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Company / developer Oracle Corporation Programmed in C OS family Unix Working state Current Mixed open source / closed Source model source Initial release 1992 11 Express 2010.11 / Latest stable release November 15, 2010; 8 months ago Marketing target Workstation, Server Available language(s) English Available programming C languages(s) SPARC, IA-32, x86-64, Supported platforms PowerPC (Solaris 2.5.1 only) Kernel type Monolithic OpenSolaris Desktop or CDE Default user interface or GNOME License Various Official website oracle.com/solaris Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification.
1991. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Supported architectures o 2.2 Usage without installation 4 Desktop environments 5 License 6 Version history 7 Development release 8 See also 9 References 10 External links History In 1987. Oracle will also begin a technology partner program. updates to the Solaris source code will still be distributed under the CDDL license. While SunOS 4. The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. starting with Solaris 11. and Xenix. as part of the Illumos Foundation. with one based on SVR4.1 Usage with installation o 3. Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model.Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software. the OpenSolaris community forked the OpenIndiana project. then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license. This became Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4). through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN).1 Other platforms 3 Installation and usage options o 3.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. This was identified internally as SunOS 5.1. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSD-derived Unix. and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. System V. after full binary releases are made.0 and later. With OpenSolaris Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. to permit their industry partners access to the in-development Solaris source code. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. SunOS 4. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) . As a result. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix variants on the market at that time: BSD. However. On September 4.
6. Sun dropped the "2. and the latest release SunOS 5. and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM . Solaris 10." from the number.10 forms the core of Solaris 10. includes support for 64-bit x86 applications. for example. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7).5.1 and the latest version. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. which re-integrated the relevant parts from Solaris 2. announced its first official source code release.4 incorporated SunOS 5. In October 2006. the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems: • • • • • Dell . and IBM.7. Supported architectures Solaris uses a common code base for the platforms it supports: SPARC and i86pc (which includes both x86 and x86-64). Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. certify. This has often led to more reliable systems. Other platforms Solaris 2.6 release. HewlettPackard. Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing. Solaris 2. but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. After Solaris 2.also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard . with which it is marketed as a combined package. . supporting a large number of CPUs. Oracle Enterprise Linux and Oracle VM on their respective x86 platforms. and IBM stopped direct support for Solaris on x64 kit. Dell and HP certify and resell Oracle Solaris. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. but the port was canceled before the Solaris 2.1 into OpenSolaris.1 included support for the PowerPC platform (PowerPC Reference Platform). as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell.5. it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.4.functionality. In January 2006 a community of developers at Blastwave began work on a PowerPC port which they named Polaris. allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. an OpenSolaris community project based on the Blastwave efforts and Sun Labs' Project Pulsar.distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens As of July 2010. However.will "test. As of 2009.
and Sine Nomine Associates demonstrated a preview of OpenSolaris for System z running on an IBM System z mainframe under z/VM. OpenCSW and Blastwave. On October 17. Additional software.A port of Solaris to the Intel Itanium architecture was announced in 1997 but never brought to market. On November 28. etc. Solaris also supports the Linux platform ABI. Installation and usage options Solaris can be installed from various pre-packaged software groups. based on the branded zones functionality introduced in Solaris 10 8/07. Sun. called Sirius (in analogy to the Polaris project. MySQL. 2008 a prototype release of Sirius was made available and on November 19 the same year. can be installed as well in a packaged form from sunfreeware. This feature is called "Solaris Containers for Linux Applications" or SCLA. Installation of Solaris is not necessary for an individual to use the system. allowing Solaris to run native Linux binaries on x86 systems. IBM. Usage with installation Solaris 10 text installation . and also due to the primary developer's Australian nationality: HMS Sirius of 1786 was a ship of the First Fleet to Australia). IBM authorized the use of Sirius on System z IFL processors. like Apache. 2007. ranging from a minimalistic "Reduced Network Support" to a complete "Entire Plus OEM".
