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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
 While SunOS 4. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. SunOS 4. However. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. and Xenix. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. System V. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software.0 and later. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . 1991. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. On September 4.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. as part of the Illumos Foundation.1 Usage with installation o 3. As a result. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). after full binary releases are made. with one based on SVR4.1. starting with Solaris 11. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license.
This has often led to more reliable systems.4 incorporated SunOS 5. . which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform).5. and the latest release SunOS 5.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. After Solaris 2. Sun dropped the "2. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. However. Solaris 2. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. Solaris 10.1 and the latest version. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell.7. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. for example. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms." from the number. In October 2006. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64).4.6.1 into OpenSolaris.10 forms the core of Solaris 10.will "test. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2. with which it is marketed as a combined package.5. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. HewlettPackard. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell . announced its first official source code release. certify.6 release.functionality. As of 2009. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. Other platforms Solaris 2. supporting a large number of CPUs. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2. and IBM.
OpenCSW and Blastwave. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. Additional software. On October 17. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. IBM.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. Sun. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. etc. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. On November 28. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). MySQL. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . like Apache. 2007.
Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. the MAC address registered into a central server. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. When Solaris is installed. where a console may normally be used.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. in a rack.) . System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. the operating system still runs locally on the system. plugged in. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. In this configuration. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. in a remote data center. plugged in. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. This may be selected for servers. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. without purchasing additional software management utilities. in a local area. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software.
NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. operating system. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK.0 to 2. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. placed on a desktop. a common printing language released in 1982.6.3. window manager. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. which shipped with Solaris 2.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. whether or not the work was saved.3. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. . If there is a hardware failure. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. Applications.2. separated by a network connection. In Solaris 2. and a user can start work immediately. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. but support libraries were still bundled. OpenWindows 3. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9.
The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10.4 and 2. and was included in Solaris 2. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris.6 through 10. for Solaris 8.0 as an alternative to CDE. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. As a member of COSE. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. . and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. including StarOffice. IBM provided the file manager.4. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. The project has been inactive since late 2006. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager.5.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. In 2001. along with numerous other window managers. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. Sun's office suite. based on the GTK+ toolkit. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors.
 . Solaris Containers. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only).x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release.x 4. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. Solaris Multiplexed I/O.0 - 2. In ascending order. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course.1 5. First to support sun4d architecture.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. Doors. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. First appearance of NIS+. Solaris Volume Manager.0 5.2 5. such as Solaris 10 10/09. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. SPARC-only release.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base.1. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). ZFS. Service Management Facility. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.
WebNFS. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. Includes Multipath I/O.2. 2005 SPARC-only release. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. Solaris Containers.3 5. IPMP.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. sun4d support removed. OpenWindows dropped. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). user and group IDs (uid_t.4 5. and Linux compatibility added. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. IKE IPsec keying. large file support.1c-1995 pthreads added. Includes Kerberos 5. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . Only release to support PowerPC platform. enhanced procfs. extended file attributes.1 5. Ultra Enterprise support added.5 November 1995 2.5. iPlanet Directory Server. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped.5 5. Resource Manager.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5.1 May 1996 September 2005 2.4 November 1994 2. Solaris Volume Manager.6 5. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. sun4c support removed. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. 2002 January 10.9 May 28.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. Doors added but undocumented. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). POSIX.5. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5. TrueType fonts. OpenWindows 3. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. mdb modular debugger. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. PAM. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies.10 January 31. First unified SPARC/x86 release.
 • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. performance improvements. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed.replaces init. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). Logical . IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors.d scripts. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. NFSv4. Least privilege security model.
2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. CDE.11 November 15. Removes Xsun.11 2010. • . Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. virtual consoles. ZFS encryption and deduplication. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. fast reboot. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. network virtualization and QoS. improvements to patching performance.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. updated GNOME. Solaris 10 Containers. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. 11 Express 5.
 A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ. which is then maintained as a derived project.0. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. taken near the time of its release. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. . Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.
Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. It was updated every two weeks. until it was discontinued in January 2010. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. though the packages were made available on the package repository. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . educational and evaluation purposes. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated.11 in November 2010.Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). In 2007. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. replacing SXDE.05. In 2003. and released build 151a as 2010. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. with different license terms.
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