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Assignment 6

Q1: How multi-programming ensure the effective utilization of main memory and CPU? Ans: Multiprogramming is a feature of an OS which allows running multiple programs simultaneously on 1 CPU. So, say, you may be typing in word, listening to music while in background IE is downloading is multiprogramming. Therefore, this technique used because of the effective utilization of the Main Memory & CPU. For e.g. Windows XP, Linux are those OS which are used multiprogramming technique. Multiprogramming OS supports multiple concurrent processes and allow the instruction and data from two or more separate processes to reside in primary memory simultaneously and work on them concurrently for execution. So, when a process wait for input/output, mean time CPU must not remain free and work on other processes and kept busy all the time. Therefore it utilizes the CPU effectively as well as main memory. Q2: Elaborate I/O bound and CPU bound processes. Ans: I/O bound: I/O bound refers to a condition in which the time it takes to complete a computation is determined principally by the period of time spent waiting for input/output operations to be completed. This circumstance arises when the rate at which data is requested is slower than the rate it is consumed or, in other words, more time is spent requesting data than processing it. CPU bound: When computer spending more of its time in computing is CPU bound (or compute bound). Therefore, It is when the time for a computer to complete a task is determined principally by the speed of the central processor: processor utilization is high, perhaps at 100% usage for many seconds or minutes. Interrupts generated by peripherals may be processed slowly, or indefinitely delayed. Q3: Multiprogramming and the time sharing both involve user processing in the computer concurrently. What is the basic difference within the two? Ans: Time sharing is for multi-user computer systems. It is a way of sharing out computer facilities between a numbers of people who want to use the computer at the same time. Each has a separate terminal and gets the impression that they have sole use of the computer with their own 'account'. Whereas Multiprogramming is a form of processing in which a computer holds more than one program in memory and works on them in round. Therefore, It is a term used to describe how a computer can run more than one application at the same time by dividing up its memory. Q4: How job are typically executed in a batch processing system? Ans: Batch processing is execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction.

Batch jobs are set up so they can be run to completion without human interaction, so all input data is preselected through scripts or command-line parameters and entered into the system by user in the mean time the CPU remain idle. After that, CPU begins its working for the execution of the jobs and in mean time user has to remain idle to wait for the process to terminate. So, one side has to remain idle in batch processing meanwhile other is doing work on that process. Also it uses various algorithms like FCFS, SJF, Priority based for the execution of the jobs. Q5: What is the application of real time system? Ans: Real-time Systems are the combination of hardware and software systems that are subject to a "real-time constraint"i.e., operational deadlines from event to system response. By contrast, a non-real-time system is one for which there is no deadline, even if fast response or high performance is desired or even preferred. A real time system may be one where its application can be considered (within context) to be mission critical. The anti-lock brakes on a car are a simple example of a real-time computing system the real-time constraint in this system is the short time in which the brakes must be released to prevent the wheel from locking. Real-time computations can be said to have failed if they are not completed before their deadline, where their deadline is relative to an event. A system is said to be real-time if the total correctness of an operation depends not only upon its logical correctness, but also upon the time in which it is performed. The classical conception is that in a hard or immediate real-time system, the completion of an operation after its deadline is considered useless - ultimately, this may lead to a critical failure of the complete system. A soft real-time system on the other hand will tolerate such lateness, and may respond with decreased service quality (e.g., dropping frames while displaying a video). In the real time system each process is assigned a certain level of priority to the relative importance of the even it processes. The processor is normally allocated to the highest priority process among those which are ready to execute. Higher priority process usually pre-empt execution of lower priority processes. This form of scheduling called, priority based pre-emptive scheduling is used by a majority of real time systems. Q6: Open office and MS Office are the suit for office applications. How they differ? Ans: Open Office: OpenOffice.org (OO.o or OOo) is an office application suite available for a number of different computer operating systems. It supports the Open Document standard for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office '97-2003 formats, among many others. OpenOffice.org is based on StarOffice, an office suite developed by StarDivision and acquired by Sun Microsystems in August 1999. The source code of the suite was released in July 2000 with the aim of reducing the dominant market share of Microsoft Office by providing a free, open and high-quality alternative. OpenOffice.org is free software, available under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). Its basic features are:1. 2. 3. 4.

Free Can make pdf files directly Files made in Open Office don't open on commonly used MS Office Applications Database making is too hard

5. BUGGYYYY!!!!!!!!!!! (what do u expect from free stuff)

Microsoft Office: Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications, servers and services, collectively referred to as an office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems. Office was introduced by Microsoft in 1989 on Mac OS,[1] with a version for Windows in 1990.[2] Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Additionally, a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-ofbusiness software under the Office Business Applications (OBA) brand. Its basic features are:1. Expensive