from a terminal server or even dial up modem. This may be selected for servers. or can be mounted via the network from a remote system. Applications may be individually installed on the local system. Solaris can be interactively installed from a graphical console. plugged in. the MAC address registered into a central server. This may be selected for businesses or educational institutions where rapid setup is required (workstations can be "rolled off" of a loading dock. and a user can resume their work from their last saved point. This may be selected for personal workstations or laptops.Solaris 10 graphical installation Solaris can be installed from physical media or a network for use on a desktop or server. in a local area. in a rack. Applications may or may not reside locally when they are running. and be immediately usable) or rapid replacement is required (if a desktop hardware failure occurs. When Solaris is installed. Usage without installation Solaris can be used without separately installing the operating system on a desktop or server. plugged in. without purchasing additional software management utilities. In this configuration. the operating system still runs locally on the system. Solaris can be automatically installed over a network. Solaris can be interactively installed from a text console on platforms without a video display and mouse. where a console may normally be used. System administrators can customize installations with scripts and configuration files. Solaris can be booted from a remote server providing an OS image in a diskless environment.) . or in an environment where an internal disk is only used for swap space. the operating system will reside on the same system where the installation occurred. a new workstation is pulled from a closet. in a remote data center. including configuration and automatic installation of third-party software.
Desktop environments olvwm with OpenWindows on Solaris Early releases of Solaris used OpenWindows as the standard desktop environment. Administrators can add a user account to a central Solaris system and a thin client can be rolled from a closet. and switched to X11R5 with Display Postscript support.3. whether or not the work was saved. but support libraries were still bundled. a common printing language released in 1982. operating system. . and a user can start work immediately. Sun later dropped support for legacy SunView applications and NeWS with OpenWindows 3. The OPEN LOOK Window Manager (olwm) with other OPEN LOOK specific applications were dropped in Solaris 9. The graphical look and feel remained based upon OPEN LOOK. OpenWindows supported both NeWS and X applications. Applications.Solaris can also be used from a thin client.3. The X Window System originated from MIT's Project Athena in 1984 and allowed for the display of an application to be disconnected from the machine where the application was running. and graphical rendering runs on one or more remote servers.2 was the last release under Solaris 8. The OPEN LOOK Virtual Window Manager (olvwm) can still be downloaded for Solaris from sunfreeware and works on releases as recent as Solaris 10. OpenWindows 3. placed on a desktop.2. If there is a hardware failure. Sun’s original bundled SunView application suite was ported to X. NeWS allowed applications to be built in an object oriented way using PostScript.6. and provided backward compatibility for SunView applications from Sun's older desktop environment. separated by a network connection. which shipped with Solaris 2.0 to 2. window manager. In Solaris 2. the thin client can be swapped and the user can resume their work from the exact point of failure. providing long term binary backwards compatibility with existing applications.
0 as an alternative to CDE. . Sun describes JDS as a "major component" of Solaris 10. It is considered by the Free Software Foundation to be free but the GPL is incompatible with it.4 and 2.4. The project has been inactive since late 2006. Each vendor contributed different components: HewlettPackard contributed the window manager. based on the GTK+ toolkit. the Common Open Software Environment initiative.Common Desktop Environment Sun and other Unix vendors created an industry alliance to standardize Unix desktops. Solaris 10 includes Sun's Java Desktop System (JDS). also compile and run on recent versions of Solaris. for Solaris 8. and Sun provided the e-mail and calendar facilities as well as drag-and-drop support (ToolTalk). The CDE applications are no longer included in OpenSolaris and Solaris 11. In 2001. along with numerous other window managers. Sun was investing in a new desktop environment called Project Looking Glass since 2003. but many libraries remain for binary backwards compatibility.5. including StarOffice. License Solaris' source code (with a few exceptions) has been released under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) via the OpenSolaris project. and was included in Solaris 2. As a member of COSE. IBM provided the file manager. The open source desktop environments KDE and Xfce. CDE was an initiative to create a standard Unix desktop environment. CDE unified Unix desktops across multiple open system vendors. Sun's office suite. Solaris 9 8/03 introduced GNOME 2. This new desktop environment was based upon the Motif look and feel and the old OPEN LOOK desktop environment was considered legacy. Sun helped codevelop the Common Desktop Environment. The CDDL is an OSI-approved license.6 through 10. which is based on GNOME and comes with a large set of applications. CDE was available as an unbundled add-on for Solaris 2. Sun issued a preview release of the open-source desktop environment GNOME 1.
