Você está na página 1de 25

Higher education Main article: Higher education in the United States At the beginning of the 20th century, fewer

than 1,000 colleges with 160,000 students existed in the United States. Explosive growth in the number of colleges occurred at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Philanthropists endowed many of these institutions. Wealthy philanthropists for example, established Johns Hopkins University, Stanford University, Carnegie Mellon University, Vanderbilt University and Duke University; John D. Rockefeller funded the University of Chicago without imposing his name on it.[66] Land Grant Universities Each state used federal funding from the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890 to set up "land grant colleges" that specialized in agriculture and engineering. The 1890 act created all-black land grant colleges, which were dedicated primarily to teacher training. They also made important contributions to rural development, including the establishment of a traveling school program by Tuskegee Institute in 1906. Rural conferences sponsored by Tuskegee also attempted to improve the life of rural blacks. In recent years, the 1890 schools have helped train many students from less-developed countries who return home with the ability to improve agricultural production. [67] Among the first were Purdue University, Michigan State University, Kansas State University, Cornell University (in New York), Texas A&M University, Pennsylvania State University, The Ohio State University and the University of California. Few alumni became farmers, but they did play an increasingly important role in the larger food industry, especially after the Extension system was set up in 1916 that put trained agronomists in every agricultural county. The engineering graduates played a major role in rapid technological development. [68] Indeed, the land-grant college system produced the agricultural scientists and industrial engineers who constituted the critical human resources of the managerial revolution in government and business, 18621917, laying the foundation of the world's preeminent educational infrastructure that supported the world's foremost technology-based economy.[69] Representative was Pennsylvania State University. The Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania (later the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania and then Pennsylvania State University), chartered in 1855, was intended to uphold declining agrarian values and show farmers ways to prosper through more productive farming. Students were to build character and meet a part of their expenses by performing agricultural labor. By 1875 the compulsory labor requirement was dropped, but male students were to have an hour a day of military training in order to meet the requirements of the Morrill Land Grant College Act. In the early years the agricultural curriculum was not well developed,

and politicians in Harrisburg often considered it a costly and useless experiment. The college was a center of middle-class values that served to help young people on their journey to white-collar occupations.[70] GI Bill Rejecting liberal calls for large-scale aid to education, Congress in 1944 passed the conservative program of aid limited to veterans who had served in wartime. The GI Bill made college education possible for millions by paying tuition and living expenses. The government provided between $800 and $1,400 each year to these veterans as a subsidy to attend college, which covered 50-80% of total costs. This included foregone earnings in addition to tuition, which allowed them to have enough funds for life outside of school. The GI Bill helped create a widespread belief in the necessity of college education. It opened up higher education to ambitious young men who would otherwise have been forced to immediately enter the job market. When comparing college attendance rates between veterans and non-veterans during this period, veterans were around 10% more likely to go to college than non-veterans. Most campuses became overwhelmingly male thanks to the GI Bill, since few women were covered, However by 2000 women had reached parity in numbers and began passing men in rates of college and graduate school attendance.[71] Great Society When liberals regained control of Congress in 1964 they passed numerous Great Society programs that greatly expanded federal support for education. The Higher Education Act of 1965 set up federal scholarships and low-interest loans for college students, and subsidized better academic libraries, ten to twenty new graduate centers, several new technical institutes, classrooms for several hundred thousand students, and twenty-five to thirty new community colleges a year. A separate education bill enacted that same year provided similar assistance to dental and medical schools. On an even larger scale the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 began pumping federal money into local school districts.[72] Higher education in the United States

Higher education in the United States includes a variety of institutions of higher education. Strong research and funding have helped make United States colleges and universities among the world's most prestigious, which is particularly attractive to international students, professors and researchers in the pursuit of academic excellence. According to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities, more than 30 of the highest-ranked 45 institutions are in the United States (as measured by awards and research output).[1] Public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, and community colleges all have a significant role in

