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List of state and union territory capitals in India

India is divided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories (UTs). States have their own government, whereas union territories are administered by the Central government. As per the Constitution of India, the central government can also empower a union territory with a legislature. As of 2008, two union territories, the National Capital Territory of Delhi and Pondicherry have their own legislatures. The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to the administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the territorial High Courts of India.

States and territories

The 28 states and 7 union territories of India States: 1. Andhra Pradesh 2. Arunachal Pradesh 3. Assam 4. Bihar 5. Chhattisgarh 6. Goa 7. Gujarat 8. Haryana 9. Himachal Pradesh 10. Jammu and Kashmir 11. Jharkhand 12. Karnataka 13. Kerala 14. Madhya 15. Maharashtra 16. Manipur 17. Meghalaya 18. Mizoram 19. Nagaland 20. Orissa 21. Punjab 22. Rajasthan 23. Sikkim 24. Tamil Nadu 25. Tripura 26. Uttar Pradesh 27. Uttarakhand 28. West Bengal

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep National Capital Territory of Delhi Puducherry Pradesh

Union Territories:

State or UT

Administrative capital

Year of Judiciary Legislative capital establishmen capital t Kolkata 1956

Former capital Hyderabad (Hyderaba d State), Kurnool (Andhra State)[1] Shillong[2] (18741972)

Andaman and Nicobar Port Blair Islands

Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad

Hyderabad

Hyderabad 1956

Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar

Itanagar Dispur Patna

Itanagar Guwahati Patna

Guwahati Guwahati Patna

1972 1975 1912

Chandigarh Chandigarh[3] Chattisgarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Raipur Silvassa Daman

Raipur

Chandigar 1966 h Bilaspur 2000 Mumbai Mumbai 1941 1987

Delhi Panaji[4] Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla Srinagar (S) Jammu (W) Ranchi Bengaluru Thiruvananthapura m

Delhi Porvorim Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla [[] (S)

Delhi Mumbai

1952 1961

Ahmedaba d (19601970) Mysore Nagpur[5] (18611956) Cuttack (19361948)

Ahmedaba 1970 d Chandigar 1966 h Shimla 1948 1948 2000 1956 1956 1956 1956 1818 1960 1947 1970 1972 1963 1948

[[]] Jammu (W) Ranchi Ranchi Bengaluru Bengaluru Thiruvananthapura Kochi m Bhopal Mumbai (S+B) Mumbai Nagpur (W)[8] Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneswar Kochi Jabalpur

Lakshadwee Kavaratti p Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Nagpur (W/2nd)[7] Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneswar Bhopal Mumbai[6]

Guwahati Guwahati Guwahati Guwahati Cuttack

Puducherry Pondicherry

Pondicherry

Chennai

1954

Punjab

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

Chandigar 1966 h

Lahore[9] (19361947) Shimla (19471966)

Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

Jaipur Gangtok[10] Chennai[11] Agartala Lucknow Dehradun[12] Kolkata

Jaipur Gangtok Chennai Agartala Lucknow Dehradun Kolkata

Jodhpur Gangtok Chennai Guwahati

1948 1975 1956 1956

Allahabad 1937 Nainital Kolkata 2000 1947

Notes
1. ^ Andhra Pradesh was formed combining erstwhile Andhra state and Telangana(Telugu speaking region of Hyderabad state). Capital of Andhra state was Kurnool. 2. ^ Shillong was the joint capital of Meghalaya and Assam in 1971, after Meghalaya split from Assam. 3. ^ Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states. 4. ^ Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese. 5. ^ Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950. It became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950. Nagpur remained the capital of the new state. In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra. 6. ^ Mumbai (Bombay) was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that it became the capital of Bombay State, which was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960. 7. ^ In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra. Although an official notification to this effect was only given in 1988. The India yearbook of the government of India still does not mention Nagpur, being either the second or winter capital of Maharashtra. 8. ^ Under the Nagpur pact, one of the preconditions for Vidarbha joining the state of Maharastra was that, at least one of the legislative sessions every year should be held in Nagpur. This session is supposed to specially deal with Vidarbha's problems. 9. ^ Lahore was the capital of Punjab when the state was created in 1936. It is now a part of Pakistan. 10. ^ Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975. 11. ^ Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Tamil Nadu in 1956. 12. ^ Dehradun is the provisional capital of Uttaranchal. The town of Gairsen is being built as the state's new capital.orissa's previous name was kalinga

Chandigarh is only city which is capital of two states Punjab and Haryana

Andaman and Nicobar Islands


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands ( ; Tamil: , Telugu: Union Territory of India. The territory is located geographically 150 km (93 mi) north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Burma by the Andaman Sea. It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10 N parallel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west. The territory's capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. The territory's population as per the most recent (2011) Census of India was 379,944. Added together, the total land area of the territory is approximately 6,496 km2 (2,508 sq mi). pronunciation (helpinfo)); (Bengali: , Hindi:

) are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal and a

History
First Inhabitants

The Andaman and Nicobar islands have been inhabited for several thousand years, at the very least. The earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years; however, the indications from genetic, cultural and linguistic isolation studies point to habitation going back 30,000 to 60,000 years, well into the Middle Paleolithic.[2] In the Andaman Islands, the various Andamanese people maintained their separated existence through the vast majority of this time, diversifying into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups. By the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups, the indigenous people of the Andamans were:

the Great Andamanese, who collectively represented at least 10 distinct sub-groups and languages; the Jarawa; the Jangil (or Rutland Jarawa); the Onge; and the Sentinelese (most isolated of all the groups).

In total, these people numbered somewhere around 7,000 at the time of these first encounters. As the numbers of settlers from the mainland increased (at first mostly prisoners and involuntary indentured labourers, later purposely recruited farmers), these indigenous people lost territory and numbers in the face of punitive expeditions by British troops, land encroachment and the effects of various epidemic diseases. The Jangil and most of the Great Andamanese groups soon

became extinct; presently there remain only approximately 400450 indigenous Andamanese, the Jarawa and Sentinelese in particular maintaining a steadfast independence and refusing most attempts at contact. The indigenous people of the Nicobars (unrelated to the Andamanese) have a similarly isolated and lengthy association with the islands. There are two main groups:

the Nicobarese, or Nicobari, living throughout many of the islands; and the Shompen, restricted to the hinterland of Great Nicobar.

Pre-colonial era

Rajendra Cholan I (1014 to 1042 CE)one of the greatest kings of Tamil Chola dynasty occupied Andaman and Nikobar Islands to use it as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against Sriwijaya Empire (a classical Hindu-Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia). The cholas called the 'Nicobar' island as 'Nakkavaram' which is inscribed on the Tanjore inscription of 1050 CE. Nakkavaram in Tamil means "naked man" or "land of the naked" which should have been evolved to the modern name "Nicobar". Marco Polo(12-13th Century CE) also referred this island as 'Necuveran'. Name of the island 'Andaman' might have been evolved from the Indian monkey god Hanuman[citation needed] The islands provided a temporary maritime base for ships of the Marathas in the 17th century. The legendary admiral Kanhoji Angre established naval supremacy with a base in the islands and is credited with attaching those islands to India.[citation needed]
Danish occupation of the Nicobar Islands

The history of organized European colonization on the islands began with the Danish East India Company in 17541756 when they were administrated under the name of Frederikserne from Tranquebar (in continental Danish India); missionaries from the Moravian Church Brethren's settlement in Tranquebar attempted a settlement on Nancowry and died in great numbers from disease; the islands were repeatedly abandoned due to outbreaks of malaria in 1784, 180709, 18301834 and finally from 1848 gradually for good. Between 1778 and 1783, Austria attempted to establish a colony on the islands on the mistaken assumption that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the islands.[3] Danish involvement ended formally on 16 October 1868 when the Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands were sold to Britain,[3] which made them part of British India by 1869 when the British took possession.
British colonial period

After an initial attempt to set up a colony in the islands by the British was abandoned after only a few years (17891796), a second attempt from 1858 proved to be more permanent. The primary purpose was to set up a penal colony for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent.

The British used the islands as an isolated prison for members of the Indian independence movement. The mode of imprisonment was called Kala pani. The Cellular Jail in Port Blair was regarded as the "Siberia" of British India. The islands were administered as a Chief Commissioner's Province. The British continued their occupancy until the Japanese invasion and occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II.
Indian Control

The islands were nominally put under the authority of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Netaji visited the islands during the war, and renamed them as "Shaheed-dweep" (Martyr Island) & "Swaraj-dweep" (Self-rule Island). General Loganathan, of the Indian National Army was made the Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On 22 February 1944 he along with four INA officersMajor Mansoor Ali Alvi, Sub. Lt. Md. Iqbal, Lt. Suba Singh and stenographer Srinivasanarrived at Lambaline Airport in Port Blair. On 21 March 1944 the Headquarters of the Civil Administration was established near the Gurudwara at Aberdeen Bazaar. On 2 October 1944, Col. Loganathan handed over the charge to Maj. Alvi and left Port Blair, never to return.[4] The islands were reoccupied by British and Indian troops of the 116th Indian Infantry Brigade on 7 October 1945, to whom the remaining Japanese garrison surrendered. At the independence of both India (1947) and Burma (1948), the departing British announced their intention to resettle all Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese on the islands to form their own nation, although this never materialized. It became part of the Indian union in 1956. It was declared a union territory on 1956.[5]:33
Recent history

On 26 December 2004 the coasts of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were devastated by a 10 m (33 ft) high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. At least 5,930 people were believed to have been killed on the Nicobar and Andaman Islands during the disaster. The worst affected Nicobar islands were Katchal and Indira Point, the latter the southernmost point of India, which was submerged by the ocean. While newer settlers of the islands suffered the greatest casualties from the tsunami, most of the aboriginal people survived because oral traditions passed down from generations ago warned them to evacuate from large waves that follow large earthquakes.[6]

Geography
Aerial view of the Andaman Islands

There are 394 islands in the territory having an area of 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi). Of these, only 38 are permanently inhabited. The islands extends from 6 to 8 North latitudes and from 92 to