2. SUPERB!!! 3. Can't make pdf files directly 4. Files open every where as 95% of general public uses MS Office and these files also open on Open Office. 5. Database (Access) easy to use 6. Minor bugs Q7: How MS Word different from the word perfect? Ans: Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect are two entirely different programs. there is a significant difference between the 2 programs: Word is Object-Oriented, WordPerfect is Stream-Formatted. What does this mean? Well, this basically means that when you make a change to a WordPerfect document, the changes take effect 'From THAT Point Forward'. You generally don't need to select an Object (e.g., a word, sentence, or a paragraph) in order to effect a change. You can simply select a color, a font, a paragraph style, etc, and the whole document will be affected (as stated, from that point forward). Stream Formatted is, as you can imagine, like a stream of formatting that flows throughout the document. Word, on the other hand, is object-oriented. Every letter, word, sentence, and paragraph is an object. To help people grasp the concept of object-oriented programming, Microsoft uses a simple analogy: oranges. You can imagine that an orange has several attributes that can be changed: it has a color, a texture, etc. It can be changed by being painted or peeled. Therefore, once you understand that you need to select an object when you want to manipulate your Word document, you begin to understand how to work in Word. Following are the main differences between them:
1.

In WP, a new document is always on the screen.

PDF documents is integrated into WP. But, you would have to either pay for Acrobat, buy a cheap PDF-producing program, or put up with a banneradvertisement (free) program in order to be able to publish Word documents to PDF. 3. Word allows you to Paste as a Hyperlink within your document. 4. In Word 2000, Microsoft added a Clipboard that allowed you to collect up to 12 items to Windows' standard Clipboard. Corel followed by adding a Clipbook to WP10, but MS increased the number of items in Word XP to 24 AND added a superb interfaceutilizing MSO's new Task Pane.
2.

Q8: Compare view menu of MS Excel 2003 with MS Excel 2007. Ans: View menu of MS Excel 2003:

View Menu of MS Excel 2007:

Q9: What is the application of clipboard in the MS Word? Ans: When text or an object is cut, copied and pasted. MS Word used a special area of memory called the clipboard. In older version of word, only one item could be stored in it at a time. In word 2000, the clipboard can store up to 12 cut or copied items. When you add more than one item to the clipboard, the clipboard toolbar opens. To paste an item from the clipboard, place your insertion point in the document where you want the items to appear, and then click the appropriate button on the clipboard. The main applications of clipboard have as follows:

i)

ii)

iii) iv) v)

vi)

The Office Clipboard can hold 4 megabytes (MB) of data or 12 items, whichever occurs first. If you attempt to copy a selection that is larger than 4 MB, you may receive an error message and you will be prompted to clear the Clipboard or close it. If the Office Clipboard is not visible or is turned off, selections that you copy using CTRL+C overwrite any previous item copied to the clipboard. In other words, the Office Clipboard behaves like the Windows clipboard. To copy multiple items to the Office Clipboard by pressing CTRL+C, turn on the Office Clipboard. To do this, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click Clipboard. NOTE: Pressing CTRL+V always pastes only the last item copied to the clipboard. Using the Paste All command pastes all items in a column. The data stored in the Office Clipboard is stored in HTML format. The contents of the Office Clipboard are deleted when the current session ends. If you have one Office program running, the contents of the Office Clipboard are deleted when you close that program. If you have multiple Office programs running, the contents of the Office Clipboard are deleted after you close the last Office program. If the same item is copied twice in succession, the Office Clipboard does not store the item twice. If you copy the same item twice, but not in succession, two copies of the item are stored on the Office Clipboard. The Office Clipboard does not store two different items that are copied in succession if the calculated value of both items is the identical. For example, if you enter the value 1 in cell A1 and the formula =A1 in cell A2, display the Office Clipboard, copy cell A1, and then copy cell A2, only one copy of the item is placed on the clipboard.

Q10: Elaborate the application of spreadsheet? Ans: A table of values arranged in rows and columns is called spreadsheet in computers programs. Each value can have a predefined relationship to the other values. If you change one value, therefore, you may need to change other values as well. Spreadsheet applications (sometimes referred to simply as spreadsheets) are computer programs that let you create and manipulate spreadsheets electronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell. You can define what type of data is in each cell and how different cells depend on one another. The relationships between cells are called formulas, and the names of the cells are called labels. Once you have defined the cells and the formulas for linking them together, you can enter your data. You can then modify selected values to see how all the other values change accordingly. This enables you to study various what-if scenarios. A simple example of a useful spreadsheet application is one that calculates mortgage payments for a house. You would define five cells: 1. total cost of the house 2. down payment

3. mortgage rate 4. mortgage term 5. monthly payment Once you had defined how these cells depend on one another, you could enter numbers and play with various possibilities. For example, keeping all the other values the same, you could see how different mortgage rates would affect your monthly payments. There are a number of spreadsheet applications on the market, Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel being among the most famous. The more powerful spreadsheet applications support graphics features that enable you to produce charts and graphs from the data. Most spreadsheet applications are multidimensional, meaning that you can link one spreadsheet to another. A three-dimensional spreadsheet, for example, is like a stack of spreadsheets all connected by formulas. A change made in one spreadsheet automatically affects other spreadsheets.