Você está na página 1de 247

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSO ON-LINE DE INGLS - APRESENTAO Al, pessoal Gostaria de lhes dizer umas palavrinhas sobre mim e sobre o curso de ingls on-line preparatrio para o concurso da Receita Federal. Chamo-me Carlos Augusto Pereira, nasci em Belm do Par e vim para o Rio com meus pais quando tinha menos de trs anos de idade. E, por isso, tenho que aturar a gozao dos meus alunos que dizem que eu sou parioca. Tudo bem! Em 1969 completei o curso de Economia na antiga UEG (Universidade do Estado da Guanabara, atual UERJ), onde obtive o diploma de Diploma de Bacharel em Cincias Econmicas. Sou professor de ingls desde 1968, com formao no IBEU (Instituto Brasil Estados Unidos), onde obtive o Certificado de Proficincia em Ingls da Universidade de Michigan (EUA); e na Cultura Inglesa, onde obtive o Certificado de Proficincia em Ingls da Universidade de Cambridge. Na rea de preparao para concursos pblicos venho preparando turmas, nas mais diversas reas, desde o meu ingresso na Receita Federal em 1977. J tive a oportunidade de dar aulas em vrios cursos aqui no Rio de Janeiro: Curso Gabarito, M&G, Companhia dos Mdulos. Aposentei-me na SRF em 1999 e a partir da venho dedicando a maior parte do meu tempo a escrever meus livros de ingls, os quais cito com orgulho: Ingls para Concursos Ed. Campus/ Elsevier, Ingls 500 Questes com Gabarito Comentado Ed. Campus / Elsevier, Practicing Collocation (Como tornar o seu Ingls mais Fluente) Ed. Impetus. Fiquei muito feliz com o convite do Prof. Vicente Paulo para estruturar um curso de ingls on-line aqui no Ponto dos Concursos. Nosso curso ter a durao de dez semanas. Todas as aulas sero dadas em Portuglish (uma mistura de portugus e ingls) - com o devido perdo pelo trocadilho infame. Destaco a seguir os objetivos do curso e os principais itens do contedo programtico: develop reading strategies aiming at improving reading comprehension [desenvolver as estratgias de leitura visando melhoria da compreenso de textos];
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br PDF processed with CutePDF evaluation edition www.CutePDF.com 1

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Reading and Comprehension of Authentic English Texts; [leitura e Compreenso de textos ingleses autnticos]; Vocabulary Build-Up through the study of cognates, affixes (prefixes and suffixes), function / content words, discourse markers, modal verbs, collocations (noun + noun, verb+ noun, adjective + noun, etc); [construo do vocabulrio atravs do estudo dos cognatos, afixos (prefixos e sufixos), palavras funcionais e de contedo, marcadores do discurso, verbos auxiliares modais, estudo das collocations - combinaes de subst. + subst., verbo + subst., adj. + subst., etc] Grammar / Usage Essentials (such as: summary of verb tenses, pronouns (personal, possessive, interrogative, demonstrative, relative ), passive voice, if-clauses (conditions), comparatives / superlatives, confusable words [Gramtica e uso do ingls essenciais (tais como: resumo dos tempos verbais, pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, interrogativos, demonstrativos, relativos ...), voz passiva, oraes condicionais, grau comparativo / superlativo, palavras que causam confuso] Analysis of Past Exam Questions [Anlise de Questes de Exames Anteriores] Mock Test // Final Exam. [Teste Simulado // Exame Final] Utilizem o FORUM para fazer as perguntas que julgarem necessrias. Procurarei responder a todas e caso haja necessidade de reformular o nosso curso de ingls on-line, no tenham dvida de que o faremos. E, agora, mos obra! Passemos a aula demonstrativa. Quando tiver completado o estudo dessa aula e feito os exerccios nela includos, no deixe de se auto-avaliar. Pergunte a si mesmo quantos daqueles objetivos destacados no final voc atingiu. Se houver alguma dvida mande sua pergunta para ser analisada e, se for o caso, respondida no FORUM. Agora, passemos a aula demonstrativa. Best wishes, always.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

AULA ZERO: THE SEARCH FOR TRUE COGNATES


A BUSCA DOS VERDADEIROS COGNATOS

Em ingls h um grande nmero de palavras cuja raiz latina ou grega nos ajuda no reconhecimento de seu significado. So os verdadeiros cognatos, cujo significado em portugus, na grande maioria dos casos, aquele mesmo que aparenta ser. A pronncia em ingls desses true cognates pode ser um pouco ou bastante diferente; porm, a semelhana ortogrfica : A) TOTAL: B) GRANDE: C) MENOR: instrumental, professor, global, crime, vital, ardor, ... important, honest, president, context, future, aspect, ... article, disposition, vitality, authority, visible, ...

From theory to practice: TASK: No trecho abaixo sublinhe ou faa highlighting com caneta marcatexto dos verdadeiros cognatos. Assinale tambm nomes de pases, numerais, e quaisquer outros sinais pictogrficos, tais como %, &, @,etc, se houver, mas no marque palavras como it, without, and, with ... mesmo que sejam parte do seu vocabulrio ativo. INDIA and BRAZIL
India and Brazil are two nations each with histories of colonization which are now both hoping that their natural oil reserves will provide a financial base upon which to build a healthy economy.

It goes without saying that developing nations require substantial energy 5 resources from which they can fuel the growth of their infrastructures. India and Brazil are exemplary as two nations that have been classified in this developing matrix despite having very different histories, both as colonies and as nations. The energy industry is booming in both regions and has done so since the dawn of the 20th century, yet Brazil is obviously the more advanced in the sector. Despite the 10 same developing status, Brazils energy industry outranks Indias in almost every aspect and while both countries exhibit promise, one cannot help wonder what the Indian energy sector needs to catapult the country into the status of a self-sufficient state. One might consider India to be a distant step behind Brazil, with both falling several steps behind the major oil & gas producing nations. Yet the potential that lies 15 behind such sleeping giants is immense, and the world is TAKING NOTICE as energy becomes an issue of greater importance.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

(Excerpt from Britain Brasil magazine, by Samir Bhojwani, July / August 2002, p. 32)

Segundo os fillogos, de 20 a 30% dos vocbulos de um texto podem se constituir de verdadeiros cognatos; s vezes mais se o texto for de carter muito tcnico. No texto anterior, de aproximadamente 180 palavras, voc facilmente conseguir marcar 30% dos vocbulos ou at mais. Confronte suas marcaes com aquelas feitas por mim na folha de respostas. Para traduzir alguns dos itens do quadro abaixo, voc talvez tenha que consultar um dicionrio. claro que na hora da prova voc no ter tempo para executar todos os passos desta atividade, nem ter acesso a um dicionrio, mas nosso objetivo fazer com que voc se familiarize com esta reading strategy pois ela lhe permitir chegar a um nmero mnimo de palavras, locues ou expresses cujo significado no possvel descobrir facilmente.
GLOSSARY/ CONTENT WORDS TRANSLATION

It goes without saying fuel the growth a healthy economy energy resources the dawn of the 20th century Brazil outranks India cannot help wonder what lies behind an issue of greater importance

VOCABULARY BUILD-UP
CONSTRUO DE VOCABULRIO

Ningum constri seu vocabulrio em ingls overnight. Da noite para o dia no se consegue nada. Leva tempo e requer dedicao. Para ajudar voc nesta tarefa possvel desenvolver diversas estratgias destinadas a provocar o insight, aquele estalo, que, no devido tempo, vai permitir a voc ler os textos muito mais fluentemente. KEY WORDS (PALAVRAS-CHAVE) No estudo de vocabulrio em ingls fundamental distinguir entre function words e content words. IO QUE SO FUNCTION WORDS?
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

So palavras como pronomes, adjetivos, conjunes, preposies, advrbios, ... que exercem uma funo na frase; seja de sujeito, complemento verbal, ou meros marcadores do discurso. From the text INDIA and BRAZIL and, are, each, with, of , which, both, that, their, will, upon, a, we, if, our, from, but, it, without, they, can, as, despite, very, is, has, so, since, yet, every, while, one, more, almost, cannot, to, what, into, might, behind, several, such, an. II O QUE SO CONTENT WORDS? So as palavras de que nos utilizamos para designar aes, objetos, emoes. Obviamente formam um grupo muito mais numeroso do que aquele das function words. From the text INDIA and BRAZIL India, Brazil, nations, histories, colonization, natural, reserves, provide, financial, base, healthy, economy, go, saying, developing, require, substantial, energy, resources, fuel, growth, infrastructures, exemplary, classified, matrix, different, colonies, energy, industry, booming, regions, dawn, century, obviously, advanced, sector, same, status, outranks, aspect, exhibit, promise, help, wonder, needs, catapult, self-sufficient, state, consider, distant, step, falling, major, oil, producing, potential, lies, sleeping, giants, immense, world, notice, issue, greater, importance. THE FALSE COGNATES
OS FALSOS COGNATOS

H os falsos cognatos de que tanto gostam os examinadores. Em nmero bem reduzido e cuja incidncia tambm bem menor, thank God! Os falsos cognatos, ou false friends, merecem um estudo atencioso. Veja o caso da palavra notice, usada como substantivo no texto anterior: um exemplo de falso cognato, pois no significa notcia (= news). Procure estudar os principais. 1. Actual (adj.) // Actually (adv.)
Quem se lembra das palavras exatas do Prof. Dark?

Exs.: Who remembers Prof. Darks actual words? Actually, my father is not a professional actor; he just loves acting.
Na verdade, meu pai no ator profissional; ele apenas adora representar.

Ento como se diz atual // atualmente em ingls?


www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Exs.: The current year, 2005, is not a Leap Year. O presente ano, 2005, no bissexto. Today nobody uses typewriters at the office any more.
Atualmente ningum usa mais mquinas de escrever no escritrio.

Nowadays most everybody uses computers at home and at work.


Hoje em dia (Atualmente), a maioria das pessoas usa computadores em casa e no trabalho.

2.

Eventually (adv.)
Finalmente os sobreviventes chegaram ao porto sos e salvos.

Ex.: Eventually the survivors got to the harbor safe and sound. Ento como se diz eventualmente em ingls? De vrias maneiras: sometimes, at times, now and then, occasionally ... Exs.: I spend my summer vacation at my uncles beach house now and then.
Eventualmente passo minhas ferias de vero na casa de praia do meu tio

I still visit her occasionally.


Eventualmente ainda vou visit-la.

3.

Pretend (r.v.)

ta verbinho perigoso! Como voc j deve imaginar, no significa pretender em portugus: Ex.: The little girl was pretending that she had a fever.
A garotinha estava fingindo estar com febre.

Ento como se diz pretender em ingls? Use o verbo to intend ou to have the intention of She intends to fool her teacher.
Ela pretende enganar sua professora.

Jill has the intention of moving out to the suburbs.


Jill pretende mudar para o subrbio.

4.

Assist (r.v.)

No significa assistir, estar presente e, sim, ajudar. Ex.: An experienced nurse assisted Dr. Caldwell during the surgery.
Uma enfermeira experiente ajudou o Dr. Caldwell durante a cirurgia.

As I dont have assistants, I have to do all the work by myself.


Como no tenho auxiliares preciso fazer todo o trabalho sozinho.

Ento como se diz assistir, estar presente em ingls? Use o verbo to attend ou be present at Lots of new students attended my class.
Muitos alunos novos assistiram a minha aula. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

LISTAR OU NO LISTAR
Em vrias publicaes voc encontra listas algumas bem extensas - com false cognates. Minha sugesto, no entanto, a seguinte: seja seletivo, prtico e criativo. Faa uma listinha com os itens que passarem por essa peneira: INo inclua um verbo como amass (= coletar, juntar) por ser parecido com o verbo amassar do portugus. Se voc consultar um bom dicionrio ingls-ingls encontrar a expresso to amass a fortune (= fazer uma fortuna) nica combinao que, em todos esses anos de magistrio, eu encontrei para este verbo.

Como voc diria amassar em ingls? Ex.: She crunched up the chocolate wrapper and threw it away.
Ela amassou o papel do chocolate e jogou-o fora.

II - Na mesma situao eu colocaria verbos como enroll, o substantivo enrollment. Parece com enrolar // enrolao? Parece. Mas basta voc conhecer as expresses enroll in a course (= matricular-se num curso) / university enrollment (= matrculas nas universidades). III - No inclua palavras como port. Ser que voc traduziria por porta? Hum, not likely! IV - No mesmo caso estaria bonds, por achar semelhana com bondes. Basta abrir o jornal todos os dias para ver a cotao dos bonds (= ttulos do governo). VOutra. Voc incluiria data (= dados) porque parece com data (dia, ms, ano)? Again, muito improvvel. Basta lembrar de data processing (= processamento de dados).

VI -- A meu ver no h necessidade de listar tambm entries como mayor (= prefeito), por que parece com maior, comumente usado como adjetivo, mas que pode ser um substantivo tambm. desprezvel a probabilidade de o contexto em que mayor aparece no deixar claro que se est falando do prefeito de uma cidade. Summing up! Inclua na sua lista s o false friend que possa passar uma rasteira em voc; num texto ou numa questo de prova, que possa induzi-lo ao erro. Desse modo, estar personalizando seu trabalho. O que um false friend problemtico para outro pode no ser para voc.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

WORD FORMS
FORMAO DAS PALAVRAS

de grande utilidade o estudo das word forms do ingls. Quanto mais familiarizado voc estiver com os vrios affixes (prefixes / suffixes) mais facilidade ter em decoding novos significados, e mais fluentemente voc conseguir ler. Aumente o seu vocabulary power com esse estudo sistemtico. Study words in families. TASK: Use os integrantes da famlia do verbo regular to develop (=desenvolver) no pargrafo a seguir:

Sample paragraph developed development developing undeveloped

After reading the text India and Brazil we learn that it would be inaccurate to describe both countries as __________ or under- ___________. Brazil and India have reachedsuch a high level of economic __________ recently that when we look at the potential both countries have, we come to the conclusion that the two giants must be described, more precisely, as ___________ nations. Voc saberia responder, qual o afixo mais precioso, mais freqente e que nenhum English student pode deixar de saber? Eu arriscaria afirmar que o sufixo ed - formador do past tense e do past participle dos verbos regulares ingleses. Com exceo daqueles verbos irregulares (150 mais comuns, aproximadamente) cujas formas tm que ser memorizadas os milhares de outros verbos so regulares. Mesmo no texto India and Brazil, onde o past tense usado, o sufixo ed aparece. ...that have been classified in this developing matrix (L-6)
que vm sendo classificadas na rede daquelas (naes) em desenvolvimento.

Aqui se trata do partcpio passado de to classify(r.v) (= classificar) Um fenmeno interessante vem acontecendo modernamente no ingls. Voc j reparou quantos verbos regulares tm surgido? Surgiu a necessidade e eles sapecam o ed na palavra e a transsformam num verbo regular? Exs.: The bank manager initialed my check. So he okayed it!
O gerente do banco rubricou meu cheque. Portanto deu seu OK!

I e-mailed you yesterday. Dont tell me you didnt read it.


Eu te enviei um e-mail ontem. No me diga que voc no o leu.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

EXPLOITATION OF THE TEXT INDIA AND BRAZIL


EXPLORAO DO TEXTO INDIA AND BRAZIL

1.

Procure no texto trs construes com o present simple tense: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Procure no texto duas construes com o present continuous tense: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Procure no texto duas construes com o present perfect tense: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Que outra expresso em ingls pode ser usada como sinnimo de it goes without saying(L-4)? Pesquise. ___________________________________ A palavra NOTICE, usada como substantivo, um exemplo de falso cognato, [falso amigo] pois no significa notcia (= news). Como voc traduziria a expresso TAKING NOTICE no texto? ____________________________________________________ Releia o texto e d a traduo da palavra while in while both countries exhibit promise _____________________________________ preciso muita ateno com as palavras terminada em ing. Qual o significado das seguintes palavras no texto? developing (L-4) ____________ booming (L-8) _______________ hoping (L-2) _______________ falling (L-14) ________________ taking (L-15) _______________ sleeping (L-13)_______________ Qual o significado das seguintes function words (palavras funcionais) no texto? each _______________ both _______________ since _______________ behind _______________ every _______________ almost _______________

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

VOCABULARY BUILD UP ICaso voc continue ctico com relao validade da procura dos verdadeiros cognatos em textos, faa o mesmo que voc aprendeu nesta aula com o texto da prova ESAF /TRF /2002 a seguir:

II - Procure 15 function words e 15 content words nesse mesmo texto e depois escreva-as nas colunas do quadro abaixo. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Function Words _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Content Words _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY? In the USA, some individuals argue that they are not required to pay federal taxes because the payment of federal taxes is voluntary. Proponents of this position assert that the American system of taxation is based upon voluntary assessment and payment. However, what does the law say about it? The requirement to pay taxes is not voluntary and is clearly set forth in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, which imposes a tax on the taxable income of individuals, estates, and trusts as determined by the tables set forth in that section. Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151, which requires taxpayers to submit payment with their tax returns. Failure to pay taxes could subject the noncomplying individual to criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment, as well as civil penalties. (ESAF/ TRF-2002)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

EXPLOITATION OF IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY?


EXPLORAO DE O PAGAMENTO DE TRIBUTOS VOLUNTRIO? IEste pequeno trecho apresenta diversas palavras ou locues relativas taxes (tributos, impostos), como por exemplo: taxpayers (= contribuintes) // taxable income ( =renda tributvel) // tax returns (=declarao de imposto) // system of taxation (=sistema de tributao). Veja se consegue associar a coluna A com a coluna B: A B a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( i. ( J. ( k. ( ) evaso fiscal ) paraso fiscal ) iseno tributria ) dedutveis do imposto ( a pagar) ) lanamento fiscal ) faixa de tributao ) carga tributria ) ao fiscal ) responsabilidade tributria ) receita fiscal

1. tax deductible 2. tax evasion 3. tax haven 4. tax exemption 5. tax bracket 6. tax assessment 7. tax liability 8. tax burden 9. tax revenue 10. tax case II a) b) ______________________ ______________________

Quais as penalidades criminais mencionadas pelo autor do texto

III- Qual a expresso correspondente a Secretaria da Receita Federal (SRF) nos EUA.
_____________________________________

IV - Com a informtica e a expanso da Internet crescente a popularidade da palavra access. Por exemplo: access denied (= acesso negado). Portanto no creio que voc confunda a palavra assessment em based upon voluntary assessment and payment com ela. Agora, qual o seu significado nesse fragmento?
_____________________________________

Va) b) c)

Copie trs fragmentos do texto em que o present simple usado (no vale com o verbo to be)
______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

11

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS VERB TENSES A SUMMARY


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

1.1

PRESENT SIMPLE

Utilizemos as expresses walk fast (=caminhar rpido), onde o verbo walk regular e sleep late (=dormir tarde) com o verbo irregular sleep. AFFIRMATIVE I/ You / We / They He / She / It NB walk fast // sleep late walks fast // sleeps late

Como voc observa, somente um s acrescentado 3a p. do singular. No se distingue um verbo regular de outro irregular pela conjugao do present simple. QUESTIONS Do Does I / You / We / They He / She / It walk fast // sleep late? walk fast // sleep late?

NEGATIVE I / You / We / They He / She / It NB: Do not =dont 1.2 a) do not does not walk fast // sleep late walk fast // sleep late

Does not = doesnt USES OF THE PRESENT SIMPLE

Used to express habitual or usual actions.


Usado para expressar aes habituais, rotineiras.

Exs.: I go to work every week day Monday thru Friday.


Vou para o trabalho todos os dias teis de segunda sexta.

My father pays his income tax every month.


Meu pai paga seu imposto de renda todo ms.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

12

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Do you know George? No, I dont know him.


Voc conhece o George? No. Eu no o conheo.

b)

Used to express permanent or general truths.


Usado para expressar verdades permanentes ou universais.

Exs.: Taxpayers pay too many taxes in Brazil. .


Os contribuintes pagam muitos impostos no Brasil. .

Does the earth go round the sun? Yes, it does.


A terra gira em torno do sol? Sim, ela gira.

c)

Used after when, whenever, while, before, after, as soon as, until,... in time clauses. (Attention! In Portuguese the future is used.)
Usado depois de: quando, sempre que, enquanto, aps, assim que/ to logo que, at, ... em oraes temporais. Ateno! Em portugus um tempo futuro usado.

Exs.: You can go as soon as the director arrives.


Voc pode ir assim que o diretor chegar.

Lets wait until my wife comes back home.


Vamos esperar at a minha mulher voltar para casa.

d)

Used to refer to future, scheduled things.


Usado para referir-se a coisas futuras, planejadas.

Exs.: What time does your class begin tomorrow.


A que horas comea (comear) a sua aula amanh?

My plane leaves at 8 p.m. tonight.


Meu avio parte (partir) s oito da noite hoje.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

13

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

2.1

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Utilizemos as expresses jump high (=pular alto) com o verbo regular jump e drink milk (=beber leite), com o verbo irregular drink. AFFIRMATIVE I am He / She / It is You / We / They are jumping high // drinking milk jumping high // drinking milk jumping high // drinking milk

Note: Como voc observa, forma-se o present continuous com o presente simples do verbo to be + a forma -ing do verbo principal. QUESTIONS Am I jumping high // drinking milk? Is He / She / It jumping high // drinking milk? Are You / We / They jumping high // drinking milk? Formamos a interrogativa pela inverso do auxiliar to be com o verbo principal. NEGATIVE I He / She / It You / We / They am is are not not not jumping high // drinking milk jumping high // drinking milk jumping high // drinking milk

Para formar a negativa acrescente not ao verbo to be. NB: is not =isnt // are not = arent 2.2 a) USES OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Used mainly to describe an action happening at the moment of speaking.


Usado para descrever aes acontecendo no momento em que se fala.]

Exs.: The sun is shining now.


O sol est brilhando agora.

Is Jane studying German at present?


A Jane est estudando alemo no presente momento?

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

14

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

We are speaking English now. We arent speaking Portuguese.


Estamos falando ingls agora. No estamos falando portugus.

b)

The present continuous can be used to refer to future actions, too.


Tambm o presente contnuo pode ser usado com aes futuras.

Exs.: Regina is visiting us next week.


Regina estar nos visitando na semana que vem.

Im seeing my eye doctor tomorrow afternoon.


Estarei consultando meu oftalmologista amanh tarde.

ANSWERS // RESPOSTAS A busca dos verdadeiros cognatos INDIA and BRAZIL


India and Brazil are two nations each with histories of colonization which are now both hoping that their natural oil reserves will provide a financial base upon which to build a healthy economy.

It goes without saying that developing nations require substantial energy resources from which they can fuel the growth of their infrastructures. India and Brazil are exemplary as two nations that have been classified in this developing matrix despite having very different histories, both as colonies and as nations. The energy industry is booming in both regions and has done so since the dawn of the 20th century, yet Brazil is obviously the more advanced in the sector. Despite the same developing status, Brazils energy industry outranks Indias in almost every aspect and while both countries exhibit promise, one cannot help wonder what the Indian energy sector needs to catapult the country into the status of a self-sufficient state. One might consider India to be a distant step behind Brazil, with both falling several steps behind the major oil & gas producing nations. Yet the potential that lies behind such sleeping giants is immense, and the world is taking NOTICE as energy becomes an issue of greater importance.

GLOSSARY/ CONTENT WORDS

It goes without saying fuel the growth a healthy economy energy resources dawn of the 20th century Brazil outranks India cannot help wonder what

TRANSLATION No preciso dizer que Alimentar, impulsionar o crescimento uma economia saudvel recursos energticos No despertar do sculo 20 O Brasil supera a ndia no pode deixar de pensar no que 15

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

lies behind an issue of greater importance

est por trs um assunto de maior importncia

ANSWERS - EXPLOITATION OF THE TEXT India and Brazil


1. Present Simple (quaisquer trs dentre os seguintes): Brazils energy industry outranks Indias... // both countries exhibit promise // the Indian energy sector needs to catapult the country // the potential that lies behind // as energy becomes an issue of greater importance. Present continuous tense - quaisquer duas dentre os seguintes: which are now both hoping that their natural oil reserves // The energy industry is booming in both regions // and the world is taking notice

2.

3.

Present perfect tense: as two nations that have been classified in this
developing matrix // and has done so since the dawn of the 20th century

4.
5.

It goes without saying = Needless to say (=desnecessrio dizer que)


and the world is TAKING NOTICE no texto e o mundo est se apercebendo.

6.
7.

while both countries exhibit promise, traduz-se por conquanto ambos os pases exibam perspectivas promissoras...
developing (adj) in developing nations naes em desenvolvimento booming (pres. part.) in is booming est crescendo rpido hoping (pres. part.) in are hoping esto esperando falling (ger.) in falling several steps caindo vrios degraus sleeping (adj.) in sleeping giants os gigantes adoemecidos taking (pres. part.) in is taking noting est se apercebendo

8.

Function words: each (=cada) // both (=ambos) // since (=desde) // behind (= por trs) // every (= todo) // almost (=quase)

WORD FORMS // Sample paragraph After reading the text India and Brazil we learn that it would be inaccurate to describe both countries as undeveloped or underdeveloped. Brazil and India have attained such a high level of economic development recently that when we look at the potential both countries have, we reach the conclusion that the two giants must be described, at least, as developing nations.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 16

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Sobre o texto da prova da ESAF / TRF / 2002


Encontrei about, cerca de 35% of true cognates. Veja se concorda comigo?

In the USA, some individuals argue that they are not required to pay federal taxes because the payment of federal taxes is voluntary. Proponents of this position assert that the American system of taxation is based upon voluntary assessment* and payment. However, what does the law say about it? The requirement to pay taxes is not voluntary and is clearly set forth in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, which imposes a tax on the taxable income of individuals, estates, and trusts as determined by the tables set forth in that section. Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151, which requires taxpayers to submit payment with their tax returns. Failure to pay taxes could subject the noncomplying individual to criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment, as well as civil penalties. (ESAF/ TRF-2002) FUNCTION WORDS
Quaisquer 15 dentre essas: In , the, some, that , they, are, not, to, because, of, is, this, upon, however, what, about, it, and, forth, which, on, as, by, that, with, their, could, as well as.

CONTENT WORDS
Quaisquer 15 dentre essas: individuals, argue, required, pay, federal, taxes, payment, voluntary, proponents, position, assert, American, system, taxation, assessment, law, say, requirement, cleaarly, set, section, internal, revenue, code, imposes, taxable, income, estates, trusts, determined, tables, furthermore, obligation, described, taxpayers, submit, returns, failure, subject, noncomplying, criminal penalties, including, fines, imprisonment, civil.

EXPLOITATION OF IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY?


EXPLORAO DE O PAGAMENTO DE TRIBUTOS VOLUNTRIO?

A 1. tax deductible 2. tax evasion 3. tax haven 4. tax exemption 5. tax bracket 6. tax assessment 7. tax liability 8. tax burden 9. tax revenue 10. tax case

B
a. (2) evaso fiscal b. (3) paraso fiscal c. (4) iseno tributria d. (1) dedutveis do imposto (a pagar) e. (6) lanamento fiscal f. (5) faixa de tributao g. (8) carga tributria i. (10) ao fiscal J. (7) responsabilidade tributria k. (9) receita fiscal 17

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

II a) b)

Criminal penalties (= penalidades criminais) mencionadas no texto:


fines (=multas) imprisonment (= cadeia, priso)

III- Secretaria da Receita Federal (SRF) Internal Revenue Service (IRS) IV - A expresso voluntary assessment corresponde a avaliao voluntria. O verbo to assess significa avaliar propriedades, rendimentos, danos, dentre outras coisas, para efeito de tributao. Va) b) c) d) e) Fragmentos do texto c/ o present simple [Quaisquer trs dos seguintes] some individuals argue that ...
algumas pessoas argumentam que

Proponents of this position assert that


os proponentes desta posio afirmam que

What doe the law say about it?


O que a lei tem a dizer sobre isso?

which imposes a tax on


que impe um tribute sobre

which requires taxpayers to submit payment


que requer(exige) dos contribuintes efetuar os pagamentos

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da primeira aula foram alcanados. FIRST CLASS OBJECTIVES
OBJETIVOS DA AULA INICIAL

Raise your awareness of:


Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II II III -

Reading Strategy (I): The Search for True Cognates


Estratgia de Leitura (I): A busca dos Verdadeiros Cognatos.

The False Cognates (false friends)


Os falsos Cognatos (falsos amigos)

Function Words and Content Words


Palavras Funcionais e Palavras de Contedo

The study of Word Forms (Prefixes and Suffixes) // The precious suffixes: -ed & -ing
O Estudo da Formao de Palavras (Prefixos e Sufixos) : Os preciosos sufixos ing & -ed. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 18

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

IV - Study of words in families (derivation)


O estudo das palavras em famlias (derivao)

Grammar Essentials: Summary of Verb Tenses: present simple present continuous


Gramtica Essencial: Resumo dos Tempos Verbais : presente simples e presente contnuo.

VI

Study of text from ESAF / TRF/ 2002: Is payment of taxes Voluntary?