higher education in the United States. An even stronger pattern seems to be shown by the 2010 Webometrics Ranking of World Universities with 103 US universities in the Top 200. According to UNESCO[2] the US has the second largest number of higher education institutions in the world, with a total of 5,758, an average of more than 115 per state. The US also has the 2nd[3] highest number of higher education students in the world, a figure of 14,261,778,[4] or roughly 4.75% of the total population. The U.S. Department of Education shows 4,861 colleges and universities with 18,248,128 students in 2007.[5] The 2006 American Community Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau found that 19.5 percent of the population had attended college but had no degree, 7.4 percent held an associate's degree, 17.1 percent held a bachelor's degree, and 9.9 percent held a graduate or professional degree. Only a small gender gap was present: 27 percent of the overall population held a bachelor's degree or higher, with a slightly larger percentage of men (27.9 percent) than women (26.2 percent).[6] However, despite increasing economic incentives for people to obtain college degrees, the percentage of people graduating from high school and college has been declining as of 2008. [7] 70.1% of 2009 high school graduates enrolled in college. Historically, 76% of those who graduate in the lower 40% of their high school class will not obtain a college degree.[8] The survey found that the area with the highest percentage of people 25 years and over with a bachelor's degree was the District of Columbia (45.9 percent), followed by the states of Massachusetts (37 percent), Maryland (35.1 percent), Colorado (34.3 percent), and Connecticut (33.7 percent). The state with the lowest percentage of people 25 years and over with a bachelor's degree was West Virginia (16.5 percent), next lowest were Arkansas (18.2), Mississippi (18.8 percent), Kentucky (20 percent), and Louisiana (20.3 percent).[9] According to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in 1995 alone, U.S. universities granted 2,142 licenses and options to license patented technology, most of them exclusive; 169 start-up companies were formed in 1995 (more than 1,100 from 1980 95), for which such exclusive patents were the key. The licensing of university-research spin-offs adds more than 150,000 jobs to the U.S. economy each year.[citation needed] Overview See also: List of American institutions of higher education The American university system is largely decentralized. Public universities are administered solely by the individual states. American universities developed independent accreditation organizations to vouch for the quality of the degrees they offer. The accreditation agencies rate universities and colleges on criteria such as academic qualitythe quality of their libraries, the publishing records of their faculty, and the degrees which their faculty hold.

Nonaccredited institutions are perceived as lacking in quality and rigor, and may be termed diploma mills. Colleges and universities in the U.S. vary in terms of goals: some may emphasize a vocational, business, engineering, or technical curriculum while others may emphasize a liberal arts curriculum. Many combine some or all of the above. Two-year colleges (often but not always community colleges) usually offer the associate's degree such as an Associate of Arts (A.A.). Community colleges are often open admissions, with generally lower tuition than other state or private schools. Fouryear colleges (which usually have a larger number of students and offer a greater range of studies than two-year colleges) offer the bachelor's degree, such as the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or Bachelor of Science (B.S.). These are usually primarily undergraduate institutions, although some might have limited programs at the graduate level. Many students earn an associate's degree at a two-year institution before transferring to a four-year institution for another two years to earn a bachelor's degree.[10] Four-year institutions in the U.S. which emphasize the liberal arts are liberal arts colleges. These colleges traditionally emphasize interactive instruction (although research is still a component of these institutions). They are known for being residential and for having smaller enrollment, class size, and higher teacher-student ratios than universities; a typical liberal arts college is pictured on the right. These colleges also encourage a high level of teacher-student interaction at the center of which are classes taught by full-time faculty rather than graduate student teaching assistants (TAs), who do teach classes at some Research I and other universities. Most are private, although there are public liberal arts colleges. In addition, some offer experimental curricula, such as Hampshire College, Beloit College, Bard College at Simon's Rock, Pitzer College, Sarah Lawrence College, Grinnell College, Bennington College, New College of Florida, and Reed College. Universities are research-oriented institutions which provide both undergraduate and graduate education. For historical reasons, some universitiessuch as Boston College, Dartmouth College, and The College of William & Maryhave retained the term "college," while some institutions granting few graduate degrees, such as Wesleyan University, use the term "university." Graduate programs grant a variety of master's degreessuch as the Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Science (M.S.), Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.), or Master of Fine Arts (M.F.A.)in addition to doctorates such as the Ph.D. The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education distinguishes among institutions on the basis of the prevalence of degrees they grant and considers the granting of master's degrees necessary, though not sufficient, for an institution to be classified as a university.[11] Some universities have professional schools, which are attended primarily by those who plan to be practitioners instead of academics (scholars/researchers). Examples include journalism school, business school, medical schools (which award either the M.D. or D.O.), law schools (J.D.), veterinary schools (D.V.M.), pharmacy schools (Pharm.D.),