94 East longitudes. The Andamans are separated from the Nicobar group by a channel (the Ten Degree Channel) some 150 km (93 mi) wide. The highest point is located in North Andaman Island (Saddle Peak at 732 m (2,402 ft)). The Andaman group has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,408 km2 (2,474 sq mi) while the Nicobar group has only 24 islands with an area of 1,841 km2 (711 sq mi).[5]:33 The northernmost point of the Andaman and Nicobars group is 901 km (560 mi) away from the mouth of the Hooghly River and 190 km (120 mi) from Myanmar. The southernmost island, Great Nicobar's southernmost point, called Indira Point, lies only 150 km (93 mi) from Sumatra in Indonesia. The capital of the union territory, Port Blair, is located 1,255 km (780 mi) from Kolkata, 1,200 km (750 mi) from Visakhapatnam and 1,190 km (740 mi) from Chennai.[5]:33
Flora Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are blessed with a unique tropical rainforest canopy, made of a mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmarese, Malaysian and endemic floral strains. So far, about 2,200 varieties of plants have been recorded, out of which 200 are endemic and 1,300 do not occur in mainland India. The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids. The Middle Andamans harbours mostly moist deciduous forests. North Andamans is characterized by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers. The North Nicobar Islands (including Car Nicobar and Battimalv) are marked by the complete absence of evergreen forests, while such forests form the dominant vegetation in the central and southern islands of the Nicobar group. Grasslands occur only in the Nicobars, and while deciduous forests are common in the Andamans, they are almost absent in the Nicobars. The present forest coverage is claimed to be 86.2% of the total land area. This atypical forest coverage is made up of twelve types, namely:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Giant evergreen forest Andamans tropical evergreen forest Southern hilltop tropical evergreen forest Cane brakes Wet bamboo brakes Andamans semi-evergreen forest Andamans moist deciduous forest Andamans secondary moist deciduous forest Littoral forest Mangrove forest Brackish water mixed forest Submontane hill valley swamp forest

Timber

Andaman Forest abounds in a plethora of timber species numbering 200 or more, out of which about 30 varieties are considered to be commercial. Major commercial timber species are Gurjan (Dipterocarpus spp.) and Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides). The following ornamental woods are noted for their pronounced grain formation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Marble Wood (Diospyros marmorata) Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) Silver Grey (a special formation of wood in white chuglam) Chooi (Sageraea elliptical) Kokko (Albizzia lebbeck)

Padauk being sturdier than teak is widely used for furniture making. There are burr wood and buttress[clarification needed] formations in Andaman Padauk. The largest piece of buttress known from Andaman was a dining table of 13 7 ft (4.0 2.1 m). The largest piece of burr was again a dining table to seat eight persons at a time. The holy Rudraksha (Elaeocarps sphaericus) and aromatic Dhoop/Resin trees also are found here.
Fauna

These islands because some like turbo, trochus & nautilus etc. are used as novelties supporting many cottage industries producing a wide range of decorative items & ornaments. Shells such as giant clam, green mussel and oyster support edible shell fishery, a few like scallop, clam, and cockle are burnt in kilns to produce edible lime.

Demographics
The major languages spoken in the Andamans in numerical order are Bengali (32.6%), Hindi (25.95%), Tamil including Sri Lankan Tamils (17.84%), Nicobarese and Telugu (18.93%). Other languages include Malayalam and English.[8] The majority of Andamans are Hindus, with significant Muslim, Christian and Sikh minorities. Foreigners wishing to visit the Andaman and Nicobar Islands require a Restricted Area Permit; however, they are now[clarification needed (possibly dated info)] available on arrival at Port Blair's Veer Savarkar Airport.[citation needed]

Administration
In 1874, the British had placed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in one administrative territory headed by a Chief Commissioner as its judicial administrator. On 1 August 1974, the Nicobar islands were hived off into another revenue district with district headquarters at Car Nicobar under a Deputy Commissioner. In 1982, the post of Lieutenant Governor was created who

replaced the Chief Commissioner as the head of administration. Subsequently a "Pradesh council" with representatives of the people was constituted to advise the Lieutenant Governor.[5]
Administrative Divisions

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are divided into 3 districts. Each districts are again sub-divided into Sub-Divisions and taluks. North and Middle Andaman district Headquarters: Mayabunder

Diglipur Sub-Division o Diglipur taluk Mayabunder Sub-Division o Mayabunder taluk o Rangat taluk

South Andaman district Headquarters: Port Blair

Port Blair Sub-Division o Port Blair taluk o Ferrargunj taluk Little Andaman Sub-Division o Little Andaman taluka (Hut Bay)

Nicobar District Headquarters: Car Nicobar

Car Nicobar Sub-Division o Car Nicobar taluk Nancowrie Sub-Division o Nancowrie taluk o Kamorta taluk o Teressa taluk o Katchal taluk Great Nicobar Sub-Division o Great Nicobar taluk (Campbell Bay) o Little Nicobar taluk

Economy
Little Andaman Island seen by Spot satellite Ross Island a couple of days before the tsunami of December 2004.

Agriculture

A total of 48,675 hectares (120,280 acres) of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and arecanut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of islands. Field crops, namely pulses, oilseeds and vegetables are grown, followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by farmers. Spices such as pepper, clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon are grown under a multi-tier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these islands.
Industry

There are 1,374 registered small-scale, village and handicrafts units. Two units are export oriented in the line of fish processing activity. Apart from this, there are shell and wood based handicraft units. There are also four medium sized industrial units. SSI units are engaged in the production of polythene bags, PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnished, fibre glass and mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, etc. Small scale and handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice milling, furniture making , etc. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation has spread its wings in the field of tourism, fisheries, industries and industrial financing and functions as authorised agents for Alliance Air/Jet Airways.
Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Andaman and Nicobar Islands at market prices, estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.[9]
Year Gross State Domestic Product 1980 530 1985 1,060 1990 1,900 1995 6,750 2000 9,560 2005 13,130

Andaman and Nicobar Islands' gross state domestic product for 2004 was estimated at $354 million in current prices.

Chandigarh
Not to be confused with Chandigarh Capital Region.
The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Chandigarh

City Beautiful

union territory

Seal

Chandigarh Location of Chandigarh

Coordinates Country

3045N 7647ECoordinates:

3045N 7647E

India

District(s)

Established

1953

Capital

Chandigarh

Largest city

Chandigarh Mayor: Ravinder Pal Singh[1]

Population Density HDI

1,054,686[2] (29)

9,252 /km2 (23,963 /sq mi)

0.860 (very high)

Literacy

81.9%

Official languages Punjabi, Hindi and English

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Area Elevation Codes[show]

114 km2 (44 sq mi)

350 metres (1,150 ft)

ISO 3166-2

IN-CH

Footnotes[show]

Website

chandigarh.nic.in/

Chandigarh (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name was coined from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu GoddessChandi, present in the city's vicinity.[3] It is occasionally referred to as The City Beautiful. Chandigarh Capital Region (CCR), including Mohali, Panchkula, and Zirakpur, had a combined population of 1,165,111 (1.16 million) as per the 2001 census. Earlier the Chandigarh Capital region was also called 'Tricity' because of Panchkula and Mohali as adjacent cities but with the mushrooming of other towns like Zirakpur, Kharar etc. with considerable population it is better called 'Chandigarh Capital Region'.[clarification needed] As the first planned city of India, Chandigarh is known internationally for its architecture and urban planning.[4] Chandigarh is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer. The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territorieswith the highest per capita income in the country at Rs.99,262 at current prices and Rs.70,361 at constant prices (20062007).[5] As per a study conducted by Ministry of Urban Development, Chandigarh has emerged as the cleanest city in India,[6]while also topping the List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index.[7] After the partition of British India into the two nations of India and Pakistan in 1947, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. The Indian state of Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition.[8] After several plans to make additions to existing cities were found to be infeasible for various reasons, the decision to construct a new and planned city was undertaken. Of all thenew town schemes in independent India, the Chandigarh project quickly assumed prime significance, because of the city's strategic location as well as the personal interest of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. Commissioned by Nehru to reflect the new nation's modern, progressive outlook, Chandigarh was designed by the French (born Swiss) architect and urban planner, Le Corbusier, in the 1950s. Le Corbusier was in fact the second architect of the city, after the initial master plan was prepared by the American architect-planner Albert Mayer who was working with thePolandborn architect Matthew Nowicki. On 1 November 1966, the newly-formed Indian state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of the Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi speaking state, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current day Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus created into a union territory to serve as capital of both these states.

Geography and climate


Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in Northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44 sq mi or 114 km. and shares its borders with the states of Haryana in the east and

Punjab in the north, west and south. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 76.79E.[9] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

30.74N

The surrounding districts are of Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar in Punjab and Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away from its north border. Chandigarh has a humid subtropical climate characterized by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (-1 C to 41.2 C). In winter, pieces of snow sometimes occurs during December and January. The average annual rainfall is 1110.7 mm. The city also receives occasional winter rains from the west.

Average temperature

Spring: The climate remains quite pleasant during the spring season (from mid-February to mid-March and then from mid-September to mid-October). Temperatures vary between (max) 16 C to 25 C and (min) 9 C to 18 C.

Autumn: In autumn (from Mid-March to April), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 36 C. Temperatures usually remain between 16 to 27 in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 11 C.

Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-May to Mid-June) may rise to a maximum of 45 C (rarely). Temperatures generally remain between 35 C to 40 C (94 - 101F).

Monsoon: During monsoon(from mid-June to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/ south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.

Winter: Winters (November to Mid-March) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 7 C to 15 C and (min) -3 C to 5 C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 23 days with sometimes hailstorms.

Environment
Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense Banyan and Eucalyptus plantations. Asoka, Cassia, Mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem.The city has forests surrounding it which sustain many animal and plant species. Deers, Sambars, Barking Deers, Parrots, Woodpeckers and Peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season. A parrot sanctuary located in the city is home to a variety of bird species.

Architecture and urban planning

Chandigarh Secretariat Building

Taking over from Albert Mayer, Le Corbusier produced a plan for Chandigarh that conformed to the modern city planning principles of Congrs International d'Architecture Moderne CIAM, in terms of division of urban functions, an anthropomorphic plan form, and a hierarchy of road and pedestrian networks. This vision of Chandigarh, contained in the innumerable conceptual maps on the drawing board together with notes and sketches had to be translated into brick and mortar. Le Corbusier retained many of the seminal ideas of Mayer and Nowicki, like the basic framework of the master plan and its components: The Capitol, City Center, besides the University, Industrial area, and linear parkland. Even the neighborhood unit was retained as the basic module of planning. However, the curving outline of Mayer and Nowicki was reorganized into a mesh of rectangles, and the buildings were characterized by an "honesty of materials". Exposed brick and boulder stone masonry in its rough form produced unfinished concrete surfaces, in geometrical structures. This became the architectural form characteristic of Chandigarh, set amidst landscaped gardens and parks.
The Open Hand Monument

Chandigarh Museum and Art gallery have a separate section dedicated to the architecture of Chandigarh.