Estudo do texto da prova ESAF /TRF/ 2002: O pagamento de tributos voluntrio/

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

19

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1-

AULA 1 READING STRATEGIES


H diversos modos de se ler um texto. Com um texto em ingls constante de uma prova para AFRF voc dever montar sua reading strategy e escolher qual tcnica de leitura melhor se adapta ao seu propsito. Para entender um texto e conseguir responder corretamente as questes propostas pela banca examinadora voc poder escolher entre tcnicas de fast reading - leitura rpida - ou intensive reading - leitura mais detalhada. Fast Reading Techniques: a) skimming: leitura rpida do texto para buscar a idia principal ou idias principais. Use esta tcnica, por exemplo, se no tiver sobrado muito tempo para ler um texto mais profundamente. leitura rpida em busca de uma idia especfica. Como um scanner faz com um texto que queira copiar, voc dever selecionar uma informao especifica e nela concentrar-se.

b) scanning:

Intensive Reading Skills c) intensive reading: deve ser usada com os textos mais complexos, com a finalidade de entend-lo mais detalhadamente. Com a utilizao dessa tcnica voc ir em busca de: c.1)stated ideas: quando o examinador formula uma questo em que caber a voc buscar idias claramente expressas pelo autor do texto. So comuns os seguintes enunciados:
The author affirms / states / says that, Its clearly expressed / mentioned in the text

c.2) implied ideas: quando o examinador formula uma questo para voc buscar idia(s) sugerida(s) pelo autor do texto. Ateno para enunciados do tipo: The author suggests / implies
that / Its implicit that

c.3) inferred ideas: quando o examinador pretende que voc tire sua prpria concluso para chegar melhor resposta. Nesste caso a informao, objeto da questo proposta, no est expressa no texto. Ateno para os seguintes enunciados e assemelhados: You / We may infer /
conclude that, Although its not clearly stated in the text one may conclude / infer that www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

Read the text below, then choose the best option to answer questions 1 thru 5. IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY? In the US, some individuals argue that they are not required to pay federal taxes because the payment of federal taxes is voluntary. Proponents of this position assert that the American system of taxation is based upon voluntary assessment and payment. However, what does the law say about it? The requirement to pay taxes is not voluntary and is clearly set forth in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, which imposes a tax on the taxable income of individuals, estates, and trusts as determined by the tables set forth in that section. Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151, which requires taxpayers to submit payment with their tax returns. Failure to pay taxes could subject the noncomplying individual to criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment, as well as civil penalties. (ESAF/ TRF-2002) 1. a) b) c) d) e) 2. a) b) c) d) e) 3. a) b) c) d) e) In paragraph 1, the text refers to individuals who are in charge of validating state laws. volunteer to pay their taxes. have failed to pay federal levies. argue against the compulsory tax payment. assess and charge federal taxes. Section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code sets the voluntary payment of taxes. establishes the requirement to pay taxes. regulates the impact of fiscal adjustment. addresses the issue of budget expenditures. concerns the social security deficit. According to the author, sanctions for non-compliance might be approved of. must soon be set. should be devised. may be established. have been set.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 4. a) b) c) d) e) 5. a) b) c) d) e)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

The text refers to state taxes. concerns taxation issues. concerns the social system. sets economic criteria. refers to retirement benefits. According to the text, federal taxes are refundable. paying levies is voluntary. criminal penalties are illegal. American states must enforce fiscal laws. taxpayers have fiscal obligations.

Certamente voc percebeu que se trata do mesmo texto j analisado no final da aula demonstrativa quando destacamos: the search for true cognates, function words, content words, and grammar essentials. Antes que voc se pergunte: Ser que o Prof. Carlos no tem outro texto para nos apresentar, vou logo propondo outra pergunta? Quais reading strategies and techniques voc usou para responder as questes de mltipla escolha elaboradas pela Banca ESAF neste concurso para TRF / 2002? A seguir, no s lhe digo qual a opo correta, como tambm sugiro de que forma voc deveria ter feito o seu approach. (palavrinha legal essa). Se at o Zeca Baleiro j fez o seu genial Samba do Approach por que no poderia us-la aqui? By the way, quem no conhece o Samba do Approach e quiser que eu fale a respeito, envie um e-mail pro Ponto dos Concursos e na parte aberta do site poderemos tecer alguns comentrios num papo bem mais informal. Garanto a vocs que vale mais a pena do que uma aulinha do tipo the book is on the table! Chega de papo e vamos passar a anlise das questes da ESAF: ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONS 1 THRU 5 sempre bom, ou quase sempre, fazer uma rpida leitura das questes e opes formuladas, at mesmo antes de fazer a leitura do prprio texto.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-4-

Question 1 Melhor resposta: (D) Suponhamos que este fosse o ltimo texto da prova e que voc estivesse sem tempo sobrando para fazer uma leitura detalhada. Bastaria voc fazer o scanning do pargrafo 1 e buscar a informao cobrada pelo examinador: a de que algumas pessoas fsicas nos EUA argumentam que no esto obrigados ao pagamento de tributos federais uma vez que tal pagamento voluntrio, o que equivale a dizer que estes indivduos argumentam contra o aspecto compulsrio do pagamento de impostos. Question 2 Melhor resposta: (B) A meno da Seo 1 do Cdigo de Receitas Internas se encontra no segundo pargrafo. Outra questo que poderia ser respondida aps realizar o scanning do pargrafo 2. O mencionado cdigo estabelece a obrigatoriedade do pagamento de impostos. Question 3 Melhor resposta: (E) No final do curso teremos falado do prefixo non- [um dos prefixos ingleses que forma antnimos, eg, non-smoking = na fumante]. Se voc conseguiu entender o fragmento sanctions for non-compliance (=sanes pelo no cumprimento) ento pde chegar concluso que tais sanes j foram estabelecidas, have been set. Sem entrar em detalhes sobre os modal verbs (might, may, should, must), traduzimos apenas as outras opes: em (a), talvez venham a ser aprovadas; em (b), quase certo que sejam estabelecidas em breve; em (c) devem ser concebidas; em (d), talvez venham a ser estabelecidas. Question 4 Melhor resposta: (B) O texto diz respeito a assuntos tributrios. Esse o tipo de questo que obriga o candidato a fazer o intensaive reading. preciso l-lo detalhadamente para entender que no se refere a impostos estaduais, nem se refere a um sistema social, nem, tampouco, estabelece critrios econmicos; e, tambm, no se refere a benefcios de aposentadoria. Question 4 Melhor resposta: (E) According to the text, De acordo com o texto (ou com o autor) so formulaes de enunciado em que o examinador quase nos obriga ao intensive reading. Observe que as diversas opes nos jogam feito bola de pinguepongue de um pargrafo para outro. Cabe a voc ir buscar o que o autor afirma ou sugere para chegar melhor resposta. Em a, diz-se: impostos federais so restituveis; em b, pagamento de levies (outra palavra inglesa para tributo) voluntrio opo que contraria a idia central defendida pelo autor; em c, absurdamente, tem-se penalidades criminais so ilegais(?!?!?); em d, l-se que os estados americanos tm que exigir o cumprimento das leis fiscais.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto DISCOURSE MARKERS


MARCADORES DO DISCURSO

-5-

Uma vez mais o texto anterior vai me servir como um elo de ligao com a prxima atrao: Estou absolutamente convencido (Epa! No teve algum famoso que declarou recentemente estar cada vez mais convencido de sua inocncia? Hum, deixa pra l.) - eu estou convencido de que os candidatos familiarizados com os discourse markers lem um texto com mais fluncia. From the text IS PAYMENT OF TAXES VOLUNTARY? However, what does the law say about it? (1st pr)
Contudo, o que a lei diz a respeito disso?

Furthermore, the obligation to pay tax is described in section 6151


(2nd pr) Alm disso, a obrigao de pagar imposto est descrita na Seo 6151

Em primeiro lugar o que so os discourse markers? Nos meus livros costumava usar a expresso transitional words ou simplesmente transitions. Tm a finalidade de unir frases a frases e at mesmo de marcar a transio de um pargrafo para outro. Da mesma forma que as conjunes, como and, but, so que funcionam como connectors entre oraes numa frase, o autor se vale das transitions para unir pargrafos e tornar seu texto coeso, lgico. Study the following examples:
Estude os exemplos a seguir:

Janet speaks clearly, reads fast and writes fluently. (the conjunction and is used to show addition)
Janete fala claramente, l rpido e escreve com fluncia.

(a conjuno and usada para expressar idia de acrscimo) George speaks French but he does not speak Spanish. (the conjunction but is used to show contrast or opposition)
O George fala francs, mas no fala espanhol.

(a conjuno but usada para expressar idia de contraste ou oposio) Vivienne does not speak Portuguese, so she needs to learn it. (the conjunction so is used to show consequence or result)
A Vivienne no fala portugus, portanto precisa aprend-lo.

(a conjuno so usada para expressar resultado ou conseqncia)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

Repararam como os exemplos esto redigidos em ingls prprio do nvel Irreal Avanado? Quem dera que esse fosse o nvel de vocabulrio da prova para AFRF! Porm, no subestime a aparente banalidade das frases acima. Se voc captou bem a minha mensagem, estar apto para mergulhar no oceano das transitional words ou discourse markers. Na pgina seguinte (alis, com a formatao do pessoal a do curso nem sei se vai corresponder exatamente a uma nova pgina), porm o importante saber que a lista com os principais marcadores do discurso e as idias por eles expressas dever ser exaustivamente estudada. Tomemos como exemplo o grupo do SO e seus assemelhados: Indicando resultado / conseqncia SO, accordingly, as a result, because of this, consequently, naturally, on this account, hence, for this reason, therefore, thus Asseguro-lhe que palavras como hence, therefore, thus (= portanto) aparecem em textos dependendo de sua maior ou menor formalidade. Agora, uma coisa certa: ningum aprende todas as palavras e locues constantes da listagem de referncia overnight, da noite para o dia. necessrio muita, mas muita leitura! Recorra a essa listagem sempre que surgirem dvidas quanto ao significado de alguma das palavras ali presentes. D uma lida rpida e parta para o exerccio de aplicao que proponho logo em seguida.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

DISCOURSE MARKERS
Marcadores do Discurso Indicando adio, acrscimo AND, again, besides, in addition, also, further, furthermore, moreover, and then. Indicando oposio / contraste BUT, after all, in spite of, on the other hand, nevertheless, however, on the contrary, yet, despite, notwithstanding, still, in contrast. Indicando resultado / conseqncia SO, accordingly, as a result, because of this, consequently, naturally, on this account, hence, for this reason, therefore, thus Indicando concesso ou admitindo algo ALTHOUGH, after all, and yet, at the same time, granted, naturally, of course, perhaps, all the same. Indicando passagem do tempo THEN, after a short (long) time, lately, temporarily, after a while, presently, afterward, recently, thereafter, at last, since, eventually. Indicando seqncia ou enumerao FIRST, second, third, in the 1st place, in the 2nd place, then, finally, next, last. Indicando exemplificao FOR EXAMPLE, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, namely, particularly, specifically, such as , that is. Indicando comparao ou semelhanas LIKEWISE, in a like manner, in the same way, similarly. Indicando condio ou hiptese IF, unless, on condition that, provided that, supposing that, whether Indicando nfase INDEED, in fact, as a matter of fact, actually Indicando concluso ou para resumir IN SUM, in summary, to summarize, in brief, in short, to conclude, in conclusion, on the whole

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

EXERCISE - Choose the best option to complete the sentences: 1. Greg lived in various Swiss cantons, ________ its no surprise to me he can speak German, French and Italian very well.
(a) (c) thus nevertheless (b) (d) whereas besides

2.

__________ her tireless efforts to pass the exam, she failed miserably.
(a) (c) Despite However (b) (d) In spite In view of

3.

__________ the fact that she had no money with her, she couldnt buy the tickets for the concert.
(a) (c) Because Hence (d) (b) Due to As a result

4.

It was a well designed car; _______ it did not reach high speeds fast.
(a) (c) meanwhile however (b) (d) therefore in short

5.

Rosa seems to be perfect for the position; _________, shes been with us for quite some time.
(a) (c) furthermore as well as (b) (d) whereas on the other hand

6.

She was running a fever, __________ she went to the doctors.


(a) (c) so then (b) (d) next likewise

7.

Ill go to Japan _______ I can get a loan at the bank to pay for the trip.
(a) (c) unless nevertheless (b) (d) provided thus

8.

He appeared perfectly normal, ______________ there was something in his speech that made us suspicious.
(a) (c) moreover despite (b) (d) therefore yet

9.

There is one aspect in favor Susan; ________, shes fluent in Spanish.


(a) (c) namely accordingly (b) (d) e.g. even though

10.

Sharon worked hard, _________ she was given a promotion at the office.
(a) (c) such as hence (b) (d) lest likewise

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9-

Procure utilizar tudo o que voc aprendeu at agora no nosso curso. Desta vez vou fazer o approach na contramo. Este texto caiu na prova para AFC/
STN/ 2002- banca ESAF. Aja como se essas fossem as questes de sua prova.

Read the text below in order to answer questions 1 to 4: Brazil' s economy


On Jan. 15, 2002, Brazil began its 4th year with a free-floating currency. The move, coupled with the governments inflation targeting system, has been a clear success. Indeed, the economys flexibility helped it to weather a barrage of challenges in 2001. Still, the country faces significant risks. Even amid global weakness, the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., Argentinas meltdown, and an energy crisis that caused power rationing, Brazil's economy appears to have grown about 2% in 2001 with 7.7% inflation. Brazil posted a trade surplus, the first since 1994, and toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly, although it has relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks.

1.
a) b) c) d) e)

The text deals with


Argentina's economic growth in 2001. the current growth of the American economy. the low Brazilian interest rates. the energy crisis that has affected the world. the Brazilian ability to overcome difficulties.

2.
a) b) c) d) e)

According to the author, Brazil


was able to increase its domestic spending. and the USA have solved the energy crisis. has allowed its currency to float. could have grown about 2% in 2001. and Argentina have been economic partners.

3.
a) b) c) d) e)

According to the text, the Brazilian currency has


been hit. remained weak. remained strong. been changed. been replaced.

4.
a) b) c) d) e)

The text indicates that the Brazilian inflation rate


has remained unchanged for three and half years remained below 7.7% in the course of last year. forms part of a government economic action plan. was affected by Brazils 1st trade surplus since 1994. survived bad weather and the crisis in Argentina.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-10-

TRUE COGNATES
Verdadeiros cognatos Brazil' s Economy On Jan. 15, 2002, Brazil began its 4th year with a free-floating currency. The move, coupled with the governments inflation targeting system, has been a clear success. Indeed, the economys flexibility helped it to weather a barrage of challenges in 2001. Still, the country faces significant risks. Even amid global weakness, the September 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., Argentinas meltdown, and an energy crisis that caused power rationing, Brazil's economy appears to have grown about 2% in 2001 with 7.7% inflation. Brazil posted a trade surplus, the 1st since 1994, and toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly, although it has relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks. (Total: 100 words) A - KEY WORDS ID um sinnimo em ingls para a palavra indeed (pr.1). Diga tambm o que ela expressa como marcadora do discurso.
___________________________________________________________________

II - D um sinnimo em ingls para a palavra still (pr.1). Diga tambm o que esta conjuno expressa como marcadora do discurso.
___________________________________________________________________

III - D um sinnimo em ingls para a palavra although (pr.2). Diga tambm o que esta conjuno expressa como marcadora do discurso.
___________________________________________________________________

B - CONTENT WORDS No lhe ser permitido fazer qualquer consulta na hora da prova. Portanto, s recorra ao seu dicionrio favorito em ltimo caso para preencher a prxima tabela. Chamo sua ateno para um ponto importante. Depois de ter feito o skimming em busca dos verdadeiros cognatos, essas transparent words podero lhe ajudar a chegar ao significado de bigger word clusters, grupos de palavras maiores. Veja o caso de inflation targeting system, onde inflation (=inflao) e system (=sistema) so bastante transparentes. Caso voc consiga chegar content word target (=alvo, meta) conseguir chegar traduo: sistemas de metas para inflao.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

GLOSSARY free-floating currency inflation targeting system has been a clear success the economys flexibility weather a barrage of challenges amid global weakness Argentinas meltdown caused power rationing posted a trade surplus toward the end of the year the currency rallied strongly relinquished gains

CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION

VERB TENSES Copie do texto anterior 3 exemplos de verbos no past simple (Se houver necessidade faa uma rpida reviso no final desta aula em grammar essentials.
___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Copie do texto anterior 2 exemplos de verbos no present perfect


___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto WORD FORMS

-12-

THE SUFFIX -LY From the text Brazils Economy: the currency rallied strongly Na aula anterior disse que me arriscaria a afirmar que o sufixo ed era o mais freqente em ingls; entretanto, o sufixo ly, que normalmente corresponde a terminao mente em portugus, tambm famoso. S perde pro Bruce ... Que besteira! O sobrenome dele se escreve Lee. Sorry!
Adjetivos rapid virtual wide unfortunate general Advrbios rapidly virtually widely unfortunately generally Traduo rapidamente praticamente amplamente infelizmente geralmente

Ateno!: Muitas palavras terminadas em ly so adjetivos. Eis alguns exemplos: a lovely girl a lively party a lonely journey a deadly germ uma garota adorvel uma festa animada uma viagem solitria um germe mortal mesma

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

THE SUFFIXES MENT // -ION From the text Brazils economy: The move, coupled with the governments inflation targeting system, has been a clear success THE SUFFIX MENT a) Acrescenta-se este sufixo a verbos para formar substantives: govern employ establish settle THE SUFFIX ION b) Acrescenta-se este sufixo tambm a verbos para formar substantives: inflate rebel connect relate inflation rebellion connection relation government employment establishment settlement

Complete the sentences by adding either the suffixes ment or (t)ion) to the verbs in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. That is one of the ........................ of the course at the Institute. [require] She showed some poems of her own ........................ [create] With just a few .. your plan might be adopted. [adjust] Those eye drops cause the ....................... of your pupils. [dilate] Thats just one of the old Prime Ministers controversial .......................... [state]

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-14-

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS VERB TENSES A SUMMARY


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

3.1

PAST SIMPLE

Utilizemos as expresses walk fast (=caminhar rpido), onde o verbo walk regular e sleep late (=dormir tarde) com o verbo irregular sleep. AFFIRMATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They
NB

walked fast // slept late

Como voc observa, h somente uma forma do verbo regular, walked, e uma forma do verbo irregular: slept. Lembre-se : infelizmente as formas do passado e do particpio passado dos verbos irregulares devem ser memorizadas. Veja material suplementar a esta aula.

QUESTIONS Did I / You / He / She / It / We / They


NB

walk fast // sleet late?

Ateno pois o auxiliar did vai indicar que a pergunta formulada est no passado. O verbo principal retorna forma bsica (walk, sleeep)

NEGATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They walked fast // slept late

NB: Ateno pois ao auxiliar did segue-se a partcula negativa not que indicar a forma negativa. O verbo principal retorna forma bsica (walk, sleeep) Did not =didnt 3.2 USES OF THE PAST SIMPLE Used to express an action that happened at a definite time in the past. Oftentimes, adverbs or phrases such as yesterday, two weeks ago, last year, ..., are present.
Usado para expressar uma ao que aconteceu num tempo definido no passado. Freqentemente, advrbios ou expresses como ontem, duas semanas atrs, ano passado ... esto presentes.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

Exs.: I met her two years ago.


Eu a encontrei h dois anos atrs.

My brother didnt get a job last month.


Meu irmo no conseguiu um emprego no ms passado.

Did you see Spielbergs latest film last Sunday?


Voc viu o ultimo filmo do Spielberg no sbado passado?

Jack arrived ten minutes late today.


O Jack chegou dez minutos atrasado hoje.

Milton worked at KNY for thirty five years. He retired last year.
Milton trabalhou na KNY por 35 anos. Aposentou-se no ano passado.

Did they say that you were fired?


Eles disseram que voc estava demitido?

EXERCISE

Use the appropriate past forms of the verbs in parentheses.

BERLIN, 1945
First he ___________ (1 poison) his favorite dog Wolf. Then, he _____________ (2- take) his new wife to his private quarters and __________ (3 - sit) down on a sofa beside her. Before them __________ (4-be) a coffee table on which __________ (5 be) a vase of roses, a small bottle of poison and his automatic pistol. He ____________ (6 - use, negative) the gun. Instead he _____________ (7 swallow) the poison, and as he ____________ (8 struggle) for air, his wife ___________ ( 9 shoot) him in the left temple with her own weapon. Then she __________ (10 poison) herself. That is how Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun ____________ (11 die) in Berlin in 1945. (From Time, February 10, 1973)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto CONFUSABLE WORDS

-16-

Choose the better alternative in brackets: 1. 2. 3. 4.


[a) Beside / b) Besides] the guitar, do you play any other instrument?

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

__________________________________________________________ I feel so tired after the long walk that I can [a) hard / b) hardly] move. __________________________________________________________ [a) Allow / b) Let] me to introduce you to my cousin Vera. __________________________________________________________ Norton lives [a) behind / b) beyond] his means. He spends much more money than he earns. __________________________________________________________ You [a) should / b) ought] to study those notes before the exam. __________________________________________________________ [a) Must / b) Could] you play the guitar so loud? Its disturbing me! __________________________________________________________ We [a) had better / b) would rather] hurry; otherwise well miss the train. __________________________________________________________ I dont play soccer any more, but I [a) used to / b) am used to]. __________________________________________________________ Ronald is not only a conscientious employee, hes [a) too / b) also] an understanding human being. __________________________________________________________ I [a) weep / b) wept] because I had no shoes until I saw a man who had no feet. [Ancient Persian saying]. __________________________________________________________ I bumped into an old school buddy [a) in my way / b) on my way] to work the other day. __________________________________________________________ John Kennedy and his brother, Robert Kennedy, were both politicians. [a) the former / b) the latter] reached the presidency, while [a) the former / b) the latter] was assassinated before he could run for president. __________________________________________________________ Further [a) economical / b) economic] measures had to be taken by the government in order to implement the Real Plan. __________________________________________________________ Hand in your rsum. I [a) advise / b) advice] you to apply for that job. __________________________________________________________ You must have an [a) open / b) opened] mind to deal with teenagers. __________________________________________________________
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP

-17-

Tenho certeza que alguns de vocs estaro dizendo: T tudo muito bem, prefixos e sufixos realmente me ajudaro a ler um texto melhor, reviso de tempos verbais legal para navegar na estrutura do texto, at mesmo confusable words um item meio sacal, (mas tem sua importncia) agora, meu problema continua sendo vocabulrio. Depois de mais de trinta e cinco anos de magistrio, tendo vivido (talvez devesse dizer sobrevivido) tantos mtodos in e tantos out chego concluso que o maior problema do aluno brasileiro que algum dia j chegou ao nvel intermedirio de qualquer curso e parou (por um motivo ou por outro) no foi tanto a estrutura e a gramtica do ingls e sim pela lexical barrier, isso mesmo, a barreira lxica. Responda para si mesmo: Quando eu pego um artigo da revista The Economist, da revista Time, da NewsWeek, do Washington Post, do Wall Street Journal ou qualquer outra publicao top, o que me trava, o que que pega? uma frase onde o autor usou o present simple, ou mesmo o present perfect ou so as palavras de contedo (jargo tcnico, riqueza de expresses, idiomticas, etc)? Na rea aberta do site falei sobre collocations. Resolvi incluir umas dicas em cada uma de nossas aulas para ajud-los nesse estudo. Resumindo o que j disse: como no h uma traduo consagrada para este termo prefiro continuar usando a palavra em ingls mesmo. O subttulo do meu livro Practicing Collocations teve que ser Como tornar o seu vocabulrio mais fluente em virtude dessa dificuldade de traduo. fundamente esclarecer que, por definio, trata-se do estudo de multi-item chunks of words (ou seja, blocos de palavras), consagradas pelos native speakers. Se por um lado verdade que a finalidade primordial de se saber collocations a utilizao na produo escrita e oral, por outro lado me parece bvio que quando minha tarefa reconhecer o maior nmero de palavras num texto de modo a permitir o seu entendimento, quanto mais blocos de palavras eu tiver a minha disposio, menos eu terei que depender do estudo penoso das palavras soltas. Uma historinha exemplificativa absolutamente verdadeira que me aconteceu uma vez: quando um aluno esbarrou no significado de insight. Ele havia consultado um dicionrio de bolso e obtido apenas: insight = compreenso, discernimento - o que no lhe adiantou lhufas para escrever uma frase. Consultamos um dicionrio de collocations e um dicionrio inglsingls na aula.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

Verificamos que vrios verbos podiam ser combinados com insight. have, gain, show an insight todos equivalendo a (= ter um insight, um estalo). Tambm vrios adjetivos podem ser usados diante da palavra insight (a fresh insight =um novo insight), a vivid insight (um claro insight), etc. Aps o substantivo insight normalmente usa-se a preposio into. No final meu aluno foi capaz de escrever a seguinte frase na sua composio: That article showed me a fresh insight into the study of the subject.
Aquele artigo deu-me um insight sobre o estudo da matria.

Se voc disser, e da, eu no vou ter que escrever composio nenhuma na prova da ESAF, nem tenho prova oral (graas a Deus), para que me serve isso tudo? Repito aquilo que j disse na rea aberta do site. No consigo mais olhar um texto em ingls sem buscar collocations. J no gostava das listinhas de palavras soltas para memorizar, agora ento, menos ainda. Continuo achando que mesmo no caso da leitura de textos com vistas a responder reading comprehension questions apenas, se eu estou familiarizado com um bloco de palavras, maior ou menor, as palavras que forem interpostas pelo autor entre um verbo e um substantivo, por exemplo, ou entre um verbo e um advrbio, no atrapalharo o meu entendimento daquele bloco lxico, coeso e lgico. Veja bem, no significa que no se possa estudar palavras soltas. As vezes, deve-se. Como o caso dos falsos cognatos. Mesmo no caso das confusable words o estudo dos pares, ou trios, de palavras mais eficaz. Portanto, procure estudar locues e expresses preferencialmente a palavras isoladas. Para que voc no me enquadre na lio do provrbio do as I say, but not as I do veja como propus que voc estudasse o vocabulrio do texto sobre a economia brasileira depois da busca dos verdadeiros cognatos: collocations ou no, s blocos coesos de palavras. free-floating currency, inflation targeting system, a clear success, the economys flexibility, weather a barrage of challenges, amid global weakness, Argentinas meltdown, power rationing, trade surplus, toward the end of the year, the currency rallied strongly, relinquished gains. CQD, como dizia meu velho professor de matemtica.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

Para fazer os exerccios a seguir, chamados cloze, com z mesmo, voc dever ler cada um dos mini-textos com muita ateno. O preenchimento das lacunas muitas vezes estar ligado ao collocational field das palavras, outras vezes poder ser uma exigncia gramatical ou estrutural. Podem acontecer casos em que mais de uma palavra combinam com a palavra imediatamente anterior ou posterior; a, ser o bom senso para determinar a seqncia lgica do texto que dever determinar sua escolha. Os clozes so excelentes para consolidao de vocabulrio especfico, para estudo de tpicos gramaticais que voc mesmo pode preparar se quiser revisar alguns pontos do seu estudo. Escolha um mini-texto onde apaream diversos verbos no presente simples, ou onde haja diversos exemplos de marcadores do discurso, etc. Tire duas cpias e use liquid paper - corretor de texto - para apagar as palavras selecionadas. Voc pode se testar sempre que quiser quanto aquele assunto que tiver escolhido. Complete com uma das palavras do quadro, mas lembre-se de que ela dever completar o texto tanto do ponto de vista estrutural quanto lxico. Mini-text : A Hundred Years Strong supply registered encounter manufacturer capacity true

celebration synonymous

The year 2004 marks the century of a historical ___________ (1) between Charles Rolls and Henry Royce, in Manchester. From this meeting, one of the world leaders engineering and one of the best well known ___________ (2) marks was born: Rolls-Royce. The ___________ (3) of this anniversary was shared by Rolls-Royce plc world leader within the gas engines aerospacial civil sector; defense, maritime and energy systems areas and Rolls-Royce Motors Limited. From the beginning, the name Rolls-Royce has been ___________ (4) with integrity, reliability and innovation. Starting as a car ___________ (5) the company has developed its engineering ___________ (6) to create motors for both air and sea propulsion, as well as applications in energy. The visionary memorandum of the companies association, launched in 1906, refers to its objective to ___________ (7) energy and vehicles "to be used in land, water or air". A hundred years later, both companies have made their founders dreams come __________ (8), with their future standing upon a century of innovation.
(Excerpt from Britain Brasil magazine, September / October, 2004, p. 7)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS // RESPOSTAS

-20-

EXERCISE - TRANSITIONS 1. Greg lived in various Swiss cantons, thus its no surprise to me he can speak German, French and Italian very well.
O Greg viveu em vrios Cantes Suos, portanto no me surpreende que ele saiba falar alemo, francs e italiano muito bem.

