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Prepared by: ELadio J.

Jovero MMEM Division ICT Coordinator

Pragmatism I believe being a pragmatist in which, pragmatism is a philosophy in which the consequences of actions determine the moral goodness or badness of the causing actions. As we observed, much of today's society is "results driven." For me, only the results are important. Being a pragmatist, there are no objective standards that can evaluate actions up front. There is no longer an authoritian, exalted ruler of the universe who establishes truth. The God above has been replaced by the God within, pantheism or monism according to Darwin. Physical experiences are the only means by which we learn. We experience the world around us through the five senses: touch, smell, sight, hearing, or taste. These sense impressions help us to understand what our world is like. We continuously build our knowledge of our world as we continue to experience it. Our knowledge is incomplete and subject to error. Learning is a lifelong activity. Truth is tentative, based upon our experiences to that point. Even if there were an objective truth that is independent of us, we have no direct access to that reality. Instead, each person experiences different sense impressions and each person has a different understanding of reality. My own view of the world as pragmatist is useful to use only if it allows us to manipulate the world in a way that is useful to use. A concept, idea, or policy is true for us when the result of using it to manipulate the world proves useful or satisfactory to us. Living in a real world and to live to the fullest is the most wonderful things that you can happen to you. Appreciate, fulfill and experienced the beauty and the usefulness of nature, because life is too short. There are no absolute truths. Rather, there are postulates. Postulates are true when they function to explain our experiences. All so called truths are empirical and are all man-made. They are valid or true only if within our experience they produce practical results. In other words, a statement is true if believing it provides the most benefit at this moment. The "Law of Pragmatism" is simply: "If it works, it's true" therefore to see is to believe.Psychological

Behaviorist theories Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviorism, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. In conditioning a behavior, it needs to undergo the following test or experiment based on the two types of major conditioning, specifically transforming the behavior of the pupils to do their homework, assignments, and projects and ultimately study their lessons promptly. Firstly, the classical conditioning which isthe technique used in behavioral training in a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring

stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response.In our school we have our electronic bell, every morning during class days we have our flag ceremony at 7:15 am the bell rings automatically the pupils will form their lines in the covered gym to prepare for the flag ceremony. It became a habit for them every morning to form their lines automatically, in which they respond naturally once the bell rang every morning at 7:15 in the morning. During class hours, the grade I and II pupils had already conditioned automatically every time they have copied their assignment/s or lesson/s before the class ends, they will form their lines for me to check their writings. The same way after they have finished answering/working with their activity on their work text book classically they were conditioned already. Also before we start our class for grades III to VI SSC pupils we have a daily review quiz, so basically they will study their previous lesson/s.Setting the culture starting from the opening of the class, it would become an automatic habit for the pupils to act according/automatically.

Second thing is the Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.If applied to the pupils, conditions are sets, if the pupils assignments/homework will be done, stamps indicating the stars where in as soon as it will accumulate to desired number of points every month a reward/s will be given to the child or he or she will receive ribbon being the best or the most numbered assignment/homework passed and checked. The same way with those who can perfect or the top 10 highest scores in the summative or periodic tests, then at the end of every grading period top 10 pupils whom ratings are the highest will receive a certificate of recognition during the recognition day. Through rewards pupils will be conditioned for the quarter/grading period they will do their tasks as learners.

Understanding by Design
TYLER MODEL Tyler recommended that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: the learners, contemporary life outside the school, and the subject matter. After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens, the educational and social philosophy of the school and the psychology of learning. The general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what we are instructional objectives, referred to as goals, educational ends, educational purposes, and behavioral objectives. For many years, the traditional type of information delivery in the Philippines was centered on the teacher, who spoonfeeds the students which concepts to learn and directs them where to look for additional information on these concepts. During those years, teachers centered their academic activities on teaching their students what to learn, where to look, and how to learn. Much of it has changed nowadays. Access to the Internet is easily available through the proliferation of Internetequipped school libraries, home PC Internet subscription, and Internet cafes. Teachers have discovered that students prefer multimedia-supported lectures and web-based activities. Teaching styles have blossomed into a mixture of traditional and distance education teaching techniques. Today, learning focuses on faculty-facilitated and student-

centered activities. The teacher is now merely a facilitator of knowledge and a guide to the students who have the freedom to explore different avenues of information to supplement their learning. In a Constructionist Learning Environment, students learn by doing and making in a public, guided, and collaborative process which includes feedback from peers, not just from teachers. The main idea in this learning environment is to engage the learner in different experiences which makes the learner open to encouraging his own personal understanding. Papert (1990) asserts that only in this way will there be something rich enough in your mind to be worth talking about. Let's examine two forms of a Constructionist Learning Environment: Learning by Design comes from the constructionist theory which emphasizes the value of learning through creating, programming, or participating in other forms of designing, to create a rich context for learning. Learning by Design values both the process of learning and its outcomes or products. Its essence is in the construction of meaning. Designers (learners) create objects or artifacts representing a learning outcome that is meaningful to them.

Problem-based learning is a curriculum development and instructional system that simultaneously develops both problem-solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem solvers confronted with an ill- structured problem that mirrors real-world problems. Finkle and Torp (1995)

I received reliable information that the DepEd plans to adopt the Understanding by Design (UBD) curriculum development framework. Covey (1994) best describes this by saying To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you're going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.

Understanding by Design is centered on three stages: 1. 2. 3. Identifying desired results (setting attainable goals and objectives in sync with the DepEd and school's student competencies priorities) Determining acceptable evidences (that students have attained the desired results) Planning learning experiences and instruction (identifying misconceptions and misunderstanding and addressing them at the design stage)

Some DepEd textbook publishers have already been reformatting their textbooks to reflect the UBD format, so this means DepEd will surely adopt UBD. Understanding by Design, Learning by Design, and Problem-based Learning have a lot of main similarities. All of them are grounded on planning goals and objectives, designing and using appropriate learning strategies, materials, and equipment, and assessing and revising the entire process in order to ensure learning. Whatever curriculum development framework the DepEd wishes to implement, however, it must highly consider the Filipino Learner psyche. We have seen a maximum of adoptions of educational directions and a minimal of

adaptations. After all, the learner is still the center of all learning activities. The Filipino learner learns differently from a British, American, or Japanese learner. Take for example the proliferation of Koreans in the Philippines who now employ Filipinos to rewrite existing English textbooks. The danger here is Filipino textbook re-writers have no idea of how the Korean student learns. With this neglected factor, how can the rewritten textbook be an effective learning tool for the Korean? Before the DepEd tries to adopt new learning methods and standardize it for the country's schools, it must first adapt these to the Pinoy learner's psyche. Only then could we truly see a significant transformation of educational competencies of our students.