Chandigarh administration
Punjab and Haryana High Court at Chandigarh

Chandigarh Administration is under the control of the Administrator who is appointed under the provisions of Art 239 of the Constitution. The administrative control of Chandigarh is under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Adviser to the Administrator, a very senior officer equivalent to the Chief Secretary of a state, belonging to one of the All India Services, is second in command after the Administrator. S/He generally belongs to the AGMU cadre of the Indian Administrative Service.

The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the in-charge of the General Administration in the Chandigarh UT.

The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the Chandigarh UT.

The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment, Wild-Life and Pollution Control in the Chandigarh UT.

The above three officers are generally from AGMU cadre and can also be from Punjab or Haryana cadres of the All India Services.

Demographics
Demographics of Chandigarh Capital Region
Religion in Chandigarh
Religion Percent

Hinduism Sikhism Islam Others

78.6% 16.1% 3.9% 1.4%

Distribution of religions

As of 2001 India census,[11] Chandigarh had a population of 900,635, making for a density of about 7900 persons per square kilometre. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. The sex ratio is 777 females for every 1,000 maleswhich is the lowest in the country. Chandigarh has an average literacy rate of 81.9%, higher than the national average of 64.8%; with male literacy of 86.1% and female literacy of 76.5%. About 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The main religions in Chandigarh are Hinduism: 78.6%, Sikhism: 16.1%, Islam: 3.9%, and Christianity: 0.8%.[12] Hindi and Punjabi and are the main languages spoken in Chandigarh, although these days English is quite popular. A significant percentage of the population of Chandigarh consists of people who had moved here from the neighboring states of Haryana and Punjab to fill up the large number of vacancies in various government departments that were established in Chandigarh.

Culture and contemporary life


See also: List of people from Chandigarh Capital Region The culture of Chandigarh is an amalgamation of the cultures of the neighboring states with an urban tinge. The setting up of Rajiv Gandhi Software Technology Park has also added to its semi -cosmopolitan identity. Primarily, Chandigarh's culture is influenced by Punjabi, Haryanavi, Himachali, UP and Bihar.

Entertainment and performing arts

The Tagore theater is an important venue for stage shows. There is an open theater in Panchkula sector 5. The Indradhanush auditorium is also very popular for indoor functions.

Economy
A Shopping mall in the city.

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarhs population therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a Pensioner's Paradise. There are about 15 medium to large industrial including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has over 2500 units are registered under small scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a Per capita income (PCI) of 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in india.[13] Chandigarh's gross state domestic product

for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current prices. Chandigarh has a well-developed market and banking infrastructure. Nearly all the major banks in the country have registered their presence in Chandigarh. Most banks with a pan India presence have their zonal/regional offices present in Chandigarh. The Bank Square in Sector 17 in Chandigarh has a large presence of such offices all in one section of the commercial sector.[citation needed] Three major trade promotion organizations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh. The defence forces have a significant presence in Chandigarh, apart from the Indian Airforce base in Sector 31 and the nearby Cantonment in Chandimandir, the city is the base for sourcing supplies for the Leh Laddakh and Siachen region of defence operations.[citation needed] Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the IT world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity toDelhi, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations to the like of Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, TechMahindra have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a recent Global Services Survey conducted by Cyber Media, Chandigarh is ranked 9th in the top 50 cities identified globally as emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations. [14]

Education
See also: List of educational institutions in Chandigarh

Gandhi Bhavan built by Pierre Jeanneretfor Punjab University

Chandigarh is known for its quality school education.[citation needed] The schools are affiliated to different types of school curricula. The prominent colleges in Chandigarh include GGDSD College, Punjab Engineering College, University Business School (UBS), Chandigarh College Of Engineering & Technology (CCET), University Institute Of Engineering & Technology (UIET), DAV College, MCM DAV College, Government College for Girls and Boys and Government Teacher Training College. One of the most popular university that is situated in chandigarh is Panjab University Chandigarh. Other popular schools in Chandigarh are Sacred Heart Convent School Sector 26, Bhavan Vidyalaya Sector 27, Yadvindra Public School (Y.P.S) Mohali ,St Xavier's School Sec-44 , St.Stephen's School Sec-45, Shivalik Public School, Vivek High School, St. John's High School, St. Kabir ,Carmel Convent Sec-9, St. Joseph's Sr. Sec. School Sec-44, St. Anne's School Sec-32, Delhi Public School Sec 40, etc. There are model schools set up by the government in various sectors, originally aimed to cater the needs of each sector. It is a major study hub for students all over Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Punjab, Bihar, Uttaranchal, and also for students from South-East Asia. Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)is a premier medical research institute which works with the primary mandate of medical research and Post-Graduate medical education. The institute serves as prime tertiary level medical care facility for the region. The institute was formed by the act of parliament and is centrally governed.

Transport
See also: Transportation in Chandigarh Capital Region
"Green Bus" introduced by the CTU runs throughout Chandigarh

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India.[15] Wide, well maintained roads and ample parking space all over the city, make it convenient to use private vehicles for local transport. Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh Leh). Chandigarh has a railway station and anInternational Airport. Metro Rail project is underway for the region.

Sporting venues and gardens


See also: Parks and gardens in Chandigarh Capital Region and Tourism in Chandigarh Capital Region
The popular Sector-42 Hockey Stadium

Chandigarh is home to numerous inter state sporting teams in tournaments like PHL and IPL. The city has built upon this achievements a network of sound infrastructure ranging from stadium to training camps. This include the entire gamut from cricket stadiums, swimming pools, shooting ranges to skating rinks and hockey stadiums.

Chandigarh also has gardens across the entire city. Chandigarh is home to world famous Rock Garden, built from mostly from waste material. Another well known garden is the Rose Garden. Other gardens include Garden of Annuals, Fragrance Garden, Hibiscus Garden, Chrysanthemum Garden, Botanical Garden and Shanti Kunj.

See also
Chandigarh portal

Chandigarh Capital Region Mohali Panchkula Rock Garden Zirakpur

Academic works

Evenson, Norma. Chandigarh. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966. Joshi, Kiran. Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Edwin Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing in association with Chandigarh College of Architecture, 1999. ISBN 1-890206-13-X

Kalia, Ravi. Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999. Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew. Chandigarh and Planning Development in India, London: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, No.4948, 1 April 1955, Vol.CIII, pages 315-333. I. The Plan, by E. Maxwell Fry, II. Housing, by Jane B. Drew.

Nangia, Ashish. Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial. PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008.

Perera, Nihal. "Contesting Visions: Hybridity, Liminality and Authorship of the Chandigarh Plan" Planning Perspectives 19 (2004): 175-199

Prakash, Vikramaditya. Chandigarhs Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.

Sarin, Madhu. Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience. London: Mansell Publishing, 1982.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli


For the Indian musical form, see Dadra.

The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli /


union territory

Silvassa Location of Dadra and Nagar Haveli /

Coordinates

2016N 7301ECoordinates: 2016N 7301E

Country

India

District(s)

Established

1961-08-11

Capital

Silvassa

Administrator

Shri Narendra Kumar, IAS

Population Density HDI (2005)

342,853 (5th)

704 /km2 (1,823 /sq mi)

0.618 (medium)

Official languages Gujarati, Marathi

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Area

487 km2 (188 sq mi)

ISO 3166-2

IN-DN

Website

dnh.nic.in

Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: , Marathi: , Portuguese: Dadr e Nagar Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. Nagar Haveli is wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, whereas Dadra is an enclave lying a few kilometres north of Nagar Haveli in Gujarat. Its capital is Silvassa. The territory lies some ten to thirty kilometres up-river from the city of Daman. Dadra and Nagar Haveli are in the watershed of the Daman Ganga River, which flows through the territory. The towns of Dadra and Silvassa both lie on the north bank of the river. The Western Ghats range rises to the east, and the foothills of the range occupy the eastern portion of the district. The territory is landlocked, although the Arabian Sea coast lies just to the west in Gujarat. The major spoken languages in the territory are Gujarati, Hindi and Marathi.[1]

History
Portuguese era
In 1783, Nagar-Aveli was given to the Portuguese as a compensation for the sinking of a Portuguese ship by the Maratha navy.[clarification needed] Then, in 1785 the Portuguese purchased Dadra. It was administered by the Portuguese Governor of Daman until 1954.

Liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli


Main article: Liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli

After India attained Independence in 1947, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the help of volunteers of organisations like the United Front of Goans (UFG), the National Movement Liberation Organisation (NMLO) and the Azad Gomantak Dal liberated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954.[2]

Integration into India


Old map of the territory.

Although it enjoyed de facto independence, Dadra and Nagar Haveli were still recognized internationally (e.g., by the International Court of Justice) as Portuguese possessions.[3] The residents of the former colony requested the Government of India for administrative help. Mr. K.G. Badlani, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) was sent as the administrator. From 1954 to 1961, the territory was administered by a body called the Varishta Panchayat of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[4][5] In 1961 when Indian forces took over Goa, Daman, and Diu, Mr. Badlani was, for one day, designated the Prime Minister of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, so that, as Head of State, he could sign an agreement with the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and formally merge Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Republic of India.

Administration
[show]Population Growth

A Lieutenant Governor administers the territory, which covers an area of 188 sq mi or 487 km and consists of two talukas:

Dadra Nagar Haveli

Dadra is the headquarters of Dadra taluka, comprising Dadra town and two other villages. Silvassa is the headquarters of Nagar Haveli taluka, comprising Silvassa town and 68 other villages.

Economy
Dadra and Nagar Haveli's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $218 million in current prices. Manufacturing is the main economy in Dadra and Nagar Haveli as the taxes are low.[7

Daman and Diu


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Daman and Diu

union territory

Daman Location of Daman and Diu

Coordinates

2025N 7250ECoordinates: 2025N 7250E

Country

India

District(s)

Established

1987-05-30

Capital

Daman

Administrator

Shri Satya Gopal, IAS

Population Density HDI (2005)

242,911 (6th(among u.t.))

2,169 /km2 (5,618 /sq mi)

0.754 (medium)

Official languages Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi, English

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Area

112 km2 (43 sq mi)

ISO 3166-2

IN-DD

Daman and Diu (Gujarati:

, Portuguese: Damo e Diu) is a union territory in India.

