Você está na página 1de 6

MRAS BASED SPEED SENORLESS FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF TWO

PARALLEL CONNECTED INDUCTION MOTORS


FED BY SINGLE INVERTER

Prof. M. S. Morey Prof. Mrs. K. S. Gadgil Prof. Mrs. U. S. Thakar


meghraj01@gmail.com krutujagadgil@yahoo.com newujjwala@yahoo.com
Mob:09822945541 Mob:09822653943 Mob:09325309916

Department Of Electrical Engineering


All India Shri Shivaji Memorial Society’s
Institute Of Information Technology
Pune, Maharashtra 411 001.

one motor properly chosen from among many motors.


Abstract  The purpose of this work is to present the speed However in this method unbalances of torque and current
sensorless field oriented control (FOC) method of the torque make systems unstable. Therefore various types of multiple
production from each rotor of two induction motors with parallel
motor drive system has been proposed [4]. This method
connected stator windings fed by single inverter. In this paper,
particularly uses average and differential currents flowing into
Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) is applied to the method
stator windings and rotor fluxes of two induction motors. A
in order to eliminate the flux sensor and speed sensor. The method
uses average and differential currents flowing into stator windings
speed sensor is undesirable in a drive because it add cost and

and rotor flux of two induction motors. The method has described reliability problem besides the need for a shaft extension and
the speed control of two induction motors running at same speed. mounting arrangement. Advantage of speed sensorless drives
This is implemented through MATLAB simulation with step change are reduced the hardware complexity as well as improve
in torque and speed. reliability, reduced the size of the induction motor drives,
Index Terms  MRAS, parallel-connected two induction motors, elimination of sensor cables and less maintenance. Although
vector control, sensorless drive.
sensorless vector controlled drives are commercially available,
1. INTRODUCTION
parameter variation problem particularly at zero speed imposes
a challenge in the accuracy of speed estimation.
Recent development of Power Electronics technology has
The Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) a
made various types of motor drive system available. In most of
special class of Adaptive control system is proposed for
these motor drive systems, a drive control system of multiple
estimating the induction motor speed. Furthermore, system is
motors has been treated to be composed of one inverter and
used to estimate the stator current, rotor fluxes and motor
one motor, assuming one to one correspondence. If the number
speed. The MRAS based speed sensorless field oriented
of inverter can be reduce, the advantages of lower cost and
control of induction motor connected in parallel fed by single
smaller size compared to one inverter to one motor are
inverter is simulated through MATLAB. Simulations were
available. Some control methods of multiple induction motors
carried out on stepwise changes in the load torque and speed.
have been proposed [1][2][3]. Parallel connected multiple
motors are used in a railway drive and a rolling of steel drive.
2. SPEED ESTIMATION USING MRAS
The field oriented control method has been generally
applied to drive the induction motor accurately and for the
The speed is calculated by the Model Referencing Adaptive
advantage of lower cost and smaller size, a control method that
System (MRAS), where the output of a reference model is
one inverter drives the multiple induction motor connected in
compared with the output of an adjustable model or adaptive
parallel has been proposed. In most of the multiple motor drive
model until error between two models is vanish to zero. A
systems, this method either uses “single-motor” vector control
block diagram for speed estimation by the MRAS technique is
by treating parallel connected motors as one large motor or
shown in fig.1. The model receives the machine stator voltages
drive system controlled by attaching the speed sensor to only
and current signals and calculates the rotor flux vector signals, adaptive model. This model calculates the fluxes from the
as shown. The current model flux equations are defined as output stator current only if the speed is known. With the