2. 3.

Despite her tireless efforts to pass the exam, she failed miserably.
Apesar de seus incansveis esforos para passar na prova, ela fracassou totalmente.

Due to the fact that she had no money with her, she couldnt buy the tickets for the concert.
Devido ao fato de no ter nenhum dinheiro com ela, no pde comprar os ingressos para o concerto.

4. 5.

It was a well designed car; however, it did not reach high speeds fast.
Era um carro com um belo design, entretanto, no alcanava altas velocidades rapidamente.

Rosa seems to be perfect for the position; furthermore, shes been with us for quite some time.
A Rosa parece perfeita para o cargo; alm disso, est conosco h muito tempo.

6. 7. 8.

She was running a fever, so she went to the doctors.


A febre dela estava aumentando. portanto foi ao mdico.

Ill go to Japan provided I can get a loan at the bank to pay for the trip.
Irei pro Japo se conseguir um emprstimo no banco para pagar a viagem.

He appeared perfectly normal, yet there was something in his speech that made us suspicious.
Parecia perfeitamente normal, contudo havia algo na fala dele que nos fez suspeitar.

9. 10.

There is one aspect in favor Susan; namely, shes fluent in Spanish.


H um aspecto a favor de Susan; a saber, ela fluente em espanhol.

Sharon worked hard, hence she was given a promotion at the office.
Sharon trabalhou arduamente, portanto, foi promovida no escritrio.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AFC /ESAF / 2002/

Prof. Carlos Augusto Brazils Economy

-21-

1. Melhor resposta (E): O autor fala em evidente sucesso quando se refere moeda livremente flutuante acoplado ao plano de metas de inflao do governo. Na letra a, l-se: o crescimento econmico da Argentina em 2001, quando o texto fala no fracasso (meltdown) da economia Argentina; em b, lse o crescimento atual da economia norte-americana, quando o texto menciona o impacto sofrido pelos EUA com os ataques terroristas de 11 de setembro; em c, l-se as taxas de juros baixas no Brasil (quem dera!); e, em d, l-se a crise de energia que afetou o mundo, quando o texto s fala na crise de energia brasileira. 2. Melhor resposta (C ): Como j mencionamos acima o autor declara que o Brasil entra no quarto ano com sua moeda flutuando livremente. Na letra a, l-se: o Brasil foi capaz de aumentar seus gastos internos; em b, l-se: o Brasil e os EUA resolveram suas crises energticas; em d, l-se: que o Brasil poderia ter crescido cerca de 2% em 2001; por fim, em e, l-se que o Brasil e a Argentina te sido parceiros econmicos. 3. Melhor resposta (A): de acordo com o texto a moeda brasileira foi atingida. Ateno para o verbo rally (r.v) um dos verbos ingleses que reflete uma queda , de ndice, de cotao etc com a conseqente retomada,m da poderse afirmar que a moeda brasileira foi afetada; em b, permaneceu fraca; em c, permaneceu forte; em d, foi mudada; em e, foi substituda. 4. Melhor resposta (C): Como j dissemos na questo 1, h um cmbio flutuante e uma poltica de metas inflacionrias como parte de um plano governamental. Em a, no correto dizer que a taxa de inflao tenha ficado invarivel por trs anos e meio; em b, no se fala no texto em ter permanecido below (=abaixo) de 7.7%; em d, no se diz no texto que a taxa de inflao foi afetada pelo 1 supervit comercial desde 1994; em e, L-se sobreviveu a maus tempos e crise na Argentina. Verb Tenses (s/ Brazils Economy)
1.

year // the economys flexibility helped it // an energy crisis that caused power rationing // Brazil posted a trade surplus // the currency rallied strongly
Os dois seguintes: The move, , has been a clear success // it has

Quaisquer trs dentre os seguintes: Brazil began its 4

th

2.

relinquished some of those gains in recent weeks


www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-22-

I - indeed (pr.1) = in fact, in reality // expressa nfase II - still (pr.1) = however, yet, expressa oposio, contraste. III - although (pr.2).= though e expressa contraste GLOSSARY free-floating currency inflation targeting system has been a clear success the economys flexibility weather a barrage of challenges amid global weakness Argentinas meltdown caused power rationing posted a trade surplus toward the end of the year the currency rallied strongly relinquished gains The suffixes ment or (t)ion) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [requirements] Este um dos requisitos do curso l no Instituto. [creation] Ela mostrou-me alguns poemas de sua criao. [adjustments] Com apenas alguns ajustes seu plano poderia ser adotado. [dilation] Aquelas gotas do colrio causaro a dilatao de suas pupilas. [statements] Essa s uma das afirmaes controversas do velho Primeiro Ministro,
CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION

moeda livremente flutuante sistema de metas inflacionrias foi um evidente sucesso a flexibilidade da economia vencer uma barreira de desafios em meio fragilidade global o colapso, o fracasso argentino provocou o racionamento de energia apresentou um supervit comercial mais para o fim do ano a moeda teve uma forte retomada deixou escapar alguns ganhos

BERLIN, 1945
First he poisoned his favorite dog Wolf. Then, he took his new wife to his private quarters and sat down on a sofa beside her. Before them was a coffee table on which were a vase of roses, a small bottle of poison and his automatic pistol. He didnt use the gun. Instead he swallowed the poison, and as he struggled for air, his wife shot him in the left temple with her own weapon. Then she poisoned herself. That is how Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun died in Berlin in 1945. (From Time, February 10, 1973)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE Confusable words

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-23-

1. Besides the guitar =Alm do violo // Beside (or by the side of = ao lado de) 2. I can hardly move = Mal posso me mover 3. Allow me to introduce = Permita-me apresentar (NB: You say let me introduce =Vive alm de suas posses

4. He lives beyond his means

5. You ought to study = You should study =Voc deve, aconselhvel que voc estude. (NB: Pode-se usar a particular to depois do modal ought) 6. Must you play it so loud? (Voc tem que toc-la to alto? 7. We had better hurry = bom nos apressarmos NB: Would rather expressa preferncia. 8. I used to play soccer (=costumava jogar futebol) 9. Hes also an understanding man or Hes an understanding man, too. 10. I wept because weep(wept, wept) [i.v] significa chorar.

11. on my way to work = a caminho do trabalho // in my way = obstruindo a passagem. 12. the former =o 1de dois a ser citado; the latter = o 2 a ser citado. 13. economic measures = medidas econmicas (relativas cincia econmica)

14. I advise (r.v) (=Eu aconselho) // My advice ( Meu conselho (n.) 15. to have an open mind (= ter a mente aberta) but I have opened the door (Abri a porta) Vocabulary Practice (Collocations) 1. historical) encounter 2. 3. celebration (of anniversary) 4. 5. car) manufacturer 6. 7. supply energy 8. Mini-text: 100 Years Strong registered (marks) (synonymous (with integrity ) (engineering) capacity (dreams came) true

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-24-

IRREGULAR VERBS- REFERENCE LIST


Next you find two lists of the principal irregular verbs in English. The first, alternating missing forms of the past tense and past participle for you to practice orally. I suggest you never write on this first list. The second, the complete one, is for reference.
A seguir, voc tem duas listas dos principais verbos irregulares ingleses. A primeira, com lacunas alternadas do passado simples e do particpio passado para voc praticar oralmente. (Sugesto: nunca escreva nela!) A outra, a completa, para sua referncia.

INFINITIVE beat begin bind bite blow break bring build buy catch choose do drink drive eat fall feel find fly forget get give go have hear hide keep

PAST TENSE beat ............. bound ............... blew ............... brought .............. bought ............. chose ............. drank ............. ate ............. felt ............. flew ............. got ............. went heard ............. kept

PAST PARTICIPLE ............. begun ............. bitten ............. broken .............. built ............... caught ............. done ............. driven ............. fallen ............. found ............. forgotten ............. given . had ............. hidden .............

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE INFINITIVE know lead leave lose make meet pay ride run say see sell send sing sink sit speak spend stand steal strive swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wear

Prof. Carlos Augusto PAST PARTICIPLE known ............. left ............. made ............. paid ............. run ............. seen ............. sent ............. sunk ............. spoken ............. stood ............. striven ............. taken ............. torn ............. thought ............. understood .............

-25-

PAST TENSE ............. led ............. lost ............. met ............. rode ............. said ............. sold ............. sang ............. sat ............. spent ............. stole ............. swam ............. taught ............. told ............. threw ............. wore

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-26-

IRREGULAR VERBS- REFERENCE LIST


INFINITIVE beat begin bind bite blow break bring build buy catch choose do drink drive eat fall feel find fly forget get give go have hear hide keep know lead leave (*) PAST TENSE beat began bound bit blew broke brought built bought caught chose did drank drove ate fell felt found flew forgot got gave went had heard hid kept knew led left PAST PARTICIPLE beaten begun bound bitten blown broken brought built bought caught chosen done drunk driven eaten fallen felt found flown forgotten gotten given gone had heard hidden kept known led left bater comear atar morder soprar quebrar trazer construir comprar agarrar, pegar escolher fazer beber dirigir comer cair sentir achar, encontrar voar esquecer conseguir (*) dar ir ter ouvir esconder manter, guardaar saber, conecer conduzir, liderar deixar, partir

I tried to use the most common translation of these verbs but many of them have numerous other meanings. Watch out for the context!
Procurei usar a traduo mais comum destes verbos, porm muitos deles tm numerosos outros significados. Cuidado com o contexto!

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE
INFINITIVE

Prof. Carlos Augusto


PAST PARTICIPLE

-27-

PAST TENSE

lose make meet pay ride run say see sell send sing sink sit speak spend stand steal strive swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wear

lost made met paid rode ran said saw sold sent sang sank sat spoke spent stood stole strove swam took taught tore told thought threw understood wore

lost made met paid ridden run said seen sold sent sung sunk sat spoken spent stood stolen striven swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood worn

perder fazer encontrar, reunir-se pagar andar (a cavalo, de trem,...) correr dizer ver vender enviar cantar afundar sentar falar gastar ficar de p, suportar furtar esforar-se nadar tomar, pegar (*) ensinar rasgar contar pensar jogar, arremear entender vestir

[Add other examples]: (Para voc acrescentar outros itens) _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________ _______ _______ _______ _____________
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PARA CONCURSOS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-28-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

OBJETIVOS
Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (II): Discourse Markers


Estratgia de Leitura (II): Marcadores do discurso

Study of text from ESAF / TRF/ 2002: Is payment of taxes Voluntary? Multiple choice questions
Estudo do texto da prova ESAF /TRF/ 2002: O pagamento de tributos voluntrio/ Questes de mltipla-escolha

III

Reading techniques: fast / intensive


Tcnicas de leitura: rpida e detalhada

IV Study of text from ESAF / AFC/ 2002: Brazils Economy Multiple choice questions
Estudo do texto da prova ESAF /AFC/ 2002: A Economia do Brasil Questes de mltipla-escolha

V-

The study of Word Forms (Prefixes and Suffixes) // The precious suffixes: -LY // -MENT // -TION
O Estudo da Formao de Palavras (Prefixos e Sufixos) : Os preciosos sufixos ly / -ment / -tion.

VI Grammar Essentials: Summary of Verb Tenses: past simple


Gramtica Essencial: Resumo dos Tempos Verbais : passado simples

VII Vocabulary Build-up: Confusable Words (I)


Construo de Vocabulrio: Palavras que confundem (I)

A Word about Collocation / mini-text: 100 Years Strong


Uma palavra sobre Collocation / mini-texto : Forte h 100 Anos

VIII Appendix: Irregular Verb Forms


Apndice: Formas dos verbos Irregulares.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 2 READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES (III): REFERENCE Faa o skimming do texto e escreva nas linhas abaixo: 15 verdadeiros cognatos. (Eu j comecei para voc) authorities, government,____________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 10 function words palavras que executam uma funo especfica na frase - pronouns, prepositions, ... (Eu j comecei para voc) with, the, have, and, as,____________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

I-

II -

Text 1: US Colombia Join do Break Up Global Drug-Trafficking Ring Washington - U.S. law enforcement authorities, with the help of the government of Colombia, have arrested 22 members and associates of two Colombian drugtrafficking groups as part of an operation to dismantle international drug organizations that smuggle narcotics through U.S. ports. In a September 28 statement, the U.S. Immigration and Customs 5 Enforcement (ICE) agency said those arrested were charged with conspiring to import multikilogram shipments of cocaine hidden inside cargo containers into ports in New York, and in the California cities of San Francisco and Oakland. Among those arrested were four Colombians who helped supply 10 Colombian cocaine to the United States. They were arrested in Cali, Colombia, by the Colombian national police in conjunction with ICE, the investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. It will seek the Colombians' extradition to the United States for prosecution in New York. ICE said that if convicted the defendants in the case face a mandatory 15 minimum sentence of 10 years imprisonment and a maximum sentence of life in prison, and a $4 million fine. (By Eric Green Washington File Staff Writer)
http://usinfo.state.gov/utils/printpage.html

Agora, raciocine comigo. De que adiantaria conhecer, digamos, 30% das palavras cognatas se o examinador formulasse uma questo do tipo:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 1.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

A que se refere a palavra they (L-10) __________________________________________________________ Ou outra, sob a forma de multiple-choice question:

2. a) b) c) d) e)

The word it (L-12) refers to Colombian government. enforcement authorities. national police. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. drug trafficker. preciso prestar ateno questo da reference em ingls. Todo escritor busca escrever de forma coesa e coerente. Para isso, lana mo de pronomes, por exemplo, para evitar a repetio de algo que ele entende esteja claro. Podem ser pronomes demonstrativos como this, that, these, those, podem ser pronomes relativos: who, which, that, whose etc. Todas essas function words tm que ser estudadas com ateno. Observe a tabela abaixo como os pronomes pessoais, possessivos e reflexivos.

PRONOUN FORMS
Study these pronoun forms: Personal Pronouns Subject Object I me you you he him she her it it we us you you they them / Possessive / Adjectives Pronouns my mine your yours his his her hers its our ours your yours their theirs

Reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Todos estes pronomes pipocaro de vez em quando nos textos que estudaremos.Todos so comumente usados em questes envolvendo reference em provas de ingls.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT a) The suffix - MENT No Text 1 h varios exemplos de palavras com o sufixo MENT. U.S. law enforcement authorities (L-1) with the help of the government of Colombia (L-1) to import multikilogram shipments of cocaine (L-7) face a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years' imprisonment (L-15) O que se observa o seguinte: o sufixo MENT acrescentado a verbos para formar substantivos. Verb enforce govern ship imprison Noun enforcement government shipment imprisonment Traduo cumprimento (leis) governo Embarque priso

Alguns outros exemplos fora do contexto: To my amazement she left for Canada without saying good-by. Para meu espanto ela partiu para o Canad sem dizer adeus. There are no banking establishments nowadays without IT departments. No h estabelecimentos bancrios hoje sem departamentos de TI. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras. mesma

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-4-

KEY WORD: AS
From Text 1: ...as part of an operation organizations (L-3/4) to dismantle international drug

como parte de uma operao para desmantelar organizaes internacionais do narcotrfico

Dentre as vrias function words do texto anterior escolhi a palavrinha as para lhe mostrar porque voc deve estudar estas verdadeiras gems. Nesse caso traduzimos por como. Vejamos, qual a chance de uma palavra como dismantle (= desmantelar, desbaratar) aparecer em vrios outros textos neste livro? Mnima, certo? J a palavra AS* surge freqentemente em textos com vrios significados. Palavras-chave semelhantes a AS tm que se tornar o mais meaningful possvel para voc. (*) [Existe um Dictionary of Key Words, by Mary Edwards, Ed. Macmillan, no sei se est esgotado. Se voc ach-lo em sebos, compre-o. Garanto que no se arrepender!] a) conjuno significando when (=quando)
Quando eu estava tomando um banho, o telefone tocou.

Ex.: As I was taking a shower, the telephone rang. Turn off the light as you leave.
Apague a luz quando estiver saindo.

b)

conjuno significando because (=porque)


Como o Sr Cheng s falava Chins, precisvamos de um intrprete.

Ex.: As Mr. Cheng only spoke Chinese, we needed an interpreter. c) conjuno significando in the same way (=da mesma maneira, como)
Faa como eu digo, no faa como eu fao.

Ex.: Do as I say, not as I do. (common popular saying). d) preposio significando in the role of (=na qualidade de, como)
Minha esposa trabalha como dentista.

Exs.: My wife works as a dentist. I have worked as a teacher for many years.
Trabalho como professor h anos. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

Encontra-se a palavra as tambm em vrias expresses: IAs if ... (= como se ...)


Parecia que ia chover.

Ex.: It looked as if it was going to rain. II As + adj. + as (formao do comparativo de igualdade)

Ex.: Chris is as tall as Rita.


Chris to alta quanto a Rita.

Benjamin is not so fast as Brian.


Benjamin no to rpido quanto Brian.

This topic is as important as that one. You should study both.


Este tpico to importante quanto aquele. Voc devia estudar ambos.

My friends are not so motivated as they were last year.


Meus amigos no esto to motivados quanto estavam no ano passado.

III As usual (como de costume, pra variar ...) Ex.: Natalie is late, as usual.
Natalie est atrasada, pra variar.

There comes Nora, crazy as usual.


L vem a Nora, maluquinha como sempre.

IV such as (tal como, tais como quando se quer enumerar. Ex.: At that time nobody had many comforts in life, such as freezers, computers, air conditioners
Naquela poca ningum possua muitas comodidades na vida, tais como congeladores, computadores, aparelhos de ar condicionado ..

the same as (o mesmo que


O vestido da Helen parece com o da sua irm.

Ex.: Helens dress looks the same as her sisters. George studied in the same school as I did.
George estudou na mesma escola que eu.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE EXERCCIO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

Traduza somente as expresses em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra as; consulte um dicionrio se precisar.

As the judge entered the courtroom, everybody rose. ____________________ I left by the back door so as not to meet Jennys brother. ____________________ That yard is not so long as ours. ____________________ As long as you promise to return my book soon, you can borrow it. ____________________ As yet they havent chosen the new president. ____________________ Nobody knows English well in my group. I might as well do the translation myself. ____________________ Youre wrong! Bills father works as an engineer for ICF. ____________________ I know you like strawberries, but the other kids love them as well. ____________________ As a rule Ruth wakes up early to go to work. ____________________ Henry looked pale, as though he had seen a ghost. ____________________ We will start the review for the final test as of next week. ____________________ My old Dad does not walk round the square as he used to. ____________________

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE Text 2:

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

US Colombia Join do Break Up Global Drug-Trafficking Ring (II) "Operation Pier Pressure," which led to the September 27-28 arrests, began in 2000 when U.S. law enforcement authorities learned that one of the ringleaders charged in the case, Jose Escobar, was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Escobar is serving a 30-year sentence for his role in the 1995 importation of 180 kilograms of cocaine into Port Newark, New Jersey. Other ringleaders arrested are Jorge Ignacio Figueroa and retired New York longshoremen Raul Adames and Alejandro Colon. Roslynn Mauskopt U.S. attorney for the eastern district of New York, said the U.S. governments investigation in Operation Pier Pressure has resulted in the seizure of millions of dollars worth of cocaine and "ultimately forced the Escobar/Figueroa organization to give up the ports of New York as a landing point for their drugs." John Gilbride, special agent-in-charge of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administrations office in New York, said the United States stands "committed with our domestic and international law enforcement partners in the fight against a common enemy: illicit drugs." He added'. "The success of this investigation is the result of the sharing of intelligence and a unified approach used to protect our nation not only from drug traffickers but from all who threaten our nation's security." (By Eric Green Washington File Staff Writer)
http://usinfo.state.gov/utils/printpage.html

10

15

20

Answer these questions: 1. What does the pronoun their (L-13) refer to? _________________________________________________________ What does the pronoun this (L-17) refer to? _________________________________________________________

2.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT

-8-

a)

The suffix (A)TION

No Text 2 h varios exemplos de palavras com o sufixo (A)TION. que acrescentado a verbos para formar substantivos. Verb organize administer operate Investigate Noun organization administration operation investigation Traduo organizao administrao operao Investigao mesma

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

b)

The suffix URE

No Text 2 h dois exemplos de substantivos formados com o sufixo URE. que acrescentado a verbos normalmente. No texto, por exemplo, seizure significa (= apreenso, captura) Verb press fail close expose Noun pressure failure closure exposure Traduo presso fracasso fechamento exposio

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9mesma

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 1. Retire do primeiro pargrafo do text 2 um fragmento no present continuous tense
__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

2.

Ainda no texto 2, retire 6 fragmentos no past simple. Subdivida conforme o verbo seja regular ou irregular past tense of regular verbs
__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

A)

B)

past tense of irregular verbs


__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

4.

O verbo give irregular (p.s gave, p.p given). Seu significado mais comum em portugus dar, as in: Could you give me your phone number?
Poderia me dar o seu telefone?

Agora, qual o significado do phrasal verb give up (L-12)?


__________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

-10-

3.1

PAST CONTINUOUS

From Text 2 "Jose Escobar was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania." (L- 3) Utilizemos as expresses learn slowly (=aprender devagar) com o verbo regular learn e run fast (=correr rpido), com o verbo irregular run. AFFIRMATIVE I / He / She / It You / We / They was learning slowly // running fast were learning slowly // running fast

Note: Como voc observa, forma-se o past continuous com o passado simples do verbo to be + a forma -ing do verbo principal. QUESTIONS Was I / He / She / It Were You / We / They learning slowly // running fast learning slowly // running fast

Formamos a interrogativa pela inverso do auxiliar to be com o verbo principal. NEGATIVE I / He / She / It You / We / They was not were not learning slowly // running fast learning slowly // running fast

Para formar a negativa acrescente not ao verbo to be. NB: was not =wasnt // were not = werent 3.2 a) USES OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS To describe a past action in progress connected to another past action. Expressa uma ao continua no passado ligada a outra ao passada.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

Exs.: I was going to school when I met Susan. Estava indo para a escola quando encontrei a Susan. The phone was ringing when Mrs. Dawson arrived home. O telefone estava tocando quando a Sra Dawson chegou em casa. Were you studying last night when I called you up? Voc estava estudando ontem noite quando eu telefonei para voc? She wasn't playing tennis this afternoon. She was dancing. Ela no estava jogando tnis esta tarde. Estava danando. It may also be used to describe an action that was happening at the same time another action was in progress. Pode ser tambm usado para descrever que uma ao passada estava em progresso ao mesmo tempo que outra. Ex.: While his wife was doing the housework, Bill was writing letters.
Enquanto sua esposa estava fazendo suas tarefas de casa, o Bill estava escrevendo cartas.

All the time the movie star was bathing at the beach, her security agents were keeping an eye on anyone who came close to her
Todo o tempo que a estrela estava se banhando no mar, seus agentes de segurana estavam vigiando qualquer um que dela se aproximasse.

That woman was shoplifting. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-12-

READING STRATEGY: PREDICTING WORDS IN FAMILIES Quando se sabe a que classe gramatical uma palavra pertence possvel perceber que ela desempenha na frase. Pela anlise das palavras prximas a ela na frase, ou seja pelo context, possvel predict qual o sentido que o autor quis dar. Sufixos, especialmente, so timos para nos ajudar nessa tarefa. Como j vimos, h sufixos formadores de substantivos, de verbos, de adjetivos. Complete o quadro abaixo com o item que falta: verb xxxxx succeed xxxxx define learn noun essence successes selfishness .................... learner Adjective essential successful .................... definite adverb .. ........................ selfishly definitely xxxxxx

Admitamos que voc esteja lendo um texto onde aparece o adjetivo wide (=largo / a, amplo / a). Ao consultar o dicionrio voc encontrar width (n.) (=largura), o regular verb widen (alargar, ampliar), o advrbio widely (= largamente, amplamente). Procure estudar a famlia toda. Por que no? Voltando ao tpico acima, estudando word families voc ter mais agilidade na leitura dos textos em ingls. Complete the sample paragraph below with the base word 'wide' and the other deriving words in the box: widened width widely wide widening

Conde de Bonfim Street, in Tijuca (RJ), is _________ (1), although I don't know its exact _________ (2). However, it is a _________ (3) known fact that the government plans on ____________ (4) it even more, In many stretches of the street it has been ___________ (5) already to four or five lanes.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

QUIZ: WORDS IN FAMILIES


Use three of the words in the box to complete the sentences.
1. CONSUMER CONSUMPTION CONSUMERISM CONSUMED

a) b) c)
2.

The ___________ of genetically modified products is increasing. After the approval of the ___________ statute, we feel more protected when we buy something. In our modern society, where _________ is widespread, we need to discipline ourselves in order not to buy superfluous goods.
AUTHORITIES AUTHORIZATION AUTHORIZED AUTHORITATIVE

a) b) c)
3.

Only ___________ personnel can enter that area. Without special ___________ you cant leave the school premises. She spoke to me in a very ____________ manner. So, I did what she told me to.
PROTECT PROTECTION PROTECTIONIST UNPROTECTED

a) b) c)
4.

The US has adopted ___________ measures. She did not feel safe to go out late at night. She said that she felt really _______________. Its up to the police to provide citizens with ___________ from criminals.
THREATEN THREATENING THREAT THREATENED

a) b) c)
5.

Are you ___________ me, young man? We moved form that neighborhood because we felt ______________ by gangs all the time. Those nuclear weapons pose serious ___________ to world peace.
DECIDE DECISION DECISIVELY DECISIVE

a) b) c)

They hired him because he can make ___________ quickly. Its up to you to ___________. Ive shown you all the options. We wouldnt have won without your participation. Youve played a ____________ role, indeed.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP

-14-

A number of words have been removed from the minitexts that follow. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts. Mini-text 1: The Evolving Internet reshaping assisting debating productive virtual corner

interactions mystery

Each day brings new examples of how information and communication technology (ICT) is __________ (1) the lives of people around the world. To one degree or another, the digital revolution has arrived in just about every ___________ (2) of the globe On the Internet and the World Wide Web, people are governing, learning, communicating, ___________ (3), "politicking," shopping, and experimenting conducting all kinds of ____________ (4) in ways only made possible by ICT. The Internet has brought into being a ___________ (5) world that, like the universe itself, is expanding every moment, full of promise, hope, and a little ___________ (6). But challenges remain if it is to achieve its full promise. The United States, in partnership with other governments, international organizations, and citizens of many countries, is committed to ___________ (7) people around the globe to meet these challenges so that this virtual world becomes a helpful and ___________ (8) part of their everyday lives.
Visit: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/1103/ijge/1103.htm

Task: Suponhamos que voc no saiba o significado do ttulo acima The Evolving Internet. Escreva na linha abaixo qual a melhor traduo para ele agora que voc j preencheu as lacunas do mini-text 1. H vrias dicas no prprio texto indicando a melhor traduo. No consulte nenhum dicionrio! __________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

Mini-text 2: nicknamed springing

Silicon Valley availability home fabric fierce heart demand spread price

Only 72 kilometers south of San Francisco lies the ____________ (1) of the U.S. aerospace, telecommunications, and computer research industry. ___________ (2) for the ___________ (3) of computer chips, Silicon Valley is ___________ (4) to hundreds of companies attracted by Californias tax and land use policies and the ____________ (5) of science and engineering graduates emerging from the nearby colleges and universities. New silicon valleys are ___________ (6) near Boston and in the South to meet the still growing ___________ (7). ___________ (8) competition has driven down the price of inventions like personal computers and has led to new ways of doing old things, such as electronic ____________ (9) reading in supermarkets. Most dramatic is the ____________. (10) of computers into the lives of young people, who use them for both education and environment. (From Dateline Calendar, 1984, USIA) Task: Escreva na linha abaixo qual a melhor traduo para o ttulo do texto acima Silicon Valley agora que voc j preencheu as lacunas do mini-text 1. Desta vez, se voc prestar bem ateno h uma indicao no prprio texto que leva melhor traduo. No consulte nenhum dicionrio! __________________________________________________________

Dica importante! Voc pode montar os seus prprios mini-texts. Admitamos que voc queira estudar diversos discourse markers ou vrios termos tcnicos sobre um determinado assunto. Tire duas cpias do texto e use liquid paper -verniz corretor para apagar as palavras-chave do seu interesse. s grampear a cpia com as lacunas ao texto completo e a qualquer hora voc poder se testar. Acredite, aprendi muito ingls assim!

