for all the city pairs.
- Preference for train is more than that for bus for both WB and SRO trips.
- Comfort is the most important factor for SRO trips while Reliability is the
most important factor for WB trips.
- Female population gives more importance to comfort of travel.
- Male population considers reliability and convenience as important.

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Mode choice analysis conducted by segmenting the population based on age
and purpose of travel indicated the following:

- Train is the preferred mode for all age groups.
- Persons in age of 18-45 give more importance for travel time, reliability
and frequency.
- Persons below 18 years and above 55 years give more importance for
comfort and convenience.
- Dust and Noise is perceived as important by persons of age above 55
years.
- Direct and Cross elasticities of mode choice for different income groups
and purpose of travel were estimated.
- Both direct and cross elasticities with respect to Ingress Cost, Ingress
time, Ingress distance and Egress distance were observed to be nearer to
zero, indicating negligible impact on mode choice behaviour, even though
it was found to be significant during the model calibration procedure.
- Mode choice probability surfaces for different values of travel time and
travel cost based on purpose of travel and income were prepared.


2. Optimization of Traffic Signal Timings along a Corridor

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

Traffic signals have been used in many countries and found to be one of the
most effective ways to resolve conflicting traffic movements, both vehicular
and pedestrian, especially at intersections. In urban streets where the spacing
between adjacent intersections is comparatively short, better operational
performance of the signal-controlled intersections can often be obtained by
taking into account the interaction between adjacent intersections in the
determination of signal settings. The optimization of signal timing for an
isolated junction is relatively straightforward, but optimizing the timing in
dense networks where the distances between the intersections are too small
to dissipate the platoons of traffic is a difficult task. The difficulty comes from
the complexity of the signal coordination. Optimization of signal timings is well
established at individual junctions, but optimization of timings in coordinated
signalized networks requires further research due to the offsets and common
network cycle time requirements.

The project objectives are:

- To identify the algorithms suitable for optimization of traffic signal timings.
- To compare performance of these algorithms with TRANSYT.
- To find out the best algorithm in terms of the efficiency of optimization.

146
The scope of the work includes design of coordinated signal system using
different algorithms and evaluation of these algorithms for different generated
data sets and one corridor in Calicut.

Methodology

(i) Review of literature and research papers regarding signal timing
optimization.
(ii) Selection of signal timing variables for optimization problem and
identification of objective function and constraints.
(iii) Performance Index (PI) is taken as the sum of delays at the intersections
along the corridor
(iv) Formulation of various algorithms:
- Hill Climbing (HC),
- Simulated Annealing (SA),
- Genetic Algorithm (GA) &
- Genetic Algorithm + Simulated Annealing (GASA)
(v) Application of these algorithms to simulated traffic volume data with
varying flow conditions on major and minor streets.
(vi) Collection of traffic volume data through a trial corridor in Calicut City.
(vii) Algorithm application to the trial corridor.
(viii) Comparison of algorithms with TRANSYT.

Findings/Conclusions

- Computer code, in MATLAB, for design of coordinated signal system was
developed for the following algorithms
(i) Hill Climbing (HC)
(ii) Simulated Annealing (SA)
(iii) Genetic Algorithm (GA)
(iv) Genetic Algorithm + Simulated Annealing (GASA)
- Coordinated signal systems were designed for a simulated corridor
consisting of 12 intersections of different configurations and for five
approach volume combinations.
- Coordinated signal systems were designed for the trial corridor using four
algorithms.
- The difference in results from Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing was
small; this is because both the algorithm uses a single point search
method.
- Genetic Algorithm produced better results than that of Hill Climbing and
Simulated Annealing, since the selection is based on a population search
method.
- The number of iterations in Genetic Algorithm (GA) was reduced when
combined with Simulated Annealing (SA), since SA defines the search
space limit for GA.
- GA alone and combination of GA and SA produced results having small
difference in values.


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3. Uni Directional Traffic Flow Modelling Using Cellular Automata

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

In the CA models of traffic flow, a lane is represented by one-dimensional
lattice. Each of the lattice sites is represented by a cell which can be either
empty or occupied by at most one vehicle at a given instant of time. It is
interpreted as the length of a vehicle plus the distance between vehicles in a
jam, but it can be suitably adjusted according to the problem under
consideration. Speed is also taken in terms of cells per time interval.

The objective of the research work being reported in this thesis is to show the
ability of the CA model paradigm to capture the basic phenomena of traffic
flow in mixed mode environment. The objectives of the study are:

- To understand the concept of Cellular Automata (CA) and its applications
to traffic flow modelling through literature study.
- To develop cellular automata model for simulation of one lane and multi
lane homogeneous traffic flow.
- To develop a CA model for simulation of two-lane heterogeneous traffic
flow conditions.
- To understand the traffic flow behaviour through study of fundamental
diagram of traffic flow.

Methodology

(i) Development of CA model for single lane road and conduct of
experiments using the model by varying driver probabilities as 0.33, 0.5
and 0.9, input flow from 100 vphr to 5000 vphr and maximum velocities,
V
max
=1, 2, 3 4 cells per time (Cell size 7.5m).
(ii) Development of CA model for two lane open track and conduct of
experiments using the model by varying driver probabilities as 0.33, 0.5
and 0.9, input flow from 100 vphr to 5000 vphr, maximum velocities, V
max

=1, 2, 3 4 cells per time and cell sizes as 7.5 & 5.0m.
(iii) Similar exercise for circular track and that for cell size of 1x1m.
(iv) Development of CA model for two lane heterogeneous traffic with cell
size of 1x1m, and conduct of experiments using the model for driver
probability of 0.5, input flow from 100 vphr to 5000 vphr, maximum
velocities depending on the type of vehicle
(v) Development of speed-flow-density models using the CA model outputs.