Updates to Solaris versions are periodically released. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. SPARC-only release. support 1999 for only the sun4c architecture.x 4. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP. first Solaris x86 April 1999 release. Support for sun4 and sun4m architectures added.0 - 2. Source for upcoming features such as Xen support is now added to the OpenSolaris project as a matter of course. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Colour Meaning Red Release no longer supported Green Release still supported Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. First to support sun4d architecture.1.2 5. .0 5. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. Preliminary release (primarily January available to developers only). In ascending order. First appearance of NIS+. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. both binary and source versions are currently downloadable and licensed without cost. and Sun has said that future releases of Solaris proper will henceforth be derived from OpenSolaris. Doors. Solaris Volume Manager. Service Management Facility.1 5. First to support May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread). Version history Solaris logo introduced with Solaris 10 and used until Oracle's acquisition of Sun Notable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. Solaris Containers. ZFS.OpenSolaris was seeded on June 14.2 May 1993 - SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. such as Solaris 10 10/09.x 1991– 1994 June 1992 - End of support Major new features 2. 2005 from the then-current Solaris development code base.1 December 1992 May 1993 2.
Service Management Facility (SMF) which .5. Includes Kerberos 5. iPlanet Directory Server. Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. Only release to support PowerPC platform. 2005 SPARC-only release.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). sun4c support removed. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). Resource Manager. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04.8 February 2000 March 2012 9 5. First unified SPARC/x86 release. large file support. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. Includes Multipath I/O. Solaris Volume Manager.3 November 1993 - June 2002 September 2003 December 2003 2. user and group IDs (uid_t. Solaris Containers.1 5. PAM.2.1 May 1996 September 2005 2. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE.9 May 28. Introduced Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). WebNFS. enhanced procfs. 2003 October 2014 - 10 5.5 5.7 November 1998 August 2008 8 5. IPMP.5 November 1995 2.3 5.10 January 31.6 July 1997 July 2006 7 5. gid_t) expanded to 32 bits. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. 2002 January 10. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. OpenWindows 3. Ultra Enterprise support added. IKE IPsec keying. Dropped MCA support on x86 platform.4 5. and Linux compatibility added.6 5. POSIX. Added native support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). sun4d support removed. Doors added but undocumented.4 November 1994 2. OpenWindows dropped. mdb modular debugger. TrueType fonts.1c-1995 pthreads added.5. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. Includes x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. extended file attributes. Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support.
 IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). NFSv4. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. performance improvements. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. Logical . Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd).d scripts.  Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. Least privilege security model. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors.replaces init.  • • • • • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems.
• • • Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O.11 November 15. ZFS encryption and deduplication. Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. updated GNOME. virtual consoles. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. improvements to patching performance. Removes Xsun. Solaris 10 9/10 ("U9") added physical to zone migration. 2010 - Solaris 10 8/11 ("U10") Adds new packaging system (IPS=Image Packaging System) and associated tools. Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. fast reboot.11 2010. Solaris 10 Containers. and paravirtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. ZFS triple parity RAID-Z and Oracle Solaris Auto Registration. CDE. 11 Express 5. • . network virtualization and QoS. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solidstate drives.
 Development release The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. taken near the time of its release. which is then maintained as a derived project. .0. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out. A more comprehensive summary of some Solaris versions is also available. Solaris releases are also described in the Solaris 2 FAQ. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase.
 It was updated every two weeks.software packages for production Sparc and x86/AMD64 Solaris 8 upwards Comparison of operating systems Illumos OpenCSW . a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. Instead Oracle renamed the binary distro to Solaris 11 Express. The next release of OpenSolaris based on build 134 was due in March 2010 but it was never fully released. renamed Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). with different license terms. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. with users recommended to migrate to the OpenSolaris distribution. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. and released build 151a as 2010.11 in November 2010. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) was intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. until it was discontinued in January 2010.The Solaris version under development by Sun since the release of Solaris 10 in 2005 is codenamed Nevada. See also • • • • • • • • • • Blastwave . Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. though the packages were made available on the package repository. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. In 2007. SXCE releases terminated with build 130 and OpenSolaris releases terminated with build 134 a few weeks later.Software forked from Blastwave OpenIndiana OpenSolaris Operating systems timeline Sun Management Center Sun xVM Trusted Solaris . A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. In 2003. educational and evaluation purposes. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). replacing SXDE.05.
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