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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
 The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. However. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5.1. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license.1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software.0 and later. SunOS 4. with one based on SVR4. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. after full binary releases are made.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. and Xenix. starting with Solaris 11.1 Usage with installation o 3. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2. through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. While SunOS 4. System V. As a result. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. as part of the Illumos Foundation. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. 1991. On September 4. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license.
 In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris." from the number. Solaris 2. Other platforms Solaris 2. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell . as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. HewlettPackard.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. . but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. announced its first official source code release.7. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.1 and the latest version.will "test. and the latest release SunOS 5. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms.4 incorporated SunOS 5. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture.6. However. In October 2006.5. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar. with which it is marketed as a combined package.functionality. certify. As of 2009. Sun dropped the "2. Solaris 10.6 release.1 into OpenSolaris.5.4. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. for example. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7). and IBM. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. supporting a large number of CPUs. After Solaris 2.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010.10 forms the core of Solaris 10. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). This has often led to more reliable systems.
based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. like Apache. and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). On November 28. OpenCSW and Blastwave. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. Additional software. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM". Sun. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. etc. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. On October 17. MySQL. IBM. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. 2007.
Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. When Solaris is installed. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server.) . a new workstation is pulled from a closet. This may be selected for servers. in a remote data center.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. In this configuration. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. where a console may normally be used. plugged in. plugged in. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. the operating system still runs locally on the system. or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops. without purchasing additional software management utilities. the MAC address registered into a central server. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. from a terminal server or even dial up modem. in a local area. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. in a rack.
providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications. whether or not the work was saved. Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. separated by a network connection.2. OpenWindows 3. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. Applications. window manager.6. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running.3. . Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. placed on a desktop.0 to 2. which shipped with Solaris 2. In Solaris 2.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. and a user can start work immediately. If there is a hardware failure. but support libraries were still bundled. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. a common printing language released in 1982.3. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers. operating system.Solaris can also be used from a thin client. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure.
Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops.4 and 2. and was included in Solaris 2. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. IBM provided the file manager. the Common Open Software Environment initiative. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it. In 2001.4. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11.5. based on the GTK+ toolkit. also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk).0 as an alternative to CDE. Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility. . As a member of COSE. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. The project has been inactive since late 2006. Sun's office suite. including StarOffice. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. along with numerous other window managers.6 through 10. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. for Solaris 8. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003.
Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only). Solaris Multiplexed I/O.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.1 December 1992 May 1993 2. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture. . Solaris Volume Manager. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added.0 5. Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Service Management Facility. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. First appearance of NIS+.0 - 2. SPARC-only release. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. In ascending order.x 4. ZFS.2 5. such as Solaris 10 10/09. First to support sun4d architecture.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). Doors. Solaris Containers.1. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris.1 5.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes.
Solaris Containers.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5.5 November 1995 2. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. Service Management Facility (SMF) which . First unified SPARC/x86 release. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. WebNFS. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. Only release to support PowerPC platform. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). PAM. large file support.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. Resource Manager.2. 2005 SPARC-only release.3 5.6 5. iPlanet Directory Server. sun4d support removed. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. OpenWindows 3. Doors added but undocumented. enhanced procfs. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2.5. POSIX.4 5. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). 2002 January 10. and Linux compatibility added.4 November 1994 2. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies.9 May 28. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. sun4c support removed.1c-1995 pthreads added. Ultra Enterprise support added. Solaris Volume Manager.10 January 31. IKE IPsec keying. Includes Multipath I/O. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. IPMP. user and group IDs (uid_t.5 5. mdb modular debugger. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). OpenWindows dropped.5.1 5. Includes Kerberos 5. TrueType fonts.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. extended file attributes.
iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems.replaces init. performance improvements. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors.d scripts. Least privilege security model. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Logical .  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. NFSv4. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop.
11 2010. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas.11 November 15. improvements to patching performance. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. Solaris 10 Containers. ZFS encryption and deduplication. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives. Removes Xsun. CDE.• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. virtual consoles. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. • . ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. network virtualization and QoS. fast reboot. updated GNOME. 11 Express 5. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration.
. taken near the time of its release. Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. which is then maintained as a derived project. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ.0. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.
Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris .11 in November 2010. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. In 2007. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave .05. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW .The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. educational and evaluation purposes. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later. until it was discontinued in January 2010. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. In 2003. with different license terms. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. though the packages were made available on the package repository. and released build 151a as 2010. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. replacing SXDE. It was updated every two weeks.
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