Findings/Conclusions

CA models were developed for three different cell sizes viz., 7.5 m, 5.0 m and
1.0 m for homogeneous stream of traffic and 1.0m cell size was considered
for heterogeneous stream of traffic. Experiments were conducted for these
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cell sizes by varying driver probabilities viz., 0.33, 0.5 and 0.9 and by varying
maximum speed from 1 to 6 times of cell size. The results were validated by
predicting the trends of the plots and by comparing the outcomes with field
observations.

- It was observed from the plots drawn for single lane road that the speed is
linearly related with density.
- For two lane homogeneous traffic system with open boundaries, the speed
and density are linearly related.
- Similar trend was observed for two lane homogeneous traffic system with
closed boundaries. Flow-density relation was clearly observed as the
typical second order polynomial.
- In case of heterogeneous traffic stream with the vehicles occupying
multiple cells, a new concept implemented in CA.
- The speeddensity relationship was found to be linear, the variation of
speed being less ranging from V
max
to V
max
-10. The flow-density plot
follows a second order polynomial relationship.
- Essential features of traffic flow encoded in the fundamental diagram,
while preserving simplicity that allows rapid simulation that can prove
useful for application to large scale traffic networks.


4. Study of Critical Gap at 3 Legged Intersections

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The aim of the study is to understand the gap acceptance behaviour at
uncontrolled intersections, with the following specific objectives:

- To identify the various factors that influence gap acceptance behaviour
through literature survey.
- To assess the effect of intersection geometrics and stream characteristics
on gap acceptance behaviour.
- To estimate the capacity and level of service of study intersections.

The scope of the work is limited to the study of gap acceptance behaviour at
three legged intersections.

Methodology

(i) Identification of variables that influence the critical gap at uncontrolled
intersections through literature review.
(ii) Collection of gap acceptance data and intersection geometrics by
primary surveys.
(iii) Estimation of critical gap by Raffs method and Maximum likelihood
method.
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(iv) Relating the critical gap with intersection geometrics.
(v) Carrying out capacity and level of service analysis for the study
intersections.

Findings/Conclusions

- Data was collected at 20 three legged intersections.
- Critical gap values for left turn from minor road, right turn from major road
and right turn from minor road were estimated using Raffs method and
Maximum likelihood method for each of the study intersections.
- Results obtained by Raffs method were found to be more reliable that
those obtained by Maximum likelihood method.
- Effect of various Intersection geometrics such as Intersection angle () or
Turning angle (A) & Minor street Approach gradient (G) and Traffic flow
parameters such as Approach speed on major street from left ( S
ml
),
Approach speed on major street from right ( S
mr
), Major street volume
approaching from left (V
ml
) & Major street volume approaching from right
(V
mr
) on critical gap was studied.
- Critical gap was found to decrease with increase in conflicting volume.
- Critical gap was found to increase with increase in major street approach
speed.
- It was observed that as turning angle increases the critical gap value also
increases.
- Estimated Critical gap values were modelled in terms of Intersection
geometrics and traffic flow parameters and the models obtained.


5. A Study on Travel Characteristics of Rural Commuters in Calicut
District

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

In this study an attempt has been made to understand the travel
characteristics of rural commuters in Calicut district in Kerala.

The objectives of this work are:

- To identify the various factors that influence travel through literature
survey.
- To design a questionnaire for collection of data and to conduct a
questionnaire survey in the selected villages by direct interview method.
- To study the trip making behaviour of the people of rural areas of Calicut
district.
- To model the trip making characteristics of rural commuters.
150

Methodology

(i) Identification of villages for the study.
(ii) Design of questionnaire for collection of socio-economic and travel
details.
(iii) Conduct of household and workplace interview surveys in the selected
villages.
(iv) Analysis of household survey data and workplace survey data.
(v) Study of household and trip making behaviour based on the data
collected through household and workplace interview surveys.
(vi) Estimation of trip generation rates for different categories of commuters.

Findings/Conclusions

- Trip rates are found to be greatly influenced by household size; larger
households make more overall trips.
- Trip rates also varied significantly in relation to personal characteristics
such as gender, age, and occupational status. In general, males are
making more trips than females.
- Trip rates increase with age for both males and females, peaking for the
age group of 30-50, and then decreasing significantly.
- Highly educated people are making more trips than low educated people.
- Government employees make more trips per day.
- Middle income group commuters are generating more work trips than
lower and higher income group.
- Bus and walking modes represent a major share of total trips. These
modes are utilized more for work trips than driving alone modes. The time
and location sensitivity of work trips may be a factor in these choices.
- Convenience is the main reason for choosing the mode travelled. Second
main reason is comfort. Third reason is travel cost.
- Commuters are spending comparatively Rs.250-500 per month for work
trips. Distance of travel, mode of travel etc are influencing the travel cost.
- Percentage trips decreases as distance of travel increases.
- For households with low and medium income, the share of bus and walk
mode is more significant. The same can be said about households without
an automobile. Even though the commuters have own vehicles, they
prefer to use buses. The main reasons of this are long distance of travel
and high travel cost of other modes.
- Maximum trip length by walk mode is 3 km. Maximum trip length by bus
mode is 60 km, by two-wheeler mode is 35km, and by car mode is 40km.


6. Traffic Volume Analyses and Prediction under Heterogeneous
Conditions.

Date of Start: August 2006

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R)
151

Scope and Objectives

The following were the main objectives of the study:

- To study the existing traffic volumes on a selected study stretch and to
explore the variation over a period of one week.
- To analyse traffic volume characteristics under heterogeneous conditions.
- To explore the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for volume
prediction into future time steps.
- To compare the prediction capabilities of ANN with other field method such
as Historic Method and Real Time Method.
- The study was based on the traffic flow data collected over six days, from
1430 hours to 1530 hours everyday. The study deals with the analysis of
traffic volume characteristics and prediction of traffic volume under
heterogeneous condition.

Methodology

A typical urban road in the metropolitan city of Chennai, India, operating under
mixed traffic condition has been selected for the present study. Videographic
surveying technique was employed to capture the traffic data from the study
stretch, over a period of one week. The video recordings were later processed
with traffic analysis software with image processing capabilities, named
TRAZER. Detailed analysis was carried out to understand these traffic
characteristics better, using analysis techniques like Multiple Linear
Regression (MLR) and non-linear regression. The MLR model, using speed
and occupancy as the independent variables and traffic volume as the
dependant variable performed better than other linear and non-linear
regression models attempted.

