Solaris (operating system

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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11[1] / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010.[2] Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider.[3][4] Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.

AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD.0 and later.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. This was identified internally as SunOS 5.[13] The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010.[8] as part of the Illumos Foundation.[6][7] As a result. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) .[7][9] However. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. System V. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project.[7] Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2.1.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). SunOS 4.[11] On September 4. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. starting with Solaris 11.[12] While SunOS 4.[5] With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). after full binary releases are made[10]. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. and Xenix. 1991.1 Usage with installation o 3.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. with one based on SVR4. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code.

an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell.[22] announced its first official source code release.6. and the latest release SunOS 5. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.[23] In October 2006.[21] and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers[17] Intel[18] Hewlett-Packard[19] . Solaris 2.1 and the latest version.1 into OpenSolaris. This has often led to more reliable systems. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors.[25] .10 forms the core of Solaris 10.[14] Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris.4. As of 2009. Other platforms Solaris 2.6 release. After Solaris 2. HewlettPackard.will "test. Solaris 10. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware.5.functionality. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. However. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. with which it is marketed as a combined package. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.7. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number.[15] It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). and IBM. Sun dropped the "2.[24] which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu"[16] IBM . supporting a large number of CPUs. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell .[22] In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris.4 incorporated SunOS 5. certify.5.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens[20] As of July 2010. for example." from the number.

Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. IBM. etc.[31][32] Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . Additional software. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware.[30] Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available[28] and on November 19 the same year. On October 17.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. like Apache. Sun.[26] On November 28.[27] called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia).[29] Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. 2007. OpenCSW and Blastwave. MySQL. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems.

a new workstation is pulled from a closet. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. in a rack. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. the MAC address registered into a central server. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. the operating system still runs locally on the system. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. plugged in. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. without purchasing additional software management utilities. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. When Solaris is installed. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. where a console may normally be used. This may be selected for servers.) . In this configuration. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. in a remote data center. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. plugged in. in a local area. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network.

operating system. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. If there is a hardware failure. which shipped with Solaris 2. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. . whether or not the work was saved. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications. window manager.6. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running.0 to 2.3.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. separated by a network connection.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. and a user can start work immediately. OpenWindows 3. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. placed on a desktop.3.2. Applications. In Solaris 2. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. a common printing language released in 1982. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. but support libraries were still bundled.

[34] The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris.6 through 10. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). IBM provided the file manager. for Solaris 8. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. Sun's office suite. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. based on the GTK+ toolkit. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. In 2001.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003.4 and 2.[38] . including StarOffice. along with numerous other window managers.[36] The CDDL is an OSI-approved license.0 as an alternative to CDE.[35] License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project.5. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS).[33] Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. and was included in Solaris 2.4. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy.[37] It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. As a member of COSE. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. The project has been inactive since late 2006. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications.

support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture.1.1 5. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). In ascending order. SPARC-only release.0 5. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base.x 4. Doors.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support[40] Major new features 2.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1.[41] Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. Solaris Volume Manager. Solaris Containers. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only).[39] Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. First to support sun4d architecture. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release.[42] . both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. ZFS. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. such as Solaris 10 10/09. Service Management Facility. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released.2 5.0 - 2. First appearance of NIS+. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.

Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only).[46] The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release.4 5. enhanced procfs.[44] also included processor sets[45] and early resource management technologies. sun4c support removed. sun4d support removed. 2005 SPARC-only release. POSIX. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits.5. Resource Manager. First unified SPARC/x86 release.2. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). user and group IDs (uid_t. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.1c-1995 pthreads added.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5.[47] Includes Multipath I/O. extended file attributes. OpenWindows dropped. mdb modular debugger. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging).6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped.[49] iPlanet Directory Server. and Linux compatibility added.4 November 1994 2. Solaris Volume Manager. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE.[48] IPMP.5.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5.5 5.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2.3 5.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. 2002 January 10.6 5. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. IKE IPsec keying. Includes Kerberos 5. PAM.[43] Only release to support PowerPC platform.5 November 1995 2.10 January 31.1 5. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. Ultra Enterprise support added. Doors added but undocumented. Solaris Containers. OpenWindows 3. TrueType fonts.9 May 28. large file support. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . WebNFS.

Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool.replaces init. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd).d scripts. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. [50] • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. [52][53] Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system.[51] IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). performance improvements. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Logical . NFSv4. Least privilege security model. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors.

[56] 11 Express 5. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives.[58] updated GNOME. improvements to patching performance. ZFS encryption and deduplication. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. Solaris 10 Containers. virtual consoles. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10")[57] Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools.[55] Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration.11 November 15.[54] Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. Removes Xsun. fast reboot. CDE. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems.[59] • .11 2010. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. network virtualization and QoS.

[62] Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. taken near the time of its release. .[61] Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ.0. which is then maintained as a derived project. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out.[60] A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.

replacing SXDE.[63] A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available.[66] Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. In 2007.[65] It was updated every two weeks. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). with different license terms. though the packages were made available on the package repository. educational and evaluation purposes. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW .Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris .11 in November 2010. and released build 151a as 2010. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. In 2003. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase.05.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals.[64] The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. until it was discontinued in January 2010. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express.

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