For over 450 years, the coastal enclaves of Daman and Diu on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman, and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on 19 December 1961, by military conquest; Portugal did not recognize the Indian annexation of these territories until 1974. Goa, Daman, and Diu were administered as part of a single union territory until 1987, when Goa was granted statehood, leaving Daman and Diu as a separate union territory; each enclave constitutes one of the union territory's two districts. Marathi, Gujarati and English are the official[1] and main languages.[2][3] The use of Portuguese goes on declining because it is no longer official nor taught at school, though a number of elderly people can still understand it, some even preferring it for discourse at home. In addition to standard Portuguese, there are two also shrinking Portuguese-based creole languages in Daman (known as Lngua da Casa, "Home Language") and Diu (Lngua dos Velhos, "Elders' Language"). English is increasingly accepted for official purposes.

Districts
[show]Population Growth

Diu District, an area of 40 km. The main settlement is the town of Diu. Daman District, an area of 28 sq mi or 72 km. The main settlement is the city of Daman.

Economy
Daman and Diu's gross state domestic product for 2005 is estimated at $156 million in current prices.

See also

Battle of Diu Damania Invasion of Goa

Lakshadweep
The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Lakshadweep Islands

union territory

Seal

Kavaratti Location of Lakshadweep Islands

Coordinates

1034N 7237ECoordinates:

1034N 7237E

Country

India

District(s)

Established

1956-11-10

Capital

Kavaratti
Andrott

Largest city

Administrator

J. K. Dadoo

Population Density HDI (2005)

64,429

2,013 /km2 (5,214 /sq mi)

0.796 (medium)

Official languages Malayalam, English[1]

Ethnic groups

84.33% Malayali 15.67% Mahls

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Area

32 km2 (12 sq mi)

ISO 3166-2

IN-LD

Website

www.lakshadweep.gov.in

Lakshadweep ( listen (helpinfo); Malayalam: Lakadvp, Dhivehi:

Lakshadb), also

known as the Laccadive Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km off the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala. The islands form the smallest Union

Territory ofIndia. The total land area is 11 sq mi or 32 km. Ten of the islands are inhabited. Lakshadweep is the northern part of the erstwhile Lakshadweepa. The islands are the northernmost among the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands, which are actually the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, in the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.[2] The land area is 32 km2; the lagoon area is about 4200 km2, the territorial waters area is 20,000 km2 and the economic zone area is 400,000 km2.

Etymology
Lakshadweep, comes from Lakshadweepa, which literally means one hundred thousand ( laksha) islands ( dweepa) in Sanskrit. It is the least populous Union Territory of India

History
The earliest references to the islands is made in Puranuru as part of the ancient (Dravidian) country,. Little else is known about the early history of the Lakshadweep islands. There are references to the control of the islands by the Cheras in the Sangam literature Pathitruppaththu. A Pallava inscription of 7th century AD refers to the islands as Dveepa Laksham and lists them as part of the Pallava domain. Local traditions and legends attribute the first settlement on these islands to the period of Cheraman Perumal, the last Chera king of Kerala.[3] The oldest inhabited islands in the group are Amini,Kalpeni Andrott, Kavaratti and Agatti. Lakshadweep islanders were originally Hindus who later converted to Islam in the 14th century. However, recent archaeological evidence has established that Buddhist settlements also had existed in the islands as early as the 6th or 7th century. According to popular tradition, Islam was brought to Lakshadweep by an Arab named Ubaidulla in 41 (661 AD). His grave is located in the island of Andrott. Muslim grave stones dated to 139 (756 AD) have also been discovered here. During the 11th century, the islands came under the rule of the Late Cholas. In the 17th century, the islands came under the rule of Ali Rajahs/Arakkal Bheevi of Kannur, who received them as a gift from the Kolathiris. The Portuguese took control to exploit coir production until the islanders expelled the Portuguese. The islands are also mentioned in great detail in the stories of the Arab traveller Ibn Batuta. The Amindivi group of islands (Amini, Kadmat, Kiltan, Chetlat and Bitra) came under the rule of Tipu Sultan in 1787. They passed to British control after the Third Anglo-Mysore War and were attached to South Canara. The rest of the islands came under

the suzerainty of the Arakkal family of Cannanore in return for a payment of annual tribute. The British took over the administration of those islands for non-payment of arrears. These islands were attached to the Malabar district of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj.

Independent India
Sardar Patel is the man behind the integration of Lakshadweep Islands with the Republic of India. The inhabitants of these islands were cut off from the mainstream of the country and learnt about Indian Independence days after 15 August 1947. It was Patel who realised that Pakistan could lay claim to these islands on the grounds of Muslim majority, though the islands were nowhere near the new state of Pakistan. An Indian Navy ship was sent to Lakshadweep to hoist the national flag by Patel to thwart any attempt by Pakistan to grab the islands. Hours later, vessels belonging to the Pakistan Navy were spotted near the islands.These vessels however retreated to Karachi after seeing the Indian flag flying over the Lakshadweep.[4] In 1956, despite the fact that most of the Islanders were Malayalis, the States Reorganisation Act separated these islands from the mainland administrative units, forming a new union territory by combining all the islands.

Geography

Lakshadweep Islands map

One of the uninhabited islands in Lakshadweep

Worms-eye view of the lighthouse inMinicoy Island

Lakshadweep is an archipelago of twelve atolls, three reefs and five submerged banks, with a total of about thirty-nine islands and islets. The reefs are in fact also atolls, although mostly submerged, with only small unvegetated sand cays above the high water mark. The submerged banks are sunken atolls. Almost all the atolls have a northeast-southwest orientation with the islands lying on the eastern rim, and a mostly submerged reef on the western rim, enclosing a lagoon.It has 10 inhabited islands, 17 uninhabited islands, attached islets, 4 newly formed islets and 5 submerged reefs. The main islands are Kavaratti (where the capital city, Kavaratti, is located), Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini. The total population of the territory was 60,595 according to the 2001 census. Agatti has an airport where there are direct flights from Kochi, Kerala or Ernakulam

(Cochin). Tourists need a permit to visit the islands; foreign nationals are not permitted to visit certain islands. Consumption of alcohol is not permitted in the islands except on Bangaram Island.

India`s Coral Islands


The Amindivi group islands (consisting of Amini, Keltan, Chetlat, Kadamat, Bitra and Peremul Par) and the Lakshadweep group islands (comprising mainly Androth, Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Pitti and Suheli Par), both have a submarine connection between them, together with the Minicoy Island form the Coral Islands of India in the Arabian Sea. All these islands have been built up by corals and have fringing coral reefs very close to their shores.[5] Two banks further north are not considered part of the group:

Angria Bank Adas Bank

The atolls, reefs and banks are listed from north to south in the table:

Politics
Lakshadweep forms a single Indian district and is governed by an administrator appointed by the central government of India. The union territory comes under the jurisdiction of the Kerala High Court atErnakulam. The territory elects one member to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the Parliament of India). There is no local government at the moment but the administration plans to introduce a two-tiered system based on the Panchayati raj. There will be ten island councils for the inhabited islands (with a total of 79 members).

Demographics
[show]Population Growth

Languages
The principal languages of Lakshadweep are Malayalam, Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and Mahl.[7] The people of all the northern islands speak a dialect of Malayalam with Tamil and Arabic influences, due to extensive trade activities of these people. The people of Minicoy, the southernmost atoll, speak Mahl, a variant of Divehi language spoken in the Maldives.

Malayalam with Malayalam script was introduced as the official language of Lakshadweep during the British raj. Previously a type of Arabic script was used for the language. The policy was continued by the Indian government. Malayalam serves as a link language on the islands including on the Mahl dominated Minicoy Island.[8]

Ethnicity
The islanders are ethnically similar to coastal Kerala's Malayali people, and were influenced by Arab traders. Inhabitants of Minicoy, the southernmost and second largest island, are ethnically Dhivehisnative to the Maldives. This group of Dhivehis form a subgroup of Dhivehis, sometimes referred by the name Mahls. Most of the indigenous population is Sunni-Muslim. The locals of all the islands except Minicoy call themselves the Div-i or the Aminidivi ("from the mother island"). Lakshadweep's ethnic groups can be classified as 84.33% Malayali, and 15.67% Dhivehi.

Economy

A beach side resort at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

A beach at Kavaratti

Lakshadweep's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at US$60 million at current prices. Coconut fibre extraction and production of fibre products is Lakshadweep's main industry. There are five coir fibre factories, five production demonstration centres and

seven fibre curling units run by the government of India. These units produce coir fibre, coir yarn, curled fibre and corridor mattings.

Tourism
Due to its isolation and scenic appeal, Lakshadweep is emerging as a major tourist attraction for Indians. This brings in significant revenue, which is likely to increase. Since such a small region cannot support industries, the government is actively promoting tourism as a means of income. Water sports activities such as scuba diving, wind surfing, snorkelling, kayaking, canoeing, water skiing, yachting and night-voyage into sea are adventurous as well as quite popular among tourists. Hundreds of varieties of living corals, dolphins, sea turtles, sea urchins, seabirds, seaweeds, sea cucumbers, starfish, cowry, clams, eels,swordfish, octopus and innumerable types of lagoon triggerfish, etc. are a real delightful treat to the eyes of a naturalist. Tourists flock these islands throughout the year except during the South-west monsoon months when sea is extremely rough.

Fisheries
Being rich in marine life and mineral resources, fishing is naturally the main livelihood of the islanders. Though all varieties of fish available in the lagoons,Tuna fish variety is available in abundance around the Lakshadeep sea. Fresh tuna caught is processed by drying it in the Sun after cooking and smoking.The resultant product, known as `Mas`, as well as Tunapickle are popular products exported from these islands worldwide. Sharks, crabs, shrimp, lobsters, etc. are also available in plenty.