Short-term prediction of traffic volume was attempted employing three
different techniques, viz. (i) historic average method, (ii) real-time method and
(iii) Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In the historic average method, the
average traffic volumes observed on previous days is used to predict the
future traffic volumes. Real-time method uses the present traffic volume levels
as the input to predict traffic volume into time intervals ahead. An ANN model
for traffic prediction was also developed using the feed-forward back-
propagation algorithm. The traffic volume for future time steps of 1 min, 2 min,
etc. up to 30 min were predicted using this selected ANN model. A
comparison of the error in prediction showed that the ANN model
outperformed the historic average and real-time methods in prediction
accuracy.

Findings/Conclusions

- The present study was a first step towards analysis and prediction of traffic
parameter under mixed traffic conditions as in India. The study used one
weeks data to analyze the traffic parameters and then to predict the traffic
volume in to short term intervals. The study analyzed the basic traffic flow
152
relations and checked the interrelationship using various regression
analysis as well. The aim of regression analysis carried out in the present
study was to establish relationships between various traffic characteristics.
To avoid the presence of inter-correlated variables in the regression model
correlation analysis was carried out first. Pearson correlation coefficients
for the independent variables namely speed and occupancy showed no
significant correlation among these variables. This result supported the
inclusion of both speed and occupancy as independent variables in the
model. Three different sets of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models
were developed with traffic volume as dependent variable and (i) speed,
(ii) occupancy, (iii) speed and occupancy as the independent variables.

- The model coefficients of the independent variables were positive in sign
suggesting an increase in traffic volume with an increase in speed and
occupancy. This inference holds good for un-congested traffic regime. The
best model among the different MLR models developed in the study gave
R
2
value of 0.615. This means the variables included account for more
than 60% of variation observed in traffic flow.

- Non-linear regression analysis was carried out on the traffic data and
polynomial models were developed. Separate models were developed
with volume as dependent variable and speed and occupancy as
independent variables. The best fitting polynomial model gave an R
2
value
of 0.4971. Occupancy was found to explain the variability in traffic volume
better than speed, as seen from R
2
values. The final model was used for
estimating traffic volume based on actual occupancy. The estimated traffic
volumes were then compared with the actual volumes and the error in
terms of MSE was found to be 23.54.

- A comparison of the performance of different prediction techniques
adopted for prediction ahead to 1 min, 2 min, etc. up to 30 min was also
carried out.

- Historical average method was employed to predict traffic volumes based
on the data observed in the past time intervals. The model gave an error
value (MSE) of 33.39, showing the need of a good historic data for a better
performance.

- A real-time traffic volume prediction model was developed for the data
observed. This model was found to have an error value of 32.32 for one
min ahead prediction showing that the data had enough variations during
the period in which data was collected.

- An artificial neutral network (ANN) model was developed for short term
traffic prediction. The chosen ANN model was having two-layers, 15
neurons, log-sigmoidal transfer function and was using feed-forward back
propagation algorithm. The MSE value for 1 min prediction ahead by ANN
model gave a lowest error value of 24.05.


153
7. Study of Traffic Flow Characteristics on Intercity Highways

Date of Start: January 2005

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

The following are the specific objectives of the study:

- To measure the traffic flow characteristics on intercity highways for
understanding and application.
- To formulate traffic simulation framework to model traffic flow on intercity
highways.
- To modify the available computer program package based on the
framework.
- To critically analyze the different characteristics of the heterogeneous
traffic flow and study the relationships between the characteristics.
- To develop capacity and service volume standards for intercity highways
carrying heterogeneous traffic.


Methodology

(i) Identification of the traffic flow characteristics that are relevant to the
stated objectives of the study and analysis of each of the characteristics
in the light of the heterogeneous traffic prevailing on Indian roads.
(ii) Identification of sites for traffic survey and field measurement of the
traffic flow characteristics like free-flow speed, traffic volume and
composition, arrival pattern and headway distribution of vehicles, road
geometry, etc.
(iii) Development of appropriate framework for modeling the heterogeneous
traffic flow on intercity roads.
(iv) Development of a computer program package by writing codes for the
logical steps involved in the modeling process, debugging and calibration
of the program.
(v) Model validation using field observed traffic data under various roadway
and traffic conditions.
(vi) Development of relationships between the basic traffic flow
characteristics, namely, speed, flow and density by simulating the traffic
flow over a wide range of traffic conditions.
(vii) Estimation of PCU values for the different types of vehicles on intercity
roads to enable accurate quantification of traffic flow in PCU per hour.
(viii) Development of guidelines for capacity of different types of intercity
roads with consideration to the influence of the various roadway and
traffic factors on traffic flow and hence, the capacity.
(ix) Derivation of service-volume standards for intercity roads with different
roadway and traffic conditions, based on the arrived at capacity values,
for different levels of service.

154

8. Mode Choice and Accessibility in the extended areas of Chennai


Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To assess the socio-economic characteristics and accessibility to public
transportation in the study area
- To assess mode of choice based on accessibility.
- To compare the cost of public and private transport usage and to
encourage public transport by suitable recommendations.

Methodology

Study area is selected based on varying distance from the main corridor and
city centre. Data is collected by conducting primary survey (Household and
Opinion survey) and secondary survey (Study area details Area, Population,
density, distance from main corridor, infra structural facilities). Comparative
analysis of usage of public and private transport and the cost incurred for
various traveling purposes for the different modes is done. Conclusions and
recommendations have been given.

Findings/Conclusions

- The road width in the extended areas is not sufficient for the operation of
Metropolitan Transport Corporation buses.
- Residents of the extended areas thus use private mode for their work,
education and shopping purposes to save time. Because of this the money
spent by them for their transportation needs is increased. Those who could
not afford, they spend a lot of time for their travel purpose.
- Hence such kind of extended interior developments is not conducive.
- To encourage public transport, meanwhile saving the time and money of
the residents, feeder services in the form of mini bus can be provided.


