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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
 The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. 1991. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. SunOS 4. As a result.0 and later. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4).1. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. starting with Solaris 11. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. and Xenix.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. System V. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. While SunOS 4.1 Usage with installation o 3.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. However. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) .x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. after full binary releases are made. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. On September 4. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. with one based on SVR4. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. as part of the Illumos Foundation.
As of 2009. HewlettPackard.7. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell .6.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7)." from the number.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . certify. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit.will "test. This has often led to more reliable systems. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell.5. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM .5. and IBM. for example. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. and the latest release SunOS 5.4 incorporated SunOS 5.10 forms the core of Solaris 10. supporting a large number of CPUs. . However. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors.functionality. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris.6 release. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). Other platforms Solaris 2.1 into OpenSolaris.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware.1 and the latest version. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. Sun dropped the "2. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. After Solaris 2. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Solaris 2. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2. Solaris 10.4. with which it is marketed as a combined package. In October 2006. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. announced its first official source code release.
allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. On November 28. like Apache. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. 2007. MySQL. On October 17. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). Additional software.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. etc. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. IBM. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. OpenCSW and Blastwave. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. Sun. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation .
This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. in a local area. in a rack. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. In this configuration. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. the operating system still runs locally on the system. in a remote data center. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. without purchasing additional software management utilities. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. plugged in. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. When Solaris is installed. This may be selected for servers.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment.) . plugged in. the MAC address registered into a central server. where a console may normally be used. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space.
Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. . placed on a desktop. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. whether or not the work was saved. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript.2.0 to 2. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. operating system. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications.6. a common printing language released in 1982.3. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running.3. window manager. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. separated by a network connection. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. In Solaris 2. Applications. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. which shipped with Solaris 2. and a user can start work immediately. If there is a hardware failure. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. OpenWindows 3. but support libraries were still bundled.
 License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. and was included in Solaris 2.4 and 2. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors.0 as an alternative to CDE. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license.6 through 10.4. Sun's office suite.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. The project has been inactive since late 2006. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. As a member of COSE. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. based on the GTK+ toolkit. IBM provided the file manager.5. . including StarOffice. along with numerous other window managers. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. for Solaris 8. In 2001.
0 5. ZFS. In ascending order. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. Solaris Volume Manager.x 4. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14. Solaris Multiplexed I/O.2 5.1. Solaris Containers. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. First appearance of NIS+. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. SPARC-only release. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. such as Solaris 10 10/09. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. . and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). First to support sun4d architecture.0 - 2.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only). Doors. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release.1 5. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. Service Management Facility.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes.
Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. mdb modular debugger. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. large file support. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). user and group IDs (uid_t. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits.5 November 1995 2.1 5.1c-1995 pthreads added.5. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging).9 May 28. Includes Multipath I/O. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. and Linux compatibility added.4 5. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. 2005 SPARC-only release. Includes Kerberos 5. TrueType fonts. IKE IPsec keying. enhanced procfs.10 January 31. OpenWindows dropped. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. sun4d support removed. Solaris Containers.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. Service Management Facility (SMF) which .2. extended file attributes. Ultra Enterprise support added. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. First unified SPARC/x86 release. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. OpenWindows 3. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. iPlanet Directory Server. sun4c support removed.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. Doors added but undocumented.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. IPMP. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04.5 5. Solaris Volume Manager. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). PAM.3 5. Only release to support PowerPC platform. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. WebNFS. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform.5.6 5. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing).6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5.4 November 1994 2. 2002 January 10. POSIX. Resource Manager.
Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Least privilege security model. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system.replaces init.d scripts.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). performance improvements. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. NFSv4. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). Logical . Support for EISA-based PCs removed.
11 2010. • . improvements to patching performance. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. Removes Xsun. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. fast reboot. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. updated GNOME. ZFS encryption and deduplication. CDE. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. 11 Express 5. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. network virtualization and QoS. virtual consoles. Solaris 10 Containers.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support.11 November 15.
Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. . Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. which is then maintained as a derived project. taken near the time of its release.0.
the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments.05. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . educational and evaluation purposes. until it was discontinued in January 2010.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). replacing SXDE. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. In 2003. with different license terms. In 2007.Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . It was updated every two weeks. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. though the packages were made available on the package repository. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. and released build 151a as 2010. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada.11 in November 2010. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available.
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