Fig.1. MRAS Speed estimator

correct speed signal fluxes calculated from the reference model reduced to zero. Separate MRAS is used to estimate the
 s electrical speed and rotor flux of the each motor.
and adjustable model matches i.e. dr s   dr and
3. FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF TWO INDUCTION
 s  s  s
MOTOR
 qrs   qr , where  dr and  qr are the adaptive model

output. An adaptation algorithm with P-I control, as indicated [1] Current Model of Two Induction Motor

can be used to tune the speed r so that error ξ = 0 . In
The source current from inverter is is divided into two parts
designing the adaptation algorithm for MRAS, overall stability
of the system is taken in account and speed converges to the is1 motor 1 and is 2 for Motor 2.
desired value with satisfactory dynamics characteristics, The
i s1  i s 2
adaptation algorithm is is  (3)
2
 Ki i s 2  i s1
r   ( Kp  ) (1) is  (4)
S 2
 s s s  s The currents is1 and is 2 flowing in each stator winding can be
where,   X  Y   dr  qr  dr   qr (2)
represented by is which flows equally in both stator windings
where, Kp, Ki are the positive gains.
and is which circulates in each stator winding. Here 
The speed is calculated by comparing the output of reference
indicates an average and ∆ indicates a difference. When the
model and adaptive model until error between two models is
load on the motor is unbalanced is1 is not equal to is 2 Lr self-inductance of rotor;
e value of the rotating frame of references.
Therefore it is necessary which current inverter will control.

The inverter can control is because it is half the output current  r 1e   e r 2


Where, r e 
of the inverter is . 2
e e
e    r1
r  r2

2
is 1  is 2 e
e

is e 
2

e is1e  is 2 e
is 
2

Sr 1  Sr 2
Sr 
2

Sr 2  Sr 1
Sr 
2
Fig.2. Current model of two induction motors connected in parallel.
U1  U 2
U 
2
[2] Rotor Flux of Two Induction Motor
U 2  U1
U 
2
In a rotating reference frame, the rotor flux of the induction
motor is given by the equation r 1  r 2
r 
2
dqr
e

 {S r I  (  r ) J}r  U is
e e
(5) r 2  r1
dt r 
2
When (5) is applied to motor1 and motor 2, combining the two
resulting equation gives the following equation for the average  e r1 and  e r 2 are the rotor fluxes of the two motors and e
rotor flux indicates the d-axis and q-axes rotating at a synchronous speed.

dqr If the machines parameters and speed of the two motors are
e

 {S r I  (  r ) J}r e  { S r I  r ) J}  e

r =0),
r
dt exactly the same (that is, if S r =0, U =0 then
 Uis
e
 U is e
(6) equation (6) is same as that of equation (5). Under this
1 0  0 1  condition, two motors can be considered as a single motor.
I   J  
0 1 1 0 
Rr [3] Torque of two induction motor
Sr  , U  M Sr
Lr
is  is1 is 2.
T
stator current; Equation of torque production in a rotating reference frame
T
r  dr qr  rotor flux; takes the form

 stator angular frequency; pM e e


Te  (is  r ) (7)
 r angular rotor speed; Lr
Rr resistance of rotor;
M mutual inductance; p is pole pair
Ls self-inductance of stator;
Using equation (5) for Motor1 and Motor 2, combining the two

resulting equations gives the equation for average torque Te :


' '
T  pM {(ise  re )  ( ise  re )} (8)

Fig.3. Configuration of proposed system.

' If Motors have the same machines parameters, all terms are
 M 
Te  
 M  Te
zero. Equation (8) takes the same form as (7), two motors
'
T    (9) again can be treated as single motor.
' 2
 M 
1   
 M 
[4] Reference Current Calculation
where,
e
Te1  Te 2 To perform the vector control strategy, r is aligned with the
Te 
2 de axis which rotates at synchronous speed. The d-axis
Te 2  Te1 component of (6) for the average rotor flux is represented by
Te 
2 the following equation.