9. Rural Bus Route Network Planning Based on Passenger Travel
Demand

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

In recent years, many studies have been done to improve the quality of bus
networks. Generally, bus route network should be based on passenger O-D
155
matrix, and aim to facilitate optimal routes as well as profits to bus companies.
Among existing studies, the traveller approaches (Wang and Yang, 2001;
Michael et al., 1997) are practical and convenient. They aim to maximize the
number of the travellers along the route. Maximization of the number of
travellers may cause the bus routes in the network to be extremely long
without proper utilization of the entire network. The other method is to set the
route along the shortest path between the origin and destination. This
approach limits the number of alternative routes and then damages the
optimizing quality. This is because the travellers on the shortest path are not
always the largest in the number. Moreover, in both the cases, the route
directions might not coincide with passenger flow directions.

In the present study an attempt is made to incorporate both passenger travel
demand and route length in the design of the bus route network to find the
optimal bus routes along the existing road network for Calicut taluk using
TransCAD 4.8, Transportation GIS software.

The main objectives of the study are:

- To develop spatial information needed for planning of bus route network in
the study area.
- To estimate the passenger travel demand.
- To develop an optimal bus route network considering passenger travel
demand and route length in multiple depot environment.

Methodology

(i) Selection of study area.
(ii) Development of digital spatial database.
(iii) Selection of road links for collection of volume count information.
(iv) Estimation of O-D matrix from link volume counts.
(v) Generation of bus route networks based on Shortest Path Method
(SPM), Maximum Travellers Method (MTM) and Maximum Traveller
Density Method (MTDM).
(vi) Estimation of network parameters.
(vii) Comparison of alternative route networks developed based on proposed
approaches.
(viii) Selection of best route network generation approach.
(ix) Comparison of the proposed route network with the existing route
network.

Findings/Conclusions

- Maximum Traveller Density Method (MTDM) was found to be better over
the other two methods as it covers more route length, uses more number
of links in the network and also serves maximum number of passengers
per km.
- Comparison of the existing and proposed bus route networks indicated
that Kerala State Road Transport Corporation is operating buses on a
fewer routes and also these routes are very long. The existing bus route
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network is serving only 34 villages whereas the proposed bus network
serves all the 52 villages. The existing network is covering only a total
route length of 378.67 Km, which is much less than the route length
covered by the proposed network.


10. Evaluation of Urban Road Network with Various Transport
Alternatives using EMME/2


Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

The aim of the research is to evaluate the existing road network by developing
various scenarios to cater the future traffic:

- To appreciate the existing road network
- To evaluate the road network for the future traffic by various options by
developing various scenarios.

Methodology

(i) Need for the study
(ii) Description of Study area
(iii) Collection of data regarding the Classified volume count, Origin
Destination survey, Geometric details, Speed and Delay studies, Opinion
survey regarding the existing transportation facilities.
(iv) Evaluating the road network under various options by developing various
scenarios.

Findings/Conclusions

In the present study, the present condition of the road network (Sardar Patel
Road and its adjoining links) is evaluated and various options such as
widening the carriageway, introducing new links and with various modal mixes
without reduction in the number of passengers are evaluated for the horizon
year 2015, by developing scenarios, using the transportation planning
package EMME/2.


11. Heterogeneity in Mode Choice across Individuals

Date of Start: August 2005

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives
157

- Analyze the role of various sources of heterogeneity in mode choice. The
following three sub objectives will be investigated:
(i) Responsiveness to subjective and objective factors across different
user segments,
(ii) The influence of variability in choice sets, and
(iii) Heterogeneity in decision rules;

- Evaluate the impact of transportation control measures and policy
scenarios in the presence of heterogeneity.

The study is based on a travel survey on work travel in selected zones in the
Chennai city. The reason for focusing on work trips is the significant
contribution of work trips (65-70% of the total trips). Further, work trips are
mandatory trips and contribute significantly to morning-peak and evening-
peak congestion.

Methodology

Based on the literature review, a comprehensive list of possible sources of
heterogeneity was identified which include choice sets, unobserved
preference, decision rules, responsiveness to subjective and objective factors
across different user segments. Pilot testing was conducted using around 20
respondents to verify response accuracy, avoid biases, consistency, time for
response, resolution to measure the desired variables of interest, and framing
and sequencing of the questions.

Eight zones (Guindy, K K Nagar, T Nagar Triplicane, Egmore, Adyar,
Chrompet, Sanitorium) in the city of Chennai were identified for the data
collection process. Nearly 1000 observations were collected across these
zones through face-to-face interviews.

The data collected in the survey include: distance and mode chosen to work,
vehicle ownership, users ratings of different modes based on subjective
factors (like comfort, safety, reliability, flexibility), choice set, access to public
transport near home and work, age, gender, driving knowledge, work
experience, household size, income, presence of children, minimum
standards to use public transport (waiting time, walk distance to bus stop,
crowding etc.) and activity characteristics (frequency of pick-up/ drop off,
returning home for lunch, shopping frequency on the way from work, etc.).
Thorough quality checks and rigorous screening was done to ensure the
accuracy of data and minimize various sources of bias.

A multinomial logit model (MNL) is being used to model the mode choice
problem. The mode choice alternatives considered include: non-motorized
(walk/ bicycle-NM), two-wheeler (motor bikes, scooters, mopeds, etc.-TW),
cars (FW), public transportation (bus, train PT), and other (auto, share-auto,
company bus, etc.-IPT). For ease of exposition, the other modes are referred
to as IPT modes (intermediate public transport). Model coefficients are
estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation technique.
158

Findings and Conclusions

The performances of explicit and implicit choice set representation of
unavailable modes are compared. Most mode choice models in practice are
typically implicit representation models. Note that these variables only capture
unavailability. Models 3 and 4 are identical in specification and differ only in
the explicit representation of unavailable modes. Model 4 provides a
significant improvement in model fit (nearly 53 points, with no additional
variables). From the results, it can be concluded with 95% confidence, that
the explicit choice set model provides a better representation of the observed
data.