and dental schools. A common practice is to refer to different units within universities as colleges or schools (what is referred to in other countries as faculties). Some colleges may be divided into departmentssuch as an anthropology department within a college of liberal arts and sciences within a larger university. Except for the United States service academies and staff colleges, the federal government does not directly regulate universities, although it can give federal grants to them. The majority of public universities are operated by the states and territories, usually as part of a state university system. Each state supports at least one state university and several support many more. California, for example, has three public higher education systems: the 11-campus University of California, the 23-campus California State University, and the 109-campus California Community Colleges System. Public universities often have a large student body, with introductory classes numbering in the hundreds and some undergraduate classes taught by graduate students. Tribal colleges operated on Indian reservations by some federally recognized tribes are also public institutions. Many private universities also exist. Among these, some are secular while others are involved in religious education. Some are non-denominational and some are affiliated with a certain sect or church, such as Roman Catholicism (with different institutions often sponsored by particular religious orders such as the Jesuits) or religions such as Lutheranism or Mormonism. Seminaries are private institutions for those preparing to become members of the clergy. Most private schools (like all public schools) are nonprofit, although some are for-profit. Tuition is charged at almost all American universities, except 1) the five federally sponsored service academies, in which students attend free and with a stipend in exchange for a service commitment in the U.S. armed forces after graduation; and 2) a few institutions where offering tuition-free education is part of their mission, such as Cooper Union, Berea College and Olin College. Public universities often have much lower tuition than private universities because funds are provided by state governments and residents of the state that supports the university typically pay lower tuition than non-residents. Students often use scholarships, student loans, or grants, rather than paying all tuition out-of-pocket. Several states offer scholarships that allow students to attend free of tuition or at lesser cost; examples include HOPE in Georgia and Bright Futures in Florida. Most universities, public and private, have endowments. A January 2007 report by the National Association of College and University Business Officers revealed that the top 765 U.S. colleges and universities had a combined $340 billion in endowment assets as of 2006. The largest endowment is that of Harvard University, at $29 billion.[12] The majority of both liberal arts colleges and public universities are coeducational; the number of women's colleges and men's colleges has dwindled in past years and nearly all remaining single-sex institutions are private liberal arts colleges. There are

historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), both private (such as Morehouse College) and public (such as Florida A&M). History Religious denominations established most early colleges in order to train ministers. In New England there was an emphasis on literacy so that people could read the Bible. Harvard College was founded by the colonial legislature in 1636, and named after an early benefactor. Most of the funding came from the colony, but the college early began to collect endowment. Harvard at first focused on training young men for the ministry, and won general support from the Puritan colonies. The College of William & Mary was founded by Virginia government in 1693, with 20,000 acres (81 km2) of land for an endowment, and a penny tax on every pound of tobacco, together with an annual appropriation. James Blair, the leading Anglican minister in the colony, was president for 50 years, and the college won the broad support of the Virginia gentry, most of whom were Anglicans, and trained many of the lawyers, politicians, and leading planters. Students headed for the ministry were given free or in tuition. Yale College was founded in 1701, and in 1716 was relocated to New Haven, Connecticut. The conservative Puritan ministers of Connecticut had grown dissatisfied with the more liberal theology of Harvard, and wanted their own school to train orthodox ministers. New Side Presbyterians in 1747 set up the College of New Jersey, in the town of Princeton; much later it was renamed Princeton University. Rhode Island College was begun by the Baptists in 1764, and in 1804 it was renamed Brown University in honor of a benefactor. Brown was especially liberal in welcoming young men from other denominations. In New York City, the Anglicans set up King's College in 1746, with its president Doctor Samuel Johnson the only teacher. It closed during the American Revolution, and reopened in 1784 under the name of Columbia College; it is now Columbia University. The Academy of Pennsylvania was created in 1749 by Benjamin Franklin and other civic minded leaders in Philadelphia, and unlike the others was not oriented toward the training of ministers. It was renamed the University of Pennsylvania in 1791. the Dutch Reform Church in 1766 set up Queen's College in New Jersey, which later became Rutgers University. Dartmouth College, chartered in 1769, grew out of school for Indians, and was moved to its present site in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1770.[13][14] All of the schools were small, with a limited undergraduate curriculum oriented on the liberal arts. Students were drilled in Greek, Latin, geometry, ancient history, logic, ethics and rhetoric, with few discussions and no lab sessions. The college president typically enforced strict discipline, and the upperclassman enjoyed hazing the freshman. Many students were younger than 17, and most of the colleges also operated a preparatory school. There were no organized sports, or Greek-letter fraternities, but literary societies were active. Tuition was very low and scholarships were few.[15] There were no schools of law in the colonies. However, a few lawyers studied at the highly prestigious Inns of Court in London, while the majority served apprenticeships with established American lawyers.[16] Law was very well established in the colonies,