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-16-

A nica forma de testar se as estratgias e tcnicas que estamos estudando so vlidas to take the bull by the horns, ou seja, pegar o touro a unha. Por isso escolhi o texto seguinte que foi considerado uma espcie assim de touro bandido na poca do concurso de AFC. ISem usar um dicionrio (at porque na hora da prova voc no pode consultar um) escreva a melhor traduo para o ttulo do texto.
____________________________________________________________________

II -

Faa o skimming do texto e assinale os true cognates. (No final voc ter as minhas respostas e comentrios)

Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket Never has a straightjacket seemed so ill-fitting or so insecure. The euro areas stability and growth pact was supposed to stop irresponsible member states from running excessive budget deficits, defined as 3% of GDP or more. Chief among the restraints was the threat of large fines if member governments 5 breached the limit for 3 years in a row. For some time now no one has seriously believed those restraints would hold. In the early hours of Tuesday November 25th the euros fiscal straitjacket finally came apart at the seams. The pacts fate was sealed over an extended dinner meeting of the euro areas 12 finance ministers. They chewed over the sorry fiscal record of the 10 euros two largest members, France and Germany. Both governments ran deficits of more than 3% of GDP last year and will do so again this year. Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004. Earlier this year, the European Commission, which policies the pact, agreed to give both countries an extra year, until 2005, to bring their deficits back into line. But it also instructed 15 them to revisit their budget plans for 2004 and make extra cuts. France was asked to cut its underlying, cyclically adjusted deficit by a full 1% of GDP, Germany by 0.8%. Both resisted. (Nov 27th, 2003-The Economist Global Agenda) J que falamos de Reference a) A que se refere a palavra both (L-10) em Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004? _____________________________ A que se refere o pronome IT (L-14) em But it also instructed them to revisit their budget plans for 2004? _____________________________
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

b)-

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Preparado para responder as questes propostas pela banca ESAF? Aqui vo elas. ESAF / AFC/ CGU/ 2004 Read the text Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket in order to answer questions 21 to 24 21. a) b) c) d} e) 22. a) b) c) d) e) 23. a) b) c) d) e) 24. a) b) c) d) e) According to the text the Euro pact has been preventing excessive budget deficits. has been devised by France and Germany. aims at restraining the euros economic growth. has redressed the euros fiscal balance. sets parameters related to fiscal deficits. In if member states breached the limit (paragraph 1) breached could best be replaced by reduced exceeded extended compassed outlasted In pr. 2, Germany and France are referred to as countries which have failed to follow fiscal rules. leading forces within the European Central Bank. countries which brought their deficits below 3%. members of a coming European Union. countries whose fiscal balance is remarkable. According to the author, Tuesday November 25th is the day on which the euro pact was at last enforced. was finally signed. proved its ineffectiveness. finally acquired legitimacy. was at last respected.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

Sinalizao dos verdadeiros cognatos


Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket* Never has a straightjacket seemed so ill-fitting or so insecure. The euro areas stability and growth pact was supposed to stop irresponsible member states from running excessive budget deficits, defined as 3% of GDP or more. Chief among the restraints was the threat of large fines if member governments breached the limit for 3 years in a row. For some time now no one has seriously believed those restraints would hold. In the early hours of Tuesday November 25th the euros fiscal straitjacket finally came apart at the seams. The pacts fate was sealed over an extended dinner meeting of the euro areas 12 finance ministers. They chewed over the sorry fiscal record of the euros two largest members, France and Germany. Both governments ran deficits of more than 3% of GDP last year and will do so again this year. Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004. Earlier this year, the European Commission, which policies the pact, agreed to give both countries an extra year, until 2005, to bring their deficits back into line. But it also instructed them to revisit their budget plans for 2004 and make extra cuts. France was asked to cut its underlying, cyclically adjusted deficit by a full 1% of GDP, Germany by 0.8%. Both resisted. (Nov 27th, 2003-The Economist Global
Agenda) [about 200 words] CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION

GLOSSARY fiscal straightjacket running budget deficits threat of large fines breach the limit come apart at the seams the pacts fate was sealed chewed over the fiscal record make extra cuts
(*)

Alm da grafia straightjacket* voc encontrar tambm straitjacket.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-19-

Selected True Cognates from Text 1 authorities, government, Colombia, members, associates, groups, part, operation, international, organizations, narcotic, ports, immigration, agency, import, multikilogram, cocaine, cargo, police, conjunction, investigative, department, security, extradiction, face, mandatory, minimum, sentence, maximum, prison, million, Selected Function Words from Text 1 With, the, have, and, as of, to, that, through, in, those, were, inside, into, and, among, who, they, by, will, for, if, Reference A que se refere a palavra they (L-10) four Colombians The word it (L-12) refers to d) Immigration and Customs Enforcement. KEY WORD: AS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. As the judge entered the courtroom, everybody rose.
Quando o juiz entrou na corte, todos se levantaram.

I left by the back door so as not to meet Jennys brother.


Sai pela porta dos fundos a fim de no encontrar com o irmo da Jenny.

That yard is not so long as ours.


Aquele ptio no to comprido quanto o nosso.

As long as you promise to return my book soon, you can borrow it.
Se voc promete devolver meu livro em breve, pode ficar com ele.

As yet they havent chosen the new president.


At agora no escolheram o novo presidente.

Nobody knows English well in my group. I might as well do the translation myself.
Ningum sabe bem ingls no meu grupo. melhor eu mesmo fazer a traduo.

Youre wrong! Bills father works as an engineer for ICF.


Voc est errado. O pai do Bill trabalha como engenheiro na ICF.

I know you like strawberries, but the other kids love them as well.
Eu sei que voc gosta de morangos, mas as outras crianas tambm gostam.

As a rule Ruth wakes up early to go to work.


Geralmente a Ruth acorda cedo par air trabalhar.

Henry looked pale, as though he had seen a ghost.


O Henry parecia plido, como se tivesse visto um fantasma.

We will start the review for the final test as of next week.
Comearemos a reviso para a prova final a partir da semana que vem.

My old Dad does not walk round the square as he used to.
Meu velho pai no caminha mais em volta da praa como costumava fazer. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-20-

From Text 2: 1. the organizations 2. investigation in Operation Pier Pressure WORDS IN FAMILIES verb xxxxx succeed xxxxx define learn noun essence successes selfishness definition learner Adjective essential successful selfish definite learned adverb essentially successfully selfishly definitely xxxxxx

Word Families wide: Conde de Bonfim Street, in Tijuca (RJ), is wide (1), although I don't know its exact width (2). However, it is a widely (3) known fact that the government plans on widening (4) it even more, In many stretches of the street it has been widened (5) already to four or five lanes. QUIZ: WORDS IN FAMILIES
1.

a) b) c)
2.

The CONSUMPTION of genetically modified products is increasing. After the approval of the CONSUMER statute, we feel more protected when we buy something. In our modern society, where CONSUMERISM is widespread, we need to discipline ourselves in order not to buy superfluous goods. Only AUTHORIZED personnel can enter that area. Without special AUTHORIZATION you cant leave the school premises. She spoke to me in a very AUTHORITATIVE manner. So, I did what she told me to. The US has adopted PROTECTIONIST measures. She did not feel safe to go out late at night. She said that she felt really UNPROTECTED. Its up to the police to provide citizens with PROTECTION from criminals. Are you THREATENING me, young man? We moved form that neighborhood because we felt THREATENED by gangs all the time. Those nuclear weapons pose serious THREATS to world peace.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

a) b) c)
3.

a) b) c)
4.

a) b) c)

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE
5.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-21-

a) b) c)

They hired him because he can make DECISIONS quickly. Its up to you to DECIDE. Ive shown you all the options. We wouldnt have won without your participation. Youve played a DECISIVE role, indeed.

Grammar essentials From Text 2 example of present continuous construction Escobar is serving a 30-year sentence for his role in the 1995 importation of 180 kilograms of cocaine into Port Newark, New From Text 2 example of past continuous construction Jose Escobar was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Mini-text 1: The Evolving Internet 1. reshaping 2. corner 3. debating 5. virtual 6. mystery 7. assisting Task: The Evolving Internet 4. interactions 8. productive

A Internet em Desenvolvimento 4. home 9. price 5. availability 10. spread

Mini-text 2: Silicon Valley 1. heart 2. nicknamed 3. fabric 6. springing 7. demand 8. fierce Task: Silicon Valley

Vale do Silcio

Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket Literalmente straightjacket uma camisa de fora. Uma boa traduo para ottulo pode ser: Afrouxando o arrocho fiscal Reference: a) BOTH (L-10) b)- IT (L-14)

Frana e Alemanha European Commission

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-22-

ESAF / AFC/ CGU/ 2004 21. E O pacto do euro estabeleceu parmetros relativamente a dficits fiscais. Em (a), l-se: tem impedido dficits oramentrios excessivos; na (b), foi concebido pela Frana e pela Alemanha; na (c), visa a restringir o crescimento econmico na comunidade do euro; na (d), corrigiu o equilbrio fiscal na comunidade do euro. Quando ocorre uma breach of a contract, no h o cumprimento de uma clusula contratual. Portanto, ao descumprir o limite estabelecido, de 3% do PIB, os estados membros o estariam excedendo. Na (a) l-se: reduzido; na (c), estendido; na (d), alcanado; na (e), perdurou.

22. B

23. A Frana e Alemanha so pases membros que fracassaram em cumprir as regulamentaes fiscais. Na (b) l-se: so foras preponderantes dentro do Banco Central Europeu; na (c), pases que trouxeram seus dficits a nveis inferiores a 3%; na (d), pases membros de uma futura Unio Europia; na (e), pases cujo equilbrio fiscal notvel. 24. C Ao dizer que nessa data a camisa de fora se rompeu na sua base, o autor transmite a idia de que o pacto provou sua ineficcia. Na (a) lse: foi afinal colocado em vigor; na (b), foi afinal assinado; na (d), por fim adquiriu legitimidade; na (e), foi afinal respeitado. GLOSSARY fiscal straightjacket* running budget deficits threat of large fines breach the limit come apart at the seams the pacts fate was sealed chewed over the fiscal record make extra cuts
CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION

arrocho fiscal acumulando dficits oramentrios ameaa de pesadas multas exceder o limite romper na base o destino do pasto estava selado discutiram sobre o registro fiscal fazer cortes adicionais

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 2

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-23-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (III): Reference


Estratgia de Leitura (II): Referncia

Study of text 1: USA / Colombia


Estudo do texto EUA / Colmbia ....

III Word Forms The suffix -MENT


Formao de Palavras Sufixo MENT

IV Key Word AS / Exercise


A Palavra-chave: AS / Exerccio

Study of text 2: USA / Colombia (part II)


Estudo do texto 2 EUA / Colmbia .... (parte II)

VI Word Forms The suffix (A)TION


Formao de Palavras Sufixo (A)TION

VII - Summary of Verb Tenses: Past Continuous


Resumo dos tempos verbais: Passado Contnuo

VIII Reading Strategy: Predicting // Words in Families //Quiz


Estratgia de Leitura: Previso // Palavras em famlias // Teste

IX X

Vocabulary Build-up: Mini-texts (1 /2)


Construo de Vocabulrio: Mini-textos (1/2)

Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/CGU 2004


Anlise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC /CGU 2004

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 3 THE LITTLE WORD OF Antes de responder as questes de reading comprehension sobre o texto Sociedade da Informao, faa a correlao de A com B na tabela abaixo. Todos as expresses com a palavra of foram retirados do texto. A 1. streams of online information 2. array of programmes 3. service of higher quality 4. worlds of broadcasting 5. at the heart of this process 6. terms of suppliers Text 1: a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( B ) uma srie de programas ) no corao deste processo ) servio de maior qualidade ) condies dos fornecedores ) correntes de info na rede ) mundos das transmisses

INFORMATION SOCIETY

In brief: Practically non-existent 15 years ago mobile phones are everywhere. The internet provides endless streams of online information. We are offered a bewildering array of programmes* and services as high-capacity digital systems bring together two formerly separate worlds of broadcasting and 5 telecommunications. This revolution in information technology is creating the information society - at home, at school and at work. The European Union and its policies and actions have guided and supported the revolution since the beginning.

The communications revolution is driven by technology and market forces. The European Union has been at the heart of this process, setting the 10 pace for opening markets, maintaining equal opportunities for all participants, creating a dynamic regulatory structure, defending consumer interests and even setting technical standards. The old publicly-owned telephone monopolies that once ran protected national markets have been transfigured. Aggressive and innovative newcomers have moved in, offering imaginative new services, 15 attractively packaged. Competition has forced prices down and quality up. The result for individuals and businesses is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability. Consumer choice has widened both terms of suppliers and of services on offer. Demand for mobile telephones and internet access exploded. Now 90% of schools and businesses in the EU are online, 20 while more than half the population are regular internet users. The information and communications sector is among the most dynamic in the European Union and globally. (Excerpt from Overviews of the European Union activities)
visit: http://europa.eu.int/pol/infso/overview_em.htm
[access: 15/05/05]

(*) Spelling differences: programmes (n.) (UK)

//

programs (n.) (US)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

Segundo os linguists a incidncia da key word of nos textos impressionante (vem em segundo lugar - s perde para a palavra the); muito superior importncia que a ela se d. comum em expresses como as que destacamos anteriormente. Passe a observar outras expresses com of.

READING STRATEGIES
ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA

ISTRATEGY 1: Highlighting the true cognates O texto Information Society contm aproximadamente 250 palavras. Dentre essas h vrias palavras transparentes, vrios true cognates. Nos mesmos moldes das lies anteriores, assinale esses verdadeiros cognatos. Cheguei facilmente a 35% das palavras. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ STRATEGY 2: Inferring the main idea of the text Qualquer aluno com um mnimo de conhecimento de ingls entender que o ttulo Information Society significa Sociedade da Informao. s vezes um ttulo, um sub-ttulo, um abstract (neste caso significando: sumrio) so extremamente significativos e ajudam a inferir a idia principal. bem verdade que nas provas da ESAF nem sempre o ttulo do texto mamo com acar como o supracitado. Mas nunca deixe de analis-lo. Como teste proponho o ttulo do texto da recente prova (06/2005) da ESAF para AFC que comearemos a estudar nesta aula. Responda as questes: II Specter of Rising Inflation Sends Shares to New Lows for 2005 a) b) c) Quais dessas palavras voc considera true cognates? ___________________________________________ Sem consultar o dicionrio, com quais das outras voc est familiarizado? __________________________________________________________ Finalmente, e mais importante, em quanto a traduo fragmentada ou integral do texto lhe permite inferir sobre o que trata o texto? ___________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Responda Falso (F) ou Verdadeiro (V). 1. ( ) 2. ( ) 3. ( ) 4. ( ) 5. ( ) 6. ( ) Mobile phones have been everywhere for 15 years. The current revolution in information technology is creating the information society. The European Union has given support to this revolution since the beginning. Market forces have no influence whatsoever in this revolution.
There has been the transfiguration of old publicly-owned telephone monopolies

90 % of the EU population are regular Internet users. ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT ADJ + NOUN // NOUN + NOUN

From text 1:
Practically non-existent 15 years ago mobile phones are everywhere (L-1) This revolution in information technology is creating the information society

Numa das participaes na rea livre do site falei sobre collocations. No caso acima no vamos nos ater distino entre collocations e meras combinations de palavras. Aguce a sua observao para os word chunks formados por um adjetivo + substantivo ou mesmo substantivo + substantivo onde o primeiro faz as vezes de adjetivo. Correlacione A com B: A 1. information 2. market 3. consumer 4. technical 5. innovative 6. internet 7. communications a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( B ) access ) choice ) standard ) forces ) sector ) newcomers )technology

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto WORD FORMS

-4-

a)

the prefix NON-

From the text Information Society Practically non-existent 15 years ago mobile phones are everywhere. (L-1)

O prefixo NON um dos formadores de antnimos. colocado diante de substantivos ou adjetivos. O hfen nem sempre usado, mas mantido quando a outra palavra comea por letra maiscula. Exs.: Id like to reserve a table for two. Non-smoking section, please.
Queria reservar uma mesa para dois. rea de no fumantes, por favor.

This is not a nonstop flight, madam.


Este no um vo sem escalas, senhora.

Helga took part in the non-violent demonstration.


A Helga participou da manifestao pacfica..

My grandfather was a non-smoker all his life.


Meu av foi um no-fumante durante toda sua vida.

Thats just nonsense! You cant go there alone at this late hour.
Isto absurdo! Voc no pode sair s a esta hora.

What kind of books do you prefer: science fiction or nonfiction?


Que tipo de livros voc prefere - fico cientfica ou no fico?

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE b)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

the suffix -LESS

From the text Information Society The internet provides endless streams of online information (L-2) O sufixo LESS forma adjetivos. No exemplo do texto acima endless significa sem fim, interminvel. Estude os exemplos a seguir: My daughter ran up to meet me so fast that she felt breathless.
Minha filha correu tanto para me encontrar que se sentiu sem flego.

Joel was arrested for careless driving.


Joel foi preso por direo descuidada.

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

c)

the suffix -FUL

Mesmo no aparecendo no texto 1, resolve incluir logo o sufixo -FUL tambm formador de adjetivos e que d a idia oposta do sufixo LESS. Exs.: Jennifer has always been a careful driver.
A Jennifer sempre foi uma motorista cuidadosa.

Your niece must have been a beautiful baby.


Sua sobrinha deve ter sido uma nenm bonita.

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE d) the suffix (I)TY

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

From the text Information Society

The result for individuals and businesses is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability. (L-16/17) Este sufixo, muito freqente em ingls, forma substantivos cuja terminao em portugus normalmente -dade. Ocorrem algumas pequenas alteraes ortogrficas s vezes. No exemple acima, do adjetivo reliable (=confivel) chega-se ao substantivo reliability (= confiabilidade). Exs.: Ben is so irresponsible. Im tired of his irresponsibility.
O Ben to irresponsvel. Estou cansado de sua irresponsabilidade.

Actually, I see no reason for this feeling of inferiority.


Na verdade, no vejo razo para este sentimento de inferioridade.

The presidents popularity has declined lately.


A popularidade do presidente tem cado ultimamente.

As vezes apenas TY acrescentado ao adjetivo: Exs.: We were amazed by the cruelty shown by the bandits.
Ficamos estarrecidos com a crueldade demonstrada pelos bandidos .

This is a privilege only for the members of royalty.


Este um privilgio s para os membros da realeza.

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE e) the suffix ER

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

From the text Information Society Consumer choice has widened both terms of suppliers and of services on offer. (L-17/18) The result is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability. (L-16/17) c.1) Sufixo formador de substantivos, correspondendo quele /a que faz Verbo borrow lend supply c.2) Substantivo borrower lender supplier Traduo tomador de emprstimo emprestador fornecedor

sufixo formador do grau comparativo dos short adjectives Adjetivo cheap high low Comparativo cheaper higher lower Traduo mais barato mais alto mais baixo

Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

TRUE COGNATES & FALSE COGNATES From the text The Information Society The European Union and its policies and actions have guided and supported the revolution since the beginning. (L- 6/7) A palavra policies no significa polcias e, sim, polticas; o verbo support pode ser traduzido por suportar em portugus, dependendo do contexto. Mas no caso acima devemos entender como apoiar. I1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Write (T) true or (F) false in parentheses Well resume work after lunch.
resume means resumir ( )

Shes a woman of exquisite tastes.


Exquisite means estranhos ( )

Stop pretending that you have a fever.


Pretend means fingir ( )

In my opinion it was an ingenious plan.


ingenious means ingnuo ( )

Are you familiar with Jorge Amados novels?


novels mean romances ( )

With profound disgust I entered the place.


Disgust means nojo ( )

It all depends on how much is available.


available means avalivel ( )

Your contribution was most invaluable.


invaluable means sem valor ( )

Helens father is a renowned physician.


Physician means fsico. ( )

Her daughter is a very sensitive girl.


sensitive means sensata ( )

In order to reach an agreement both sides had to compromise.


compromise means comprometer-se ( )

Mr. Parris agreed that it was a rather vexed question.


vexed means embaraosa. ( ) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP

-9-

Specialized vocabulary: economic terms EXERCISE 1- Use the words in the box to match the brief definitions: cost of living standard of living 1. 2. 3. 4. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ economical economic protectionism inflation

5.

________________

6.

________________

relating to an economy or economics using a minimum of resources, cheap a rise in the general Ieve1 of prices, and an increase in the money supply a measure of the amount of money that has to be paid for essentials (food, accommodation, heating, clothing, etc) a measure off the amount of disposable income that people have to spend on both necessities and luxuries. the practice of restricting imports in order to increase the sales of domestic products.

(Adapted from Financial English by Ian Mackenzie, page 89, LTP)

Specialized vocabulary: money and payments EXERCISE 2- Use the words in the box to match the brief definitions: currency installment borrower premium pension dividend rebate yield fee budget

1. .......................... = monthly payment one has to make for buying on credit. 2. ............... = payment of a share in a business paid to shareholders. 3. ........................... = money paid for an insurance policy. 4. ........................... = money a lender gets for a loan or investment. 5. ........................... = money received by retired people. 6. ...........................= payment to lawyers, doctors, etc. for professional services. 7. ........................... = return of part of a payment reduction. 8. ........................... = money that is in official use in a country. 9. ........................... = one who has taken money to be repaid at interest or not. 10. .......................... = estimate of future income and expenses made by a person or business.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

-10-

4.1

PRESENT PERFECT

Utilizemos as expresses walk fast (=andar apressadamente) com o verbo regular walk e be quiet (=ficar quieto), com o verbo irregular be. AFFIRMATIVE I / You / We / They He / She / It have has walked fast/ been quiet walked fast/ been quiet

Como voc observa usa-se o presente simples do auxiliar to have + particpio passado do verbo principal. QUESTIONS Have Has I / You / We / They He / She / It walked fast/ been quiet? walked fast/ been quiet?

Formamos a interrogativa com a inverso do auxiliar have e o sujeito da frase. NEGATIVE I / You / We / They He / She / It have not has not walked fast/ been quiet walked fast/ been quiet

Formamos a negativa colocando not aps as formas do auxiliar have. You find the contracted forms: has not = hasnt / have not = havent 4.2 a) USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT to say that an action has just taken place or has repeatedly happened already but the definite time is not specified.
Para dizer que uma ao acaba de acontecer ou aconteceu repetidas vezes sem que um tempo definido seja especificado.

Exs.: Mr. Hart has just left.


O Sr. Hart acabou de sair.

Im not going to the movies with you. Ive already seen that movie twice.
No vou ao cinema com voc. J vi esse filme duas vezes.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

Jennifer has not read Js latest book.


Jennifer no leu o ltimo livro do J.

b)

To express actions which begin in the past and are connected with the present and are likely to go on in the future. For and since are commonly used.
Para expressar aes que comearam no passado, tm conexo com o presente e possivelmente continuaro no futuro. As preposies for e since so comumente usadas.]

Exs.: Mr. Dunlop has worked at C& C for more than 20 years. (He began 20 years ago and is still working there.)
O Sr. Dunlop trabalha na C&C h mais de vinte anos. Comeou h vinte anos e ainda trabalha l.

Denise has studied English since her childhood. (and she keeps on studying the language till now )
Denise estuda ingls desde a sua infncia. [continua a estudar at hoje.]

c)

Brazilian students should pay close attention to the use of the present perfect after the expression Its the first time (that) ... (In Portuguese we use the present simple)
Os alunos brasileiros devem prestar ateno ao uso do presente perfeito aps a expresso a primeira vez (que)]

Exs.: Its the first time I have been to the Maracan Stadium. [I had never been here before]
a primeira vez que venho ao estdio do Maracan. [No tinha estado l antes]

Its the first time that Laura has seen Casablanca. [She hadnt seen the movie before]
a primeira vez que Laura viu Casablanca. [No tinha visto o filme antes]

Traduza os seguintes fragmentos do texto Information Society


1. 2. 3. 4. The EU has supported the communications revolution since the beginning. ___________________________________________________________________ Aggressive and innovative newcomers have moved in ... ___________________________________________________________________ Competition has forced prices down... ___________________________________________________________________ Consumer choice has widened ___________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-12-

ESAF /AFC STN/2005 Breve anlise sobre o ttulo: 1. 2. 3. Quais palavras dele voc considerou true cognates? ________________________________________________________ Voc sabia o significado de shares, de rising antes de ler o texto? ________________________________________________________ Last but not least: Quanto a sua traduo - fragmentada ou na ntegra do ttulo - lhe ajudou para saber a idia principal do texto? ________________________________________________________ Read the text below in order to answer questions 21 to 23. Specter of Rising Inflation Sends Shares to New Lows for 2005 Fears of rising inflation sent stocks to new lows for the year yesterday after the government reported a sharp increase in consumer prices that all but guaranteed that the Federal Reserve would continue to push interest rates higher even as the economy may be slowing. Last week investors were worried about the effect of slower economic growth on corporate earnings. The addition of inflation fears to the mix put nerves on Wall Street even more on edge. A 0.6 percent increase in the Consumer Price Index last month was the largest in five months the government reported. The 0.4 percent jump in the core rate, which excludes food and energy was twice the forecast from analysts and the highest monthly increase in nearly four years. While some economists predicted that inflation should moderate in coming months, higher energy costs due to the international petroleum price hike have pushed consumer prices steadily higher so that they have been running at an annual rate of 3 percent or more for several months. (Source The
New York Times April 21st (2005 (adapted)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 21. a) b) c) d) e) 22. a) b) c) d) e) 23. a) b) c) d) e)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

Investors in the USA are reacting negatively to Federal Reserve consumer price guarantees. a possible sharp increase in share prices. a dangerous level of nervousness in Walt Street. economic deceleration combined with higher inflation. the administrations refusal to increase interest rates. According to the text last month the consumer price index rose by more than pundits had expected. increased by almost one percentage point. caused an unexpected drop in corporate earnings. guaranteed Federal Reserve Bonds. startled the core rate into a severe jump In the last paragraph, the rising cost of consumer goods is attributed to an annual growth rate of 3 % or more. a moderate fall in the inflation rate. the recent sharp increase in oil prices. several months of economic slowdown. the dire predictions of some economists.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-14-

Pre-test: The little Word of a. 2 b. 5 c. 3

d. 6

e. 1

f. 4

Aqui esto os true cognates, os numerais e demais sinais pictogrficos do text 1 que poderiam ser assinalados. Text 1: INFORMATION SOCIETY

In brief: Practically non-existent 15 years ago mobile phones are everywhere. The internet provides endless streams of online information. We are offered a bewildering array of programmes and services as high-capacity digital systems bring together two formerly separate worlds of broadcasting and telecommunications. This revolution in information technology is creating the information society - at home, at school and at work. The European Union and its policies* and actions have guided and supported the revolution since the beginning. The communications revolution is driven by technology and market forces. The European Union has been at the heart of this process, setting the pace for opening markets, maintaining equal opportunities for all participants, creating a dynamic regulatory structure, defending consumer interests and even setting technical standards. The old publicly-owned telephone monopolies that once ran protected national markets have been transfigured. Aggressive and innovative newcomers have moved in, offering imaginative new services, attractively packaged. Competition has forced prices down and quality up. The result for individuals and businesses is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability. Consumer choice has widened both terms of suppliers and of services on offer. Demand for mobile telephones and internet access exploded. Now 90% of schools and businesses in the EU are online, while more than half the population are regular internet users. The information and communications sector is among the most dynamic in the European Union and globally.

Reading Comprehension: Falso (F) ou Verdadeiro (V). 1. (F) 2. (V) 3. (V) 4. (F) 5. (V) 6. (F) Combinations - Correlao A /B a. 6 b. 3 c. 4 d. 2 e. 7 f. 5 g. 1 Present perfect from the text Information Society
1. 2. 3. 4. A UE apia (tem apoiado)a revoluo das comunicaes desde o seu incio. Recm-chegados dinmicos e inovadores juntaram-se A concorrncia forou os preos para baixo A escolha do consumidor se ampliou (tem-se ampliado)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE I-

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

False cognates? //(T) true or (F) false

1. (F) Well resume work after lunch (= Vamos recomear o trabalho aps o almoo) Resumir ( = summarize) 2. (F) Shes a woman of exquisite tastes. (= Ela uma mulher de gostos refinados) // Estranho pode ser strange, odd, weird dependendo do contexto. 3. (V) Stop pretending that you have a fever. (= Pare de fingir que est com febre) // Pretender em ingls intend, have the intention of) 4. (F) In my opinion it was an ingenious plan. (=Em minha opinio era um plano engenhoso) ingnuo naive or ingenuous. 5. (V) Are you familiar with Jorge Amados novels? (=Voc est familiarizados com os romances de Jorge Amado? // novelas = soap operas, ou s soaps. 6. ( V) With profound disgust I entered the place. (=Com profundo nojo entrei no local) // desgosto = disappointment. 7. (F) It all depends on how much is available. (=Tudo depende do quanto est disponvel) avalivel appraisable, that can be appraised. 8. (F) Your contribution was most invaluable. (=Sua contribuio foi realmente inestimvel) sem valor worthless. 9. (F) Helens father is a renowned physician. (=O pai de Helen um renomado mdico.) fsico = physicist. 10. (F) Her daughter is a very sensitive girl. (=Sua filha uma garota muito sensvel) sensata = sensible. 11. (F) In order to reach an agreement both sides had to compromise.(=Para chegar a um acordo amboas as parte tiveram que fazer concessess) //
comprometer-se = commit oneself to.

12. (F) Mr. Parris agreed that it was a rather vexed question. (=O Sr. Parris concordou que se tratava de uma questo controversa.) embaraosa =
embarrassing.

