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Russian society in the early twentieth century was bipolar: a tiny minority controlled most of the countrys wealth,

while the vast majority of the countrys inhabitants were impoverished and oppressed peasants. Communism arose in Russia when the nations workers and peasants, assisted by a class of concerned intellectuals known as the intelligentsia, rebelled against and overwhelmed the wealthy and powerful class of capitalists and aristocrats. They hoped to establish a socialist utopia based on the principles of the German economic and political philosopher Karl Marx. In Das Kapital (Capital), Marx advanced an economically deterministic interpretation of human history, arguing that society would naturally evolvefrom a monarchy and aristocracy, to capitalism, and then on to communism, a system under which all property would be held in common. The dignity of the poor workers oppressed by capitalism would be restored, and all people would live as equals. Marx followed this sober and scholarly work with The Communist Manifesto, an impassioned call to action that urged, Workers of the world, unite! In the Russia of 1917, it appeared that Marxs dreams were to become reality. After a politically complicated civil war, Tsar Nicholas II, the monarch of Russia, was forced to abdicate the throne that his family had held for three centuries. Vladimir Ilych Lenin, a Russian intellectual revolutionary, seized power in the name of the Communist Party. The new regime took land and industry from private control and put them under government supervision. This centralization of economic systems constituted the first steps in restoring Russia to the prosperity it had known before World War I and in modernizing the nations primitive infrastructure, including bringing electricity to the countryside. After Lenin died in 1924, Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky jockeyed for control of the newly formed Soviet Union. Stalin, a crafty and manipulative politician, soon banished Trotsky, an idealistic proponent of international communism. Stalin then began to consolidate his power with brutal intensity, killing or imprisoning his perceived political enemies and overseeing the purge of approximately twenty million Soviet citizens.

Communism vs Socialism
Communism and socialism are two different concepts, which are quite similar, but have certain differences. The following article discusses communism vs socialism. Socialism came into existence before communism, and was a worker dominated economic phase. Communism was the advanced stage of socialism. Before knowing about the two concepts in depth, let us define socialism vs communism. Socialism vs Communism Definition Socialism is defined as "any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods." Whereas, communism is defined as "a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy, and a single, often authoritarian party, holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people." Socialism Socialism was an economic phase where everyone benefited from industrialization, and the number of workers was more than the number of traders. Being the majority, more power was vested in the hands of the workers. Socialism was only an economic system and not a political system. Socialism was more advanced and liberal, where everyone could contribute in the working of the economy. Socialism gave rise to the communism stage. Communism Karl Marx is known as the 'Father of Communism'. He wrote a very popular book in 1847, named 'Communist Manifesto', read by millions of people around the world. The people who follow his ideology are known as 'Marxists'. Karl Marx and his friend Frederick Engels analyzed the various economies of the world, the working of power, finance and the industrial sectors of the economies. They researched the development of various economies and the reasons for it, and developed the concept of communism based on their findings. Communism refers to the banishment of all the differences from the society, and people sharing all the things equally with equal status. There shouldn't be any kind of exploitation or social inequality like women being dominated by men, racial discrimination and backward ideology. Communist society is supposed to provide equal status to everyone with the opportunity to use the resources equitably. Communism also means an extensive outlook for the betterment of society. The symbol of communism is the hammer and the chisel, wherein the hammer represents the workers and the chisel represents the farmers or the peasants. Let us see the different stages of economies and their development. Primitive Communism The word primitive means 'not very advanced'. There was not much progress during this stage of the economy. Primitive communism was a period when people used to live in small groups or tribes. They used to share everything with others like food, clothes and jobs. There was no such thing as ownership existing in that era. Then a group

came into force and took charge, leading to feudalism. Feudalism Feudalism is the advanced stage of primitive communism. Under feudalism, the economy was ruled by a chief or a king. The people were convinced that God had chosen the ruler for them, and the king was helped by the churches as well. The common people were kept illiterate and ignorant about their rights, while the 'nobles' who helped the king rule were given land and other benefits. Increase in trade made some people more wealthy leading to capitalism.

Capitalism Capitalism refers to the era in which all the power was concentrated in the hands of business owners or traders. The workers were treated badly and exploited. The traders worked only in their interests. It was a period where the rich became richer and the poor became poorer. This led to the formation of trade unions by the workers, leading to socialism.