compared to medicine, which was in rudimentary condition. In the 18th century, 117 Americans had graduated in medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, but most physicians learned as apprentices in the colonies.[17] In Philadelphia, the Medical College of Philadelphia was founded in 1765, and became affiliated with the university in 1791. In New York, the medical department of King's College was established in 1767, and in 1770 awarded the first American M.D. degree.[18] Impact of colleges in 19th century Summarizing the research of Burke and Hall, Katz concludes that in the 19th century:.[19] 1. The nation's many small colleges helped young men make the transition from rural farms to complex urban occupations. 2. These colleges especially promoted upward mobility by preparing ministers, and thereby provided towns across the country with a core of community leaders. 3. The more elite colleges became increasingly exclusive and contributed relatively little to upward social mobility. By concentrating on the offspring of wealthy families, ministers and a few others, the elite Eastern colleges, especially Harvard, played an important role in the formation of a Northeastern elite with great power. "College" versus "university" terminology In the United States, the term college is frequently used to refer to stand-alone higher level education institutions that are not components of a university as well as to refer to components within a university. Stand-alone institutions that call themselves colleges are universities in the international sense of the term. Typically in the United States, a university is composed of an academically diverse set of units called schools or colleges, whereas a collegewhether it is a stand-alone institution of higher learning or a component within a universitytypically focuses on one academic sector that is selfchosen by that institution, where that college is composed of departments within that sector. Note that the multiple colleges or schools composing a university are typically collocated on the same university campus or near each other on adjacent campuses within the same metropolitan area. Unlike colleges versus universities in other portions of the world, a stand-alone college is truly stand-alone and is not part of a university is also not affiliated with an affiliating university. Each institution may choose from several different schemes of organization using the terms, in most-macroscopic to most-microscopic order: university, college, school, division, department, and office. To illustrate the finer points of how these terms are used, consider four example institutions:

Purdue University is composed of multiple collegesamong others, the College of Agriculture and the College of Engineering. Of these Purdue breaks the College of Agriculture down into departments, such as the Department Agronomy

or the Department of Entomology, whereas Purdue breaks down the College of Engineering into schools, such as the School of Electrical Engineering, which enrolls more students than some of its colleges do. As is common in this scheme, Purdue categorizes both its undergraduate students (and faculty and programs) and its post-graduate students (and faculty and programs) via this scheme of decomposition. Compare this to Brown University, which is composed of one college (The College, which is for undergraduates) and two schools (the Graduate School, which is for post-graduate students, and the Medical School, which is for the preparation of medical doctors). Likewise, Dartmouth College is a stand-alone institution that names itself using the college term, but is organized similarly to Brown University with undergraduates enrolled in Dartmouth College (directly) and Dartmouth College containing three graduate schools that enroll the post-graduate students: the Tuck School of Business, the Thayer School of Engineering, and Dartmouth Medical School. Compare this to an entirely-undergraduate liberal-arts college that is a standalone institution, Carleton College, which is composed of only the college that contains departments for arts, languages, natural sciences, and physical sciences. Carleton is a pure example of a stand-alone college in the USA sense of the term college. Carleton confers no graduate degrees. Carleton has no schools that focus on a non-liberal-arts mission, such as a school of technology or engineering or nursing. Analogous to the Purdue Universitys use of the term college, Carleton College is an academic sector composed of related departments that share a common liberal-arts philosophy of education. Analogous to the Brown and Dartmouth uses of the term college, Carleton College is entirely undergraduate.

