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Linear Functions: Any function of the form f (x) = m x + b, where m is not equal to 0 is called a linear function.

The domain of this function is the set of all real numbers. The range of f is the set of all real numbers. The graph of f is a line with slope m and y intercept b. Note: A function f (x) = b, where b is a constant real number is called a constant function. Its graph is a horizontal line at y = b. Example 1: Graph the linear function f given by f (x) = 2x + 4 Solution to Example 1 You need only two points to graph a linear function. These points may be chosen as the x and y intercepts of the graph for example. Determine the x intercept, set f(x) = 0 and solve for x. 2x + 4 = 0 x = -2

Determine the y intercept, set x = 0 to find f(0). f(0) = 4 The graph of the above function is a line passing through the points (-2 , 0) and (0 , 4) as shown below.

Matched Problem : Graph the linear function f given by f (x) = x + 3 Example 2: Graph the linear function f given by f (x) = -(1 / 3)x - 1 / 2 Solution to Example 2 Determine the x intercept, set f(x) = 0 and solve for x. -(1 / 3)x - 1 / 2 = 0 x=-3/2

Determine the y intercept, set x = 0 to find f(0). f(0) = -1 / 2 The graph of the above function is a line passing through the points (-3 / 2 , 0) and (0 , -1 / 2) as shown below.

graph the linear function f given by f (x) = -x / 5 + 1 / 3 n what follows, SQRT means square root.

The domain of function f defined by f(x) = SQRT ( x ) is the set of all real positive numbers and zero because the square root of negative numbers are not real numbers (think of SQRT (- 4), is it real?). In inequality form, the domain of f(x) = SQRT ( x ) is written as x >= 0

in interval form the domain is given by [ 0 , + infinity) Example 1: Graph f( x ) = SQRT (x)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 1: Because the domain of f is the set of all positive real numbers and zero, we might construct a table of values as follows: x SQRT (x) 0 0 1 1 4 2 9 3 16 4

The values of x were selected so that the square root of these values are whole numbers which make it easy to plot the points shown in the table.

The range of f is given by the interval [0 , +infinity). Example 2: Graph f( x ) = SQRT (x - 3)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 2: First find the domain of the square root function given above by stating that the expression under the square root must be positive or equal to zero x - 3 >= 0 Solve the above inequality to obtain the domain of f as the set of all real values such that x >= 3 We now select values of x in the domain to construct a table of values. x SQRT (x - 3) 3 0 4 1 7 2 12 3

The interval [0 , +infinity) represents the range of f. Example 3: Graph f( x ) = - SQRT (- 2x + 4) + 1

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 3: The domain of the function given above is found by setting - 2x + 4 >= 0 Solve the above inequality to obtain the domain of f as the set of all real values such that x <= 2 We now select values of x in the domain of f to construct a table of values. These values are selected so that the square root term is a whole number and give points that are easy to plot. x - SQRT (-2 x + 4 ) + 1 2 1 3/2 0 0 -1 -5/2 -2 -6 -3

The range of f is given by the interval (-infinity , 1]. Example 4: Graph


2

f( x ) = SQRT (- x + 4)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 4: The domain of function given above is found by solving the polynomial inequality - x + 4 >= 0 The solution set of the above inequality is given by the interval [-2 , 2] which is also the domain of the above function.
2

Let us write the given function as an equation as follows y = SQRT (- x + 4) Square both sides and arrange to obtain. x +y =2
2 2 2 2

The equation obtained is that of a circle. Hence the graph of f(x) = SQRT (- x + 4) is the upper half of a circle sinsce SQRT (- x + 4) is positive. Hence the graph below.

The interval [0 , 2] represents the range of f. Example 5: Graph


2

f( x ) = SQRT (x - 9)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 5: The domain of the function given above is found by solving x - 9 >= 0 Which gives a domain reprsented by (-infinity , -3] U [3 , + infinity) We now select values of x in the domain of f to construct a table of values, noting f(x) = f(-x) hence a symmetry of the graph with respect to the y axis. x SQRT (x - 9)
2 2

3 0

5 4

8 7.4

The range of f is given by the interval [0 , + infinity).