Socialism In the socialist economy, the workers took over the production and the economy. They produced things for everyone, and profit was not the primary objective of this period. All the people benefited in this era, and availed education and health benefits. This stage then later advanced to communism. Communism Communism was a stage in which all people shared things with each other. Profit and money was not the main aim of this period. There was sharing and all things were in abundance, and therefore there was no need of an army or the police. The capitalists who were still there tried to create a fight but it was of no use. At last the people won and lived their lives to the fullest. Communism vs Socialism Now that we have studied what is socialism and communism, and how the two came into being, let us look at some differences between them. It is not easy to recognize the differences between socialism and communism. However, there are a few things which can be easily distinguished between the two. Socialism is only related to an economic system, while communism is related to an economic and political system. Socialism states that distribution of goods and services should take place according to the individuals production efforts, whereas according to communism, the distribution should take place according to the individuals need. In socialism, people believe that capitalism can exist in the economy, and that it is possible that socialism exists in a capitalist economy. On the other hand, communism aims at making a classless society without capitalism and private ownership. In socialism, many people can control the economy, whereas in capitalism the number of people in actual control are reduced. National socialism is a political word which is a little unclear. It consists of the features of both nationalism and socialism. It mainly refers to 'Nazism', which was an ideology followed during the rule of Adolf Hitler. The concept of national socialism opposes communism and capitalism. Whereas, democratic socialism means a democratic economy which undertakes production for the benefits of everyone, rather than concentrating the profits in the hands of a few people. Communism vs Socialism Chart Communism Communism is related to both the economic and political system. Distribution of goods and services takes place according to the individuals needs. Capitalism cannot exist in a communist economy. Communist economy does not require many people to control the economy. Socialism Socialism only refers to the economic system. Distribution of goods and services takes place according to the individuals efforts. Capitalism can exist in a socialist economy Many people can control the economy in the socialist society.

In the communist economy, the power is concentrated in the In the socialist economy, the power is mainly in the hands of the people centrally. hands of the workers.

Napoleon - The pig who emerges as the leader of Animal Farm after the Rebellion. Based on Joseph Stalin, Napoleon uses military force (his nine loyal attack dogs) to intimidate the other animals and consolidate his power. In his supreme craftiness, Napoleon proves more treacherous than his counterpart, Snowball. Snowball - The pig who challenges Napoleon for control of Animal Farm after the Rebellion. Based on Leon Trotsky, Snowball is intelligent, passionate, eloquent, and less subtle and devious than his counterpart, Napoleon. Snowball seems to win the loyalty of the other animals and cement his power. Boxer - The cart-horse whose incredible strength, dedication, and loyalty play a key role in the early prosperity of Animal Farm and the later completion of the windmill. Quick to help but rather slow-witted, Boxer shows much devotion to Animal Farms ideals but little ability to think about them independently. He navely trusts the pigs to make all his decisions for him. His two mottoes are I will work harder and Napoleon is always right. Squealer - The pig who spreads Napoleons propaganda among the other animals. Squealer justifies the pigs monopolization of resources and spreads false statistics pointing to the farms success. Orwell uses Squealer to explore the ways in which those in power often use rhetoric and language to twist the truth and gain and maintain social and political control. Old Major - The prize-winning boar whose vision of a socialist utopia serves as the inspiration for the Rebellion. Three days after describing the vision and teaching the animals the song Beasts of England, Major dies, leaving Snowball and Napoleon to struggle for control of his legacy. Orwell based Major on both the German political economist Karl Marx and the Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir Ilych Lenin. Clover - A good-hearted female cart-horse and Boxers close friend. Clover often suspects the pigs of violating one or another of the Seven Commandments, but she repeatedly blames herself for misremembering the commandments. Moses - The tame raven who spreads stories of Sugarcandy Mountain, the paradise to which animals supposedly go when they die. Moses plays only a small role in Animal Farm, but Orwell uses him to explore how communism exploits religion as something with which to pacify the oppressed. Mollie - The vain, flighty mare who pulls Mr. Joness carriage. Mollie craves the attention of human beings and loves being groomed and pampered. She has a difficult time with her new life on Animal Farm, as she misses wearing ribbons in her mane and eating sugar cubes. She represents the petit bourgeoisie that fled from Russia a few years after the Russian Revolution. Benjamin - The long-lived donkey who refuses to feel inspired by the Rebellion. Benjamin firmly believes that life will remain unpleasant no matter who is in charge. Of all of the animals on the farm, he alone comprehends the changes that take place, but he seems either unwilling or unable to oppose the pigs. Muriel - The white goat who reads the Seven Commandments to Clover whenever Clover suspects the pigs of violating their prohibitions.

Mr. Jones - The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the animals stage their Rebellion and establish Animal Farm. Mr. Jones is an unkind master who indulges himself while his animals lack food; he thus represents Tsar Nicholas II, whom the Russian Revolution ousted. Mr. Frederick - The tough, shrewd operator of Pinchfield, a neighboring farm. Based on Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, Mr. Frederick proves an untrustworthy neighbor. Mr. Pilkington - The easygoing gentleman farmer who runs Foxwood, a neighboring farm. Mr. Fredericks bitter enemy, Mr. Pilkington represents the capitalist governments of England and the United States. Mr. Whymper - The human solicitor whom Napoleon hires to represent Animal Farm in human society. Mr. Whympers entry into the Animal Farm community initiates contact between Animal Farm and human society, alarming the common animals. Jessie and Bluebell - Two dogs, each of whom gives birth early in the novel. Napoleon takes the puppies in order to educate them. Minimus - The poet pig who writes verse about Napoleon and pens the banal patriotic song Animal Farm, Animal Farm to replace the earlier idealistic hymn Beasts of England, which Old Major passes on to the others.