Policy analysis

To assess the performance in terms of policy and planning scenarios, the
mode shifts under three policy scenarios are analyzed. These scenarios
include: a) increase in vehicle ownership (from 1.11 to 1.36 two-wheelers/hh,
0.19 to 0.23 cars/hh), b) increase in fuel cost (10% for two-wheelers and IPT),
and c) public transport improvement (travel time reduction by 10% for both
bus and train). Under the fuel price increase scenario, a shift of (2.7%) from
two-wheeler is observed, whereas the change from cars segment is smaller
(0.7%). The mode shares of bus and train increase by 2.1 and 1.1%
respectively. Neglecting choice set effect (Model 3) results in an
underestimate of shift from two-wheeler (by 1.6-2.3% respectively).
Furthermore, the extent of shift to public transportation modes is also
underestimated. In contrast, Model 4 which does not account for subjective
factors overestimates the extent of shift by about 0.5% as it disregards
subjective factors that could favour personal vehicle use.

In the case of transit improvement also, models M3 and M4 over predict the
shift from two-wheeler to bus by 0.4 0.7%. But no major differences are
observed in other mode shares. However, Model 2 which disregards
segmentation, non-linearity and choice set effects underestimates the shift
from two-wheeler by 1.7% and the shift to train by nearly 0.8%. In the vehicle
increase scenarios, the non-motorized and bus shares decrease by nearly
1.1% and a corresponding gain is seen in mode shares for two-wheelers and
cars.

Disregarding choice set effect results in an underestimate of the magnitude of
shift (0.4% from bus, 0.7% from non-motorized). Although the discrepancy in
mode shares across models ranges from 1-2%, this shift may be practically
significant given the large volume of bus trips (estimated to be 3.5 million daily
in Chennai). Consequently, the benefits of travel demand measures may be
erroneously estimated if variations in responsiveness across segments,
modes and users are neglected.


12. GIS Based Road Accident Analysis System

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Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To build accident database and structured reporting system, to store, and
manage accident data.
- To develop a user interface in GIS Platform using .Net programming
Language.
- To develop accident analysis facilities as required by user agencies.

Methodology

This system can be accessed by user agencies through WAN (Wide Area
Network). A cost-effective network connection can be established using dial-
up network protocols. A central site shall maintain the database and map
server.

In such a system, information from the traffic accident investigation report
forms is directly encoded via an interface program. The application shall be
constructed under Client/server Architecture. Reporting police stations shall
only need to forward their reports to the concerned office for proper
processing and input. The system shall also update the master database at
the central site.

Central server utilises GIS technology. Utilisation of such a cost-effective
technology offers big potential for information delivery. The use of GIS would
ease the work of geo-referencing accident data. Proper and accurate spot
maps can be established. Moreover, accident data can be tied with other
spatial data such as road characteristic and intersection geometry, to cover a
full range of analysis.

Findings/Conclusions

The system will be useful for

- Better traffic accident investigation.
- Source of integrated traffic accident database.
- Locating accident with global coordinate
- Utilise cost-effective technologies ( eg. Geographic Information System,
Global positioning System),
- Utilise of Client/server network architecture for better information delivery
- Training for accident investigators.


13. Cluster Analysis of Improving of Road Accident Black Spots

Date of Start: December 2006

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College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To identify the clustering technique best suitable for the spatial distribution
of road accidents
- To identify the black spots using selected method of cluster analysis
- To prioritize the accident black spots for improvement

Methodology

(i) Need for the study
(ii) Description of Study area
(iii) Collection of accident data for two years. To plot the accident spots using
GPS and GIS
(iv) Performing Cluster analysis by Suitable method using SPSS
(v) Identification and prioritize the black spots

Findings/Conclusions

Accident black spots have been identified using Cluster Analysis & GIS for a
stretch in NH-45 and East Coast Road (ECR) in Chennai.


14. Analysis of Highway Accidents using GIS and ANN

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The main aim of the work is to develop a model that will identify the various
road variables that significantly affect accident rate and to develop tool to give
the output of model on a map. Considering the main aim as a key point, the
objectives of the studies can be stated specifically as

- To identify the various road factors that cause accidents.
- To develop a spatial database of accidents and road network for the study
area using GIS software.
- To develop ANN models with road geometrics, traffic flow and stream
speeds as explanatory variables to predict accident rate.
- To compare the result of artificial neural network with traditional methods.
- To develop a tool which is useful for highway safety authorities to record
the new accidents in digital format, that can be displayed on a map and to
do analysis on this data in the future.

Methodology

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(i) Collection of accident particulars from Police Department for 3 years
from January 2003 to December 2005.
(ii) Collection of roadway particulars such as Locality or Land-use,
Pavement Width, Pavement Condition, Shoulder Width, Shoulder
Condition, Gradient, Number of Curves, Number of Intersections,
Number of Bus Stops, Road Obstruction, Free Flow Speed, Peak Hour
Traffic for 234 one-km sections of various classes of roads in Calicut
district of Kerala.
(iii) Study of variation of accidents with respect to month of the year, hour of
the day, type of vehicle, drivers age.
(iv) Development of ANN, Poisson Regression and Zero Inflated Poisson
Regression Models.
(v) Development of a GPS-GIS Interface called Accident Database
Manager Tool (ADMT).

