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FED BY SINGLE INVERTER

meghraj01@gmail.com krutujagadgil@yahoo.com newujjwala@yahoo.com

Mob:09822945541 Mob:09822653943 Mob:09325309916

All India Shri Shivaji Memorial Society’s

Institute Of Information Technology

Pune, Maharashtra 411 001.

Abstract The purpose of this work is to present the speed However in this method unbalances of torque and current

sensorless field oriented control (FOC) method of the torque make systems unstable. Therefore various types of multiple

production from each rotor of two induction motors with parallel

motor drive system has been proposed [4]. This method

connected stator windings fed by single inverter. In this paper,

particularly uses average and differential currents flowing into

Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) is applied to the method

stator windings and rotor fluxes of two induction motors. A

in order to eliminate the flux sensor and speed sensor. The method

uses average and differential currents flowing into stator windings

speed sensor is undesirable in a drive because it add cost and

and rotor flux of two induction motors. The method has described reliability problem besides the need for a shaft extension and

the speed control of two induction motors running at same speed. mounting arrangement. Advantage of speed sensorless drives

This is implemented through MATLAB simulation with step change are reduced the hardware complexity as well as improve

in torque and speed. reliability, reduced the size of the induction motor drives,

Index Terms MRAS, parallel-connected two induction motors, elimination of sensor cables and less maintenance. Although

vector control, sensorless drive.

sensorless vector controlled drives are commercially available,

1. INTRODUCTION

parameter variation problem particularly at zero speed imposes

a challenge in the accuracy of speed estimation.

Recent development of Power Electronics technology has

The Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) a

made various types of motor drive system available. In most of

special class of Adaptive control system is proposed for

these motor drive systems, a drive control system of multiple

estimating the induction motor speed. Furthermore, system is

motors has been treated to be composed of one inverter and

used to estimate the stator current, rotor fluxes and motor

one motor, assuming one to one correspondence. If the number

speed. The MRAS based speed sensorless field oriented

of inverter can be reduce, the advantages of lower cost and

control of induction motor connected in parallel fed by single

smaller size compared to one inverter to one motor are

inverter is simulated through MATLAB. Simulations were

available. Some control methods of multiple induction motors

carried out on stepwise changes in the load torque and speed.

have been proposed [1][2][3]. Parallel connected multiple

motors are used in a railway drive and a rolling of steel drive.

2. SPEED ESTIMATION USING MRAS

The field oriented control method has been generally

applied to drive the induction motor accurately and for the

The speed is calculated by the Model Referencing Adaptive

advantage of lower cost and smaller size, a control method that

System (MRAS), where the output of a reference model is

one inverter drives the multiple induction motor connected in

compared with the output of an adjustable model or adaptive

parallel has been proposed. In most of the multiple motor drive

model until error between two models is vanish to zero. A

systems, this method either uses “single-motor” vector control

block diagram for speed estimation by the MRAS technique is

by treating parallel connected motors as one large motor or

shown in fig.1. The model receives the machine stator voltages

drive system controlled by attaching the speed sensor to only

and current signals and calculates the rotor flux vector signals, adaptive model. This model calculates the fluxes from the

as shown. The current model flux equations are defined as output stator current only if the speed is known. With the

correct speed signal fluxes calculated from the reference model reduced to zero. Separate MRAS is used to estimate the

s electrical speed and rotor flux of the each motor.

and adjustable model matches i.e. dr s dr and

3. FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF TWO INDUCTION

s s s

MOTOR

qrs qr , where dr and qr are the adaptive model

output. An adaptation algorithm with P-I control, as indicated [1] Current Model of Two Induction Motor

can be used to tune the speed r so that error ξ = 0 . In

The source current from inverter is is divided into two parts

designing the adaptation algorithm for MRAS, overall stability

of the system is taken in account and speed converges to the is1 motor 1 and is 2 for Motor 2.

desired value with satisfactory dynamics characteristics, The

i s1 i s 2

adaptation algorithm is is (3)

2

Ki i s 2 i s1

r ( Kp ) (1) is (4)

S 2

s s s s The currents is1 and is 2 flowing in each stator winding can be

where, X Y dr qr dr qr (2)

represented by is which flows equally in both stator windings

where, Kp, Ki are the positive gains.

and is which circulates in each stator winding. Here

The speed is calculated by comparing the output of reference

indicates an average and ∆ indicates a difference. When the

model and adaptive model until error between two models is

load on the motor is unbalanced is1 is not equal to is 2 Lr self-inductance of rotor;

e value of the rotating frame of references.

Therefore it is necessary which current inverter will control.

Where, r e

of the inverter is . 2

e e

e r1

r r2

2

is 1 is 2 e

e

is e

2

e is1e is 2 e

is

2

Sr 1 Sr 2

Sr

2

Sr 2 Sr 1

Sr

2

Fig.2. Current model of two induction motors connected in parallel.