EXERCISE 1 - Specialized vocabulary: economic terms 1. economic=relating to an economy or economics 2. economical =using a minimum of resources, cheap 3. inflation = a rise in the general Ieve1 of prices, and an increase in the money supply 4. cost of living= a measure of the amount of money that has to be paid for essentials (food, accommodation, heating, clothing, etc) 5. standard of living = a measure of the amount of disposable income that people have to spend on both necessities and luxuries. 6. protectionism = the practice of restricting imports in order to

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

EXERCISE 2- Money and Payment 1. installment = monthly payment one has to make for buying on credit. 2. dividend = payment of a share in a business paid to shareholders. 3. premium = money paid for an insurance policy. 4. yield = money a lender gets for a loan or investment. 5. pension = money received by retired people. 6. fee = payment to lawyers, doctors, etc. for professional services. 7. rebate = return of part of a payment reduction. 8. currency = money that is in official use in a country. 9. borrower = one who has taken money to be repaid at interest or not. 10. budget = estimate of future income and expenses made by a person or business. ESAF /AFC STN/2005 Specter of Rising Inflation Sends Shares to New Lows for 2005 O fantasma da inflao crescente provoca novas quedas nas cotaes das aes para 2005 The search for true Cognates Fears of rising inflation sent stocks to new lows for the year yesterday after the government reported a sharp increase in consumer prices that all but guaranteed that the Federal Reserve would continue to push interest rates higher even as the economy may be slowing. Last week investors were worried about the effect of slower economic growth on corporate earrings. The addition of inflation fears to the mix put nerves on Wall Street even more on edge. A 0.6 percent increase in the Consumer Price Index last month was the largest in five months the government reported. The 0.4 percent jump in the core rate, which excludes food and energy was twice the forecast from analysts and the highest monthly increase in nearly four years. While some economists predicted that inflation should moderate in coming months, higher energy costs due to the international petroleum price hike have pushed consumer prices steadily higher so that they have been running at an annual rate of 3 percent or more for several months. (Source The
New York Times April 21st (2005 (adapted)

Answers to the multiple-choice questions: 21. D 22. A 23. C

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 3

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (III): Inferring the Main Idea


Estratgia de Leitura (II): Inferncia da Idia principal

Study of text 1: Information Society


Estudo do texto1 A Sociedade da Informao

III Key Word OF Exercise


A Palavra-chave: OF / Exerccio

IV Word Forms The prefix NON


Formao de Palavras prefixo NON

V VI -

Word Forms The suffixes: LESS, FUL, (I)TY, ER


Formao de Palavras Sufixos: -LESS, -FUL, -(I)TY, -ER

Summary of Verb Tenses: Present Perfect


Resumo dos tempos verbais: Presente Perfeito

VII False Cognates or True Cognates?


Falsos Cognatos ou Verdadeiros Cognatos?

VIII Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary


Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico (Jargo)

IX

Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/STN 2005


Anlise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC / STN 2005

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO -1Aula 4 INTENSIVE READING Text 1: The Rise of the Tycoon
America once idealized the businessman who amassed a vast financial empire the business tycoon. His epoch was the second half of the 19th century. It began with the spread of the railroad networks in the 1850s, and included the growth of northern industry in the 1860s, and the rise of investment banking in the 1870s. Throughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government. The great tycoons were fierce competitors, single-minded in their pursuit of financial success and power. Some of the giants were Jay Gould, J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford. Some of these men were honest according to business standards of their day; others used force, bribery and guile to achieve their wealth and power. The business spirit was not indigenous to America; it grew from the soil of European capitalism. By the time of the American Revolution, businessmen were operating in Italy, Holland, and England. Very early in American history there were industrialists, mostly in New England and along the northeastern seaboard. They were shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators, and bankers. Only a few, however, amassed large fortunes. J. Pierpont Morgan, perhaps the most flamboyant of the entrepreneurs, operated on a scale of magnificence. He displayed aggressiveness and grandeur in his private and business life. He and his companions gambled, sailed yachts, gave lavish parties, built palatial homes, and bought the art treasures of Europe. In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities. They retained their small-town values and life styles. As churchgoers, they felt a sense of responsibility to others. They demonstrated that personal virtues could bring success; theirs was the gospel of work and thrift. Later their heirs would establish the largest philanthropic foundations in America. While many European intellectuals saw business and moneymaking as degrading, Americans generally embraced it with enthusiasm. They enjoyed the risk and excitement of business enterprise, as well as the potential rewards of power and acclaim. By the time of the Great Depression in the 1930s, however, the image of the entrepreneur as an American ideal had lost much of its luster. The crucial change came with the rise of corporation. Few business barons remained. They were replaced by "technocrats" as the heads of corporations. These executives, expert in every phase of corporate activity, became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine. The high-salaried manager replaced the swaggering tycoon. The big business leaders today are often involved in many areas of public life. They not only direct the fate of corporations, they also serve on boards in their community and as university trustees. The new corporate leaders fly to Washington to confer with government officials on national policy. They are concerned about the state of the national economy and Americas relationship with other nations. (From An Outline of American Economy, ps.11/12, USIA)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -2-

Procure responder as questes de reading comprehension como se elas fossem questes da sua prova. Utilize as tcnicas e estratgias j abordadas. Choose the best option: 1. a) b) c) d) 2. a) b) c) d) 3. a) b) c) d) 4. a) b) c) d) 5. a) b) c) d) 6. a) b) c) d) All these options can be used to refer to the great Tycoons, except they were fierce competitors. single-mindedly they pursued wealth and power. they all resorted to bribery and guile to achieve power. according to business standards of their day some were honest. The image of the tycoons lost much of its luster by the time .... the Great Depression which devastated America. corporate activity grew more intense. high-salaried experts were employed. industrial machines had to be replaced. After reading the text you can affirm that ... Europeans made a fortune by selling the Americans their art treasures. Americans and Europeans enjoyed the risk of business enterprise. the excitement of business enterprise fascinated Europeans. Americans and European intellectuals regarded business differently. New England industrialists early on in American history ... were mainly shipbuilders, manufacturers, land speculators and bankers. were highly influenced by Italians, Dutch and British businessmen. hardly ever amassed large fortunes. did not pursue financial power so hard as the great tycoons. It can be inferred from the passage that ... were it not for the tycoons there would never be philanthropic foundations in America today. the tycoons self-centered business led to their eventual replacement. big business leaders nowadays have as much influence over government as the great tycoons did in the past. heads of corporate activity do not enjoy the risk of business enterprise. The word while (L-26) as a discourse marker indicates contrast. time. emphasis. consequence. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
2

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 I. Do texto 1 retire 20 true cognates, as palavras transparentes, cuja semelhana com nosso portugus evidente. J comecei para voc: America, idealized, vast, financial, empire ________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ II - Verifique quantas vezes the little word of a quem demos tanta importncia antes aparece no texto? ________________________________________________________________ III - Por ser uma narrativa histrica o past simple predomina no texto 1. S no primeiro pargrafo encontrei: idealized, amassed, was, began, included, had. Escreva nas linhas a seguir os exemplos de past simple que voc encontra no trecho que vai de J. Pierpont Morgan, perhaps ... at rewards of power and acclaim (L-17/29) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ IV -- Retorne aula 1 e veja que reading strategies voc poderia ter usado para responder cada uma das questes de reading comprehension. Questo 1 Questo 2 Questo 3 Questo 4 Questo 5 Questo 6 ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ -3-

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -4-

ANALYSIS OF VOCABULARY ITEMS FROM TEXT 1 IThroughout this period, business interests had significant influence over government. (L-5)

A function word throughout (=in every part of, all through) uma preposio. No fragmento em negrito : durante todo este perodo. II In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated taut Puritan qualities. (L-21/22)

Como discourse marker, in contrast (=conversely) que indica contraste. A traduo do fragmento em negrito : ao contrrio, inversamente. VOCABULARY POST TEST Veja se consegue traduzir os seguintes fragmentos do texto 1. No use dicionrio. No final da aula apresento a minha traduo para confronto. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. amassed large fortunes
______________________________

gave lavish parties


_________________________

were fierce competitors


______________________________

bought art treasures


_________________________

retained small-town values


_________________________

embraced moneymaking with enthusiasm


_______________________________________

enjoyed the risk of business enterprise


___________________________________

had lost much of its luster


_________________________

came with the rise of corporations


________________________________

became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine


_____________________________________________________

direct the fate of corporations


_________________________

concerned about the state of national economy ___________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto WORDS FORMS a) the suffix -OR -5-

Na aula 3 falamos sobre o sufixo ER , acrescentado a verbos e indicando aquele que faz alguma coisa. Veja alguns exemplos do texto 1: Shipbuilders ( = aqueles que constroem navios) Manufacturers ( = aqueles que fabricam algo) Bankers (banqueiros , os que realizam as operaes bancrias) No texto, nesta mesma seqncia voc encontra land speculators (= especuladores de terras) Ao verbo speculate acrescentou-se o sufixo OR Veja estes outros exemplos com este mesmo sufixo: They are expecting more visitors over the weekend.
Eles esto esperando mais visitantes durante o fim de semana.

As a result, a large number of investors changed route.


Em conseqncia, um grande nmero de investidores mudou de rumo.

My brother had some experience as a realtor.


Meu irmo tinha alguma experincia como corretor de imveis. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

a)

the suffix -SHIP

From text 1: They are concerned about the state of the national economy and Americas relationship with other nations. (L-39/40)
Neste caso, relationships significa relaes diplomticas com outras naes.

O sufixo SHIP normalmente acrescentado a substantivos para formar outros substantivos. Estude estes exemplos: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
5

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -6-

For me nothing was more precious that her friendship.


Para mim nada era mais precioso do que a amizade dela.

It was an old manuscript whose authorship was hard to determine.


Era um velho manuscrito cuja autoria ficava difcil determinar.

Nobody enjoys living under dictatorship.


Ningum gosta de viver numa ditadura. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

c) the prefix -IN From text 1: These executives, expert in every phase of corporate activity, became the indispensable cogs in the industrial machine. (L-33/35) Eis outro prefixo que forma antnimos em ingls. J tnhamos estudado NON-. De dispensable (=dispensvel) forma-se indispensable (= indispensvel). Veja outros exemplos: We could barely hear those indistinct sounds.
Mal conseguamos ouvir aqueles sons indefinidos.

In English you have definite and indefinite articles.


Em ingls tem-se artigos definidos e indefinidos. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto WORDS IN FAMILIES Complete the sentences with one of the words in bold type: 1. Belong / belonged / belongings Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal ............................ left on the plane, the flight attendant announced. Pursuit / pursue / pursuer The .............................. of happiness must be every mans dream in life. Unions / unify / unification / reunification With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have ................................ their controlling systems. Trends / trendy / trend If purple hair comes in fashion, be sure Lola will wear it. God knows how .................................... she is. Industrial / industrialists / industrialized / industrialization Wealthy ...................................... in So Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the governments economic policies. Magnificence / magnificent / magnified We found the scenery ................................ Never had we seen such a beautiful waterfall. Profit / profitable / profiteer Mr. Weld runs a very ................................. business. Account / accountable / accountings / accountant Soon the auditors found out that the ............................... had been cooking the books for quite a while. Advantage / advantageous / advantages Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most ............................. form of investing your money. Competitor / compete / competitive / competitiveness The racers complaints had to do with his cars lack of ............................. -7-

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES
RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

-8-

From Text 1: By the time of the Great Depression in the 1930s, however, the image of the entrepreneur as an American ideal had lost much of its luster(L-30/31) 5.1 THE PAST PERFECT

Utilizemos as expresses learn fast (=aprender rpido) com o verbo regular learn e grow old (ficar velho) com o verbo irregular grow (grew, grown). AFFIRMATIVE I / You / He / She / It/ We / They had learned fast/ grown old

Como voc pode observar usa-se o passado simples do auxiliar to have + o particpio passado do verbo principal. QUESTIONS Had I/ You / He / She / It/ We / They learned fast/ grown old?

Forma-se a interrogativa com a inverso do auxiliar have e o sujeito da frase. NEGATIVE I/ You / He / She / It/ We / They had not learned fast / grown old

Forma-se a negativa com o acrscimo de not aps o auxiliar had. Encontra-se a forma contrada: had not = hadnt.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE 5.2 a) Prof. Carlos Augusto -9-

USES OF THE PAST PERFECT Used to describe a past action that took place before another past action.
Descreve uma ao passada que ocorre antes de outra ao passada.

Exs.: When I got to the airport, Jenny had already left.


Quando cheguei ao aeroporto, a Jenny j havia partido.

Had she learned any English before you met?


Ela havia aprendido ingls antes de vocs se encontrarem?

b)

In indirect speech, when the past simple was used in direct statements or questions.
Em discurso indireto quando o passado simples foi usado nas afirmativas diretas.

Exs.: I saw Vera , John confirmed. (Eu vi a Vera, confirmou o Joo.) John confirmed that he had seen her. Joo confirmou que tinha visto a
Vera.

The witness didnt talk to the criminal. the inspector said. A testemunha no falou com o criminoso - declarou o inspetor. The inspector said that the witness hadnt talked to the criminal.
O inspetor disse que a testemunha no havia falado com o criminoso.

DIALOGUE PRACTICE Sinceramente j perdi a conta das vezes em que utilizei esta atividade nas minhas aulas. excelente para praticar estruturas com past simple e past perfect. Aos alunos apresentado o seguinte dilogo incompleto: [S1 student 1 // S2 student 2] S1: S2: S1: S2: Did you _________________ last night? No, I didnt. Last night I _____ something I had never ______ in my life. Oh, really! What ___________? I _______________________. Um exemplo com o verbo to see (saw, seen) [=ver] S1: S2: S1: S2: Did you see the film on TV last night? No, I didnt. Last night I saw something I had never seen in my life. Oh, really! What did you see? I saw a hockey game. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -10-

E se o verbo escolhido fosse drink (drank, drunk)? O dilogo poderia ser preenchido assim: S1: S2: S1: S2: Did you drink Guaran last night? No, I didnt. Last night I drank something I had never drunk in my life. Oh, really! What did you drink? I drank Tequila.

A seguir voc encontra uma lista de verbos irregulares que se encaixam no dilogo incompleto acima. A lista no est dada de mo beijada para voc. Deixei uma das formas - ou do past tense ou do past participle em zigzag - para voc preencher. Esteja voc estudando alone ou in small groups eu aconselho que faa este exerccio para treinar estruturas com past simple e past perfect. Infinitive buy catch choose do draw drink eat feel fly hear hit leave lose make run sell spend spread steal teach tell throw understand wear Past Simple bought _________ chose _________ drew _________ ate _________ flew _________ hit _________ lost _________ ran _________ spent _________ stole _________ told _________ understood _________ Past Participle _____________ caught _____________ done _____________ drunk _____________ felt _____________ heard _____________ left _____________ made _____________ sold ______________ spread _____________ taught _____________ thrown _____________ worn

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -11-

No deixe de preencher este word formation cloze pois ele lhe permitir verificar o quanto voc desenvolveu seu conhecimento de word families Choose the best word in parentheses to complete the text: The Federal Reserve Boardin Washington, D.C., coordinates Federal Reserve Banks, which in fact constitute a central (1-banker / banking / banked) system. The Federal Reserve Board helps (2-stabilization / stabilize / stabilizing) and coordinate the nations commercial banks. About 6,000 of the 14,000 banks (3-belong / belonging / belongs) to the system. The member banks handle more than 3/4 of all U.S. bank deposits. The Federal Reserve Banks lend money to (4-membership / member / members) banks for the cash reserves they are required to hold, (5-issuing / issue /issues) paper money, act as check (6-cleared /clearer /clearing) houses and provide other services. By increasing or decreasing cash reserve requirements and by raising or lowering (7-interesting / interest /interested) rates banks must pay for loans from the Reserve Banks, the Federal Reserve Board can influence the (8-availability / available/ avails) and cost of money for loans, and thereby check inflationary or deflationary trends in the economy. Most business and industrial activity in the United States is financed by loans from commercial banks and (9-insured / insuring / insurance) companies. Commercial banks receive money in the form of deposits, (10-savings / saver / saved) or repayments from the public, then lend it at interest to borrowers. Profit is made (11-primaries / primarily/ primary) from interest. The (12-pools / pooling / pool) of funds for bank loans comes from deposits by (13-businessmen / businesses / business-like) and individuals and from bank investment profits. Banks return a (14-portioned/ portion / portions) of investment profits to depositors in the form of services and interest on savings accounts. The money for insurance-company lending comes from the (15-annual / annually /annuals) premium paid by individuals and businesses for insurance (16-politics / policies / policy). Money saved by individuals is usually deposited for safekeeping in interest (17-bearing / bearer / born) accounts in one of four types of (18private / privacy/ privately) institutions: commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations and group credit unions. Interest-bearing U.S. government savings (19-bonds / bonding / bonded) are also available and are (20-widely / widening / width) used. Almost all the private savings institutions buy insurance offered by federal government corporations to protect individual savings accounts up to $ 100,000. Most of the money deposited in these individual savings accounts is used by the institutions to finance the purchase, building or remodeling of private homes. (From This is America, p.54, USIA1990 and from An Outline of American Economy, p.87, USIA-l981) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
11

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -12-

WORDS IN PAIRS: TO BORROW / TO LEND From the Word Formation Cloze: The Federal Reserve Banks lend money to member banks for the cash reserves they are required to hold. (L-8/9) The money for insurance-company lending comes from the annual premium paid by individuals... (L-25/26) Commercial banks receive money in the form of deposits, savings or repayments from the public, then lend it at interest to borrowers. (L-20/21) Distinguish between the usage of to lend and to borrow: a) To borrow (r.v.)be given sth. or take sth. intending to return it.

Exs.: Marjorie borrowed $ l,000 from her father. Mark borrowed a video tape from me. Philip had to borrow from the bank to pay for his motorcycle. The book you borrowed from the library is due tomorrow. b) to lend ( lent, lent) - give sth as a loan.

Exs.: The bank lent me $l.000. Lend you video game to your friend, Paul. The dim lights lent a romantic touch to the room. Two options of the quiz question were correct. Im sure you can say: He lent his CD to me or He lent me his CD. Summarizing: You borrow things from somebody and you lend things to somebody.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

12

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP A number of words have been removed from the minitexts that follow. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts. Mini-text 1: How to Understand Corporate Taxes in Brazil havens rates dividends remittances rendered profits levied domain -13-

A withholding income tax is __________ (1) on transactions involving companies or individuals, residents or domiciled outside of Brazil. Tax __________ (2) may vary from case to case. In most international transactions, such as interest and capital gain __________ (3), the applicable rate is 15%. Payments for services __________ (4) by non-residents are subject to withholding at the rate of 25%. Royalties are subject to withholding tax of 15% plus a contribution to the economic intervention __________ (5) of 10%. Distribution of __________ (6) and__________ (7) generated as from January 1996, are not subject to withholding income tax. Most of the payments to residents or individuals domiciled in tax __________ (8) are subject to withholding income tax at the rate of 25%. (From How to Understand Corporate
Taxes in Brazil, p.4, a publication of the American Chamber of Commerce (SP), sponsored by Price Waterhouse Coopers)

Mini-text 2: Petrobrs seeks more refining capacity demand building decision production units record join jobs

The _________ (1) by Petrobrs to _________ (2) Venezuelas state-run petroleum company, PDVSA, in _________ (3) a new refinery in the state of Pernambuco means that the Brazilian state-run enterprise will increase its ________ (4) level by 200,000 barrels/day by the year 2011. That is good news with domestic ________ (5) rising between 2.6% to 2.7% annually. The new refinery will also create a total of 230,000 _________ (6) over a four-year period. At the moment, Petrobrs has eleven refining __________ (7), most in the Southeastern regions of the country, and has been setting new production records with regularity. In August, average daily production reached 1,8 million barrels. That is a new __________ (8). The problem is that by 2011 it will no longer be enough. (Agncia Brasil. by Nielmar de Oliveira, Translator: Allen Bennett)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

13

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto BANKING SERVICES Fill each blank in the text with the correct word or phrase. Choose from the items in the box. Use each item once only. commission issued credit rating collateral debited outstanding statement overdraft in full ATM loan bounce interest withdraw default financial -14-

Banks offer many services to businesses and their customers. Here are some of the most common: Many people now have a card which enables them to ___________ (1) money from an ___________ (2). You feed your card into the machine and key in your PIN (personal identification number) and the amount of money you want. If you have enough in your account, the amount requested will be ___________ (3) to you up to a daily limit. Your account is automatically ____________ (4) for the amount you have drawn out. Provided you have a sound ___________ (5), you can get a credit card from a bank and other ___________ (6) institutions. To obtain goods and services, you present your card and sign a special voucher. When it receives the voucher the credit card company pays the merchant minus a __________ (7) and then sends you a monthly ___________ (8). Depending on the type of card you have, you will either have to pay ___________ (9) or be able to pay part of what is owed and pay _________ (10) on the balance left _________ (11). If you need additional money for investment or other major purchases, you can take out a _________ (12). The bank may need you to offer them something as __________ (13) in case you __________ (14) on your loan. Most good banks offer checking accounts with _________ (15) protection so that a check wont _________ (16) in case no funds are available in your account.
(From American Business Vocabulary, by John Flower and Ron Martinez, p.15)

LIGHTEN UP! Como eu j disse antes: seu estudo de ingls no tem que ser boring. O texto a seguir, extrado do velho, porm interessante, livro do Alexander, Perguntas e Respostas, intitula-se Blackmail (=chantagem). O seu tom jocoso facilita a memorizao. Se voc tiver um parceiro /a de estudos de ingls tente contar-lhe esta historinha resumidamente. Se for em ingls, timo; mas se s conseguir em portugus tambm est bom. Responda as perguntas em ingls. Use-as como guide to retell the story. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
14

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto BLACKMAIL The great liner had anchored some distance from the harbor. The captain had told the passengers that they could visit the port if they wished to but they must be on board at 5.30, as the ship would set sail at 6 oclock. The ship was far too big to dock in the harbor and all day long local boatmen had been rowing to and from the liner carrying sightseers to the small port. At about 5 oclock, Miss Merryweather hired a local boatman to take her back to the ship. The man had asked for $5, which Miss Merryweather thought excessive. Either you accept $3, or I shall hire another boatman, Miss Merryweather said firmly. After a good deal of arguing, the man reluctantly agreed to take her for $3. When they were about two hundred yards from the liner, the boatman stopped rowing. Is anything the matter?' inquired Miss Merryweather anxiously. 'Nothing at all,' the boatman replied. 'Either you pay me $5, or you can sit here and watch the ship sail away without you.
(From Question an Answer, by L.G. Alexander, p.112, Longman)

-15-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What kind of ship was anchored some distance from the harbor? ________________________________________________________ What had the captain told the passengers? ________________________________________________________ Why had the boatmen been rowing to and from the ship? ________________________________________________________ What did Miss. Merryweather do at 5 oclock? ________________________________________________________ How much had the boatman asked to take her back to the ship? ________________________________________________________ How much was Miss. Merryweather willing to pay the boatman? ________________________________________________________ Why did the boatman stop when they were about 200 yards from the ship? ________________________________________________________ What did Miss. Merryweather ask the boatman? ________________________________________________________ How did the boatman reply? ________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

15

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS ESAF /AFC STN/2005 Read the text below in order to answer questions 24 to 26. Not exactly Major league By most measures, the president has quite an ambitious economic agenda for his second term. George Bushs goals include overhauling the tax code, reforming the Social Security System halving the budget deficit and pushing through more trade agreements. But who exactly is meant to do all this stuff? In theory, Mr. Bushs economic team is headed by John Snow. The president was on the point of sacking his treasury secretary at the end of last year; he then pulled back- but only apparently to keep Mr. Snow as a traveling salesman for his pension reform scheme. The former railroad boss has recently visited such well-known global financial centers as San Antonio, Albuquerque and New Orleans. The treasury itself seems short of both staff and clout with the administration. That might be excusable if economic policy were being steered by a professional team in the White House; but it is short of economists, particularly ones that are dose to Mr. Bush.(Source: The Economist / May 17th 2005) 24. a) b) c) d) e) 25. a) b) c) d) e) 26. a) b) c) d) e) According to the article, Mr. Bushs treasury secretary was on the brink of being dismissed. Mr. Bushs economic team intends do away with the tax code. the Social Security System has been remodeled and upgraded the former American president established four economic aims. Mr. Bush set an unachievable economic agenda in his first term. As to the budget deficit, it is supposed to be halved, which means to be 100% cleared. reduced by 50%. settled in percentages. increased by 15%. cut by around 75% The text refers to the Treasury as lacking political power with the opposition. not having had enough staff with the administration. having the political clout with the administration. not aiming for economic influence with the administration. not having enough influence with the administration. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
16

-16-

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS Reading Comprehension Questions Questo 1. C O autor menciona que os tycoons - os bares de indstria eram ferozes competidores (a); que buscavam a riqueza e o poder com determinao (b), tambm mencionado que para os padres da poca alguns deles eram tidos como honestos. Agora a letra (c) est invalidada por causa da palavra all. Cuidado com as palavras como todos, sempre, etc e nenhum, nunca etc. Essa questo j obrigava ao intensive reading. Questo 2. A Idia expressa no texto: a imagem dos tycoons perdeu muito do seu brilho na poca em que a grande depresso arrasou os EUA (L....), na letra b) l-se: a atividade corporativa tornou-se mais intensa, na letra c) l-se: peritos altamente remunerados foram empregados; na letra d), temos: as mquinas industriais tiveram que ser substitudas. Bastava voc fazer o scanning e detectar que a informao desejada se encontrava Questo 3.D No h respaldo no texto para se afirmar que os europeus fizeram fortuna vendendo aos americanos suas obras de arte (a). O texto menciona que apenas os americanos gostavam do risco empresarial (b); o entusiasmo pelos negcios fascinava os americanos e no os europeus, segundo o autor. Bastava fazer o de novo o scanning para buscar a idia expressa. Questo 4. A Outra idia expressa no texto. No se tem elementos para afirmar que os industriais de New England eram altamente influenciados por homens de negcios da Itlia da Holanda e da Gr Bretanha(b), no para se precisar tambm quanto industriais de New England hardly ever (=raramente) amealhavam uma fortuna (c) . Tambm no se pode afirmar que os industriais de New England no buscavam o poder financeiro to arduamente quanto os bares. Questo 5.B Cuidado com questes de inferncia. O examinador pede que voc chegue a uma concluso sobre um ponto que no est dito expressamente no texto. Certamente seria ir muito longe dizer que se no fossem os bares e no haveria instituies filantrpicas na Amrica hoje (a). Com relao opo (c), no texto h uma meno a grande influncia que os bares exerciam sobre o governo nos ureos tempos. Quanto opo (d), a mais fora de propsito, como afirmar ou mesmo inferir que os dirigentes das grandes corporaes de hoje no apreciem o risco pela atividade empresarial!?. Questo 6.A Tipo de questo que deveria ser respondida primeiro se voc estivesse com pouco tempo de prova sobrando. Basta fazer uma leitura rpida e saber que while (L-26) est indicando contraste, significando enquanto www.pontodosconcursos.com.br
17

-17-

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -18-

VOCABULARY POST TEST 1. acumularam grandes fortunas // 2. davam festas suntuosas // 3. eram ferozes competidores // 4. compravam tesouros artsticos // 5. conservavam valores das pequenas cidades // 6. abraaram a ambio pelo dinheiro com entusiasmo // 7. adoravam o risco da atividade empresarial // 8. haviam perdido muito do seu brilho // 9. veio com o crescimento das corporaes // 10. tornaram-se peas indispensveis da mquina industrial // 11. dirigem os destinos das corporaes // 12. preocupados com a situao da economia nacional. WORDS IN FAMILIES 1. Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal belongings left on the plane, the flight attendant announced.
Nossa companhia no pode ser responsabilizada por objetos pessoais deixados no avio, anunciou a aeromoa.

2. 3.

The Pursuit of happiness must be every mans dream in life.


A busca da felicidade deve ser o sonho na vida de todo homem.

With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have unified their controlling systems.
Com o advento da tecnologia da computao a maiorias da empresas no Brasil unificaram seus sistemas de controle .

4.

If purple hair comes in fashion, be sure Lola will wear it. God knows how trendy she is.
Se cabelo roxo virar moda esteja certo de que Lola vai us-lo. Deus sabe como ela ligada em moda.

5.

Wealthy industrialists in So Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the governments economic policies.
Ricos industriais de S.Paulo comeam a demonstrar sinais de impacincia com as polticas econmicas governamentais. .

6. 7. 8.

We found the scenery magnificent Never had we seen such a beautiful waterfall.
Acham o cenrio magnfico. Nunca havamos visto to bela cachoeira.

Mr. Weld runs a very . profitable business.


O Sr. Weld dirige uma empresa muito lucrativa.

Soon the auditors found out that the accountant had been cooking the books for quite a while.
Logo os auditores descobriram que o contador vinha fraudando os livros por algum tempo.

9.

Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most advantageous form of investing your money.
Fale com o gerente do banco. Ele poder lhe mostrar a formar mais vantajosa de investir o seu dinheiro. .