Findings/Conclusions

- Accidents were found to be more in the month of January.
- Hourly variation of accident showed a maximum accident frequency
during morning (9-10AM) and evening (4-5PM) peak hours.
- Two wheelers were involved in 33.33 percent of total number of
accidents.
- Nearly 50% of the total number of accidents were caused by drivers of
age group between 20 and 30.
- Accident density on National Highways is above 8 accidents per
kilometer length.
- Number of all types of accidents was found to increase up to a traffic of
2000 PCU and then decrease.
- Land use, Pavement Width, Shoulder Width, Gradient, Number of
Curves, Number of Intersections, Free Flow Speed, Peak Hour Traffic
were found to be the most significant accident causing variables.
- Neural Network models showed better predictive capability compared
to the regression models.
- Accident Database Manager Tool (ADMT), that will be useful for field
personnel and engineers to record, store and analyse accident data
was developed.
- ADMT accepts GPS data of accident location and accordingly updates
the accident database.


15. Development of Driver Workload Models for Evaluation of
Highway Geometric Design Consistency

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

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The main aim of the work is to develop driver workload models for evaluation
of highway geometric design consistency. Considering the main aim as the
key point, the objectives of the study can be stated specifically as:

- To identify parameters, methods and indices used to quantify driver
workload through literature survey.
- To assess the suitability of the identified driver workload indices for
evaluation of geometric design consistency through field observations.
- To develop models relating identified workload indices and road geometry.
- To develop consistency limits for the identified indices.

Methodology

(i) Collection of the geometric details of curves such as Radius of the curve,
Superelevation of curve, Length of curve, Gradient of curve, Lane width
at the curve.
(ii) Collection of the geometric details of tangent sections such as Gradient,
Lane width.
(iii) Collection of Lateral placement of vehicles at three sections, on the
straight section, at the tangent point, at the middle of the curve.
(iv) Determination of Deviation of Lateral Placement (DLP).
(v) Calibration and validation of models relating DLP to the explanatory
variables, geometrics of curves.
(vi) Capturing of eye blinks of volunteer drivers while driver drives his/her
own car over the selected stretch of road using a web camera and
storing on to a laptop computer for further analysis.
(vii) Estimation of Visual Demand (VD) of the study curves.
(viii) Development of models relating Visual Demand and geometrics of the
curves.
(ix) Consistency evaluation of selected road stretches.

Findings/Conclusions

- DLP decreases with the increase in the Radius of the curve (R) and with
the increase in available Sight Distance (SD).
- DLP increases with the increase in the Degree of the curve (D) and with
the increase in the superelevation (e).
- Degree of the curve (D), Superelevation (e) and Sight Distance (SD) were
identified as the significant variables. The proposed model is given by the
expression:
- DLP=18.8471-82.3634e-0.0293SD+0.2D
- Using the DLP measure consistency indices have been developed
differentiating poor design from a good design. The values are given
below.
o If DLP> 17, the curve is inconsistent for a lane width of 3m.
o If DLP> 18, the curve is inconsistent for a lane width of 3.5m
o If DLP>21, the curve is inconsistent for a lane width of 3.75m.
- The feasibility of using eye blink rate for quantifying workload has been
proved. It can be used for evaluating system design consistency.
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- The eye blink rate shows a negative correlation with the radius of the
curves.
- Regression model developed relating visual demand on curves to the
radius of the curves is given by the expression:
VD= 0.5201-0.0011R
- Models have been developed for tangent sections also. In this case the
explanatory variables are the Radius of the Preceding curve (RPE) and
the Gradient (G) of the tangent section. The proposed model is given by
the expression:
LnVD= -0.8747+18.299G-0.0022RPE.


16. Development of Speed Prediction Models and Evaluation of
Highway Geometric Design Consistency

Date of Start: May 2006

National Institute of Technology, Calicut (R)

Scope and Objectives

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the design consistency of the
selected stretches using operating speeds and alignment indices. As the
evaluation method based on operating speed requires accurate estimation of
operating speed in terms of highway geometry, the speed-profile models are
necessary prior to the consistency evaluation. Keeping in view of the above
objective, the following specific objectives have been set for the investigation.

- To identify the methodology to evaluate highway geometric design
consistency by literature review.
- To develop speed-prediction models based on data collected from field
studies.
- To evaluate the highway geometric design consistency using speed data.
- To evaluate the highway geometric design consistency using alignment
indices.

Methodology

(i) Collection of geometric details of selected stretches by field surveys.
(ii) Collection of speed data at the selected locations.
(iii) Development of Speed profile models relating operating speed and
geometrics of the curves.
(iv) Classification of curves based on speed and speed gradient.
(v) Determination of values of alignment indices.
(vi) Relating alignment indices and number of accidents.

Findings/Conclusions

164
- Radius (R), Preceding Tangent Length (PTL), Deflection angle (), and
Gradient (G), which represent the geometrics of highway alignments, have
significant effect on the prediction of the 85
th
percentile operating speed.
- For horizontal curves, the radius was found to be the most significant
parameter.
- For horizontal curves on downgrade, the deflection angle and the gradient
were found to be the most significant parameters.
- For horizontal curves on upgrade, the gradient was found to be the most
significant parameter.
- Classification of curves based on speeds and speed gradient indices
showed that many curves are located in very dangerous zone indicating
the existence of poor consistency in the highway geometric design.
- Evaluation based on the alignment indices also indicated that the
geometrics of the selected highway stretches are having poor consistency.

The developed Operating Speed Prediction models can be used to estimate
the operating speeds of any location knowing the geometric details. The
methodology developed in this study can be used for evaluation of geometric
design consistency of two lane rural highways.


17. Road Safety Studies on Rural Highways

Date of Start: August 2005

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

The present study is an attempt to develop generic road accident prediction
models for rural highways, operating under mixed traffic conditions. These
models are expected to help in identifying the factors contributing to the
occurrence of road accidents and in deciding remedial measures. Road
accident prediction models can also be helpful in safety performance
evaluation of existing highways and proposed highway designs.

The scope of the present study will be limited to accidents occurring on two-
lane undivided rural highways.