U1 U 2

U

2

[2] Rotor Flux of Two Induction Motor

U 2 U1

U

2

In a rotating reference frame, the rotor flux of the induction

motor is given by the equation r 1 r 2

r

2

dqr

e

{S r I ( r ) J}r U is

e e

(5) r 2 r1

dt r

2

When (5) is applied to motor1 and motor 2, combining the two

resulting equation gives the following equation for the average e r1 and e r 2 are the rotor fluxes of the two motors and e

rotor flux indicates the d-axis and q-axes rotating at a synchronous speed.

dqr If the machines parameters and speed of the two motors are

e

{S r I ( r ) J}r e { S r I r ) J} e

r =0),

r

dt exactly the same (that is, if S r =0, U =0 then

Uis

e

U is e

(6) equation (6) is same as that of equation (5). Under this

1 0 0 1 condition, two motors can be considered as a single motor.

I J

0 1 1 0

Rr [3] Torque of two induction motor

Sr , U M Sr

Lr

is is1 is 2.

T

stator current; Equation of torque production in a rotating reference frame

T

r dr qr rotor flux; takes the form

Te (is r ) (7)

r angular rotor speed; Lr

Rr resistance of rotor;

M mutual inductance; p is pole pair

Ls self-inductance of stator;

Using equation (5) for Motor1 and Motor 2, combining the two

' '

T pM {(ise re ) ( ise re )} (8)

' If Motors have the same machines parameters, all terms are

M

Te

M Te

zero. Equation (8) takes the same form as (7), two motors

'

T (9) again can be treated as single motor.

' 2

M

1

M

[4] Reference Current Calculation

where,

e

Te1 Te 2 To perform the vector control strategy, r is aligned with the

Te

2 de axis which rotates at synchronous speed. The d-axis

Te 2 Te1 component of (6) for the average rotor flux is represented by

Te

2 the following equation.

1 M1 M 2

M '

2

Lr1 Lr 2

e e e

e

* ( S r dr S r dr U idse r qr )

i ds (10)

M 2 M1

1 U

M'

2

Lr 2 Lr 1

* indicates the reference value.

The q-axis component of (8) for the average torque is

represented by the following equation. Fig.5. and Fig.6. shows the simulation results of

'* speed step up response for the proposed method. This response

T e e

'

idse qr iqse dr was measured for no load operation and speed command was a

e

* pM

iqs e

(11) step up function with values increasing from 50 to 80 rad/sec.

dr Fig.5. shows that actual motor speed for the proposed

method can follow the command of motor speed accurately.

Table 1

SPECIFICATIONS OF TESTED INDUCTION MOTORS

Parameter Value

Current 20A

Fig.4. Vector model of two induction motor connected in parallel. No. of Poles 4

4. PROPOSED METHOD

Rotor resistance 0.2367

Table.1 shows the specification of the two induction motors Rotor Inductance 33.34 mH

used in the simulation. Both the motors have the same Mutual inductance 42.08 mH

implements the proposed method. The main component are Fig.6. shows I*ds remains constant, while I*qs changes

MRAS for calculation of speed, one for each motor, during acceleration and attains the same value when actual

calculating blocks for the two current references, a vector speed reaches the reference speed.

rotation block, and a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter. Fig.7. shows the simulation results of the torque step

Proportional plus integral are used to calculate the torque up response for the proposed method. The speed command is

reference from the difference between the speed reference and set at 50 rad/sec. At the beginning two motors have no load,

the speed estimated by the adaptive system. The average and after 1 second both motors are given 10 N-m load. Fig.8.

torque reference is calculated from the torque reference of the shows the value of I*ds remain constant while I*qs increases

two motors. The current references used to determine the slightly to develop the required torque to meet the load

average rotor flux is calculated from the average torque torque. The torque production of each motor can follow the

reference. The rotor fluxes and speed are estimated by model load of each motor also the speed of each motor converges

reference adaptive system (MRAS). uniformly.

5. RESULTS 6. CONCLUSION

This paper presents the following matters.

Method of indirect rotor field-oriented control of two

parallel-connected induction motors is presented

In order to eliminate a speed sensor and a rotor flux

sensor, model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is

applied to the method.

The simulation result shows that the proposed method

is useful.

Fig.8. Reference Torque and flux producing current component with

step change in load torque. ( I*ds and I*qs taken along

Y-axis)

REFERENCES

[1] Patric M. kelecy and Robert D. Lorenz:” Control methodology for single

inverter, Parallel Connected Dual Induction Motor Drives for Electric

Fig.5. Step change in reference speed after 1 sec (speed in rad/sec Vehicle”,IEEE.pp 987-991,1994

along Y-axis) [2] Y. Matsumoto , C. Osawa, T. Mizukami and S. Ozaki : “A Staor Flux

Based Vector Control Method for Parallel Connected Multiple Induction

Motors fed By single inverter”, APEC’98 1998.

[3] J. Okabe, A. Kumamoto and Y. Hirane : “Independent Closed-Loop

Control of Two Induction Motors Parallel Connected to a Single Inverter and

Its application to an Automatically Duided Carrier Vehicle”,

IECON’84pp180-185,1984

[4] Hirotoshi Kawai, Kouki Matsuse,”characteristics of speed sensorless

vector controlled dual induction motor drive connected in parallel fed by a

single inverter.” IEEE transaction on IAS Jan 2004

Fig.6. Reference Torque and flux producing current component with [5] R.Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives”. Prentice Hall India publication.

step change in reference speed ( I*ds and I*qs taken along Y-axis) [6] B.K.Bose, “Modern Power electronics and AC Drives” Pearson Education

Publication

[7] MATLAB 7.0 Help File

[8] www..mathworks.com

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