Other products
The worlds first ever low temperature thermal desalination plant (LTTD) was opened in Kavaratti, one of the Indian Lakshadweep islands. The plant cost about 50 million (922,000) and will produce 100,000 litres/day of potable water from sea water. Production costs, currently 220-250/m (4.1-4.6/m), are expected to go do down to 30-60/m (0.55-1.11/m) as the capacity is increased. LTTD technology involves flashing relatively warm sea water (28-30 deg Celsius) inside a vacuum flash chamber and condensing the resultant vapour using deep sea cold water (715 C). The cold water for the Kavaratti plant is drawn at a depth of 350m some 400m from the shore. The technology was developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). It can be used not only to produce drinking water but also for power generation and air

conditioning. In addition, the deep sea water contains extra nutrients for fish, an important source of food and income for the local population. The government plans to set up desalination plants with a capacity of 10 million litres/per day on all islands and coastal areas. Source: Gov of India Press Information Bureau, 23 May 2005

Agriculture
Coconut is the main crop cultivated in the islands. Lakshadweep is India's largest producer of coconuts. About 2,598 hectares are under coconut cultivation and the productivity per hectare is 22,310. Coconuts cultivated in the Lakshadweep are also rich in coconut oil.

ransport

Passenger ship M.V. Amindivi of the Lakshadweep Islands administration docked at Old Mangalore port

Agatti Aerodrome on Agatti Island is currently the only airport in Lakshadweep. Indian Airlines, the state-owned carrier, serves Agatti and flies to Kochi on the mainland. Also, from April 2007, a private carrier, Kingfisher Airlines, has commenced flights to and from Agatti. Kingfisher connects Kochi and Bangalore to Agatti. The other islands are linked by the Pawan Hans helicopter or boat service. Ships are the major means of transportation for the islanders. Ships are operated from either Kochi, Mangalore or Beypore (Calicut). There are around 5 passenger ships, but generally only two at a time operate. Advance bookings are required. Sailing schedules are arranged so that each island gets priority at some time of the year. There are vessels operating between some of the larger islands like Kavaratti, Androth, Kalpeni etc., but sailings are affected by weather conditions.

Delhi
This article is about the National Capital Territory of Delhi. For the capital city of India, see New Delhi.

For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation).


The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Delhi

capital

From top clockwise: Lotus Temple, Humayun's Tomb,Connaught Place, Akshardham Temple, and India Gate.

Delhi

Location of Delhi in India

Coordinates

283636N 771348ECoordinates: 283636N 771348E

Country

India

Territory

Delhi

Lt. Governor

Tejendra Khanna

Chief Minister

Sheila Dikshit

Mayor

Prof. Rajni Abbi

Legislature (seats) Unicameral (70)

Population Density Metro HDI (2005)

16,753,235[1] (2nd) (2011)

11,297 /km2 (29,259 /sq mi) 18,916,890[2] (2nd) (2010)

0.789 (very high)

Official languages English, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Area Elevation Codes[show]

1483 km2 (573 sq mi)

239 metres (784 ft)[3]

Website

delhigovt.nic.in

Seal of Delhi
Delhi, locally pronounced as Dilli (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) or Dehli (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu:

),

officially National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest metropolis by population in India.[4][5][6][7] It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,235 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census. There are nearly 22.2 million residents in the greater National Capital Region urban area (which also includes Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon and Faridabad along with other smaller nearby towns).[2] The name Delhi is often also used to include urban areas near the NCT, as well as to refer to New Delhi, the capital of India, which lies within the metropolis. Although technically a federally administered union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi, jointly administered by both the federal Government of India and the local Government of Delhi, is also the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Located on the banks of the River Yamuna, Delhi has been known to be continuously inhabited since at least the 6th century BC,[8] though human habitation is believed to have existed since the second millennium BC.[9] Delhi is also widely believed to have been the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas during the times of the Mahabharata.[10] Delhi re-emerged as a major political, cultural and commercial city along the trade routes between northwest India and the Gangetic plain after the rise of the Delhi sultanates.[11][12] It is the site of many ancient and medieval monuments, archaeological sites and remains. In 1639, Mughal emperor Shahjahan built a new walled city in Delhi which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. [13][14] After the British East India Company had gained control of much of India during the 18th and 19th centuries, Calcutta became the capital both underCompany rule and under the British Raj, until George V announced in 1911 that it was to move back to Delhi. A new capital city, New Delhi, was built to the south of the old city during the 1920s. [15] When India gained independence from British rule in 1947, New Delhi was declared its capital and seat of government. As such, New Delhi houses important offices of the federal government, including the Parliament of India, as well as numerous national museums, monuments, and art galleries. Owing to the migration of people from across the country, Delhi has grown to be a multicultural, cosmopolitan metropolis. Its rapid development and urbanisation, coupled with the relatively high average income of its population, has transformed Delhi into a major cultural, political, and commercial centre of India.[16]

Etymology and idioms

The Etymology and idioms of "Delhi" is uncertain, but many possibilities exist. The very common view is that its eponym is Dhillu or Dilu, a king of theMauryan dynasty, who built the city in 50 BC and named it after himself.[10][17][18] The Hindi/Prakrit word dhili ("loose") was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar built by Raja Dhava had a weak foundation and was replaced.[18] The coins in circulation in the region under theTomaras were called dehliwal.[19] Some other historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of dehleez (Persian: , gateway inPersian) or dehaliUrdu for 'threshold'and symbolic of city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[20] Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.[21] Delhi is referenced in various idioms of North Indian and Pakistani languages. Examples include -

Abhi Dilli door hai (or, its Persian version, Hanouz Dehli dour ast (Persian: )) literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey is still far from complete. [22][23]

Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.[24] Aas-paas barse, Dilli pari tarse (Persian: ) literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when there is plenty all around.[23]

History
Main articles: History of Delhi and Old Delhi

At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brickminaret.[25]

Built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes.[26]

Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation onIndependence Day
Human habitation was probably present in and around Delhi during the second millennium BC and before,[9]and continuous inhabitation has been evidenced since at least the 6th century BC.[8] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[10] Settlements grew from the time of the Mauryan Empire (c. 300 BC).[9] Remains of seven major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. The Chauhan kingPrithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by the Afghan Muhammad Ghori.[10] In 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty established the Delhi Sultanate. Qutb-ud-din started the construction the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam), the earliest extant mosque in India.[10][27] After the fall of the Slave dynasty, a succession of Turkic and Afghan dynasties, the Khilji dynasty, the Tughluq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodhi dynasty held power in the late medieval period, and built a sequence of forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[28] In 1398, Timur Lenk invaded India on the pretext that the Muslim sultans of Delhi were too lenient towards their Hindu subjects. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins.[29] Near Delhi, Timur massacred 100,000 captives.[30] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during the Sultanate period.[31] In 1526, Zahiruddin Babur defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi, Agraand Lahore.[10] The Mughal Empire ruled northern India for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, from 1540 to 1556.[32]During 15531556, the Hindu king, Hemu Vikramaditya acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Akbar at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals reestablished their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat.[33][34][35] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name (Shahjahanabad), and is more commonly known as the "Old City" or "Old Delhi". The old city served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638. After 1680, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Marathas rose to prominence.[36]

A weakened Mughal Empire lost the Battle of Karnal, following which the victorious forces of Nader Shah invaded and looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[37] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi.[38] In 1761, after the Marathas lost the third battle of Panipat, Delhi was raided by Ahmed Shah Abdali. In 1803, the forces of British East India Company overran the Maratha forces near Delhi and ended the Mughal rule over the city. [39] After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi came under direct rule of the British crown and was made a district province of the Punjab.[10] In 1911, the capital ofBritish India was transferred from Calcutta to Delhi, following which a team of British architects led by Edwin Lutyens designed a new political and administrative area, known as New Delhi, to house the government buildings. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi, was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947. During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees from West Punjab and Sindh fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Starting on 31 October 1984, approximately three thousand Sikhs were killed during the four-day long anti-Sikh riots after the Sikh body guards of then-Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, assassinated her. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues, contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[40] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi.[41] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly, though with limited powers.[41] In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants resulting in the death of six security personnel.[42] India suspected the hand of Pakistan-based militant groups in the attacks resulting in a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[43] Delhi again witnessed terrorist attacks in October 2005 and September 2008 resulting in the deaths of 62[44] and 30[45] civilians respectively.

Geography
Main article: Environment of Delhi

River Yamuna near Delhi

Lightning strikes near India Gate, New Delhi. Delhi receives much of its rainfall during the monsoon season which lasts from July to September
The National Capital Territory of Delhi is spread over an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi) , of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2(270 sq mi) urban. Delhi has a maximum length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and the maximum width of 48.48 km (30 mi). There are three local bodies (statutory towns) namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (area is 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi), New Delhi Municipal Committee (42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi) and Delhi Cantonment Board (43 km 2 or 17 sq mi).[46] Delhi is an expansive area, in its extremity it spans from Narela in the north to Badarpur in the south. Najafgarh is the furthest point west, and Seemapuri is its eastern extremity. The NCR encompasses towns south and east of the said border, namely Ghaziabad, Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon. Oddly, the main expanse of Delhi does not follow a specific geographical feature. The main city area of Delhi does not end until Saket in the South, whilst the northern limit is Jahangirpuri and the western limit is Janakpuri-Dwarka. The terrain of Delhi shows great variation. It changes from plain agricultural fields in the north to dry, arid hills (an offshoot of the Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan) in the south and west. There used to be large natural lakes in the southern part of the city, but most have now dried up. Most of Delhi, including New Delhi, is situated on the western banks of the river Yamuna which separates the main city from eastern suburbs (commonly known as trans-Yamuna), although there is a good connectivity between the eastern and western sides, with a number of road and railway bridges as well as the Delhi Metro. Delhi is located at 28.61N 77.23E, and lies in northern India. It borders the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the east

and Haryana on the north, west and south. During British Raj it was adjacent to the province of Punjab and still historically and culturally tied closely to the region of Punjab.[47] Almost entirely within the Gangetic plains, two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The low-lying Yamuna flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. Reaching up to a height of 318 m (1,043 ft),[48] the Delhi ridge forms a dominating feature in this region. It originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, northeast and northwest parts of the city. Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. Another river called the Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. Delhi falls under seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to major

earthquakes, but earthquakes have not been common in recent history. [49] Delhi has the third highest tree-cover among cities in India.[50] Delhi was one of the world's ten most polluted cities in the 1990s, with vehicles producing 70% of the polluting emissions.[51] In 1996 the Centre for Science and Environment started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to be run onCompressed Natural Gas and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energys first Clean Cities International Partner of the Year award for bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives.[51]

Climate
See also: Climate of Delhi

Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Kppen Cwa). Summers are long and extremely hot, from early April to mid-October, with the monsoon season in between. Early March sees a reversal in the direction of wind, from the northwestern direction, to the south-western. These bring the hot waves from Rajasthan, carrying sand and are a characteristic of the Delhi summer. These are called loo. The months of March to May see a time of hot prickling heat. Monsoon arrives at the end of June, bringing some respite from the heat, but increasing humidity at the same time. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and peaks in January and is notorious for its heavy fog.[52] Extreme temperatures range from 0.6 C (30.9 F) to 46.7 C (116.1 F).[53] The annual mean temperature is 25 C (77 F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 C to 32 C (56 F to 90 F).[54]The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. [10] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.[55]