Methodology

(i) Identification of suitable study stretches with desired variability in traffic
and geometric features to be studied;
(ii) Collection of road accident data for the study stretches from police
records for a period of 3 to 5 years;
(iii) Collection of traffic features on the study stretches; such as classified
volume, stream speed, etc. through field surveys;
(iv) Collection of roadway geometrics such as curvature, rise and fall,
carriageway and shoulder width, etc. of the study stretches through field
surveys;
165
(v) Collection roadway environmental features like roadside land-use,
commercial and pedestrian activity, etc. for the study stretches through
field studies;
(vi) Identifying the distributions of the various parameters considered for the
study to select the appropriate statistical analysis technique;
(vii) Development of road accident prediction models through statistical
analysis of the data;
(viii) Validation and application of the developed models to identify the impact
of the different variables on occurrence of road accidents and to suggest
appropriate remedial measures for differing site conditions.

Interim Conclusions

An initial analysis has been carried out with road accident, traffic and road
environment data from 175 km of National Highways in Tamil Nadu state of
India. Road accident data for a three years period, from 2001 to 2003, was
used to develop Negative Binomial Regression models to identify the factors
that significantly affect the occurrence and severity of road accidents. An
elasticity analysis was performed on these significant variables to quantify
their effect of accident occurrence and to suggest remedial measures that can
reduce road accidents. The salient findings from this exercise are:
- Presence of non-motorised traffic increases all types of accidents.
Segregation of non-motorised traffic from high speed traffic on rural
highways can help in reducing accidents significantly.
- Two-wheelers presence on high speed highways is found to result in
considerable increase in major accidents. Segregation of two-wheelers on
these highways shall yield reduced accident.
- The increase in number of both private (buildings/shops) and public
(driveways) access points is found to result in increased accident
frequencies. Controlling the access along the highways can help in
reducing accidents.


18. Mobility and Accessibility Problems of the Transport Disabled

Duration: June 2006 to November 2006

Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)

Scope and Objectives

- Identify barriers to road users
- Document & record the accessibility of the road and street infrastructure;
- Develop solutions for eliminating these barriers;
- Data Analysis and Report writing with recommendations for promoting
research on user friendly designs

Methodology

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Two Questionnaires on different road safety parameters were developed to
assess the desired quality for services from user perspective. These were
distributed among road users of different age groups in schools/colleges,
market places and National Association of Blind in Delhi.

Findings/Conclusions

Majority of the subjects found difficulties in walking on road as they found
continuity of sidewalks (50%), suitability of width of sidewalks (50%),
sidewalks were encroached (65%), while walking environment was rarely
pleasant and comfortable for 20%. Majority of the subjects reported that they
felt uncomfortable while crossing the roads as 60% of them had rarely found
any tactile or raised sidelines of zebra crossing and availability of central
refuge while crossing the road (55%). However, 80% of the subjects often
find obstructions on the sidewalk during the walking trips. Subjects find
rarely road side furniture on the sidewalks is available (50%).

Maximum number of subjects responded as Sometimes or Rarely on
various aspects of the road environment. 65% of the subjects responded that
sometimes help is extended by the others road users while 80% of them
responded that other road users create conflicts on road while they cross or
walk on the road. Only Sometimes sidewalks are user friendly (45%) and
70% of the respondents said rarely to the conformability of boarding and
alighting in buses in Delhi.

Respondents face the maximum problems due to non-availability of road side
furniture and lack of tactile and raised sidelines of zebra crossing.

Mean value of responses of people with disabilities indicated that absence of
audible signals on road crossing and other related areas create maximum
problems. Uncomfort faced during boarding and alighting from bus is another
major concern.

Same Observation Schedule and Environmental Perception Questionnaire
were distributed to road users with no apparent physical disability in which
they were asked to provide their opinions on different physical features of
road and their opinions regarding comfortability in walking and crossing the
road. Their opinions were collected. Subjects found sometimes continuity of
sidewalks (55%), encroachment on the sidewalks (70%), while 65% of them
reported walking environment as comfortable and central refuge while
crossing the road. Majority of the subjects reported that they felt
uncomfortable while road crossing as 60% of them had rarely found surface
of the sidewalks smooth and sometimes obstruction on the sidewalk (40%).
However 75% of the subjects rarely find road side furniture on sidewalks and
comfortable road crossing (50%).

55% of the respondents reported that during their trip help is extended by
other road user and they find audible signals and message signs while 50% of
them find sidewalks user friendly. However 45% of subjects said rarely to
other road users creating conflict. Only sometimes boarding and alighting
167
from buses is comfortable (45%) and 40% of the respondents said rarely to
availing facilities which are supposed to be given them by the authorities.
Subject face maximum problems while crossing the road and lack of road side
furniture is another major problem.

Accessibility, usability and universal design must be usable for elderly people
and people with disabilities. when it comes to the word in itself, `usable' is an
adjective synonymous with first to use, functioning, operational, serviceable,
valid, and working', i.e. it is not synonymous with accessibility. Generally this
has been observed in many studies that road users problem regarding
different physical features of road increases with increase in age. Present
study highlights that people experience more difficulties as pedestrians as
they becomes old. They are more unsatisfied with prevailing condition of
sidewalks in Delhi. Necessary road side facilities for walking and crossing are
not provided by the authorities. Subjects face difficulties in boarding and
alighting from the bus. As with the increase in age there is a subsequent
decrease in accessibility.

The results of the survey highlighted that both physically challenged and able-
bodied face equal amount of problems as pedestrians. Similar to disabled
people, for normal able-bodied persons also lack of comfortable and effective
transport system is a big challenge.

Recommendations

It can be seen that the present condition of traffic environment causes various
problems to the people. Despite the fact that transport problems of disabled
people were taken into consideration in some transport strategies still these
strategies fail to acknowledge what exactly the disabled people experience.
The main reason behind this problem is the misinterpretation of the concept of
disability. This problem can be reduced by the meaningful involvement of
transport strategy.