10.

The racers complaints had to do with his cars lack of competitiveness.


As reclamaes do piloto diziam respeito falta de competitividade do carro.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

18

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -19-

WORD FORMATION CLOZE 1. banking // 2. stabilize // 3. belong // 4. member // 5. issue // 6. clearing // 7. interest // 8. availability // 9. insurance // 10. savings 11. primarily // 12. pool // 13. businesses // 14. portion // 15. annual // 16. policies// 17. bearing // 18. private // 19. bonds // 20. widely. VOCABULARY BUILD UP Mini-text 1: 1. levied // 2. rates // 3. remittances // 4. rendered // 5. domain // 6. profits // 7. dividends ( or 6. dividends // 7. profits) 8. havens. Mini-text 2: 1. decision // 2. join // 3. building // 4. production// 5. demand // 6. jobs // 7. units // 8. record BANKING SERVICES 1. withdraw // 2. ATM ( automatic teller machine) // 3. issued // 4. debited // 5. credit rating// 6. financial// 7. commission // 8. statement //9. in full // 10. interest // 11. outstanding // 12. loan // 13. collateral // 14. default // 15. overdraft // 16. bounce I almost forgot (fora de ordem) I. True cognates epoch, included, industry, investment, significant, influence, government, competitors, financial, success, honest, force, spirit, indigenous, capitalism, European, American, Revolution, operating, history, industrialists speculators II. The little Word of A palavra of aparece 22 vezes. III. Past simple examples operated, displayed, gambled, sailed, gave, built, bought, demonstrated, retained, felt, could, was, would, saw, embraced, enjoyed, ESAF /AFC STN / 2005 24. a 25.b 26. e

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

19

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO CURSOS ON LINE AULA 4 Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados. Prof. Carlos Augusto -20-

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (III): Inference questions


Estratgia de Leitura (II): questes envolvendo inferncia

Study of text 1: The Rise of the Tycoon


Estudo do texto1 A asceno dos Bares da Indstria

III Key Words : throughout, conversely


Palavras-chave: por toda parte, inversamente

IV Word Forms The prefix INFormao de Palavras prefixo NON

V VI -

Word Forms The suffixes: OR, SHIP


Formao de Palavras Sufixos: -OR, -SHIP

Summary of Verb Tenses: Past Perfect


Resumo dos tempos verbais: Passado Perfeito

VII Word Formation Cloze : The Fed


Texto (Cloze) sobre formao das palavras: Federal Reserve

VIII Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: taxes / oil/ banking


Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: tributos, petrleo, termos bancrios

IX X

Lighten up! Blackmail a story to retell (Exs. c/ Past Perfect)


Relaxe! Chantagem uma historinha para recontar (Exs. c/ passado perfeito

Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/STN 2005 Text: Not exactly Major League
Anlise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC / STN 2005 Texto : No exatamente Primeira Diviso

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

20

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

21

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 5 LOOKING FOR COLLOCATIONS VOCABULARY PRE-TEST First of all, veja se consegue correlacionar A com B: A 1. aluminum producers 2. amount of the investments 3. reinforce the growth 4. implant a bauxite mine 5. thousands of direct job 6. trade balance 7. praised the management a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( B ) implantar mina de bauxita ) milhares de empregos diretos ) produtores de alumnio ) balana comercial ) elogiou o gerenciamento ) reforar o crescimento ) montante dos investimentos

Text 1: Alcoa announces it will invest US$ 1.6 billion in Brazil The president of Alcoa for Latin America, Franklin Feder, announced that the company, one of the worlds largest aluminum producers, will invest US$ 1.6 billion in its Brazilian operations over the next three years. The president of Brazil, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, was apprised of the 5 amount of the investments at a meeting on Friday (23), in Braslia. According to Feder, Lula emphasized the importance of the new investments for reinforcing the growth of the Brazilian economy and creating jobs. The investments will serve to expand the production of the Alumar Consortiums aluminum oxide refinery in So Luis, Maranho, by more than 10 2.1 million tons; to implant a bauxite mine in Juriti, Par, with an initial annual production of 2.6 tons; and to modernize the aluminum plant in Poos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, the first Alcoa factory in Brazil, functioning since 1970. These investments will generate 6.5 thousand direct jobs and contribute US$ 400 million per year to the Brazilian trade balance. The global president of Alcoa, Alain Belda, who also participated in the 15 meeting, praised the current Brazilian administrations macroeconomic management. Alcoa is active in 43 countries. In Brazil it has seven operating units, which are responsible for approximately 6 thousand jobs.
(By Ana Paula Marra, Agncia Brasil, Translation: David Silberstein)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto TALKING BUSINESS!

-2-

Mesmo correndo o risco de soar repetitivo, quero bater um papo com vocs a meio caminho do percurso das dez aulas. No ter o contato direto com vocs, falo do contato olho no olho, talvez esteja sendo minha maior dificuldade nessa primeira experincia em Cursos on-line. Sei muito bem da responsabilidade do seu momento. J estive nessa. H muito tempo, bem verdade, mas ainda lembro. Quando se joga uma cartada desse naipe, difcil esquecer. Agora, no vou arredar um centmetro do meu objetivo inicial. Qual seja, o de lev-los a um simulado de ingls bem prximo do nvel que vem sendo adotado pela Banca ESAF nos concursos para a Receita. Fico imaginando, por exemplo, a reao de alguns alunos quando chegam seo LIGHTEN UP. P! L vem o Prof. Carlos com esses textos ridculos novamente. Olho no olho, eu diria a esse ser mal humorado do alto da minha experincia No banalize os textos aparentemente simples. Neles pode haver uma lio mais profunda do que se imagina. Portanto, continue dedicando o tempo que puder ao nosso estudo de ingls. Garanto que se voc procurar atingir os objetivos que propusemos, voc chegar no dia de sua prova muito mais bem preparado /a do que h 2 meses. Reforando alguns pontos j famosos: the little word of aparece 10 vezes. No texto sobre a Alcoa faa uma vez mais a busca das palavras transparentes, assinale 20 true cognates. J comecei a busca para voc: President, Latin Amrica, announces, company _______________
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Naturalmente, o texto 1 foi escolhido por motivos didticos. Namely: por causa dos verbos no futuro que pretendemos revisar na seo de gramtica, e,principalmente, por causa dos timos exemplos sobre collocation. Na rea aberta do site j falei sobre esse ponto. Rapidamente para quem no viu ainda. Collocation (no h uma boa traduo para este termo) um tema muito abrangente. Envolve o estudo de combinaes de palavras comumente usadas pelos nativos da lngua inglesa. Alguns exemplos do text 1: noun + noun trade balance adjective + noun annual production verb + preposition + noun participate in the meeting
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

By the way, a propsito desse exemplo com o verbo participate, ele geralmente seguido de in: participate in a meeting, in the campaign, etc. Esta uma das maneiras mais eficazes de se estudar preposies. Portanto, apareceu um verbo, consulte um dicionrio e veja com que preposio ele normalmente usado. Estudo Collocation praticamente todos os dias. Hoje em dia olho um texto de forma totalmente diferente de algum tempo atrs. Escrevi um livro Practicing Collocation - Como tornar o seu vocabulrio mais fluente - que foi publicado pela Editora Impetus. No especificamente para concursos pblicos, mas ajuda, com certeza, a todo aquele que quiser construir um vocabulrio slido e natural, usado por native speakers. Resolvi destacar o assunto collocation nesta aula para atender a alguns alunos que me mandaram e-mails falando da sua dificuldade de estudar as prepositions. Quando houve um atraso na liberao de minha senha para entrada no FORUM, respondi a alguns alunos sobre o assunto prepositions. Sem dvida um ponto onde h grande necessidade de memorization. Alguns casos, en passant: preposition in diante dos meses do ano: in January, in February, in December. Preposition on diante dos dias da semana : on Monday, on Tuesday, on Sunday; preposition in diante de cidades: in Rio de Janeiro, in Braslia, in London, in Belm; preposition on diante das datas completas: on May 1st , on December 25th , on November 15th, etc. preposition for para tempo decorrido: for one hour, for a year, for two centuiries, etc; preposition since indicando origem da ao: since her childhood, since 5 oclock, since birth. Como j tive a oportunidade de responder no FORUM, no muito provvel que a ESAF cobre prepositions desse modo na prova da Receita. a que eu volto ao caso das collocations. Existem dicionrios e publicaes excelentes que vo lhes dar numerosos exemplos de noun +preposition, adjective + preposition, verbs + preposition. exatamente aqui aonde eu quero chegar. Se estamos tratando de um ponto onde h forte necessidade de memorizao, por que no memorizar com mtodo? The search for collocations uma estratgia que lhe permitir obter maior agilidade de leitura. s praticar! From text 1: noun + of + noun verb + in + noun noun + of + adj. + noun adj.+ noun+ of + noun verb + noun + of adj. + for + noun the amount of the investments participate in the meeting the importance of the new investments annual production of 2.6 tons to expand the production of responsible for 6500 jobs

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-4-

EXPLOITING TEXT 1 A BIT MORE 1. Procure traduzir, sem utilizar nenhum dicionrio, os seguintes fragmentos: a) over the next three years (L-3) ___________________________________________________________ was apprised of the amount of investments (L- 4/5) ___________________________________________________________ to modernize the aluminum plant (*) (L-12) ___________________________________________________________ WORD FORMS From Text 1 Lula emphasized the importance of the new investments (L-6) No fragmento do texto acima importance, evidentemente, quer dizer importncia em portugus. O sufixo ANCE formador de substantives. Outra variante ENCE. a) The suffixes ANCE / ENCE
Talvez ela no tenha prestado ateno ao significado do momento.

b)

a)

Exs.: Perhaps she did not pay attention to the significance of the moment. My boss said it didnt make any difference whether I did my job one way or another; provided I did it.
Meu chefe disse que no fazia diferena se eu fizesse meu trabalho de uma forma ou de outra, desde que eu o fizesse.

Mesmo no constando do texto 1 vamos estudar os sufixos ANT / ENT formadores de adjetivos. b) The suffixes ANT / ENT
Talvez ela no tenha percebido o quo significativo aquele momento era para mim.

Exs.: Perhaps she did not notice how significant that moment was to me.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

My boss said it was indifferent whether I did my job one way or another; provided I did it.
Meu chefe disse que era indiferente se eu fizesse meu trabalho de uma forma ou de outra, desde que eu o fizesse. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com estas formaes quando encontr-las em suas leituras. mesmas

c) The suffix IZE From Text 1: to modernize the aluminum plant in Poos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, (L-11) O sufixo IZE um dos formadores de verbos em ingls. Veja mais alguns exemplos: Mr. Hill is in favor of centralizing all controlling procedures at the company.
Mr. Hill a favor de centralizar todos os procedimentos de controle na companhia.

Actually, I dont understand why you got mixed up about answering question 3 of the exam. Our teacher emphasized that point last week.
Na verdade no entendo porque voc se confundiu para responder a questo n3. Nossa professora enfatizou tanto aquele ponto na semana passada. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com estas formaes quando encontr-las em suas leituras. mesmas

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

-6-

From text 1: Alcoa will invest US$ 1.6 billion in its Brazilian operations over the next three years (L- 2/3)
A Alcoa investira 1.6 milho de dlares em suas operaes no Brasil ao longo dos prximos 3 anos... ....

The investments will serve to expand the production of (L 8)


Os investimentos serviro para expandir a produo de .... These investments will generate 6.5 thousand direct jobs (L-13) Esses investimentos geraro 6.500 empregos diretos

6.1

THE FUTURE SIMPLE

To express what will happen at a later time there are various forms in English.
Para expressar algo que acontecera num tempo futuro h uma gama de formas para faz-lo em ingls.

Exs.: The soccer game starts at 7 a.m.

(present simple tense)

O jogo de futebol comea s 7 da manh.

I can call you up at 6:30 tomorrow. (modal verb can)


Posso telefonar para voc s 6.30 amanh.

My niece will be 15 next month.

(future simple with will)

Minha sobrinha far quinze anos ms que vem.

Kelly wont be able to go with us because she has to baby-sit for the Larsons baby. (will not [ = wont ] + be able to)
A Kelly no poder sair conosco porque tem que cuidar do beb dos Larsons.

Are you going to bring anybody?


Voc vai trazer algum?

(one form of be going to)

My parents are leaving for France tomorrow.(present continuous)


Meus pais esto viajando para a Frana amanh.

They will be getting on a plane tomorrow at this time. (fut. continuous)


Estaro entrando no avio a esta hora amanha.

By the end of this year I will have studied (or will have been studying) English for 10 years. (future perfect tenses )
No final deste ano eu tarei estudado ingls h dez anos. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 6.2 a)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

USES OF THE FUTURE SIMPLE (WILL) To express simple futurity or determination.


Para expressar ao futura simples ou determinao.

Exs.: I will be in Paris next year.


Estarei em Paris no ano que vem.

(Phone ringing) b)

Ill get it. (Ill answer it)

O telefone toca) Eu atendo!

To express promises, offers or predictions:


Para expressar promessas, ofertas e previses]

Exs.: Can I borrow $ 20 from you? I will pay you next week. (I promise)
Pode me emprestar $20? Pagarei a voc na semana que vem. (Promessa)

It will be hard to cope with inflation. (So I predict)


Ser difcil enfrentar a inflao. (Assim prevejo) (oferta)

We will help you with those heavy suitcases. (offer)


Ns ajudaremos voc com suas malas pesadas.

6.3

FUTURE CONTINUOUS Used to say that you will be carrying out something at a certain time in the future.
Usado para dizer que voc estar realizando algo num tempo futuro.

Exs.: Dont worry. You can call me back later. I will be watching the news.
No se preocupe por ligar mais tarde. Estarei vendo as notcias na TV.

It will be easy to recognize me. Ill be wearing white. Ser fcil me reconhecer. Estarei usando branco. Look up in Jills diary. See what she will be doing tomorrow at 10 a.m.
Olhe na agenda da Jill. Veja o que ela estar fazendo amanh s dez de manh?

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 6.4 a)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE It tells us about an action that will be finished by a certain future date.
Diz-nos a respeito de uma ao que estar terminada numa data futura.

Ex.: By the end of this year Mr. Hill will have lived in Brazil for 35 years.
No final do ano o Sr. Hill ter vivido no Brasil por 35 anos.

b)

Shows that a future action will have happened before some other future action happens.
Mostra que uma ao futura ter acontecido antes de outra ao futura.

Ex.: If you dont hurry up, everybody will have left by the time we get there.
Se no se apressar, todos j tero partido quando chegarmos l.

6.5

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS It conveys the same idea as the future perfect in (a) above.
Expressa a mesma idia do futuro perfeito em (a) acima.

Exs : Mr. Hill will have been living here in Brazil for 40 years by the end of this year.
O Sr. Hill ter vivido no Brasil por 40 anos no fim do ano.

I have an appointment with my lawyer. Will she have been waiting for a long time by the time I get thereto her office?
Tinha um compromisso com minha advogada. Estar ela me esperando h muito tempo quando eu chegar no escritrio dela?

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9-

MODAL VERBS: INTRODUCTION Os principais modal verbs so can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, ought to. So verbos auxiliares colocados diante do verbo principal para emprestam nuances de sentido. Podem indicar permisso, possibilidade, necessidade, obrigao, etc. Modal verbs apresentam certass peculiaridades: Ino se acrescenta s ou es a terceira pessoa do singular: Ex.: She can swim.
Ela sabe nadar.

He can speak Italian.


Ele sabe falar italiano.

It should arrive any minute now.


. Deve chegar a qualquer momento.

b)

modal verbs no so seguidos de to + infinitive (com exceo dos quase-modais como ought to, usedto ...) Ex.: They should stay home.
Elas devem ficar em casa.

But: She ought to study more. c) para formar-se a negativa coloca-se not logo aps o modal verb; para formar perguntas inverte-se o modal verb com o sujeito.
Voc no pode entrar naquela rea.

Exs.: You cannot enter that area. Would you like to visit the farm?
Voc gostaria de visitar a fazenda?

d)

os chamados perfect modals so assim formados: modal verb + have (never has or had) + past participle do verbo principal.
Sheila me deixou esperando. Devia ter-me telefonado muito antes.

Exs.: Sheila kept me waiting. She should have called me up much earlier. I might have stayed longer if you had invited me.
Podia ter ficado mais tempo se voc tivesse me convidado.

They may have left for the airport already.


Eles j devem ter ido pro aeroporto.

We ought to have listened to you. Now its too late.


Ns devamos ter ouvido voc. Agora tarde demais.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD UP

-10-

Complete with one of the words from the box: Specialized vocabulary: Banking accept balance borrow cautious deductions dividend down payment mortgages restrict signature take out transact

Banks are not only places in which to save money or to (1) _______ your financial business, but also institutions from which people can (2) _______ money. Every day, people look to banks for loans, such as (3) _______ for new homes. A loan is essentially a contract that binds the lender to a schedule of payments, so both parties should be (4) _______ and not enter into the arrangement without thinking. Banks will look at such factors as how much people have saved towards (5) _______ in determining whether to make a loan. Banks have different kinds of accounts. Some pay high quarterly (6) _________. Some accounts even severely (7) ________ the number of times, if any, that you can access your account, or the amount of cash you can (8) ________. Today electronic banking can be used to check the (9) _________ on an account, or to see if automatic (10) ________ have been made. This can all be done from your home or office computer When you go to the bank, be sure to bring identification. Usually a bank will only (11) _________ a photo ID; a (12) _________ is not a valid ID. (From 600 Essential Words for the TOEIC, by
Dr. Lin Lougheed, Barrons)

Specialized vocabulary: Hotel tips slightly automatically chain desk resorts strict request share

In big cities as in national parks and ________ (1), it is best to make reservations. Even if you are only _________ (2) late, it is wise to call and _________ (3) that the room be held since many hotels __________ (4) cancel reservations, if you dont show up before 6 oclock and 4 oclock for the national parks. There is usually no extra charge for children under 18 who _________ (5) a room with their parents. Be sure your room is double-locked when you go out, leave the key at the reception _________ (6). (Except in New York and some large cities where you keep your key). At night, double-lock your door and fasten the security _________ (7). Drinking tap water is perfectly safe; sanitation legislation in the United States is very _________ (8). (From Pratiquer LAmricain, page 137)
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP!

-11-

Building up your vocabulary can be fun Read the following text and then do the exercises based on it. BUSINESS ADVICE An American businessman was at the pier of a small coastal Mexican village when a small boat with just one fisherman docked. Inside the small boat were several large yellowfin tuna. The American complimented the Mexican on the quality of his fish and asked how long it took to catch them. The Mexican replied Only a little while. The American then asked why didn't he stay out longer and catch more fish??? The Mexican said he had enough to support his family's immediate needs. The American then asked but what do you do with the rest of your time??? The Mexican fisherman said, I sleep late, fish a little, play with my children, make siesta with my wife Maria, stroll into the village each evening where I sip wine and play guitar with my amigos. I have a full and busy life, seor". The American scoffed, 1 am a Harvard MBA and could help you. You should spend more time fishing and with the proceeds buy a bigger boat with the proceeds from the bigger boat you could buy several boats, eventually you would have a fleet of fishing boats. Instead of selling your catch to a middleman you would sell directly to the processor, eventually opening your own cannery. You would control the product, processing and distribution. You would need to leave this small coastal fishing village and move to Mexico City, then LA and eventually NYC where you will run your expanding enterprise. The Mexican fisherman asked, But seor, how long will this all take???" To which the American replied, 15 to 20 years. But what then, seor ??? The American laughed and said thats the best part, When the time is right you would announce an IPO and sell your company stock to the public and become very rich, you would make millions. Millions, seor ??? Then what??? The American said, Then you would retire. Move to a small coastal fishing village where you would sleep late, fish a little, play with your kids, take siesta with your wife, stroll to the village in the evenings where you could sip wine and play your guitar with your amigos

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE EXERCISE 1

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-12-

Complete the sentences with a verb that collocates with the word(s) in bold.

Model:

I have enough to support (meet) my familys immediate needs.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I (from the text) The American told the fisherman he could ________ millions. In NY the fisherman would _________ his expanding business. He would announce an IPO and _______ his stock to the public. The Mexican told the American that he ______ a full and busy life. According to the Harvard MBA one advantage would be not having to _______ with a middleman. II (not from the text) This morning I did not ______ a bath; I just ______ a quick shower. I put on my clothes, _____ a light breakfast and ______ a bus to work. The teacher asked me to _______ a copy of the exercise. We told him we dont have much time to _______ homework. Never mind. _____ a few mistakes when you write an essay is normal. Choose the better alternative in parentheses.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

EXERCISE 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The American was visiting a small (coastal/ coasting) Mexican village. I would like to congratulate you (for / on) your success. Why didnt you stay out longer and catch more (fish / fishes)? With the proceeds from the bigger boat you could buy a (flock / fleet) of fishing boats. Dont drink your wine so fast. Just (sip/gulp) it; enjoy its taste. Supply the word(s) as requested

EXERCISE 3 1.

You should spend more time fishing. Write three other verbs that collocate with the noun TIME ________ time // ________ time // ________ time The fisherman did not make much money. Write three other verbs that collocate with the noun MONEY ________ money // ________ money // ________ money

2.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 3.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

He liked to play the guitar with his amigos. Write three other nouns that collocate with the verb PLAY play ________ // play ________ // play ________ Eventually you would open your own business. Write three other verbs that collocate with the noun BUSINESS ________ business // ________ business // ________ business Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition or particle.

4.

EXERCISE 4 -

Model: S1: The American complimented the Mexican fisherman. S2: ON what? S1: ON the quality of his fish. I S1: The fisherman used to play at home. S2: ______ whom? S1: ______ his children. II S1: The fisherman would stroll every evening. S2: Where ______? S1: ______ the village. III S1: The American told the fisherman to move. S2: Where ______? S1: ______ Mexico City or LA. IV S1: The fisherman could sell his catch. S2: ______ whom? S1: ______ the processor. V S1: How did the American reply? S2: ______ what? S1: ______ the fishermans question. VI S1: The American said the fisherman could make/take siesta? S2: ______ whom? S1: ______ his wife Maria.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-14-

ESAF /AFC STN/2005 Read the text below in order to answer questions 27 to 30. And on the election Before the budget which Gordon Brown presented on March 16th, many in the Labour Party hoped that the chancellor would thunder to the rescue of their faltering election campaign. But Mr. Brown hemmed in by the deficit he has built up over the past three years, did not have the freedom to make grand gestures. Instead, he had three fairly modest aims. First, he wanted to put the economy at the center of the election battle and to remind voters of its success while he has been in charge of the Treasury. Second, he wished to target disaffected Labour voters with a few modest electoral sweeteners. Third, he wanted to allay worries about a tax rise after the general election. He succeeded with the first, was quite effective with the second but had a less convincing case to make on the third. Mr. Brown does not do modesty, least of all about the economy. In his last budget he claimed that Britain was enjoying its longest period of sustained economic growth for more than 200 years. (Source The Economist 17th March 2005, Adapted) 27. a) b) c) d) e) 28. a) b) c) d) e) Before the annual budget was announced, Labour supporters had hoped it would redeem the chancellors reputation. be free from grand economic gestures. bring new life to their election campaign. overcome the large budget deficit. contain only easily achievable proposals. The author refers to the deficit built up over the last three years and its encouraging results. lack of repercussion. worrying causes. limiting effect. coming solution.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

29. a) b) c) d) e) 30. a) b) c) d) e)

In relation to a tax rise after the general election, Mr. Brown saw it as a political threat which was overcome managed to persuade voters to support it. intended to lessen the voters worries about it. succeeded in avoiding its negative impact on voters. is going to fail in his attempts to implement it. Mr. Browns approach to his own economic achievements is marked by lack of vision. undeniable optimism. harmful modesty. undesirable pessimism boundless self-confidence.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-16-

Correlao de A /B a. (4) // b. (5) c. (1) // d. (6 ) // e. (7) // f. (3) // g. ( 2 ) True Cognates Aluminum (US)*, producers, invest, Brazilian, operations, investments, importance, reinforcing, creating, expand, production, refinery, implant, annual, production, modernize, functioning, generate, contribute, global, participated, current, administration, active. (*) aluminium (UK) Traduo dos fragmentos a) over the next three years (=ao longo dos prximos 3 anos) // b) was apprised of the amount of investments (=foi informado do montante de investimentos) // a) to modernize the aluminum plant (= para modernizar a
fbrica de alumnio)

Specialized Vocabulary; Banking 1. transact 2. borrow // 3. mortgages // 4. cautious // 5. down payment // 6. dividends // 7. restrict // 8. take out // 9. balance // 10. deductions // 11. accept // 12. signature Specialized Vocabulary; Hotels 1. resorts // 2. slightly // 3. request // 4. automatically // 5. share // 6. desk // 7. chain // 8. strict LIGHTEN UP! BUSINESS ADVICE

Um aluno me enviou esse texto por e-mail h tempos. No sei quem o autor, No sei quanto a voc, mas eu me amaro no besteirol desse texto. E se de quebra ainda podemos praticar alguns pontos importantes, sopa no mel! EXERCISE 1 Collocations 1. make millions (= ganhara milhes - poderia ser tambm earn or get millions // run a business (=dirigir um negcio) // 3. An IPO (Initial public Offering) aberturra do capital de uma empresa sell his stock of shares(=vender seu estoque de aes)// 4. he had a full and busy life (levava uma vida plena e ativa ) // 5. deal with a middleman (=lidar, negociar com um intermedirio) II - 6. take a bath (=tomar um banho) / took a quick shower (= tomar uma ducha rpida) // 7. had a light breakfast ( tomei um caf da manha leve // took a bus to work (= tomei um nibus pro trabalho) // 8. to make/take a copy (=tirar, fazer uma cpia) // 9. to do homework (fazer trafas de casa) // 10. make a few mistakes (=cometer alguns erros)
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

EXERCISE 2 better alternatives 1. visit a small coastal Mexican village (= visitor uma pequena aldeia costeira no Mxico // 2. congratulate you on your success ( parabenizar algum pelo seu sucesso) // 3. catch more fish (pegar mais peixes) // 4. a fleet of fishing boats (=uma frota de barcos pesqueiros // 5. sip your wine, enjoy its taste.( beba devagarzinho seu vinho, deguste-o) EXERCISE 3 1. 2. 3. 4. word(s) as requested

kill time (=matar o tempo, fazer hora) // waste time (perder, despediar o tempo) // do time ( cumprir pena, tempo na cadeia) earn money (=ganhar dinheiro) // launder money (= lavar dinheiro// waste money ( =desperdiar dinheiro) play soccer(or football (=jogar futebol) // play the foool (=bancar o tolo) // play lawyer (=bancar o advogado) do business // (=fazer negcios)// manage a business (=dirigir um negcio, uma empresa // set up a business (=instalar um negcio) preposition or particle.

EXERCISE 4I

S1: S2: S1:


II

The fisherman used to play at home. WITH whom? WITH his children. The fisherman would stroll every evening. Where TO? TO the village. The American told the fisherman to move. Where TO? TO Mexico City or LA. The fisherman could sell his catch. TO whom? TO the processor. How did the American reply? TO what? TO the fishermans question. The American said the fisherman could make/take siesta? WITH whom? WITH his wife Maria.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

S1: S2: S1:


III

S1: S2: S1:


IV

S1: S2: S1:


V

S1: S2: S1:


VI

S1: S2: S1:

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto 30. E.

-18-

ESAF /AFC STN / 2005 27. C 28. D 29. C

Algumas consideraes fundamentais sobre o texto And on the election, extrado de uma publicao de grande prestgio (The Economist) e de onde a banca ESAF tem repetidas vezes retirado textos para suas provas. Qual a grande diferena entre o texto de cunho jornalstico mais light da Alcoa e este da The Economist? O campo semntico, certo? E a voltamos ao que eu venho falando desde a aula zero, a aula demonstrativa. No h mgica: preciso, ler, ler, e ler! Muito provavelmente num dos textos pelo menos haver itens do chamado economs. Retiremos um exemplo do texto And on the election: Budget (n.) (=oramento). At admito que voc no soubesse o significado dessa palavra antes. A partir de agora no s budget como tambm o adjetivo budgetary (=oramentrio) e, se tiver comprado a minha idia sobre collocations, inclua tambm: a tight budget (=um oramento apertado), an annual budget (=oramento anual) etc. e tudo o mais relacionado ao collocational field dessa palavra que voc venha a encontrar. Devido sua especificidade a palavra budget and family tm que fazer parte do seu wordbank, quia de seu HD mental, ou seja, tem que estar na massa. Traduo de alguns fragmento do texto And on the election (Voc poder observar que, na maioria dos casos, se trata de fragmentos com vocabulrio rebuscado com as metforas encontradas nas publicaes como a The Economist, Newsweek, Time, The New York Times, etc.) 1. (Brown) would thunder to the rescue of their faltering election campaign
clamaria por socorro sua campanha eleitoral claudicante

2. hemmed in by the deficit he has built up over the past three years
tolhido pelo dficit que ele acumulou ao longo dos ltimos 3 anos

3. Instead, he had three fairly modest aims.


Ao invs disso, tinha trs objetivos bem modestos.