[hide]Climate data for Delhi Month Average high C (F) Jan


21.1 (70) 7.3 (45.1) 20.3 (0.799) 1.7 213.9

Feb
24.2 (75.6) 10.1 (50.2) 15.0 (0.591) 1.3 217.5

Mar
30.0 (86) 15.4 (59.7) 15.8 (0.622) 1.2 238.7

Apr
36.2 (97.2) 21.5 (70.7) 6.7 (0.264) 0.9 261.0

May
39.6 (103.3) 25.9 (78.6) 17.5 (0.689) 1.4 263.5

Jun
39.3 (102.7) 28.3 (82.9) 54.9 (2.161) 3.6 198.0

Jul
35.1 (95.2) 26.6 (79.9) 231.5 (9.114) 10.0 167.4

Aug
33.3 (91.9) 25.9 (78.6) 258.7 (10.185) 11.3 176.7

Average low C (F)

Rainfall mm (inches)
Avg. rainy days Sunshine hours

Source no. 1: WMO [56] Source no. 2: HKO (sun only, 19711990) [57]

Civic administration
See also: Divisions of Delhi, Districts of Delhi, and List of towns in National Capital Territory of Delhi As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages[58] and three statutory towns the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD); the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC); and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB).[59]

Map showing the nine districts of Delhi


The Delhi metropolitan area lies within the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT). The NCT has three local municipal corporations: Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board. MCD is one of the largest municipal corporations in the world providing civic amenities to an estimated 13.78 million people.[60] The capital of India, New Delhi, falls under the administration of NDMC. The chairperson of the NDMC is appointed by the Government of India in consultation with the Chief Minister of Delhi.[citation needed] Delhi has four major satellite cities, which lie outside the National Capital Territory of Delhi. These are Gurgaon and Faridabad (in Haryana), and New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (Noida) and Ghaziabad (in Uttar Pradesh). Delhi is divided into nine districts. Each district (division) is headed by a Deputy Commissioner and has three subdivisions. A Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the Divisional Commissioner. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcing department for all kinds of State and Central Government policies and exercises supervisory powers over numerous other functionaries of the Government.[citation needed] The Delhi High Court has jurisdiction over Delhi. Delhi also has lower courts: the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The Delhi Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, is one of the largest metropolitan police forces in the world.[61] Delhi is administratively divided into nine police-zones, which are further subdivided into 95 local police stations.[62]

Recently, there have been changes in the Police Districts, their jurisdiction etc., although the Administrative Districts of Delhi are nine only, it seems. For instance, an Outer Delhi Police District has been carved out in the Western part of Delhi.

Government and politics


Main article: Government of Delhi

The North Block, built in 1931 during theBritish Raj, houses key government offices
Earlier known as a special union territory, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. The legislative assembly seats are filled by direct election from territorial constituencies in the NCT. However, the Union Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, a city in Delhi, which is the capital and seat of government of both the National Capital Territory of Delhi and of India itself.[citation needed] While services like transport and others are taken care of by the Delhi government, services such as the police are directly under the control of the Central Government.[63] The legislative assembly was re-established in 1993 for the first time since 1956, with direct federal rule in the span. In addition, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj act. New Delhi, an urban area in Delhi, is the seat of both the State Government of Delhi and the Government of India. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and theSupreme Court of India are located in New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[64][65] Delhi was a traditional stronghold of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. In the 1990s, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) under the leadership of Madan Lal Khurana came into power; however in 1998, Congress regained power under Sheila Dikshit, the incumbent Chief Minister. The Congress retained power in the Legislative Assembly in the 2003 and 2008 elections.[citation needed]

Economy
See also: Gurgaon and Noida

Further information: Economy of India and Economic development in India

Gurgaon, a satellite city of Delhi, is an important economic hub in the National Capital Region
With an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2007) of 118,200 crore (US$26.24 billion) in nominal terms and

336,400 crore (US$74.68 billion) in PPPterms,[66][67] Delhi is the largest commercial center in northern India.[68] In 2007, Delhi had a per capita income of 07.[69] The tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors, with 25.20% and 3.85% contribution, respectively.[67]Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population showing an increase of 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[70] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 19992000 to 4.63% in 2003.[70] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi. [70] In 2001 the total workforce in all government (union and state) and quasi-government sector was 620,000. In comparison, the organised private sector employed 219,000.[70] Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[71] Delhi's manufacturing industry has also grown considerably as many consumer goods industries have established manufacturing units and headquarters in and around Delhi. Delhi's large consumer market, coupled with the easy availability of skilled labour, has attracted foreign investment in Delhi. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers while the number of industrial units was 129,000. [72] Construction, power, telecommunications, health and community services, and real estate form integral parts of Delhi's economy. Delhi has India's largest and one of the fastest growing retail industries. [73] As a result, land prices are booming and Delhi is currently ranked the 7th most expensive office hotspot in the world, with prices at $145.16 per square foot. [74] As in the rest of India, the fast growth of retail is expected to affect the traditional unorganized retail trading system.[75] 66,728 (US$1,481.36) at current prices, the third highest in India after Chandigarh and Goa as of 2006

Utility services

The headquarters of the New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC). On the foreground isJantar Mantar.
The water supply in Delhi is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2006, it supplied 650 MGD (million gallons per day) of water, while the water demand for 200506 was estimated to be 963 MGD.[76] The rest of the demand is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is the largest water source for DJB, followed by the Yamuna and the Ganges.[76] With falling groundwater level and rising population density, Delhi faces severely acute water shortage. Delhi daily produces 8000 tonnes of solid wastes which is dumped at three landfill sites by MCD.[77] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[78] A large portion of the sewerage flows untreated into the river Yamuna.[78] The city's per capita electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh but actual demand is much more.[79] In 1997, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) replaced Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking which was managed by the MCD. The DVB itself cannot generate adequate power to meet the city's demand and borrows power from India's Northern Region Grid. As a result, Delhi faces a power shortage resulting in frequent blackouts and brownouts, especially during the summer season when energy demand is at its peak. Several industrial units in Delhi rely on their own electrical generators to meet their electric demand and for back up during Delhi's frequent and disruptive power cuts. A few years ago, the power sector in Delhi was handed over to private companies. The distribution of electricity is carried out by companies run by Tata Power and Reliance Energy. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year. [80] State-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises like Vodafone Essar, Airtel, Idea cellular, Reliance Infocomm, and Tata Indicomprovide telephone and cell phone service to the city. In May 2008, Airtel alone had approximately 4 million cellular subscribers in Delhi.[81] Cellular coverage is extensive, and both GSM and CDMA (from Reliance and Tata Indicom) services are available. Affordable broadband penetration is increasing in the city. [82]

Transport

Main article: Transport in Delhi

The Indira Gandhi International Airport is the busiest airport in South Asia.[83] Shown here is Terminal 1D of the airport.

The Delhi metro has an average ridership of 1.6 million commuters per day and runs at an operational profit. [84]

The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses, totaling 9000 [51][85]

AC bus fleet of Delhi Transport Corporation


Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and a metro rail system. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. [86] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses.[87] Delhi BRTS is Bus rapid transit serving the city which runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi as well as the satellite city of Gurgaon in the neighbouring Haryana and Noida in neighbouring Uttar Pradesh. As of October 2010, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 153 km (95 mi) and 130 stations while several other lines are under construction.[88] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II will cost an additional US$4.3 billion.[89] Phase-II of the network is under construction and will have a total length of 128 km. It is expected to be completed by 2010.[90] Phase-III and IV will be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, creating a network spanning 413.8 km, longer than that of theLondon Underground. Auto rickshaws are a popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and are yellow and green in colour. Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. Private operators operate most taxis, and most neighborhoods have a taxi stand from which taxis can be ordered or picked up. In addition, air-conditioned radio taxis, which can be ordered by calling a central number, have become increasingly popular, charging a flat rate of 15 per kilometre.

Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi Railway Station,Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla.[86] Delhi is connected to other cities through many highways and expressways. Delhi currently has three expressways and three are under construction to connect it with its prosperous and commercial suburbs. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with two prosperous suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida. Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is situated in the western corner of Delhi and serves as the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 200607, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers,[91][92] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 handles an additional 34

million passengers annually in 2010.[93] Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020. Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[86] At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km, Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India.[86] Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[94] Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. As of 2008. Also, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, i.e., Delhi NCR is 112 lakhs (11.2 million).[95] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[96] In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[86] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles of Delhi to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.[97]

Northern Peripheral Road


Northern Peripheral Road road is being developed under the public private partnership (PPP) model. This stretch will connect Dwarka with National Highway 8 at Kherki Dhaula and will pass Pataudi Road. The NPR stretch has been planned as an alternate link road between Delhi and Gurgaon, and is expected to ease the traffic situation on the Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway. The road will also provide connectivity to the much-touted Reliance-HSIIDC SEZ besides the Garhi Harsaru dry depot.[98] Much like Delhi, Gurgaon too will have a BRT corridor to decongest traffic on the Northern Peripheral Road .In several sections, the NPR will have provisions for the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridor to ensure smooth flow. The road will be fully developed in march 2012.[99]

Demographics
[show]Population Growth of Delhi

Hindus make up 82% of Delhi's population. Shown here is Akshardham Temple, the largest Hindu temple in the world.[101]

Sunset at the Bah' House of Worship in New Delhi, India, also called the Lotus Temple

Muslims form 10% of Delhi's population. Shown here is Jama Masjid, the largest mosque in India.
Many ethnic groups and cultures are represented in Delhi, making it a cosmopolitan city. Being the political and economic hub of northern India, the city attracts workers both blue collar and white collar from all parts of India, further enhancing its diverse character. A diplomatic hub, home to the embassies of 160 countries, Delhi has a large expatriate population as well.[citation needed] According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235.[100] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km, with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate (per 1000 population) were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. [102] As of 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi had an estimated population of 21.5 million people, making it the second largest metropolitan area in India after Mumbai.[103] According a 19992000 estimate, the total number of people living below the poverty line, defined as living on $11 or less per month, in Delhi was 1,149,000 (which was 8.23% of the total population, compared to 27.5% of India as a whole). [104] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by an additional 215,000 as a result of natural population growth[102] this made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the thirdlargest agglomeration in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai.[105] Dwarka, Asia's largest planned residential colony, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[106]