In the Purdue University example, a college as a component of the university is a topical decomposition, focused on an academic sector of directly related academic disciplines. In the Brown University example, a college as a component of the university focuses on the undergraduate mission. In the Dartmouth College example of a college as a standalone institution, a college focusing on the undergraduate mission is the prevailing but distinct identity of what is arguably a university when the collective of college and schools are considered. In the Carleton College example, the purest example of the USA's use of the term college is displayed in two ways:

a homogeneous collection of academic-discipline departments that are unified under a common philosophy of education; and an undergraduate focus on four-year degrees. o ^ The Academic Ranking of World Universities formula was based on alumni winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals (10 percent), staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals (20 percent), "highly-cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories" (20 percent), articles published in the journals Nature and Science (20 percent), the Science Citation Index,

o o o o o o o o

o o o o o o o o o o

o o

o o

Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (20 percent) and the size of the institution (10 percent). ^ http://www.aneki.com/universities.html ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/98649/7315789.html ^ http://www.aneki.com/students.html ^ "The Almanac of Higher Education". The Chronicle of Higher Education LVI (1): 5. August 28, 2009. ^ "Educational Attainment." American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey, 2006. United States Census Bureau. ^ [1]." Outside the Belt Way, 20068. Outside the Belt Way Blog. ^ ZAC BISSONNETTE (2010-04-28). "College Enrollment Hits New Record, but That's Not Necessarily Good News". dailyfinance.com. ^ "Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree: 2006." American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey, 2006. United States Census Bureau. ^ Beth Frerking, Community Colleges: For Achievers, a New Destination, The New York Times, April 22, 2007. ^ "Basic Classification Technical Details". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved 2007-03-20. ^ "NACUBO Endowment Study" (PDF). January 2007. ^ John R. Thelin, A History of American Higher Education (2004) pp 1-40 ^ Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The Colonial Experience, 16071783 (1970) ^ Frederick Rudolph, The American College and University: A History (1991) pp 3-22 ^ Anton-Hermann Chroust, Rise of the Legal Profession in America (1965) vol 1 ch 1-2 ^ Genevieve Miller, "A Physician in 1776," Clio Medica, Oct 1976, Vol. 11 Issue 3, pp 135-146 ^ Jacob Ernest Cooke, ed. Encyclopedia of the North American colonies (3 vol 1992) 1:214 ^ Michael Katz, "The Role of American Colleges in the Nineteenth Century," History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer, 1983), pp. 215-223 in JSTOR, summarizing Colin B. Burke, American Collegiate Populations: A Test of the Traditional View (New York University Press, 1982) and Peter Dobkin Hall, The Organization of American Culture: Private Institutions, Elites, and the Origins of American Nationality (New York University Press, 1982) ^ US Application Process 2009 ^ Bowman, Nicholas and Michael Bastedo,"Getting on the Front Page: Organizational Reputation, Status Signals, and the Impact of U.S. News and World Report Rankings on Student Decisions." personal.umich.edu Retrieved June 29, 2010. ^ Annaivey.com ^ Education-portal.com

o o o o o o o o

o o o o o o

o o o o o

o o

^ Jaschik, Scott (20 June 2007). "More Momentum Against U.S. News". Inside Higher Ed. ^ a b "ANNAPOLIS GROUP STATEMENT ON RANKINGS AND RATINGS". Annapolis Group. 19 June 2007. ^ a b Morse, Robert (22 June 2007). "About the Annapolis Group's Statement". U.S. News and World Report. ^ Vedder, Richard (July 2004). "Going Broke by Degree: Why College Costs Too Much". American Enterprise Institute. ^ Robert E. Wright, Fubarnomics: A Lighthearted, Serious Look at America's Economic Ills (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus, 2010). ^ Buss, Dale (2005-09-04). "Sometimes, It's Not the Tuition. It's the Textbooks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-04. ^ a b Linda Gorman (2009-12-05). "State Education Subsidies Shift Students to Public Universities". National Bureau of Economic Research. ^ Michelle Singletary (2009-10-22). "The Color of Money:Getting through college these days almost requires a degree in thrift". Washington Post. pp. 20A. ^ a b Tuition Levels Rise but Many Students Pay Significantly Less than Published Rates. The College Board (2003). URL accessed on June 20, 2005 ^ "Trends in College Spending 1998-2008" Delta Cost Project. ^ The Smartest Students in America go to... ^ Broder, David S. (columnist) (December 7, 2008). College affordability about future. Burlington Free Press (and other column subscribers). ^ Clark, Kim (November 1724, 2008). Does it Matter That Your Professor Is Part Time?. US News and World Report. ^ Douthat, Ross (2010-07-18). "The Roots Of White Anxiety". The New York Times. ^ The Role of Higher Education in Social Mobility. Robert Haveman and Timothy Smeeding. Opportunity in America Volume 16 Number 2 Fall 2006 ^ Aronowitz, Stanley. The Knowledge Factory: Dismantling the Corporate University and Creating True Higher Learning, p. 76. ISBN 0-8070-3123-2. ^ Aronowitz, The Knowledge Factory 75-76. ^ Marklein, Mary Beth (15 November 2010). "Learning abroad suffers". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 4A. ^ Marklein, Mary Beth (16 November 2009). "More U.S. students groing abroad, and vice-versa". USA Today. pp. 5D. ^ Carnevale, Anthony; Jeff Strohl & Michelle Melton (24 May 2011). "What's It Worth: The Economic Value of College Majors". Georgetown University. Retrieved 11 July 2011. ^ Collins, Mike (11 July 2011). "What is it worth: College degrees, starting wages, and student debt". Manufacturing.net. Retrieved 11 July 2011. ^ John Lauerman and Esm E. Deprez, "Apollo, Education Shares Plunge on Enrollment Outlook" Bloomberg Oct. 14, 2010