4. to put the economy at the center of the election battle


para colocar a economia no centro da batalha eleitoral.

5. to allay worries about a tax rise


para aplacar as preocupaes sobre um aumento de impostos

6. had a less convincing case to make


tinha a um ponto menos convincente

7. Mr. Brown does not do modesty


a modstia no um dos seu pontos fortes

8. was enjoying its longest period of sustained economic growth


estava desfrutando de seu mais longo perodo de crescimento com uma economia sustentvel. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 5

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (IV): looking for collocations


Estratgia de Leitura (IV): buscando collocations

Study of text 1: Alcoas investments


Estudo do texto1: Os investimentos da Alcoa

III Collocation: verbs, adjectives, nouns + prepositions


Collocation : verbos, adjetivos, substantivos + preposio

IV Word Forms The suffixes: ANCE /-ENCE // -ANT/-ENT


Formao de Palavras Sufixos: -ANCE / -ENCE / -ANT / -ENT

V-

Summary of Verb Tenses: Future Tenses


Resumo dos tempos verbais: Os tempos futuros

VI Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: Banking / Hotel Tips


Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: termos bancrios / dicas sobre hotis

VII Lighten up! Business Advice -The fisherman and the expert
Relaxe! Conselho de Negcios - O pescador e o perito uma historinha

VIII Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/STN 2005 Text: And on the election
Anlise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC / STN 2005 Texto: E quanto eleio

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 6 GUESSING MEANING WITH MODALS Social Security Announces 4.1 Percent Benefit Increase for 2006 Monthly Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits for more than 52 million Americans will increase 4.1 percent in 2006, the Social Security Administration announced today. Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits increase automatically each year based on the rise in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W), from the third quarter of the prior year to the corresponding period of the current year. This years increase in the CPI-W was 4.1 percent. The 4.1 percent Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) will begin with benefits that more than 48 million Social Security beneficiaries receive in January 2006. Increased payments to 7 million Supplemental Security Income beneficiaries will begin on December 30. Some other changes that take effect in January of each year are based on the increase in average wages. Based on that increase, the maximum amount of earnings subject to the Social Security tax (taxable maximum) will increase to $94,200 from $90,000. Of the estimated 161 million workers who will pay Social Security taxes in 2006, about 11.3 million will pay higher taxes as a result of the increase in the taxable maximum in 2006. It is important to note that no ones Social Security benefit will decrease as a result of the 2006 Medicare Part B premium increase, announced last month. By law, the Part B premium increase cannot be larger than a beneficiarys Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) increase.
(Excerpt from News Release www.ssa.gov o site oficial do governo dos EUA)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto EXPLOITATION OF TEXT 1

-2-

Copie do texto inicial trs exemplos de construes no futuro:


_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Translate the following fragments from text 1: Social Security Benefit increase Consumer Price Index Urban Wage Earners Clerical Workers Cost-of-Living Adjustment average wages taxable maximum Social Security taxes premium increase Take a look at a US Social Security card. (Na cultura Americana este carto to importante quanto o nosso CIC com o nosso CPF.

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto WORD FORMS

-3-

From Text 1: Desta vez no vou apresentar nenhum novo sufixo. Instead, vou pedir que voc localize no texto 1 o maior nmero de palavras com formao sufixal que voc puder:
_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

READING COMPREHENSION About Text 1: On Social Security Write (T) for true or (F) for false: 1. ( 2. ( ) You can affirm that Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits for many citizens in the US will tumble in 2006. ) It is the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) that could determine how much Social Security and Supplemental Security Income benefits vary every year. ) Over 48 million Social Security beneficiaries might benefit from Costof-Living Adjustment as of January 2006. ) Approximately 7% of the workers will pay higher Social Security taxes in 2006.

3. ( 4. (

5. ( ) 2006 Medicare Part B premium increase may not be larger than a beneficiarys Cost-of-Living Adjustment increase.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto MODAL VERBS

-4-

Os principais modal verbs so can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, ought to. So verbos auxiliares colocados diante do verbo principal para emprestam nuances de sentido. Podem indicar permisso, possibilidade, necessidade, obrigao, etc. Modal verbs apresentam certas peculiaridades: a) no se acrescenta s ou es a terceira pessoa do singular: Ex.: She can swim.
Ela sabe nadar.

He can speak Italian.


Ele sabe falar italiano.

It should arrive any minute now.


. Deve chegar a qualquer momento.

b)

modal verbs no so seguidos de to + infinitive (com exceo dos quase-modais como ought to, used to ...) Ex.: They should stay home.
Elas devem ficar em casa. Ela deve estudar mais.

But: She ought to study more. c) para formar-se a negativa coloca-se not logo aps o modal verb; para formar perguntas inverte-se o modal verb com o sujeito.
Voc no pode entrar naquela rea.

Exs.: You cannot enter that area. Would you like to visit the farm?
Voc gostaria de visitar a fazenda?

d) os chamados perfect modals so assim formados: modal verb + have (never has or had) + past participle of principal verb. Exs.: Sheila kept me waiting. She should have called me up much earlier.
Sheila me deixou esperando. Devia ter-me telefonado muito antes.

I might have stayed longer if you had invited me.


Podia ter ficado mais tempo se voc tivesse me convidado.

They may have left for the airport already.


Eles j devem ter ido pro aeroporto. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

GUESSING MEANING WITH MODALS From Text 1 the Part B premium increase cannot be larger than a beneficiarys Cost-ofLiving Adjustment increase (L-21/22) Os modal verbs permitem que voc utilize uma outra reading strategy, qual seja, a de buscar o significado de trechos nos textos onde eles aparecem indicando, como j dissemos, permission, possbility, probability, necessity, obligation, etc. No exemplo do texto 1 o aumento dos prmios no pode ser maior do que o ajuste do ndice do custo de vida. Rapidamente, vamos analisar alguns exemplos com os verbos can / could: Ms. Larks boss said to her: You can leave now.
O chefe da Ms. Lark lhe disse: - Voc pode sair agora.

(ou seja, ele lhe deu permisso) Se tivesse sido usado o verbo may, por exemplo, ficaria muito mais formal. Agora, se tivesse sido usado o verbo must. Mudaria tudo de figura. Ms. Larks boss told her: You must leave now.
O chefe da Ms. Lark lhe disse: - Voc tem que sair agora.

(ou seja, por algum motivo ela tem que sair; est obrigada a faz-lo agora) Mrs. Sorensen is busy now, but she can see you tomorrow afternoon.
A Sra Sorensen est ocupada agora, mas poder v-lo amanh tarde.

(claramente o verbo can est indicando possibilidade no futuro aqui) It cant / couldnt have been John you saw at the station, hes been here with us all the time.
No pode / No podia ter sido o John que voc viu na estao, ele esteve conosco aqui o tempo todo.

(j aqui os verbos can /could so usados para indicar uma probabilidade muito forte, quase certeza. como se dissssemos: You must have seen somebody else)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

IF CLAUSES
Agora que j revisamos a maioria dos tempos verbais e comeamos a enfatizar o estudo dos modal verbs, hora de se introduzir essas famosas IFCLAUSES, as oraes condicionais geralmente introduzidas pela conjuno IF. D a sua traduo das frases na linhas abaixo: H trs estruturas principais: A. Ex: future in main clause // present simple in if-clauses I will visit you, if I have the money for the ticket. _________________________________________________________ If my boss promotes me, I will make more money. _________________________________________________________ conditional in main clause // past simple in if-clauses I would visit you, if I had the money for the ticket. _________________________________________________________ If my boss promoted me, I would make more money. _________________________________________________________ conditional perfect in main clause // past perfect in if-clauses

B. Ex:

C.

Ex.: I would have visited you, if I had had the money for the ticket. _________________________________________________________ If my boss had promoted me, I would have made more money. _________________________________________________________ Estude tambm as estruturas em que aprecem os if-equivalents IUse of Unless (if ... not)

Exs.: I wouldnt go to the stadium unless I felt perfectly fine. _________________________________________________________ Unless he had been informed, how could he have been tailing us? _________________________________________________________ I wont go to that nightclub unless Gilda goes with us. _________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE II -

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

Provided (that) / Providing (that)

Ex.: Provided that you follow my instructions, you may pass the test. (i.e. If you follow my instructions ...) _________________________________________________________ III Supposing (that)

Ex.: Supposing you had five minutes to spare, would you talk to me? (i.e. If you had 5 min to spare,....) _________________________________________________________ IV - So long as Ex.: So long as we have Barbara baby-sitting for our son, we can go to the theater. (i.e. If we have ....) _________________________________________________________ VOn condition that

Ex.: You can borrow my dictionary on condition that you return tomorrow. _________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 1. 2. 3. Rewrite the sentences using the if equivalents in bold:

If you need my help, you should see me at my office tomorrow. Supposing ________________________________________________ If you had asked for Roses DVD, she might have lent it to you. Providing that _____________________________________________ If you hand in your term papers in time you may start phase II of our literature course. On condition that __________________________________________ If Lisa does not go to the dance, I wont go either. Unless _____________________________________________ If she invites you to the baby shower, will you go? Provided that _____________________________________________ If you stick to your old fashioned practices, you wont be successful. So long as _____________________________________________
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

4.

5. 6.

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP! I - A MATTER OF I.Q.

-8-

Albert Einstein arrives in heaven and is told that hell he rooming with four other men. So he introduces himself to the group. Glad to meet you, says the 1st roommate. By the way, my I.Q. is 180. Good, replies Einstein, We'll be able to discuss quantum physics. I have an I.Q. of 159, the second interjects. Splendid - we can talk about the latest mathematical theories. As for me, says the third man, my I.Q. is 132. Delighted, Einstein replies. We can debate the current state of the arts. Im honored to meet you, the last man in the group says. But my I.Q. is only 85. That's all right, Einstein answers, shaking the mans hand. So tell me, where do you think interest rates are headed? O que o modal verb can est indicando na anedota acima em: a) can talk about __________________________________________ b) can debate __________________________________________ II AT HIS FINGERTIPS George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), the great Irish dramatist, was celebrating his ninetieth birthday. Among the guests was Fabian, Scotland Yard's famous detective. At Fabians suggestion Shaw agreed to have his fingerprints recorded for posterity. To the amazement of both, Shaw's fingerprints were so faint that no impression could be obtained. Well, announced Shaw if I had known this before I would certainly have chosen another profession. (Adapted from The Little Brown Book of Anecdotes,
edited by Clifton Fadiman)

Traduza o exemplo de orao condicional (if-clause) na anedota acima: if I had known this before I would certainly have chosen another profession _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD UP

-9-

Mini-text 1: Fighting for a Level Playing Field regional foreign full specific overall available productive opportunities

MAC's ___________ (1) objectives are to obtain market access for American firms and workers and to achieve ___________ (2) compliance by foreign nations with trade agreements they sign with our country. U.S businesses and workers are the most ___________ (3) in the world, but often find difficulties exporting their goods and services because of ___________ (4) barriers to trade. MAC can help. Once a problem is identified, MAC uses all ___________ (5) resources to assist American businesses and workers in finding a solution. To help U.S. companies and workers obtain the fullest market ____________ (6), the MAC team is divided into country and __________ (7) experts and staff specializing in _________ (8) trade agreements. Visit: www.mac.doc.gov/ (*) Market Access and Compliance (MAC) Mini-text 1: Free Trade Agreements strengthen economic compete integral encourage easing groundbreaking manufacturing

Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) can help your company to enter and ___________ (1) more easily in the global marketplace. Trade agreements help level the international playing field and ___________ (2) foreign governments to adopt open and transparent rulemaking procedures, as well as nondiscriminatory laws and regulations. FTAs help ___________ (3) business climates by eliminating or reducing tariff rates, improving intellectual property regulations, opening government procurement opportunities, ____________ (4), investment rules, and much more. International trade is an ____________ (5) part of the U.S. economy, accounting for more than one-quarter of U.S. gross domestic product and supporting more than 12 million U.S. jobs, including 1 in 5 ____________ (6) positions. FTAs can be a catalyst for accelerating ____________ (7), growth by allowing greater competition, encouraging the formation of international partnerships, and by greatly liberalizing many industries. Most FTAs include specific obligations in the areas of intellectual property, services, investment, and telecommunications. Many FTAs also provide for ____________ (8), cooperation in promoting labor rights and the environment. Visit: www.export.gov/fta
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-10-

Specialized vocabulary: Income Complete the text by using the following words: cost rent earn differentials inequality standard distribution profits income salary progressive purchasing

Money paid, usually weekly and often in cash, to a worker for work done is called a wage (or wages). A (1) _____________ is a regular payment made to an employee, usually by a bank transfer or cheque at the end of the month. A real wage is an actual wage deflated (divided) by the consumer price index; this gives the (2) ____________ power of an hours work. Skilled work is usually rewarded by higher pay than unskilled work. Skills, knowledge and expertise acquired in education or special training are also known as human capital, and are usually remunerated. On the contrary, compensating (3) ______________ are often paid to persuade unskilled people to take dangerous, dirty, inconvenient or tedious jobs. Subsistence wages are the minimum amount needed to support a persons life. Fortunately, most people in industrial and post-industrial countries (4) _____________ rather more than this. If higher wages tempt people to work longer hours, this is known as the substitution effect. But after a certain point, higher wages mean that workers can afford to work fewer hours; this is the (5) ____________ effect. The (6) ____________ of living is defined as the level of prosperity in terms of material or social benefits (which are related to income and wealth). The (7) ___________ of living is the amount of money that must be paid for food, housing, clothing, and so on. In economics, unlike in marketing, (8) ____________ concerns. the allocation of factors of production - land, which earns (9) ____________ , labour which earns wages and capital, which earns interest and/or profits and their market prices. Income is the flow of money earned or collected during a given period, including wages and salaries, interest payments, rental income, and (10) ____________ from business. (11) ____________ or redistributive taxation can reduce income (12) ____________. Wealth is the net stock of tangible and financial assets owned at any particular time. (From Financial
English by Ian Mackenzie, page 106, LTP)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

Specialized vocabulary: collocations & technical terms

Correlacione as colunas. A 1. real estate agent 2. social welfare 3. securities analyst 4. power of attorney 5.purchasing power B ) poder de compra ) corretor imobilirio ) assistncia social ) analista de valores imobilirios ) procurao

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

C 1. common stock 2. bill of exchange 3. low yield 4. taxable income 5. bill of lading

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

D ) conhecimento de embarque ) baixa rentabilidade ) letra de cmbio ) aes ordinrias ) renda tributvel

E 1. interest bearing account 2. customs warehouse 3. foreign loan 4. book keeping 5. capital flight

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

F ) armazm aduaneiro ) emprstimo externo ) conta remunerada ) evaso de capital ) escriturao contbil

G 1. mortgage 2. withholding tax 3. registration of debt 4. tax court 5. revenue receipts a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

H ) inscrio da dvida ) receita arrecadada ) vara de fazenda ) hipoteca ) imposto na fonte

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

11

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-12-

Going for the Big Guy Silvio Berlusconi was dapper as ever last week - so sleek and smooth in his double-breasted suit, in fact, you could almost forget the Italian Prime Minister was in court facing bribery charges. He barely broke a sweat during 50 minutes of spontaneous remarks in a stuffy, packed courtroom, as he became the first sitting Prime Minister ever to testify at his own criminal trial. Listening just a few feet from the billionaire leader was another cool - though far more casually clad - customer. For this historic court date, lead prosecutor Ilda Boccassinis usual uniform of a light blue denim jacket and white tennis shoes could be seen peeking out from her black magistrates robe. Beyond her sartorial choices, there is noting casual about the 53-year-old prosecutor. Boccassini has busted Mafia killers and crooked judges and is now trying to reel in the biggest fish of all. Berlusconi is accused in an alleged 1980s plot to bribe judges but he has denied any wrongdoings, saying the charges amount to a political coup attempt by leftish magistrates looking to undo his success. Renato Schifani, Senate leader for the Prime Minister Italia party, told TIME that Boccassini is one of the key leaders of an anti-Berlusconi crusade in the Milan magistrate's office. After helping unravel Mob connections in Milan in the 1980s, and later moving to Sicily to convict the killers of antiMafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone, Boccassini returned north to eventually team up with anti-corruption prosecutor Gherardo Colombo in the Prime Ministers case. (FGV / 2005 Adapted from Going for the Big Guy in TIME, May 19,
2003)

61. A) B) C) D) E) 62. A) B) C) D) E)

From lines 1 to 5 we infer that Silvio Berlusconi is a member of the jury the accuser the plaintiff the defendant the convict According to line 4, the courtroom is airy and bare. spacious and cool. crowded and badly ventilated. gloomy and damp. small and cramped.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

12

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 63. A) B) C) D) E)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

According to paragraph 1, Berlusconis looks revealed his anxiety. Berlusconi was wet with sweat. Berlusconi was poorly dressed. Berlusconi looked so neat and smart that it was hard to see him as the accused. Berlusconi seemed so concerned and troubled that one could almost forget that he was the Prime Minister. According to lines 4 to 7, Berlusconi is the former Prime Minister is the Prime Minister in office has been out of office due to a series of accusations is sitting on a jury. is the newly-appointed Prime Minister Choose the one item which best completes the sentence.' Berlusconi was charged ____ bribery. with of for on at In the text, CLAD (L-7) can be replaced without any loss of meaning by chosen dressed overdressed unveiled found In the text the phrase sartorial choices (line 12) is concerned with one's skill to make a careful choice. one's impartiality in giving judgment. one's ability to judge correctly. one's promptness to make up ones mind. one's preference for clothes.

64. A) B) C) D) E) 65. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 66. A) B) C) D) E) 67. A) B) C) D) E)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

13

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 68. A) B) C) D) E) 69. A) B) C) D) E) 70. A) B) C) D) E)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-14-

According to paragraph 2, Berlusconi felt Impotent before the accusation of bribery brought against him. crumbed under the pressure of bribery charges. showed his vulnerability at court. tried to rebut charges against him by spreading blame on others. brought evidence to court to refute the charges of bribery. From the text as a whole we deduce that Ilda Boccassini is a tenacious professional. a tendentious prosecutor. a lenient investigator in her field. a biased leader a crusader with an inborn talent for fighting organised crime. According to paragraphs 2 and 3. all the following statements can be considered correct, EXCEPT Boccassini is likely to bring dawn Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi In the long run Boccassini has had a very successful career as a prosecutor so far Berlusconi is bound to get away with his crimes Berlusconi refused to plead guilty to the charges of bribery Boccassini is ready to keep on fighting against the Italian Prime Minister

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

14

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-15-

3 exemplos de construes no futuro: will increase (L-2/15), will begin (L-9/12), will decrease (L-19) Translate the following fragments from text 1: Social Security Benefit increase Consumer Price Index Urban Wage Earners Clerical Workers Cost-of-Living Adjustment average wages taxable maximum Social Security taxes premium increase Previdncia social Aumento dos benefcios ndice de preo ao consumidor
Percebedores de salrios nas cidades

Trabalhadores em escritrios Ajuste no custo de vida salrios mdios Mximo tributvel Contribuies previdencirias Aumento nos preos de seguridade

suffixes Monthly, Supplemental, Security, Americans, Administration, automatically. consumer, earners, workers, corresponding, adjustment, payments, beneficiaries, earnings, taxable, estimated, higher, important, True or False ? 1. (F) tumble um dos verbos em ingls que indica queda brusca. O texto fala em increase (=incrementar) 2. (F) deve ser determine sem o modal verb. Could determine mudaria todo o sentido do texto para poderia determinar. 3. (F) will benefit a idia. Eles se beneficiaro. 4. (T) 5. (F) deve ser cannot be larger, ou seja, no ode ser maior que ...

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

15

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE IF CLAUSES

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

I will visit you, if I have the money for the ticket.


Eu visitarei voc se tiver dinheiro para a passagem.

If my boss promotes me, I will make more money.


Se meu chefe me promover eu ganharei mais dinheiro. .

I would visit you, if I had the money for the ticket.


Eu visitaria voc se tivesse dinheiro para a passagem.

If my boss promoted me, I would make more money.


Se meu chefe me promovesse eu ganharia mais dinheiro. .

I would have visited you, if I had had the money for the ticket.
Eu teria visitado voc se tivesse tido dinheiro para a passagem.

If my boss had promoted me, I would have made more money.


Se meu chefe tivesse me promovido eu teria ganho mais dinheiro.

I wouldnt go to the stadium unless I felt perfectly fine.


Eu no iria ao estdio se no me sentisse perfeitamente bem.

Unless he had been informed, how could he have been tailing us?
A menos que ele tivesse sido informado como poderia estar nos seguindo?

I wont go to that nightclub unless Gilda goes with us.


No irei quela boate a no ser que a Gilda v comigo.

Provided that you follow my instructions, you may pass the test.
(Com a condio que voc siga) Se voc seguir minhas instrues, voc poder passar no exame.

Supposing you had five minutes to spare, would you talk to me?
Supondo que voc tivesse) Se voc tivesse 5 min. Livres, falaria comigo?

So long as we have Barbara baby-sitting for our son, we can go to the theater.
(Desde que tenhamos a Brbara cuidando das crianas poderemos ir ao teatro. .

You can borrow my dictionary on condition that you return tomorrow.


Voc pode pegar meu dicionrio emprestado com a condio de devolv-lo amanh

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

16

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Using the if equivalents in bold 1. If you need my help, you should see me at my office tomorrow. Supposing you need my help, you should see me at my office tomorrow 2. If you had asked for Roses DVD, she might have lent it to you. Providing that you had asked for Roses DVD, she might have lent it to you 3. If you hand in your term papers in time you may start phase II of our literature course. On condition that you hand in your term papers in time you may start phase II of our literature course. 4. If Lisa does not go to the dance, I wont go either. Unless Lisa goes to the dance, I wont go either. 5. If she invites you to the baby shower, will you go? Provided that she invites you to the baby shower, will you go 6. If you stick to your old fashioned practices, you wont be successful. So long as you stick to your old fashioned practices, you wont be successful 1. Einsteins anecdote can talk about (= poderemos, seremos capazes de falar sobre ) // can debate (=poderemos, seremos capazes de debater) 2. Shaws anecdote Se eu tivesse sabido disto antes teria certamente escolhido outra profisso. Mini-text 1 1. overall // 2. full // 3. productive // 4. regional // 5. available // 6. opportunities // 7. foreign // 8. specific Mini-text 2 1. compete // 2. encourage // 3. strengthen // 4. easing // 5. integral // 6. manufacturing // 7. economic // 8. groundbreaking Specialized vocabulary: Income 1. salary // 2. purchasing // 3. differentials// 4. earn // 5. income // 6. standard // 7. cost // 8. distribution // 9. rent // 10. profits // 11. progressive // 12. inequality

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

17

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

Matching // Correlacione as colunas. A/B C/ D E/F G/H a. (5) // b. (1) // c. (2) // d. (3) // e. (4) a. (5) // b. (3) // c. (2) // d. (1) // e. (4) a. (2) // b. (3) // c. (1) // d. (5) // e. (4) a. (3) // b. (5) // c. (4) // d. (1) // e. (2)

A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS FGV 2005 Silvio Berlusconi 61. D 62. C 63. D 64. B 66. B 67. E 68. D 69. A

65. A 70. C

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

18

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 6

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Strategy (IV): guessing meanign with modal verbs


Estratgia de Leitura (IV): adivinhando o significado com os verbos modais

Study of text 1: Social Security


Estudo do texto1: Previdncia Social

III Reading Comprehension: Social Security - True or False?


Compreenso de Leitura: Previdncia Social: Falso ou Verdadeiro?

IV VVI -

Word Forms The suffixes ensemble


Formao de Palavras Sufixos em conjunto

Modal Verbs: characteristics / Can /Could in particular


Caractersticas dos verbos modais: Verbos can /could em especial

Conditions // If-clauses
Oraes condicionais (oraes com IF)

VII Lighten up! Einsteins / Shaws stories


Relaxe! Anedotas sobre Einstein e G.Bernard Shaw

VIII Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: International Trade / Free Trade Agreements // Income / Matching columns: Technical terms
Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: comrcio internacional / Acordos de Livre Comrcio // Renda // Terminologia tcnica (correlacionando colunas)

IX

Analysis of past exams: FGV 2005 Text: Going for the Big Guy
Anlise de provas anteriores: FGV 2005 Texto: Em busca do Grande Chefo

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

19

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

20

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 7 WARM UP FOR THE MOCK TEST Pre-testing Vocabulary No quadro seguinte voc encontra transparent words associadas a outras no to evidentes. Faa o skimming do texto e, sem dicionrio, traduza-as. A 1. manufacturing company 2. personal care 3. a new campaign 4. new brand logo 5. an integral part 6. the companys packaging 7. different icons 8. consumer benefits 9. competitive advantage 10. the companys future policy Text 1: Unilevers brand new identity The UK based global foods and home and personal care products manufacturing company recently announced the launch of a new mission entitled Vitality as the base of its future policy. Central to the new direction are a Mission Statement and logo. The new Mission reads, Unilevers mission is to add vitality to life. We meet the everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. Although the new brand logo forms an integral part of Unilevers new campaign, which was officially launched in May, it did not appear on the companys packaging until 1 July. The new logo tells the story of Unilever and vitality. It brings together 25 different icons representing Unilever and its brands, the idea of vitality and the benefits we bring to consumers and the world we operate in. Our mission is full of promise for the future, opening up exciting opportunities where we have competitive advantage for developing our business and our new logo will help us confidently identify ourselves in every aspect of our business, explained Antony Burgmans and Niall Fitzgerald, the Chairmen of Unilever worldwide. (From Britain Brasil magazine, p.7, July /August 2004)
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

15

20

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

Faa o intensive reading do texto 1 antes de responder as questes abaixo que bem poderiam estar no mock text (=teste simulado) ao final do curso. Procure aplicar todas as tcnicas j estudadas. No final desta aula dou as respostas. Good Luck! READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Choose the best option: 1. According to the author, two items are central to the companys future policy a) add vitality to life and personal care. b) help people feel good and nutrition. c) a mission statement and a new logo. d) a vital mission and consumer benefits. e) promise for the future and hygiene. 2. Although (L-10) at the beginning of the third paragraph indicates a) concession and could be replaced by though. b) result and could be replaced by therefore. c) purpose and could be replaced by thus d) addition and could be replaced by furthermore. e) comparison and could be substituted by likewise. 3.The Chairmen of Unilever, in their statement, expressed a) concern about consumers acceptance of the companys policy. b) renewed promised for the companys clients. c) doubts about the acceptance of the new logo. d) optimism about the future of the company. e) confidence in the companys icons. 4. In the text, the word that is a synonym of declaration is a) policy. b) brands. c) logo. d) launch. e) statement. 5. In the 3rd paragraph the pronoun it (L-12) refers to a) new campaign. b) companys packaging. c) the brand logo. d) an integral part. e) different icon.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

Se voc tivesse que fazer a busca das palavras transparentes, das palavras com formao prefixal e sufixal das collocations e tudo o mais que vimos estudando voc as encontraria no texto a seguir. Mas, gostaria que first and foremost voc fizesse o vocabulary pre-test. A 1. take a strong pride in 2. standing witness to 3. one truck stop 4. with a banner saying 5. patches of stunted growth 6. as far as the eyes can see 7. its growing population 8. new economic hubs. 9. producers point out as 10. the modern town boasts Text 2: Primavera do Leste Most towns or cities in Brazil usually take a strong pride in their historic past and have at least a few old buildings or monuments standing witness to earlier days. But in Primavera do Leste, a booming agribusiness town 230 kilometers east of Mato Grossos state capital, Cuiab, the oldest historic landmark you will find is a common filling station and truck stop with a banner saying: Where it all began. Where a few years ago there was virtually nothing but dust-covered savanna and patches of stunted growth, thousands of acres of soy and cotton fields now spread out as far as the eye can see, earning millions of dollars on world markets and turning the still small city into one of Brazils latest new economic hubs. Regional roads and telecommunications, however, are two aspects local entrepreneurs and producers point out as very precarious, forming obstacles to further growth seriously affecting production and marketing costs. Founded only 17 years ago, everything in Primavera, as it is usually referred to, is new - from its modern architecture to its growing population. Only the very young can proudly say they were born here. Valentim Martignano, one of the districts oldest pioneers arrived here from Paran state some 22 years ago, All I saw was a gas station, a general store six houses and a lot of dust, he recalls. Today the modern town boasts 50,000 inhabitants, and projections by the Brazilian institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) are of a population of 100,000 in five years time. (From UPDATE, by William Vanvolsen,
p.24, May/2003, American Chamber of Commerce publication)

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. ( i. ( j. (

B ) sua populao crescente ) at onde a vista alcana ) novos plos econmicos ) alguma vegetao rasteira ) os produtores indicam ) a moderna cidade se gaba ) tem um grande orgulho de ) so o testemunho de ) parada de caminhes ) com uma faixa dizendo

10

15

20

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto EXPLOITATION OF TEXT 2

-4-

1. Retire do texto 3 exemplos com verbos no past simple


___________________________________________________________________________

2. Retire do texto 3 exemplos com verbos no present simple


___________________________________________________________________________

3. Retire do texto 1 exemplo com verbo no future simple


___________________________________________________________________________

4. Retire do texto locues (collocations) formadas por adjective + noun


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

5. Retire do texto locues (collocations) formadas por noun + noun


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

6. O que a palavra however (L-11) est indicando mo discourse marker?


___________________________________________________________________________

7. De que outra forma se pode escrever o seguinte fragmento do texto: Founded only 17 years ago ... (L- 14)
___________________________________________________________________________

8. Como voc traduz o seguinte fragmento: earning millions of dollars on world markets (L-9/10)
___________________________________________________________________________

Say whether each statement is (T) true or (F) false: a) Most towns (L-1) corresponds to The majority of towns ( )

b) a few old buildings (L-2) corresponds to Not many buildings ( ) c) virtually nothing but dust-covered savanna (L-7) A palavra but no fragmento pode ser substituda por except sem prejuzo do sentido. ( ) d) turning the still small city into one of Brazils (L-10) No fragmento a palavra still pode ser substituda por yet. ( ) e) All I saw was a gas station (L-18) Neste fragmento do texto poderamos inserir a palavra that antes do sujeito sem prejuzo do sentido ( )

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto AFFIXES ENSEMBLE

-5-

From text 2: aspects local entrepreneurs and producers point out as very precarious (L-12). A palavra in bold significa empresrios. Se quisssemos falar de capacidade empresarial diramos entrepreneurial skill usando o adjetivo. Existe tambm o substantivo entrepreneurship para indicar o que prprio da atividade empresarial.
I - Forme uma palavra derivada por formao prefixal ou sufixal conforme o caso:

1. Tendo-se understanding, como voc forma mal-entendido com a adio de um prefixo?


_________________________________

2. Tendo-se superior, como voc forma superioridade com a adio de um sufixo?


_________________________________

3. Tendo-se aggressive, como voc forma agressividade com a adio de um sufixo?


_________________________________

4. Tendo-se brother, como voc forma fraternidade com a adio de um sufixo?


_________________________________

5. Tendo-se child, como voc forma infantil com a adio de um sufixo?


_________________________________ II Usando cada um dos prefixos que formam antnimos preencha as frases abaixo:

IL-

UN-

IN-

IR-

IM-

NON-

1. That was one of the ministers most ____ fortunate comments during the press conference. 2. The Pope was already ill and that was one of his _____ frequent visits to the little town. 3. Nobody can base his decision on those ____ precise data. 4. Most of us took part in the ____ violent demonstration. 5. Im sorry but I cant read what you wrote here. Its ____ legible. 6. You need to study ____ regular verbs, too.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto CONFUSABLE WORDS

-6-

From text 2: turning the still small city into one of Brazils latest new economic hubs. (L-10/11) Economic x Economical a) Economic (adj.) = relacionado com a cincia econmica. The economic measures adopted by finance minister Antonio Palocci were correct.
As medidas econmicas adotadas pelo ministro da fazenda Antonio Palocci pelo foram corretas.

b) Economical (adj.) = tem a ver com economizar, ser econmico. His wife is more economical than mine.
A esposa dele mais econmica do que a minha.