Hinduism is the religion of 80% of Delhi's population. There are also large communities of Muslims (10%), Sikhs (7.9%), Baha'i (0.1%), Jains (1.1%) andChristians (0.9%) in the city.[107] Other minorities include Parsis, Anglo-Indians, Buddhists and Jews.[108] Hindustani language is the principal spoken language while English is the principal written language of the city. Other languages commonly spoken in the city are dialects of Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu. The linguistic groups from all over India are well represented in the city; among them are Punjabi, Haryanvi, UP, Rajasthani, Bihari, Bengali, Sindhi, Tamil, Garhwali ,Telugu, North-East, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi and Gujarati.[citation needed] 52% of Delhi lives in slums[109] without basic services like water, electricity, sanitation, sewage system, proper housing etc. [110][111] In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in the 35 cities in India with populations of one million or more.[112] The city also has the highest rate of crime against women (27.6 compared to national average rate of 14.1 per 100,000) and against children (6.5 compared to national average of 1.4 per 100,000) in the country.[113]

Culture
See also: Culture of India

Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat

Rice and Kadai chicken from Delhi

Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. This is exemplified by the many monuments of significance found in the city; the Archaeological Survey of Indiarecognises 1200 heritage buildings[114] and 175 monuments in Delhi as national heritage sites.[115] The Old City is the site where the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architectural marvels like the Jama Masjid (India's largest mosque)[116] and Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sitesthe Red Fort,Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tombare located in Delhi.[117] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar (an 18th-century astronomical observatory) and the Purana Qila (a 16th century fortress). The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham, the Bah' Lotus Temple and the ISKCON Temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of the British colonial architecture. Important structures include the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style.[citation
needed]

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events likeRepublic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in Delhi. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. [118] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might. [119][120] Over the centuries Delhi is known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolizes it truly is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place each year in September, and where flowers and fans embroidered with flowers, pankha are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint, Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki, along with the Yogmaya Temple also situated in Mehrauli.[121] Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chhath, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivaratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[120] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event.[122] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[123] is held in Delhi biennially. The World Book Fair, held biannually at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world with as many as 23 nations participating in the event.[124] Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership. [125]

The Auto Expo is held annually at Pragati Maidan and showcases the technological prowess of the Indian automobile industry
Punjabi and Mughlai delicacies like kababs and biryanis are popular in Delhi. The street food there is known to be delicious and includes chaat, golgappe and aloo tikki.[126][127] Due to Delhi's large cosmopolitan and migrant population, cuisines from every part of India, including Gujarati Rajasthani, Maharashtrian,Bengali, Hyderabadi cuisines, and South Indian food items like idli, sambar and dosa are widely available. Local delicacies include Chaat, Golgappe, Aloo-Tikki and Dahi-Papri. There are several food outlets in Delhi serving international cuisine, including Italian, Japanese, Continental, Middle-Eastern, Thai andChinese. Within the last decade western fast food has become more popular as well. Historically, Delhi has always remained an important trading centre in northern India. Old Delhi still contains legacies of its rich Mughal past, which can be found among the old city's tangle of snaking lanes and teeming bazaars.[128] The dingy markets of the Old City have an eclectic product range, from oil-swamped mango, lime and eggplant pickles, candy-colored herbal potions to silver jewelry, bridal attire, uncut material and linen, spices, sweets.[128] Some of old regal havelis (palatial residences) are still there in the Old City.[129] Chandni Chowk, a three-century-old shopping area, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[130] Notable among Delhi's arts and crafts are the Zardozi (an embroidery done with gold thread) andMeenakari (the art of enameling). Dilli Haat, Hauz Khas, Pragati Maidan offer a variety of Indian handicrafts and handlooms. Over time Delhi has absorbed a multitude of humanity from across the country and has morphed into an amorphous pool of cultural styles.[16][131]

Education
Main article: Education in Delhi

Consistently ranked as India's top medical college, [132] All India Institute of Medical Sciences is a global leader in medical research and treatment[133]
Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government, or private organizations. In 200405, there were 2,515 primary, 635 middle, 504 secondary and 1,208 senior secondary schools in Delhi. That year, the higher education institutions in the city included 165 colleges, among them five medical colleges and eight

engineering colleges,[134] seven major universities (Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Jamia Millia Islamia, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University (GGSIPU), National Law University, Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU) and Jamia Hamdard), and nine deemed universities.[134] Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University are the only state universities; IGNOU is for open/distance learning; the rest are all central universities. Delhi boasts of being home to 3 of top 10 engineering colleges in India IIT Delhi, NSIT (Formerly DIT) and DTU (Formerly DCE).

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi is ranked as Asia's fourth-best institute in science and technology in year 1999. [135]
Private schools in Delhiwhich employ either English or Hindi as the language of instructionare affiliated to one of two administering bodies: the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 200405, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[134] Female students represented 49% of the total enrollment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[134] After completing the ten-year secondary phase of their education under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students typically spend the next two years either in junior colleges or in schools with senior secondary facilities, during which their studies become more focused. They select a stream of studyliberal arts, commerce, science, or, less commonly, vocational. Upon completion, those who choose to continue, either study for a three-year undergraduate degree at a college, or a professional degree in law, engineering, or medicine. Notable higher education or research institutes in Delhi include All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dr.Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital & PGIMER, Maulana Azad Medical College, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Indian Statistical Institute, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Delhi Technological University, National Law University, Delhi, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Indian Law Institute, Delhi School of Economics, Jamia Millia Islamia. As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.[136]

Media

Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi


As the capital of India, New Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many country-wide media agencies, among them the state-owned Press Trust of India , Media Trust Of India and Doordarshan, are based in the city. Television programming in the city includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English and regional-languages cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television, in contrast, has yet to gain large-scale subscribership in the city.[137] Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. During 200405, 1029 newspapers in thirteen languages were published from the city. Of these, 492 were Urdu and Hindi language newspapers, including Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskarand Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with over a million copies in circulation, was the single largest daily. Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer and Asian Age . Regional dailies include Malayala Manorama and Dinakaran. Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has been gaining ground[138] since the inauguration of several new FM channels in 2006.[139] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi, including All India Radio (AIR), one of the world's largest radio service providers, which offers six radio channels in ten languages. Other city-based radio stations include "Aaj Tak", "Radio City(91.1 MHz)", "Big FM(92.7 MHz)", "Red FM(93.5MHz)", "Radio One(94.3 MHz)", "Hit FM(95 MHz)", "Apna Radio", "Radio Mirchi(98.3 MHz)", "FM Rainbow(102.4 MHz)", "Fever FM(104 MHz)", "Oye FM(104.8 MHz)", "FM Gold(106.4 MHz)". Various news and general interest magazines are also published from Delhi like India Today, Outlook, COVERT and many more.

Sports

Main article: Sports in Delhi

The 2010 Commonwealth Games was the largest sports event held in India. Shown here is the Opening Ceremony at theJawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the third largest stadium in India.
Cricket and soccer are the most popular sports in Delhi.[140] There are several cricket grounds (or maidans) located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotlastadium is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. The Delhi cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, a domestic first-class cricket championship.[141] The city is also home to the IPL team Delhi Daredevils, and ICL team Delhi Giants (earlier namedDelhi Jets). Football is a very popular sport in the city and is home to the newly formed AIFF-u19 club which will take part in the 2011 format of the I League. The only football stadium in Delhi is the Ambedkar Stadium which holds 20000 people though in the past few years due to tremendous rise in popularity of the sport has held up to 50000 people in the past years.Delhi even witnessed India winning back to back trophies in football in the form of the 2007 Nehru Cup defeatingSyria 10 AFC Challenge Cup 2008 defeating favourites Tajikistan 41 by a stellar performance by local Star Sunil Chhetri and the 2009 Nehru Cup. Rugby has become an increasingly popular sport among youngsters and the city is home to the Delhi Lions and Delhi Hurricanes. The city successfully played host to 2010 Asian Five Nations Rugby Tournament's Division Two match between India and Philippines. The Philippines defeated India to win promotion to Division One in 2011, and maintain their unbeaten record within the tournament in 2010. The Only Stadium in the city for this particular sport is in the Delhi University North Campus. Boxing and shooting figure among increasingly popular sports in the suburb of Gurgaon. Formula 1 has now got a circuit in India in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi in the twin cities area of (Noida-Greater Noida), which is all set to host the Indian Grand Prix in October 2011 with the Jaypee Group constructing the circuit. It is set to be among the top 5 fastest circuits in the world. The team, Force India F1, was formed in October 2007 when a consortium led by Indian businessman Vijay Mallya and Michiel Mol bought the Spyker F1 team for 88 million. Force India F1 represents increased Indian participation within Formula One. Golf is also a very popular sport in the capital city and the National Capital Region, which is home to the highest number of golf courses in India. Other sports such as field hockey, basketball, tennis, squash, badminton, swimming, kart racing, weightlifting, table tennis, cycling, roller skating and cue sports, such as snooker, billiards and diving are also popular. [citation needed]

Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium and the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium are other stadiums in Delhi. In the past, Delhi has hosted several domestic and international sporting events, such as the First and theNinth Asian Games.[142] Delhi hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the largest multi-sport event ever held in India. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[143] and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[144] However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.[145] The mess left after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace sports and youth affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in the 19 January 2011 cabinet reshuffle. [146]

Puducherry
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Union Territory. For its capital city, named Pondicherry, see Pondicherry (city).
The template below (Infobox Indian jurisdiction) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.

Territoire de Pondichry Union Territory of Puducherry


union territory

Location of Territoire de Pondichry Union Territory of Puducherry

Coordinates

1156N 7950ECoordinates:
1156N 7950E

Country District(s) Established Capital Largest city Lt. Governor Chief Minister

India 4 1 July 1963 Pondicherry Pondicherry Iqbal Singh N. Rangaswamy

Legislature(seats) Unicameral (30) Population Density


1,244,464 (2nd)

2,529 /km2 (6,550 /sq mi)

Official languages Tamil, French, Telugu,Malayalam Time zone Area ISO 3166-2 Website IST (UTC+5:30)
492 km2 (190 sq mi)

IN-PY
www.pon.nic.in

Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry (helpinfo)) is a Union Territory of India. It is a former French colony, consisting of four non-contiguous enclaves, or districts, and named for the largest, Pondicherry. In September 2006, the territory changed its official name from Pondicherry to the vernacular original,[1] Puducherry, which means "New village"[2] in the Tamil

language. The territory is called

(Putuccri) or

(Piccri) in Tamil, or "Pondichry" in French. It is also known as The French Riviera of the East (La Cte d'Azur de l'Est).