o o o

o o o o

^ Goldie Blumenstyk, "U. of Phoenix Reports on Students Academic Progress," Chronicle of Higher Education Dec. 9, 2010 ^ http://www.wbur.org/2010/05/26/student-loans-iii ^ http://www.citytowninfo.com/career-and-educationnews/articles/department-of-education-puts-restrictions-on-for-profitcollege-student-debt-10072601 ^ Everett Carll Ladd and Seymour Martin Lipset, Academics, politics, and the 1972 election (1973) ^ Jack H. Schuster and Martin J. Finkelstein, The American Faculty: The Restructuring of Academic Work and Careers (2008) p. 145 ^ Louis Menand, The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University (2010) pp 137-9 ^ Rothman, S.; Lichter, S. R.; Nevitte, N. (2005). "Politics and Professional Advancement Among College Faculty". The Forum 3. doi:10.2202/15408884.1067. edit ^ College Faculties A Most Liberal Lot, Study Finds, Howard Kurtz, Tuesday, March 29, 2005 Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8427-2005Mar28.html ^ "Groupthink in Academia: Majoritarian Departmental Politics and the Professional Pyramid." Pp. 7998 in The Politically Correct University: Problems, Scope, and Reforms, edited by Robert Maranto, Richard Redding, and Frederick Hess. Washington, DC: AEI Press. ^ Neil Gross and Solon Simmons, The Social and Political Views of American Professors (paper presented at the Harvard University Symposium on Professors and Their Politics, Cambridge, MA, October 6, 2007). ^ The 60s Begin to Fade as Liberal Professors Retire, Patricia Cohen, July 3, 2008, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/03/arts/03camp.html?pagewanted=all ^ The Still Divided Academy: How Competing Visions of Power, Politics, and Diversity Complicate the Mission of Higher Education, Stanley Rothman, April Kelly- Woessner , Matthew Woessner, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2011. ^ Five myths about liberal academia, Matthew Woessner, April KellyWoessner and Stanley Rothman Friday, February 25, 2011 Washtington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2011/02/25/AR2011022503169.html ^ Diversity in American Higher Education: Toward a More Comprehensive Approach, Lisa Stulberg and Sharon Weinberg, eds, 2011, Routledge. Explaining professor's politics: An indirect text of the self-selection hypothesis,Neil Gross and Catherine Cheng ^ Maranto, Robert. 2009. "Why Political Science Is Left but Not Quite PC." Pp. 20924 in The Politically Correct University: Problems, Scope, and Reforms, edited by Robert Maranto, Richard Redding, and Frederick Hess. Washington, DC: AEI Press.