A universal barrier-free design should be made by taking following points into
consideration
- It should reduce number and severity of crashes, integrate multimodal
safety concern, human factors in all facets of design, and improved ability
to deal with the challenges of the urban design environment.
- The deteriorated level of physical features of the sidewalks and roads is
another concern. This can be improved by providing comfortable
sidewalks, zebra crossing, audible signal and message signs and sub-
ways at critical locations.
- Technical advancement in this area is also necessary. For instance the
age old stick for the blind and introducing audible signals at intersection
(which are economically cost effective) can be improved by increasing its
uses through scientific inventions.
- An effective public transport system is a major challenge for the
authorities. The condition of DTC and private buses in Delhi is miserable.
Even for able-bodied people it is very difficult to commute in public
transport.
168
- Last but not the least disabled should be made aware about the usage of
various facilities and technological advancement provided by the
authorities.
- This study can be extended to other categories of physically challenged
persons.


19. Transports, Energy and Environmental Planning A Systems
Approach

Date of Start: December 2006

College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (R)

Scope and Objectives

- To study and appreciate the existing condition of the study zone with
respect to Transport and Environment.
- To find out the impact of the composition of transport modes on Energy
utilization and Environmental quality.
- To suggest judicious mix of transport modes so as to achieve and
sustainable transportation in terms of Energy and Environment
consideration.

Methodology

(i) Need for the study
(ii) Description of Study area
(iii) Collection of data regarding the classified volume count, Vintage survey,
Speed and Delay studies, Opinion survey regarding the existing
transportation facilities.
(iv) Model development and Validation
(v) Conclusions and recommendations

Findings/Conclusions

This study brings out the existing traffic conditions in Inner Ring Road in
Chennai using System Dynamics Modeling. This model is used for various
scenarios such as change in the traffic compositions by various percentages
of public and personalized vehicles. This model is used to find the judicious
mix of Public and Private Vehicles on allowable energy and environmental
considerations.



20. Study of Influence of Lane Restrictions on Vehicular Emissions
under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions

Duration: January 2004 to January 2007

169
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R, C)

Scope and Objectives

The work was limited to measuring on-road tail-pipe emissions (HC, CO and
NO) using a portable gas analyzer for three selected vehicles. These included
petrol-driven two-wheelers, three-wheelers and four-wheelers of different
ages. The case studies were conducted on four road sections of different
lengths in Chennai city. This research work focused on evaluating tail-pipe
emissions from select vehicles under real-life traffic conditions.

The present study evaluated the tail-pipe emissions of the selected test
vehicles in lane restricted and lane-less traffic conditions, thereby assessing
the relative merit of lane restriction as a control measure. Extensive field test
runs were conducted on selected vehicles in the category of two-, three-, and
four-wheelers on four road stretches in Chennai city. On-road emissions from
the test vehicles were measured for these runs.

Findings/Conclusions

- Lane changes carried out by the vehicles in heterogeneous traffic
conditions were determined to be an important contributor to emissions.

- Statistical hypothesis tests were conducted to infer whether lane restricted
test runs produced lesser emissions than those for lane-less cases. For
majority of the cases, this was found to be true.

- Lane-restricted flow generally produced reduced levels of tail-pipe
emissions of HC, CO and NO. The data collected in this study indicated
reductions of up to 47% for HC, 38% for CO and 27% for NO, considering
average values of emissions per km for all the test vehicles.

- The maximum reductions were 24% for HC, 27% for CO and 17% for NO
for two-wheeler. The corresponding figures were 46%, 18% and 27% for
three-wheeler and 47%, 38%, and 18% for four-wheeler.

- The speeds for minimum emissions were found to be in the range of 58-62
km/h for two-wheelers, 35-42 km/h for three-wheelers and 50-55 km/h for
four-wheelers from the graphical analysis of the data. Similarly, the speeds
for minimum fuel consumption were found to be around 53 kmph for two-
wheelers and three-wheelers, and 54 kmph for four-wheelers. However, it
must be noted that these values are for limited number of test vehicles and
under test conditions adopted in this study. Also, not all speed ranges
could be tested due to the nature of urban traffic conditions.

- Multiple linear regression models developed in this study have brought out
the contributors to emissions in the light of lane restriction control (vis-a-vis
lane-less flow) in heterogeneous traffic conditions.

170
- From the regression models, it is seen that the signs corresponding to the
coefficients of the dummy variables representing the age of the vehicles
are not as expected in several cases. This alludes to the fact that
maintenance of the vehicles is an important factor in emissions; this was
confirmed, for example, in one case where the older vehicle emitted lesser
emissions than a newer one, since it was better maintained. In some
cases, these variables are not statistically significant, and hence not
entering the model.

- The above conclusions may support the case for considering lane
restrictions on certain type of roads, as a control measure for reducing
overall vehicular emissions. However, these conclusions are based on
limited tests on selected vehicles on certain road stretches. Further tests
on more vehicles of different types and ages on different case studies will
help confirm and generalize the conclusions.









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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Highway Research Board of the Indian Road Congress expresses
thanks to Dr. Vikram Kumar, Director, Central Road Research Institute, New
Delhi for the preparation of the General Report on Road Research work done
in India during 2006-07. The report was prepared, compiled and edited by
Shri M. K. Meena, Scientist and Shri R.C. Agarwal, Technical Officer under
the overall supervision of Shri T. K. Amla, Head, ILT, CRRI and was reviewed
by the scientists of the various R&D Divisions of CRRI. The useful
suggestions received from the scientists of R & D Divisions in compilation and
editing of the report are gratefully acknowledged. The Board also expresses
its gratitude to the various research organizations and Institutes for providing
research progress reports.











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LIST OF ORGANISATIONS


1. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
2. College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai
3. CRAPHTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad
4. Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara
5. Highway Research Station, Chennai
6. Hindustan Construction Company Limited (HCC), Mumbai
7. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
8. Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
9. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
10. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Faridabad
11. Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
12. Maharashtra Engineering Research Institute, Nashik
13. Ministry of Shipping, Road transport and Highways, New Delhi
14. National Institute of Technology, Calicut
15. National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC),
Thiruvananthapuram
16. P.W.D. Reasearch Laboratory, Gogjibagh, Srinagar
17. Research Institute, U.P.PWD, Lucknow