1 M1 M 2
M ' 
2
 Lr1 Lr 2 
e e e
e
* ( S r  dr  S r  dr  U idse   r  qr )
i ds  (10)
M 2  M1
1 U
M'
2
 Lr 2 Lr 1 
* indicates the reference value.
The q-axis component of (8) for the average torque is
represented by the following equation. Fig.5. and Fig.6. shows the simulation results of
'* speed step up response for the proposed method. This response
T e e
'
 idse  qr  iqse  dr was measured for no load operation and speed command was a
e
* pM
iqs  e
(11) step up function with values increasing from 50 to 80 rad/sec.
 dr Fig.5. shows that actual motor speed for the proposed
method can follow the command of motor speed accurately.

Table 1
SPECIFICATIONS OF TESTED INDUCTION MOTORS

Parameter Value

Rated power 3.7 KW

Rated voltage 160 V

Current 20A

Motor speed 1500 r/m

Fig.4. Vector model of two induction motor connected in parallel. No. of Poles 4

Stator resistance 0.3831 

Stator Inductance 33.34 mH


4. PROPOSED METHOD
Rotor resistance 0.2367 
Table.1 shows the specification of the two induction motors Rotor Inductance 33.34 mH

used in the simulation. Both the motors have the same Mutual inductance 42.08 mH

specifications. Fig.3. shows the system configuration that


implements the proposed method. The main component are Fig.6. shows I*ds remains constant, while I*qs changes

MRAS for calculation of speed, one for each motor, during acceleration and attains the same value when actual

calculating blocks for the two current references, a vector speed reaches the reference speed.

rotation block, and a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter. Fig.7. shows the simulation results of the torque step

Proportional plus integral are used to calculate the torque up response for the proposed method. The speed command is

reference from the difference between the speed reference and set at 50 rad/sec. At the beginning two motors have no load,

the speed estimated by the adaptive system. The average and after 1 second both motors are given 10 N-m load. Fig.8.

torque reference is calculated from the torque reference of the shows the value of I*ds remain constant while I*qs increases

two motors. The current references used to determine the slightly to develop the required torque to meet the load

average rotor flux is calculated from the average torque torque. The torque production of each motor can follow the
reference. The rotor fluxes and speed are estimated by model load of each motor also the speed of each motor converges
reference adaptive system (MRAS). uniformly.

5. RESULTS 6. CONCLUSION
This paper presents the following matters.
 Method of indirect rotor field-oriented control of two
parallel-connected induction motors is presented
 In order to eliminate a speed sensor and a rotor flux
sensor, model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is
applied to the method.
 The simulation result shows that the proposed method
is useful.
Fig.8. Reference Torque and flux producing current component with
step change in load torque. ( I*ds and I*qs taken along
Y-axis)

REFERENCES

[1] Patric M. kelecy and Robert D. Lorenz:” Control methodology for single
inverter, Parallel Connected Dual Induction Motor Drives for Electric
Fig.5. Step change in reference speed after 1 sec (speed in rad/sec Vehicle”,IEEE.pp 987-991,1994
along Y-axis) [2] Y. Matsumoto , C. Osawa, T. Mizukami and S. Ozaki : “A Staor Flux
Based Vector Control Method for Parallel Connected Multiple Induction
Motors fed By single inverter”, APEC’98 1998.
[3] J. Okabe, A. Kumamoto and Y. Hirane : “Independent Closed-Loop
Control of Two Induction Motors Parallel Connected to a Single Inverter and
Its application to an Automatically Duided Carrier Vehicle”,
IECON’84pp180-185,1984
[4] Hirotoshi Kawai, Kouki Matsuse,”characteristics of speed sensorless
vector controlled dual induction motor drive connected in parallel fed by a
single inverter.” IEEE transaction on IAS Jan 2004
Fig.6. Reference Torque and flux producing current component with [5] R.Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives”. Prentice Hall India publication.
step change in reference speed ( I*ds and I*qs taken along Y-axis) [6] B.K.Bose, “Modern Power electronics and AC Drives” Pearson Education
Publication
[7] MATLAB 7.0 Help File
[8] www..mathworks.com

Fig.7. A step change in load is applied to the drive after 1 sec.