o o o

^ The Left-Leaning Tower, John Tierny, The New York Times, July 22, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/education/edl-24notebookt.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all ^ Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education, Roger Kimball, New York: Harper&Row, 1990 ^ The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education. Sykes, Charles J T, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway. 1990 ^ The Universities Under Attack... Roger Rosenblat, April 22, 1990, Book Review Desk, http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/10/04/nnp/kimballradicals.html ^ Epstein, Barbara. 1995. Political Correctness and Collective Powerlessness, in Darnovsky, Marcy, Barbara Epstein, and Richard Flacks, (Eds.), Cultural Politics and Social Movements. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, pp. 3-19. ^ Messer, Ellen. 1995. Manufacturing the Attack on Liberalized Higher Education. In: Callari, Antonio, Stephen Cullenberg, and Carole Biewener, (Eds.), Marxism in the Postmodern Age: Confronting the New World Order. New York, NY: Guildford Press, pp. 526-536. ^ "Facts Count: An Analysis of David Horowitz's "The Professors"," Free Exchange on Campus, 2006, http://www.freeexchangeoncampus.org/index.php?option=com_docman&t ask=cat_view&gid=12&Itemid=25 ^ Zogby Poll: Most Think Political Bias Among College Professors a Serious Problem, Jul 10, 2007, http://www.zogby.com/news/2007/07/10/zogby-poll-most-think-politicalbias-among-college-professors-a-serious-problem/

RANKED Harvard University Cambridge, MA Total undergraduates: 6,655 Total full-time undergraduates: 6,650 2 RANKED Princeton University Princeton, NJ Total undergraduates: 5,113 Total full-time undergraduates: 5,029 3 RANKED Yale University New Haven, CT Total undergraduates: 5,275 Total full-time undergraduates: 5,254 4 RANKED Columbia University New York, NY Total undergraduates: 7,743 Total full-time undergraduates: 6,762 5 RANKED Stanford University Stanford, CA Total undergraduates: 6,602 Total full-time undergraduates: 6,564 5 RANKED University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Total undergraduates: 9,768 Total full-time undergraduates: 9,490 7 RANKED

California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA Total undergraduates: 951 Total full-time undergraduates: 951 7 RANKED Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Total undergraduates: 4,232 Total full-time undergraduates: 4,190 9 RANKED Dartmouth College Hanover, NH Total undergraduates: 4,196 Total full-time undergraduates: 4,090 9 RANKED University of Chicago Chicago, IL Total undergraduates: 5,066 Total full-time undergraduates: 5,014 9 RANKED Duke University Durham, NC Total undergraduates: 6,578 Total full-time undergraduates: 6,400

Ten Largest Public University Campuses as of Fall 2010 Ranking University Location Enrollment Arizona State 1 Tempe, Arizona 58,371[1] University a[] University of 2 Central Florida Orlando, Florida 56,235[2]
b[]

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The Ohio State University University of Minnesota University of Texas at Austin


b[]

Columbus, Ohio Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota Austin, Texas Gainesville, Florida College Station, Texas Tampa, Florida East Lansing, Michigan University Park, Pennsylvania

56,064[3] 51,721[4] 51,195[5] 49,827[6] 49,129[7] 47,576[8] 47,131[9] 44,817 [10]

University of Florida b[] Texas A&M University b[] University of South Florida b[] Michigan State University Pennsylvania State University

Ten Largest Private University Campuses as of Fall 2010 Ranking University Location Enrollment Liberty University 1 Lynchburg, Virginia 46,312[11] c[] 2 3 4 5 6 7 New York University University of Southern California Brigham Young University Boston University Manhattan, New York, New York Los Angeles, California Provo, Utah Boston, Massachusetts 43,404[12] 34,828[13] 34,130[14] 31,960[15] 29,154[16] 25,072[17]

Nova Fort LauderdaleSoutheastern Davie, Florida University b[] DePaul University Chicago, Illinois

8 9 10

George Washington University b[] Long Island University b[] Columbia University b[]

Washington, D.C. Brooklyn, New York, New York Manhattan, New York, New York

25,061[18] 24,258[19] 24,230[20]

National University Rankings National University Methodology Schools in the National Universities category, such as University of Chicago and Stanford University, offer a full range of undergraduate majors, master's, and doctoral degrees. These colleges also are committed to producing ground breaking research. Show 10 schools

Rankings Rankings Data

Tuition and fees: $38,416 (2010-11) Enrollment: 6,655 Setting: urban #1 Harvard University Cambridge, MA Harvard University is a private institution in Cambridge, Mass., just outside of Boston. This Ivy League school is the oldest higher education institution in the country and has the largest endowment of any school in the world. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $36,640 (2010-11) Enrollment: 5,113 Setting: suburban #2 Princeton University Princeton, NJ

