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The thermometric effect is the direct conversion of the temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. Simply put a thermoelectric device creates a voltage where there is a different temperature on each side a when and voltage is supplied to it creates a temperature difference. This effect can be used to generate electricity, to measure temperature, to cool the objects or to heat them. Because the direction of heating and cooling is determined by the size of applied voltage, thermoelectric devices make very convenient temperature controllers.

To find the possibilities of making use of energy produced as per the THOMPSON theory of different appliances.

Study the Thompson effect Study how energy can be stored Study the working of a motor Study how the energy from the motor can be transferred to the equipments used.

Traditionally, thermoelectric effect or thermoelectricity encompasses three separately effects, the Thompson effect, the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. The Peltier and the Seebeck effects are the most basic effects and are essentially the inverse of one other for which reason the thermoelectric effect may also be called the Peltier-Seebeck effect. The Peltier-Seebeck and the Thompson effects are reversible. Joule heating has not been reversed but it is theoretically possible under the law of Thermodynamics.

The Thompson effect was predicted and subsequently observed by William Thompson [Lord Kelvin] in 1851. It describes the heating or cooling of a current carrying conductor with a temperature gradient. Any current carrying conductors (except Lead) with a temperature difference between two points either absorb or release heat, depending on the material. If a current density (J) is passed through a homogeneous conductor heat production per circuit volume is

Where, is the resistivity of the material

is the temperature gradient along the wire is the Thompson Coefficient

The first term

is simply the Joule heating which is not reversible.

The second term is Thompson heat which changes sign when J changes direction. In metals such as zinc and copper which have a hotter end at a higher potential and cooler end at a lower potential when to the Thompson coefficient by the second Thompson relation.

The figure of merit foe thermoelectric devices is defined as

Electrical conductivity Thermal conductivity Seebeck co-efficient or thermopower This is more commonly expressed as dimensionless figure of merit ZT by multiplying it with the average temperature. The value of figure of merit is usually proportional to the efficiency of the device subject to certain provisions, particularly the requirement that the two materials of the couple have same Z values. ZT is therefore very convenient figure for comparing the potential efficiency of devices using different materials. Values of ZT =1 are considered good values of at least the 3-4 range are considered to be essential for thermoelectrics to compete with mechanical generation and refrigeration in efficiency. To date the best reported values of ZT have been in 2-3 range. Much research in thermoelectric materials has focussed on increasing the Seebeck co-efficient and reducing the thermal conductivity, especially by manipulating the nanostructure of materials.


Thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of the temperature difference to the electric voltage and vice versa. Simply put a thermometric device creates a voltage where there is a different temperature on each side, and when voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. This effect can be used to generate electricity- or energy which could be a form of energy. By storing these energy in a battery we can work different equipments even for large scale purposes. Such a large scale equipment is HANDFREE VEGETABLE CUTTER.

As per the diagram using the theory of the Thompson effect the energy produced can be stored in a battery. These batteries can be replaced in motor, which is connected to a handfree vegetable cutter using a belt. With the rotation of belt, the knife in the vegetable moves up and down and thus the vegetables can be cut off. Using different models of knife we can cut different types of vegetables in their own ways. Vegetable cutter has also two other part also in which one of the equipment is directly connected to the motor- the Grinder. At the same time of cutting vegetables fleshy part of coconut can be peeled using its equipment. The efficiency of the equipment can also be increased by using thick metal wires, increasing the number of turns of the wire or by using a magnet. In this device we can make use of the equipment without electricity or current produced to be used.

Each metal is characterised by a work function- the energy required to remove the highest energy free electron in the metal is infinity. When two metals A and B are joined together, electrons in the metal with smaller value are at higher energy than those in the metal with greater value. If A is less than B, electrons flow from higher to lower energy levels is from metal A to B. This sets up a potential difference between A and B. The work function of the metal varies with temperature and this variation is different for different metals. Consequently the contact potential at a junction of two metals varies with temperature. Thus, the factory vegetable cutter works with this principle.



The important applications of thermoelectric effects are 1. Measurement of the temperature. 2. Detection of the thermal radiators. 3. Devices like thermoelectric refrigerators and generators.
1.Measurement of the Temperature [Thermoelectric Thermometer]

The principle of a thermoelectric thermometer is the increase of thermo emf with the rise of temperature of one junction keeping the other junction at the steady temperature. The deflection of the sensitive galvanometer when connected in series through the thermocouple gives a measure of the temperature of the hot junction. The galvanometer can be calibrated to read the temperature directly it from it, for example, a constant thermocouple can be used to temperatures upto 3000C . Platinum-Rhodium alloy can be used to measure temperatures upto 16000C. 2. Thermopile The thermopile is a device to measure a small temperature differences and to detect and measure the intensity of thermal radiations. It consists of a series of Antimony-Bismuth thermocouples connected in series to add up the thermo emf developed in each. One set of junctions (A) of the thermo couples is exposed to other set of junction (B) is covered by an insulating lid as shown in figure. The exposed junction are blackened to increase the absorption capability. The galvanometer connected in series to the thermopile shows deflection proportional to the intensity of the incident radiation.

PARAMETERS Potential difference (V) Current (A) Energy (J)


By doing this project, we came to know how energy is produced through Thompson Effect can be produced on a large scale for commercial purposes to get economical yield. Also we know how to store the energy and use it wisely.