Example 6: Graph

f( x ) = SQRT (x - 6x + 9)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 6: Let us use write the expression under the square root as a square as follows x - 6x + 9 = (x - 3) Hence f( x ) = SQRT (x - 6x + 9) = SQRT ( (x - 3) ) = | x - 3 | The given function has been rewitten as an absolute value function. Function f may be written as a piecewise function and graphed as follows.
2 2 2 2

The range of f is given by the interval [0 , + infinity). Example 7: Graph


2

f( x ) = SQRT (x + 4x + 6)

and find the range of f. Solution to Example 7: Use completing the square to rewtite the expression under the square root as follows x + 4x + 6 = (x + 2) + 2 The expression under the square root is always positive hence the domain of f is the set of all real numbers. Let us first look at the 2 graph of (x + 2) + 2. It is a parabola.
2 2

We would expect the graph of f to have the same axis of symmetry, the vertical line, x = -2 as the above graph. The table of values may constructed as follows. x SQRT ( (x + 2) 2 + 2 ) -2 1.4 0 2.4 2 4.2 4 6.2

The range of f is given by the interval [SQRT(2) , + infinity). f is a quadratic function given by 2 f (x) = 2x + 2 x - 4 2 f (x) = x - 2 x - 3 f is a function given by f (x) = |x - 2|

The Elements of Music By Espie Estrella, About.com Guide Sound is created when an object vibrates. These vibrations are perceived by our ears and then sent to our brain. Our brain in turn analyzes these signals and let's us know what type of sound we are hearing (i.e. an alarm clock ringing, a car horn blaring, etc.). Music is differentiated from other sounds because it has certain qualities. When you listen to a piece of music, you'll notice that it has several different characteristics; it may be soft or loud, slow or fast, combine different instruments and have a regular rhythmic pattern. All of these are known as the "elements of music." Beat and Meter - In order to define meter, let's first define beats. Beats give music its regular rhythmic pattern. Beats are grouped together in a measure; the notes and rests corresponds to a certain number of beats. Meter refers to rhythmic patterns produced by grouping together strong and weak beats. Meter may be in duple (2 beats in a measure), triple (3 beats in a measure), quadruple (4 beats in a measure) and so on. Dynamics - Dynamics are abbreviations or symbols used to signify the degree of loudness or softness of a piece of music. It also indicates whether there is a change in volume. Harmony - In general, harmony refers to the combination of notes (or chords) played together and the relationship between a series of chords. But to give you a better understanding of harmony, let's first define melody. Melody refers to the tune of a song or piece of music. It is created by playing a series of notes one after another. Harmony accompanies and supports the melody. It is created by playing a group of notes (either simultaneously or as broken chords) behind the melody thus giving it musical texture. Key - Also known as tonality; a principle in music composition wherein at the end of the piece there is a feeling of completion by going back to the tonic. The tonic (main key or home key) is the principal pitch of a composition. Simply put, key refers to the central note (i.e. key of C), scale (i.e. C scale) and chord (i.e. C Major triad) Melody - It refers to the tune of a song or piece of music. it is the memorable tune created by playing a succession or series of pitches. Musical Instruments and Voice - Musical instruments are classified as percussion, strings,woodwinds, brass and keyboards. Another method of classifying musical instruments according to the type of vibrating material used to produce sound is called the Sachs-Hornbostel System. Our voice is also considered a musical instrument. Each of us has a different voice type or vocal range and no two voices are alike. Music Notation - Refers to the symbols used to represent music when writing it down. These symbols specify the pitch, rhythm and meter of a piece of music. Pitch - The relative lowness or highness that we hear in a sound. The pitch of a sound is based on the frequency of vibration and the size of the vibrating object. The slower the vibration and the bigger the vibrating object, the lower the pitch; the faster the vibration and the smaller the vibrating object, the higher the pitch. For example, the pitch of adouble bass is lower than that of the violin because the double bass has longer strings. Pitch may be definite (i.e. piano) or indefinite (i.e. cymbals). Rhythm - It may be defined as the pattern or placement of sounds in time and beats in music. Roger Kamien in his book Music: An Appreciation defines rhythm as "the particular arrangement of note lengths in a piece of music." Rhythm is shaped by meter; it has certain elements such as beat and tempo. Tempo - The Italian word at the beginning of a music piece that indicates how slow or fast the piece should be played. This is called the tempo which is effective throughout the duration of the music unless the composer indicates otherwise. Texture - Musical texture refers to the number of layers as well as the type of layers used in a composition and how these layers are related. Texture may be monophonic (single melodic line), polyphonic (two or more melodic lines) and homophonic (a main melody accompanied by chords). Timbre - Also known as tone color; it refers to the quality of sound that distinguishes onevoice or instrument from another. Timbre may range anywhere from dull to lush, from dark to bright (such as the sound of glockenspiels).