The ivy-covered campus of Princeton University, a private institution, is located in the quiet town of Princeton, N.J. Princeton was the first university to offer a no loan policy to financially needy students, giving grants instead of loans to accepted students who need help paying tuition. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $38,300 (2010-11) Enrollment: 5,275 Setting: urban #3 Yale University New Haven, CT Yale University, located in New Haven, Conn., offers a small college life with the resources of a major research institution. Yale students are divided into 12 residential colleges that foster a supportive environment for living, learning, and socializing. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $43,304 (2010-11) Enrollment:

7,743 Setting: urban #4 Columbia University New York, NY Columbia University has three undergraduate schools: Columbia College, The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and the School of General Studies. This Ivy League, private school guarantees students housing for all four years on campus in Manhattans Morningside Heights neighborhood in New York City. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $39,201 (2010-11) Enrollment: 6,602 Setting: suburban #5 Stanford University Stanford, CA The sunny campus of Stanford University is located in Californias Bay Area, about 30 miles from San Francisco. The private institution stresses a multidisciplinary combination of teaching, learning, and research, and students have many opportunities to get involved in research projects. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $40,514 (2010-11) Enrollment: 9,768 Setting: urban #5 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Founded by Benjamin Franklin, the University of Pennsylvania is a private institution in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pa., near Drexel University. Undergraduates can study in four academic departments: Arts and Sciences, Nursing, Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Wharton. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $36,282 (2010-11) Enrollment: 951 Setting: suburban #7 California Institute of Technology

Pasadena, CA The California Institute of Technology focuses on science and engineering education and has a low student-to-faculty ratio of 3:1. This private institution in Pasadena, Calif. is actively involved in research projects with grants from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $39,212 (2010-11) Enrollment: 4,232 Setting: urban #7 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Though the Massachusetts Institute of Technology may be best known for its math, science, and engineering education, this private research university also offers architecture, humanities, management, and social science programs. The school is located in Cambridge, Mass., just across the Charles River from downtown Boston. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $40,437 (2010-11)

Enrollment: 4,196 Setting: rural #9 Dartmouth College Hanover, NH Dartmouth College, a private institution in Hanover, N.H., uses quarters, not semesters, to divide the school year. Among more than 300 student organizations at Dartmouth is the Outing Club, the nations oldest and largest collegiate club of its kind, which offers outdoor activities, expeditions, gear rentals, and courses. Save School Student Reviews Get All College Data

Tuition and fees: $40,472 (2010-11) Enrollment: 6,578 Setting: suburban #9 Duke University Durham, NC Located in Durham, N.C., Duke University is a private institution that has liberal arts and engineering programs for undergraduates. The Duke Blue Devils sports teams have a fierce rivalry with the University of North CarolinaChapel Hill Tar Heels and are best known for their outstanding men's basketball program.

Ivy League From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the group of colleges, and the athletic conference that gave the group its name. For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). Ivy League (Ivies, Ancient Eight)

Established Association Division Members Sports fielded Region Headquarters

1954 NCAA Division I FCS 8 33 (men's: 17; women's: 16) Northeast Princeton, New Jersey

Commissioner Robin Harris[1] (since 2009) Website ivyleaguesports.com Locations

The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group.[2] The eight institutions are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale University. The term Ivy League also has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism. The term became official, especially in sports terminology, after the formation of the NCAA Division I athletic conference in 1954,[3] when much of the nation polarized around favorite college teams.[clarification needed] The use of the phrase is no longer limited to athletics, and now represents an educational philosophy inherent to the nation's oldest schools.[4] In addition, Ivy League schools are often viewed by the public as some of the most prestigious universities worldwide and are often ranked amongst the best universities in the United States and worldwide.[5] All of the Ivy League's institutions place within the top 15 of the U.S. News & World Report college and university rankings; with five placing in the top six.[6] Seven of the eight schools were founded during the United States colonial period; the exception is Cornell, which was founded in 1865. Ivy League institutions, therefore, account for seven of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Ivies are all in the Northeast geographic region of the United States. All eight schools receive millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state government. Undergraduate enrollments among the Ivy League schools range from about 4,000 to 14,000,[7] making them larger than those of a typical private liberal arts college and smaller than a typical public state university. Overall enrollments range from approximately 5,900 in the case of Dartmouth to over 20,000 in the case of Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, and Penn. Ivy League university financial endowments range from Brown's $2.2 billion to Harvard's $27.4 billion, the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the world.