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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. As a result. 1991. On September 4. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . This was identified internally as SunOS 5. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model.1. However. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. starting with Solaris 11. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. as part of the Illumos Foundation. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN).1 Usage with installation o 3. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4).x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. System V. and Xenix. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. While SunOS 4. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. SunOS 4.0 and later. with one based on SVR4. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. after full binary releases are made.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license.
Solaris 10.1 and the latest version. Sun dropped the "2. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. Solaris 2. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar.4 incorporated SunOS 5. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell . Other platforms Solaris 2.will "test. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.5. and IBM. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). supporting a large number of CPUs. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform).distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. As of 2009.7. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. HewlettPackard.5.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. After Solaris 2. announced its first official source code release. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. and the latest release SunOS 5.1 into OpenSolaris. . certify. This has often led to more reliable systems. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM .4. for example.10 forms the core of Solaris 10. However. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.functionality." from the number. In October 2006.6. with which it is marketed as a combined package.6 release.
etc. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". Additional software. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. like Apache. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. On October 17. IBM. 2007. MySQL. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. OpenCSW and Blastwave. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. On November 28. Sun.
) . Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. in a rack. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. where a console may normally be used. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. in a remote data center. plugged in. the MAC address registered into a central server. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. plugged in. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. the operating system still runs locally on the system. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. This may be selected for servers. in a local area. Applications may be individually installed on the local system.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. When Solaris is installed. In this configuration. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. without purchasing additional software management utilities. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse.
Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. but support libraries were still bundled. window manager. If there is a hardware failure.6. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. In Solaris 2.3. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. separated by a network connection. a common printing language released in 1982. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3.2. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. Applications. whether or not the work was saved. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. OpenWindows 3. and a user can start work immediately. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. placed on a desktop. which shipped with Solaris 2.0 to 2.Solaris can also be used from a thin client.3. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. . operating system.
4. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. for Solaris 8. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). . also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. The project has been inactive since late 2006. based on the GTK+ toolkit. along with numerous other window managers. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment.6 through 10. and was included in Solaris 2.0 as an alternative to CDE. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. IBM provided the file manager.5. In 2001. including StarOffice. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. Sun's office suite. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. As a member of COSE. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors.4 and 2. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10.
First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). Service Management Facility. First appearance of NIS+. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only).1. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added. First to support sun4d architecture. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. Solaris Containers. ZFS.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. . the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. SPARC-only release. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Doors.0 - 2. such as Solaris 10 10/09. In ascending order. Solaris Volume Manager.x 4.0 5.1 5.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes.2 5.
6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. Resource Manager. First unified SPARC/x86 release. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. sun4d support removed.3 5. iPlanet Directory Server. OpenWindows 3. WebNFS. large file support.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. OpenWindows dropped. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. Solaris Volume Manager. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). 2002 January 10. IPMP. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . and Linux compatibility added. TrueType fonts. Includes Kerberos 5. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. user and group IDs (uid_t. Includes Multipath I/O. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support.5 5.4 November 1994 2. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging).1c-1995 pthreads added. 2005 SPARC-only release.9 May 28.4 5.6 5. Solaris Containers. Doors added but undocumented. POSIX.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.5 November 1995 2.5. Ultra Enterprise support added. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5.5. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only).2. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. Only release to support PowerPC platform.10 January 31. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). extended file attributes.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.1 5. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. sun4c support removed. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. PAM. enhanced procfs. mdb modular debugger. IKE IPsec keying.1 May 1996 September 2005 2.
Least privilege security model. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. Logical . Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers.replaces init. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd).d scripts. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. NFSv4. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors. performance improvements. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project).
 • . Removes Xsun.11 November 15. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. virtual consoles. fast reboot. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. network virtualization and QoS. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. 11 Express 5. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools.11 2010. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. improvements to patching performance.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. ZFS encryption and deduplication. Solaris 10 Containers. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. updated GNOME. CDE. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives.
. taken near the time of its release. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2.0. which is then maintained as a derived project. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ.
and released build 151a as 2010. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals.11 in November 2010. In 2003. educational and evaluation purposes. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave .Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . replacing SXDE. It was updated every two weeks. with different license terms. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. until it was discontinued in January 2010. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. though the packages were made available on the package repository.05. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). In 2007.