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CE 516

Hydraulic Structures
Hydraulic structures play an integral role in the design and analysis of open channel ows. Weirs and dams are used to store water in reservoirs, gates are used to regulate the ow within structures, and culverts are used to discharge water under embankments or roads. In this section well discuss: Flow measuring structures Sharp-crested weirs Broad-crested weirs Parshall umes In the following discussion, well only consider the design and operation of weirs. Weirs have simple designs, but can cause high head losses and have the potential for upstream sedimentation. For cases where the sedimentation or head losses are a concern (i.e. Wastewater treatment plants and irrigation channels), a Parshall ume can be used. Please see your textbook for the design of Parshall umes. Regulation structures Gates Discharge structures Culverts

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Weirs and Flumes


Weirs are used to measure ow and/or control outow elevations from basins and channels The vocabulary well be using includes sharp-crested (or thin plate) weirs - thin plastic or metal plate that is set vertically across a channel rectangular or v-notch weirs - two types of sharp crested weirs which describe their geometry tailwater - ow downstream of the weir submerged weir - a weir that has its tailwater elevation at least as high as the weir crest nappe - jet of water owing over crest

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Rectangular Sharp Crested Weirs A rectangular weir has a rectangular opening and it can be either suppressed or unsuppressed.

A suppressed (uncontracted) weirs has a rectangular opening spans channel width a vent is often needed to maintain atmospheric pressure. An unsuppressed (contracted) weirs has a rectangular opening which only spans part of the channel.

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To model the ow through a rectangular weir, the energy equation between upstream of the weir crest and at the weir crest is dened with

assumptions: no head losses (E1 = E2 ) (the means no signicant turbulence) water surface elevation remains constant note: this is physically impossible, but actual errors are small pressure at crest (station 2) = patmo throughout depth

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Rectangular Sharp Crested Weirs (continued) Estimate the theoretical owrate with the conservation of mass

where the velocity is determined with the conservation of energy equation

substituting, we nd the owrate is only a function of the geometry and the elevation of the water surface above the weir

Discrepancies in the estimated owrate arise from: 1) pressure distribution at crest is not uniformly atmospheric 2) water surface does not remain uniform as it approaches the crest 3) energy losses due to viscous eects are not negligible

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To compensate for the discrepancies, we dene a discharge coecient Cd = true ow rate Q = Q theoretical ow rate

The true ow rate is estimated with 2 Q = Cd 3 where Cd = F (Re, W e, H ) Hw 2gbH 3/2

W e is the Weber number Hw is the height of the weir crest from the bottom Empirical estimates of this discharge coecient were made by Rouse in 1946 Cd = 0.611 + 0.075 H Hw for H < 5 10 Hw

A variation of the discharge coecient is called the weir coecient that is designed to simplify the owrate equation and is dened with 2 Cw = Cd 3 so the owrate equation becomes Q = Cw bH 3/2 H < .4 (SI units only) Hw Please note, it is recommended that you measure H at a distance of 4 5 H upstream of the gate. Q = 1.83bH 3/2 If
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2g

CE 516

Unsuppressed rectangular weirs

Unsuppressed (or contracted) weirs behave similarly to suppressed weirs with two major assumptions 1. venting is not needed 2. side contractions recude nappe width

where

Unsuppressed trapezoidal sharp-crested weir (Cipolletti Weir) for this structure, side contractions do not reduce nappe width

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Example: An end-contracted weir of total length 286 ft and crest height 5 ft is used to discharge water without exceeding a head of 2.5 ft from a tank 300 ft wide. The weir carries piers that are 10 ft clear distance apart and 2 ft wide, to suport the footway. Determine the discharge. Cd = 0.6. Solution:

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V-notch weirs These weirs are typically used in low ow (Q < 0.28 m3 /s or 10 cf s) environments in place of rectangular, because they are more accurate.

Recall the weir energy equation

and theoretical ow rate

where

combining

as V-notch weirs are typically applied in low ow environments, we can neglect the approach velocity

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The actual ow rate for a V-notch weir becomes Q= where 8 Cd 15 2gtan H 5/2 2

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Example: Water passes over a rectangular weir of 10 ft width at a depth of 1 ft. If the weir is replaced by an 80o V-notch, determine the depth of water over the notch. Disregard end contractions. Cd notch = 0.59 and Cd rectangular = 0.63. Solution:

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Broad-Crested weirs The variety of broad crested weirs have crests that are signigicantly larger than sharp crested weirs and are capable of handling much larger discharges.

Rectangular broad-crested weirs are designed so that the ow above the weir is at critical ow conditions. The theoretical ow rate is given by

Energy equation for a RBC weir

under critical ow conditions

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combining this yields an expression for the critical ow depth where H is the energy of the upstream ow measured relative to the weir location

the theoretical ow rate over a RBC weir become

To account for the non negligible energy losses over the weir, the actual ow rate, Q, is given by 2 gb H 3
3 2

Q = Cd

where the discharge coecient is estimated with (Chow, 1959) 0.65


1/2

Cd =

1+

H Hw

These equations are valid 0.08 < h1 /L < 0.5. Note that for h1 /L < 0.08 h1 /L > 0.5 head losses can not be neglected the streamlines are not horizontal

The weir discharges freely if

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Example: Determine the discharge over a broad-crested weir of 100 ft length. The upstream water level over the crest is 2 ft and the crest has a height of 2.25 ft. The width of approach channel is 150 ft. Cd = 0.95 Solution:

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Gates
Gates are used to regulate ow in open channels Vertical gates are a vertical plate supported by vertical guides on the channel walls. These gates experience large hydrostatic pressure forces.

Tainter Radial gates more easily resist the hydrostatic forces and are generally more economical

As with weirs, dene the energy equation upstream and downstream of the gate

and the conservation of mass at the same locations

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Combining, the owrate becomes

Weknow the water depth at the gate, yg , but we dont know y2 . As the ow moves under the gate, the streamline becomes contracted. The coecient of contractions is a coecient which accounts for the contraction of ow downstream of the gate

where: vertical sluice gate: radial gate:

Given that their will likely be energy losses through the gate, the discharge coecient is dened with

combining the ow rate becomes Q = Cd byg 2gy1

where

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Supercritical discharge from the gates In cases where the gate discharge is supercritical and the depth of ow downstream exceeds the depth at the gate opening then the outow may be submerged. In this case the previous equations are not valid.

To characterize submerged ow through a gate 1) dene the energy between 1 - 2

2) dene the momentum between 2 - 3

where y is the y1 is the y2 is the y3 is the Solve 1) and 2) simultaneously for Q

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Example: Water is ponded behind a vertical gate to a height of 4 m in a rectangular channel of width 7 m. Calculate the gate opening that will release 40 m3 /s through the gate. How would this discharge be aected by a downstream ow depth of 3.5 m? Solution:

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What happens if downstream depth is 3.5 m?

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