Geography
Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry, Karaikal, and Yanam on the Bay of Bengal and Mah on the Arabian Sea. Puducherry and Karaikal are by far the larger ones, and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mah are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala respectively. The territory has a total area of 492 km: Puducherry (city) 293 km, Karaikal 160 km, Mah 9 km and Yanam 30 km. It has 900,000 inhabitants (2001).

History
Main article: History of Puducherry The History of Puducherry can be traced back to the 2nd century. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, of the early 2nd century, mentions a marketplace named Poduke (ch. 60), which G.W.B. Huntingford identified as possibly being Arikamedu (now part of Ariyankuppam), about 2 miles from the modern Pondicherry. Huntingford further notes that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937, and archeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century AD".[3]
French influence

A remarkable degree of French influence in Puducherry exists to this date. Puducherry was designed based on the French (however originally Dutch) grid pattern and features neat sectors and perpendicular streets. The entire town is divided into 2 sections, the French Quarter (Ville Blanche or 'White town') and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire or 'Black Town'). Many streets still retain their French names and French style villas are a common sight in Puducherry. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically colonial style with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian quarter consists of houses lined with verandas, and houses with large doors and grills. These French and Indian style houses are identified and its architecture is preserved from destruction by an organization named INTACH. If ever anyone wishes to demolish the existing house in the town area and rebuild, they need the permission from this organization and the new built house should resemble the same architectural beauty it

possessed before destruction. The use of French language can be still seen in Puducherry. Puducherry still has a large number of Tamil and a small number of non-Tamil residents with French passports, these are descendants of those who chose to remain French when the then ruling French Establishment presented the people of Puducherry with an option to either remain French or become Indians at the time of Puducherry's transfer to India in 1954. Apart from the monuments pertaining to the French period, there is the French Consulate in Puducherry and several cultural organisations. Another important one is 'Le Foyer du Soldat'. It is a Legion hall for soldiers who served in the different French wars. Of the cultural organisations the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Pondicherry Centre of the cole franaise d'Extrme-Orient and a branch of the Alliance Franaise are noteworthy. A French-medium school system, theLyce Franais de Pondichry, continues to operate under the aegis of the French Minister of National Education (France).

Official languages of government

Map of Puducherry Region, Union Territory of Puducherry, India Official languages of Puducherry are French, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam. Status of each languages varies differently with respect to each district. When communicating between districts of different languages, generallyEnglish is used for convenience[citation needed]. 1.Tamil: Language used by the Puducherry Government, especially used when communicating within and between the Tamil majority districts of

(Puducherry and Karikal) along with issuing official decrees. Also the official Language in Tamil Nadu state. 2.French: It is also the official language of Puducherry Union territory. It was the official language of French India (16731954) and its official language status was preserved by Trait de Cession (Treaty of Cession) signed by India and France on 28 May 1956. It remained as the de jure official language of Puducherry U.T by the Article XXVIII of Trait de Cession which states that,

Le franais restera langue officielle des tablissements aussi longtemps que les reprsentants lus de la population n'auront pas pris une dcision diffrente (French version) The French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise (English version)

Regional official languages

1. Tamil:official language of puducherry.it is the largely spoken language in the territory.puducherry being a neibhour of tamilnadu reflects most of the culture of tamilnadu. 2. French:as puducherry was a colony of france,french also is an official language. 3. Telugu: Another official language of Puducherry, but used more within Yanam (Telugu district). Telugu is widely spoken in Puducherry by Reddys, chettys and Naidus. So, more correctly, it is considered a regional official language of Puducherry while being official language of Yanam District. It also has an official language status in the state of Andhra Pradesh. 4. Malayalam: Another official language of Puducherry, but used only within Mah (Malayalam district). So, more correctly, it is considered a regional official language of Puducherry while being official language of Mahe District. It also has an official language status in Kerala State and Lakshadweep Islands Union Territory.
Language spoken in numbers

As of 2001, number of people speaking in each official languages are,[citation needed]

Tamil: 820,749 (In Puducherry and Karaikal Districts) Malayalam: 36,823 (In Mahe District only) Telugu: 31,362 (In Puducherry and Yanam Districts) French: Above 10,000

Official Symbols of Puducherry


On April 16, 2007, The Government of Puducherry announced that the following to be its state symbol:[4]
State Bird Koel

State Animal Squirrel State Flower Cannonball Tree's flower State Tree Bael Fruit Tree

This statement was announced in the state assembly by V. Vaithilingam, then Minister for Agriculture.

Government and administration

Puducherry Legislative Assembly Main articles: Puducherry Legislative Assembly and Pondicherry Municipal Council

See also: List of lieutenant governors of Puducherry and List of Chief Ministers of Puducherry Puducherry is a Union Territory of India, not a separate State, which implies that the governance and administration of the territory falls directly under the federal authority in New Delhi. However, along with Delhi, Puducherry is one of the two union territories in India, which is entitled by special constitutional amendments to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby enjoying partial statehood powers. Under the special provision, the government is permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislations may require the ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India. The Centre is represented by the Lt. Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas (Le Palais du Gouverneur) at the Park, the former palace of the French Governor. The Central government is more directly involved in the financial well-being of the territory, as against the states where financial administration, given a budgeted central grant is the responsibility to the state governments. Consequently, Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect category.

Special administration status


According to Trait de cession dated 1956, the four former French colonies were assured of maintaining their special administrative status. That is why Puducherry is the only Union Territory with some special provisions like Legislative Assembly, French as official language, etc. The Article II of Trait de Cession states that,

The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status which was in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.

In Indian philosophy
Puducherry was the residence of Sri Aurobindo. The Sri Aurobindo Ashram and its offshoot, Auroville still operate from Puducherry.[citation needed]

Puducherry in literature

Puducherry was the setting for the first third of the Booker prize-winning novel Life of Pi by Yann Martel. Lee Langley's novel A house in Pondicherry was likewise set there. Some Novels of M. Mukundan, former employee of the French Embassy and Malayalam Writer[clarification needed].

Economy
Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Puducherry at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Year Gross State Domestic Product 1980 1,840 1985 3,420 1990 6,030 1995 13,200 2000 37,810

Puducherry's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2 billion in current prices. The potential for fisheries is substantial in the Union Territory. The four regions of the Union Territory have a coastline of 45 km with 675 sq. km of inshore waters, 1.347 ha of inland water and 800 ha of brackish water. There are 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland fishing villages with fishermen population of about 65,000 of which 13,000 are actively engaged in fishing. Irrigation tanks and ponds are also tapped for commercial fish rearing. The Railways play a vital role for speedy economic growth. The entire cost towards execution of the new broad gauge line for 10.7 km from Karaikal to Nagore would now be funded by the Ministry of Railways and work has already been awarded on turn key basis for laying the new railway line in a period of 18 months. The present availability of power is about 400 MW. The demand is likely to increase with the development of Port, Special Economic Zone, other industrial development, trade, commerce etc.It has been decided to expand the Puducherry Airport so that air services could improve gradually over years, to land ATR to Boeing aircraft, to meet the growing demand for air travel. A MoU has

already been signed with Airports Authority of India for expansion of Puducherry Airport in two phases.

Tourist spots
Main article: Tourism in Puducherry
Places to visit

Puducherry Beach Auroville Aurobindo Ashram Chunnambar Boat House Bharathi Park Museum Romain Rolland Library Botanical Garden Anglo-French Textile Mills Pondicherry Museum

Places of worship

Manakula Vinayagar Temple Kamakshi Amman Temple Navagraha Temple (15 ft high Navagrahas) Panchavatee Sri Prithyingara Devi Temple Saneeswaran Temple, Thirunallar (Navagraha Sthalam for Saneeswaran 5 km west of Karaikal) Varadaraja Perumal Temple Vedapureeswarar Temple Immaculate Conception Cathedral Sacred Heart Church Jumma Masjid Irumbai Maahaleswarar Temple (Special: Lord Shiva came from the Broken Lingam) Sengazhuneer Amman Temple at Veerampattinam (oldest temple near Ariyankuppam) Our Lady of Lourdes Church, Villianur (8 km from Puducherrry)

Transport
Rail

Puducherry is connected by a railway branch line from the five-way junction at Viluppuram (town). The railway line is being gauge converted under Project Unigauge from metre gauge to broad gauge.[5]
[edit] Road network

Puducherry is endowed with excellent infrastructural facilities on par with the best available in the country. A network of all weather metalled roads connecting every village exists in the territory. Puducherry has a road length of 2552 km (road length per 4.87 km), the highest in the country. Road length comparsion with Tamilnadu and India as a whole.
ROADS Total Road Length (in Puducherry) Road Length per 1000 km. Puducherry Tamil Nadu 4575 1572 2552 km. India 663

Classification of roads
Sl. No. 1 2 3 Type of road Length in

(km) National Highways State Highways District & Other Roads Puducherry 173.384 Karaikal 55.162 Mah 19.622 64.450 49.304

Yanam 26.460 274.628


4

274.628

Rural Roads Puducherry 164.964 Karaikal 83.470 248.434 Grand Total 248.434
636.816

Pondicherry University
Puducherry is a Union Territory with one of the highest levels of quality of life in the country with excellent physical infrastructure and almost a hundred per cent literacy level. It is also the place where Sri Aurobindo and the Mother chose to stay and their writings remain a tremendous source of spiritual awakening that emphasizes the progress of humanity and its spiritual brotherhood. A unique experimental city, Auroville, the brainchild of the Mother, whose inhabitants are drawn from all parts of the world, is situated on the outskirts of the city. Puducherry, which still carries several marks of French culture and heritage, was also the place where the national poet Shri Subramania Bharathiar wrote several of his masterpieces that fanned the flames of freedom and also enriched modern Tamil literature. Bharathidasan, a staunch disciple of Subramania Bharathiar, whose poems stressed social revolution and emancipation of women, was also an eminent son of Puducherry. Therefore, it is, indeed, in the fitness of things that this city with such an illustrious history should also have the distinction of housing a Central University that would meet the needs of the people of the Southern states of India in general and those of Puducherry in particul