Further x Farther Ambas as palavras so formas comparativas de do adjetivo far. Normalmente usadas da seguinte forma. a) farther (adj) = relacionado com a distncia. She lives farther north. It will take us a few more minutes to ge there.
Ela mora mais ao norte. Vai demorar uns minutos mais para chegar l.

b)

further (adj) = significando adicional No further questions, Your Honor.


Sem mais perguntas, meritssimo.

My boss told us he needs further details before he can make a decision.


O chefe falou que precisa de detalhes adicionais para tomar uma deciso.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

Founded x Funded x Found a) Found (r.v) (founded, founded) (=fundar) Primavera do Leste was founded some years ago.
Primavera do Leste foi fundada h alguns anos.

This tradition dates back to the Founding Fathers days.


Esta tradio data da poca dos fundadores da Nao.

b) fund (r.v) (funded, funded) (= financiar, prover com verbas , recursos) As far as I know it was the MIT which funded the research do Prof. Harris.
At onde eu sei foi o MIT que financiou a pesquisa do Prof. Harris.

c) find (i.v) ( found, found) (= achar) I had lost my pen but I have found it already. Eu havia perdido minha caneta mas j a achei. Amount x number A grande diferena no uso dessas duas palavras nos remete para o conceito de palavras contveis e no contveis em ingls. Do mesmo modo que voc aprendeu que dever dizer many books, many computers, many classes.... e much coffee, much sugar, much money etc a) amount (use diante de palavras no contveis) The amount of money in circulation will increase.
O montante de dinheiro em circulao diminuir.

b) number (use diante de palavras contveis) The number of students applying for scholarships has doubled since last year.
O nmero de alunos requerendo bolsas de estudo dobrou desde o ano passado.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

WORD FORMS: SUPERLATIVES The suffix EST formador dos superlativos em ingls o mais importante a ser estudado aqui. From text 2: the oldest historic landmark you will find is a common filling station (L-4/5)
O mais antigo marco que voc encontrar e um simples posto de gasolina

Brazils latest new economic hubs. (Lem um dos mais recentes novos polos economicos do Brasil

Valentim Martignano, one of the districts oldest pioneers (L-17/18)


Valentim Martignano, um dos mais velhos pioneiros da regio

1. O sufixo est usado para formar o superlativo de adjetivos curtos easy clean hot old (the) easiest (the) cleanest (the) hottest (the ) oldest o / a+ fcil o / a+ limpo/a o / a+ quente o / a+ velho/a

2. Com adjetivos longos usa-se the most / the least + adj. para formar o superlativo. the most / least difficult the most / least complicated the most / least economical o / a mais (menos) difcil o / a mais (menos) complicado o /a mais (menos) econmico

3. Some irregular superlatives (Alguns superlativos irregulares) good bad little much(many) the best the worst the least the most o /a melhor o/ a pior o/ a menos o/a mais

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9-

From text2: in Primavera do Leste, a booming agribusiness town. (L-3)


em Primavera do Leste uma cidade agro-industrial em explosivo crescimento

No texto o autor usou palavras como booming e growing para indicar que Primavera do Leste uma cidade em crescimento. Vamos estudar os muitos verbos usados em ingls para indicar RISE & FALL (dos lucros, do volume de vendas, dos ndices, das cotaes de aes) Consulte seu dicionrio e classifique os verbos do quadro conforme os critrios abaixo: advance drift plunge rally be firm plummet rocket rebound be strong ease sink recover be weak jump slump revive dip leap tumble drop slip

Meaning rise: ________________________________________________ Meaning fall: __________________________________________________ Meaning to rise after falling: _____________________________________ Remember: rise and fall are irregular verbs: rise (rose, risen; fall (fell, fallen) Distinguish between fall (fell, fallen)[=cair], and feel (felt, felt) [=sentir] As well as the verb rise, English also has the verbs raise and arise. Rise is an irregular intransitive verb: rise (rose, risen) Things can rise, but you cannot rise something Raise is a regular, transitive verb; raise - raised - raised. People raise things. Raise has lots of meanings, including to collect capital We are helping them to raise funds for a charitable institution. to bring up children I was born in Par, but raised in Rio de Janeiro. Arise is an irregular, intransitive verb: arise - arose - arisen. It means to happen or occur or to come into existence. For example: Problems arose soon after the new chairman took office. Adapted from Financial English, Rise & Fall, by Ian Mackenzie, p.71, LTP
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-10-

PERFECT MODALS Vamos revisar os principais perfect modal auxiliaries all together. Estude os mini-dilogos a seguir e escreva o que esto indicando os modais in bold: (S1 =stands for speaker one / S2 stands for speaker two) -IS1: I painted the door of my garage all by myself. S2: I could have helped you. ________________________________________________________________ -IIS1: Jill failed to pass her exam. S2: She should have studied harder. ________________________________________________________________ -IIIS1: Debbys room lights are out. S2: She must have gone to sleep already. ________________________________________________________________ -IVS1: Have you seen Diamonds are Forever? S2: If its a 007 movie, I must have seen it ________________________________________________________________ -VS1: Did it rain last night? S2: It may have rained. ________________________________________________________________ -VIS1: Has Janet called yet? S2: Not yet. Im afraid we will have left for Canada when she does. ________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

LIGHTEN UP! WHAT DOES YOUR DADDY DO? It was the first day of school and the teacher thought shed get to know the kids by asking them their names and what their fathers did for a living The first little girl said, My name is Mary and my daddy is a postman. The next little boy said, Im Andy and my Dad is a mechanic. It was then little Johnnys turn and he said My name is Johnny and my father is a striptease dancer in a cabaret for gay men. The teacher gasped and quickly moved on, but later, in the school yard, the teacher approaches Johnny privately and asks if it was really true that his Dad dances nude in a gay bar. Little Johnny blushed and said, Nah, hes actually an auditor for Arthur Andersen but I was just too embarrassed to say.
(e-mail sent by a former student)

VOCABULARY BUILD UP Some words have been removed from the minitexts that follow. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts. Mini text: International trade primary finance exchange boundaries share political outsourcing throughout

International trade is the __________ (1) of goods and services across international ____________ (2). In most countries, it represents a significant ____________ (3) of GDP. While international trade has been present ____________ (4) much of history, its economic, social, and ___________ (5) importance have been on the rise in recent centuries. Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and ___________ (6) are all having a major impact. Increasing international trade is the usually ____________ (7) meaning of "globalization". International trade is also a branch of economics, which, together with international ___________ (8), forms the larger branch of international economics. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-12-

VOCABULARY BUILD UP COMMERCIAL BANKS Complete the text with each of the words on the right. Commercial banks are designed to make a ................. (1) for their ................. (2). They receive money in the form of ............... (3), savings or repayments from the public, they lend it at interest to ................. (4). Profit is made primarily from ............... (5). Obviously, banks do not keep most of the money they receive; indeed, a bank will have on hand only enough to pay those ................... (6) who want to withdraw their money on a given day. A modern bank usually needs no more than 2% of its money in ................ (7) Yet law requires this same bank to deposit a sixth or seventh of its ................. (8) in non-earning funds with the Federal Reserve Bank in its district. To insure additional protection against a run in which ...................... (9) would exceed deposits, most banks buy government ........................ (10) called notes or certificates. These are short-term notes of from 90 days to one year. Reasons for owning bonds, whether short or long-term, are : a) they can be converted to cash quickly, thus providing .................. (11), b) they provide an ................... (12), and they are a hedge against the changing value of .................... (13) . If a bank really needs only a 2 percent reserve, why then does the Federal Reserve System require 15 or 20 percent reserve? The main purpose is not for .. (14) of the deposits but to control the .............. (15) of money member banks can create. (Excerpt from An Outline of American Economy, ps.85/86, USIA, 1986) a.- borrowers b.- profit c.- stockholders d.- deposits e.- interest _____________ f.- cash g.- customers h.- bonds i.- withdrawals j.- resources ______________ k.- assets l.- amount m.- liquidity n.- income o.- safety

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-13-

VOCABULARY BUILD UP MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY Eight words have been removed from the passage above. Choose the options that best complete it. We have seen that through its monetary policies government can try to control money to __________ (1) inflation, fight depressions, and provide full __________. (2). By trying to control the amount of money in circulation, the government influences the __________ (3) of investment, savings, and expenditures that takes place in the economy. However, as part of its fiscal policy, the government can, if it so chooses, also expand or __________ (4) its own expenditures. It can build or __________ (5) from building highways, military aircraft, schools, or a hundred other things for which it spends money. Because the government spends between 20 percent and 25 percent of the total Gross National Product __________ (6) goods and services (excluding transfer payments), this spending or restraint will have a major effect on the condition of the economy. When the government increases its level of spending, without __________ (7) taxes, it is pumping more money into the economy. During sluggish periods, this process can serve to __________ (8) up the economy, cause new investment, and create jobs. On the other hand, too much stimulus can aggravate inflation. (From An Outline of American Economy, p 92, USIA) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a) curb a) employed a) number a) detract a) refrain a) at a) risen a) heat b) balance b) employees b) slice b) subtract b) retain b) for b) raising b) heighten c) project c) employers c) amount c) contract c) contain c) in c) rising c) hotter d) cut d) employment d) mixture d) retract d) maintain d) on d) raised d) hurry

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-14-

ESAF / AFTN-98 Read the text below in order to answer questions 1 to 3. Tax Audits Although only about one out of every 100 individual tax returns will be audited in 1998, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is very good at selecting returns for audit that will yield additional taxes. Nevertheless, if your return is selected, it does not necessarily mean you will incur any additional tax liability. If you do not agree with the examiners report, you can meet with the examiners supervisor to discuss your case further. If you still do not agree, you have the right to appeal the findings through a separate Appeals Office. You can also appeal to the U.S. Tax Court. 1. a) b) c) d) e) 2. a) b) c) d) e) 3. a) b) c) d) e) The author states that the examiners report might be dishonest. unofficial. questioned. irrevocable. ambiguous. According to the text, when you meet the examiners supervisor the two of you must reach a final agreement. you wish to discuss the examiners liability. you have already accepted the examiners report. additional taxes are charged. you intend to discuss the examiners report in more detail. The text implies that Audits rarely result in additional charges. Additional taxes may be charged. Additional taxes must not be adopted. Audits are an unnecessary practice. Audits will soon be abolished.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-15-

Vocabulary Pre-Test Text 1 1. indstria, companhia manufatureira // 2. cuidado pessoal // 3. uma nova campanha // 4. a nova logomarca // 5. uma parte integrante // 6. a embalagem dos produtos da companhia // 7. os diferentes cones // 8. os benefcios ao consumidor // 9. uma vantagem competitiva // 10. a poltica futura da companhia. Warm Up For The Mock Test 1. B // 2. A // 3. D // 4. E // 5. C Vocabulary Pre-Test Text 2 a. 7 // b. 6 // c. 8 // d. 5 // e. 9 // f. 10 // g. 1 // h. 2 // i. 3 // j. 4 Exploiting Text 2 Past simple: was (L-7), began (L-6), arrived (L-17), saw (L-18) Present simple: take (L-1), spread out (L-9), point out (L-12), recalls (L-19), boasts (L-19). Future simple: will find (L-5) Collocations Adj +noun : historic past, booming agribusiness town, common filling station, stunted growth, dust-covered savanna, small city, growing population, local entrepreneur, modern architecture, noun + noun: cotton fields, world markets, gas station, truck stop paraphrasing: Primavera do Leste was founded 17 years ago translation: earning millions of dollars in world markets ( =- rendendo,
gerando milhes de dlares nos mercaados mundiais)

True or False? a. (T) // b. (T) // c. (T) // d. (F) // e. (T) Rise & Fall Meaning rise: advance, be firm, be strong, jump, leap, rocket Meaning fall: be weak, dip, drift, drop, ease, plummet, plunge, sink, slip, slump, tumble Meaning to rise after falling: rally, rebound, recover, revive

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

Vocabulary build up: mini- text 1. exchange // 2. boundaries // 3. share // 4. throughout // 5. political // 6. outsourcing // 7. primary // 8. finance Commercial Banks 1. B // 2. C // 3. D // 4. A // 5. C // 6. G // 7. F // 8. J // 9. I // 10. H // 11. M // 12. N // 13. K // 14. O // 15. L MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY 1. a // 2. d // 3. c // 4. c // 5. a // 6. d // 7. b // 8. a Perfect Modals -IS1: I painted the door of my garage all by myself. S2: I could have helped you. (it indicates a possibility that existed in the past: Had you asked me I could have helped you) -IIS1: Jill failed to pass her exam. S2: She should have studied harder. (it was her obligation, she was supposed to study, but she didnt.) Note: Ought to have studied might have been used in the above example. -IIIS1: Debbys room lights are out. S2: She must have gone to sleep already. (that is the most logical conclusion you draw) -IVS1: Have you seen Diamonds are Forever? S2: If its a 007 movie, I must have seen it (S2 most probably is a James Bond fan and has seen all his movies.) -VS1: Did it rain last night? S2: It may have rained. (it indicates a past possibility; might have rained would show a remoter possibility) -VIS1: Has Janet called yet? S2: Not yet. Im afraid we will have left for Canada when she does. [future perfect tense (by the time she calls they wont be there to answer the phone.)]
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Affixes Ensemble I1. misunderstanding // 2. superiority // 3. aggressiveness // 4. brotherhood // 5. childish II 1. UNfortunate // 2. INfrequent // 3. IMprecise // 4. NON-violent // 5. ILlegible // 6. IRregular A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS ESAF / AFTN-98 1. C // 2. E // 3. B Vocabulary Post-test (Tax Audits) A 1. Internal Revenue Service 2. selecting returns for audit 3. yield additional taxes 4. incur any additional tax liability 5. to appeal the findings through 6. a separate Appeals Office a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( B ) produzir tributos adicionais ) recorrer dos clculos atravs ) um outro Conselho de Recursos ) alguma vegetao rasteira ) ser obrigado a novos impostos ) escolher declaraes p/ auditar

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 7

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Warm up for the Mock Test


Aquecimento para o teste simulado

Reading Comprehension: Unilevers text Multiple-choice


Compreenso de Leitura: Texto da Unilever mltipla escolha

III Study of text 2: Primavera do Leste // True or False?


Estudo do texto1: Primavera do Leste /// Quests de Falso / Verdadeiro

IV V-

Word Forms Suffix EST / superlatives


Formao de Palavras sufixo EST formador dos superlativos

Confusable Words: Economic/ Economical // Further / farther // founded / funded / found // amount / number
Palavras que confundem: economic /economical // further / farther // founded / funded / found // amount / number

VI -

Perfect Modals // Task


Os verbos modais perfeitos // Exerccio

VII - Rise and Fall verbs


Os verbos que indicam subida e queda.

VIII Lighten up! An anecdote


Relaxe! Uma anedota

IX Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: International Trade / Commercial Banks // Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: Comrcio Internacional // Bancos Comerciais // Poltica Monetria e Fiscal

Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFTN -98- Tax Audits Anlise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFTN -98- Auditorias / Aes fiscais

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROF. CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 8 PASSIVE VOICE IN TEXTS Text 1: Social Security News Release Social Security Responds to Hurricane Katrina Agency Issues More Than 30,000 Emergency Checks to Date Social Security has moved quickly to ensure that monthly payments get to beneficiaries affected by Hurricane Katrina and that other vital Social Security services are provided, Jo Anne Barnhart, Commissioner of Social Security said today. As we have all witnessed, the Gulf Coast is coping with destruction and loss of life that is utterly unfathomable. To ensure that beneficiaries will continue to receive their monthly Social Security and Supplemental Security Income payments, I have invoked immediate payment procedures that permit on-the-spot payments to be made to anyone who can no longer access their benefit check. I am pleased to report that, so far, Social Security has issued more than 30,000 immediate payments and that number continues to grow. Since September 1st , Social Security has provided immediate payments to evacuees who are not able to receive their monthly benefits, whether by mail or direct deposit. Beneficiaries can go to any open Social Security office and receive an immediate payment by check that replaces the full amount of their Social Security or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payment. In addition, Social Security is providing immediate payments and other vital services to the affected areas and to evacuees in other locations through a variety of means: A temporary office has been opened in the Houston Astrodome and is providing service seven days a week. Social Security representatives are serving the public at evacuation centers throughout the U.S., such as the Baton Rouge River Center. Social Security employees are onsite at FEMAs Family Assistance Centers, such as the FEMA site in Ocean Springs, Mississippi. We anticipate having representatives onsite at similar centers in Pascagoula, Moss Point and Waveland, Mississippi and in Shreveport and Monroe, Louisiana. Many Social Security offices are offering extended hours of service and remained open throughout the Labor Day weekend to help evacuees. Social Security and the United States Postal Service also established temporary mail delivery stations in areas where mail service was suspended due to damage from Hurricane Katrina. Beneficiaries still remaining in those areas could pick up their checks at those locations.
Visit: www.socialsecurity.gov/emergency www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

15

20

25

30

35

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto EXPLOITATION OF TEXT 1

-2-

Copie do texto trs exemplos de construes no present perfect:


_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Translate the following fragments from text 1: to ensure that monthly payments As we have all witnessed is coping with destruction that is utterly unfathomable permit on-the-spot payments through a variety of means having representatives onsite due to damage from Hurricane could pick up their checks Reading Comprehension Questions Say (T)for true or (F) for false 1. The phrase In addition (L-19) is a synonym of Besides as a discourse marker. ( ) 2. In the fragment I am pleased to report that, so far, Social Security has issued more than 30,000 immediate payments (L-10/11), the underline phrase in bold means up to this moment. ( ) 3. Such as (L-25) is a transitional phrase, or a discourse marker if you wish, commonly used to indicate result. ( ). 4. In Many remained open throughout the Labor Day weekend to help evacuees (L-30 / 31) the underlined word in bold could be replaced by across . ( ) 5. In where mail service was suspended due to damage from Hurricane Katrina. (L-33/34) The underlined phrase in bold could be replaced by because of. ( )

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto WORD FORMS - TEXT 1

-3-

From Text 1: vital services to the affected areas and to evacuees in other locations (L-20) The suffix -EE No texto, evacuees corresponde aqueles que esto sendo evacuados os desabrigados por causa da destruio provocada pelo Furaco Katrina. Certamente voc conhece o sufixo EE em trainee (=estagirio) acrescentado ao ver to train para formar o substantivo Vejamos alguns outros exemplos Not many people attended the session. There were not many attendees.
No havia muita pessoas assistindo sesso. No havia muitos presentes.

The interviewees on Jos show tomorrow are interesting.


Os entrevistados do Programa do J de amanh so interessantes.

That girl is the employee who has just been hired.


Aquela garota a nova funcionria que acaba de ser contratada. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formao quando encontr-las em suas leituras.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto PASSIVE VOICE

-4-

From text 1 ...and that other vital Social Security services are provided (L-5) I am pleased to report that (L-10) A temporary office has been opened in the Houston Astrodome in areas where mail service was suspended (L-33) Na formao da passive voice h uma regra de ouro a golden rule para a maioria dos casos: o verbo to be fica no mesmo tempo do verbo principal na voz ativa plus particpio passado do verbo principal. Main verb in bold in the Present Simple AV: They speak English in that country.
Falam ingles naquele pas.

PV: English is spoken in that country.


O ingles falado naquele pas]

Main verb inbold in the Present Continuous AV: They are building a new school there.
Esto construindo uma nova escola l.

PV: A new school is being built on my school. .


Uma nova escola est sendo construda l.

Main verb in bold in the Past Simple AV: The hurricane destroyed the village.
O furaco destruiu a aldeia.

PV: The village was destroyed by the hurricane.


A aldeia foi destruda pelo furaco

Main verb in the Past Continuous AV: Thieves were robbing the bank.
Ladres estavam roubando o banco.

PV: The bank was being robbed by thieves.


O banco estava sendo roubado.

Main verb in bold in the Future Simple AV: We will send you the receipt by mail.
Enviaremos o recibo para voc por correspondncia.

PV: You will be sent the receipt by mail.


O recibo ser enviado para voc por correspondncia.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

Main verb in bold in the Present Perfect Simple AV: I have done the translation already.
J fiz a traduo.

PV: The translation has been done already.


A traduo j foi feita.

Modal verb + infinitive of main verb AV: You must do your homework immediately.
Voc tem que fazer seu dever de casa imediatamente.

PV: Your homework must be done immediately.


Seu dever de casa deve ser feito imediatamente. .

Com exceo de alguns casos especiais (verbos com dupla formao, por exemplo) possvel buscar facilmente o equivalente em portugus para uma estrutura na voz passiva. Faa os exerccios a seguir: Coloque na voz passiva: 1. The hunter killed the lion. ________________________ 2. Terrorists have destroyed the bridge. ________________________________ 3. She will write a letter to her boyfriend. __________________________________ 4. The auditors are inspecting the books. __________________________________ 5. They can transfer the money to a savings account. ____________________________________________ 6. Karen must type that report. _______________________________________ 7. Millions of soccer fans will see the final game tomorrow. ________________________________________________ 8. My students have studied this grammar topic already. ___________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

Complete com estruturas na voz ativa. 1. The plan has been implemented successfully. They _______________________________ 2. They were told to leave the room. We _________________________ 3. The building will be constructed in six months. They _________________________________ 4. She is being treated by Dr. Shelby. Dr. Shelby _______________________________ 5. His lessons should be reviewed before the test. He ________________________________________ 6. The game will not be broadcast live by any TV network. No TV network _______________________________________ 7. Einstein was thought to be a genius. People_____________________________________ 8. Announcements have been made over the loudspeakers. They _______________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP BANKING TERMINOLOGY

-7-

Complete the sentences with one of the words from the box. access amount withdraw shares block tax. attorney interest notice checking entitles bonds

1. With a account, your money is immediately available. 2. I can only invest a small ..at long-term. 3. I'll need $5,000 available at short notice, and I can the rest. 4. A current account you to a checkbook. 5. I'd like to have .to $50,000 in about 3 years. 6. The ..on a current account is only 1%. 7. I'd like to invest part of my capital in . 8. A deposit account limits the amount you can at any one time. 9. are a long-term investment. 10. If you give your wife power of., she can withdraw money from your account. 11. Id like 10,000 available at short.. . 12. Our deposit accounts pay 3% interest, less .. .

(Adapted From English for International Banking, by Nicolas Ferguson and Maire OReilly)
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD-UP

-8-

Ten words have been removed from the minitext that follows. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts. Mini - text: Social Security & Hurricane Katrina affected expedited heartbreaking identification eligible remains ensure copes assistance verifying

Social Security is working with federal, state and local officials in ___________ (1) areas to assist families who may now be ___________ (2) for Social Security benefits. Emergency procedures have been implemented that will allow ___________ (3) processing of applications for survivors benefits or other Social Security benefits. For evacuees who have lost their ___________ (4) documents, Social Security has put in place a simplified protocol for ___________ (5) identity to provide them with the Social Security information they need to apply for jobs or ___________ (6) from other agencies. I am proud of the hard working and dedicated Social Security employees who are doing everything possible to ___________ (7) beneficiaries continue to receive their monthly payments, Commissioner Barnhart said. Over the past several days I have heard ___________ (8) stories from our employees, some of whom have lost their own homes. Yet, through all of this, their spirit and compassion ___________ (9) strong. I can assure those affected that we will continue to be there to serve them as our nation ___________ (10) with the devastation left in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
Visit: www.socialsecurity.gov/emergency

Vocabulary Post Test Escreva a traduo em B dos fragmentos em A A 1. to assist families 2. Emergency procedures 3. processing of applications 4. to apply for jobs 5. Yet, through all of this 6. in the wake of B

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP! GRATITUDE

-9-

A woman visits the doctor who had cured her son of a very serious illness. She is very grateful and wants to thank him. "Doctor," says she, "there are some things we cant pay for. I thought that you would want to accept this wallet which I made for you with my own hands." "Madam," answered the doctor rudely." I don't practice medicine for sentimental reasons. You must pay me in money. Your bill is two thousand dollars." The lady opened the wallet, took out the five thousand dollars she had put in it and gave the doctor two thousand. (Adapted from English Language Skills by
Finocchiaro and Lavenda}

Answer the following questions: 1. Why did the woman go to the doctors?
_________________________________________________________________________

2. How did the woman feel about the doctors performance?


_________________________________________________________________________

3. Who had made the wallet?


_________________________________________________________________________

4. Why did the doctor answer rudely?


_________________________________________________________________________

5. How could you complete this sentence with only one word: Two thousand dollars is my .
_________________________________________________________________________

6. Actually, did the woman intend to pay the bill?


_________________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

-10-

Read the text in order to answer the questions below THE EURO The Euro is the European Unions single currency, adopted by the Treaty on European Union which came into force in November 1993. The name Euro was preferred to any other as its shared identity with Europe is clear. Besides, the name cannot be confused with any existing or previous national currency. Economic and Monetary Unit is essential for the efficient functioning of the single European market. EU members do more than 70% of their trade with each other and will do even more with a single stable currency. As a stable currency, the Euro will help to create a stronger economy capable of growing at a faster rate. Faster growth is needed to put more people back to work and achieve a rising standard of living for individuals and families. The Euro will bring real practical benefits as it will be a lot easier to compare prices for the same goods in different countries. In addition, business organizations will no longer have the expenses of handling several different currencies, cutting down the cost of doing business. Though without the Euro bills and coins, the monetary union can start on 1 January1999. Because a lot of economic activities are done without cash, many transactions can be made and sealed in the Euro before I January 2002, when the Euro bills and coins will start circulating. But any existing and previous national currency will still be in use for up to six months after that. (Compiled from: Talking about the Euro [UFC-97] 1) The sentence, Any reduction in costs can make a company more competitive and frequently able to pass on the benefits to its customers. was deliberately omitted from the text. Find the most appropriate place in the second paragraph to insert it: a) after stable currency (L- 7) b) after faster rate (L- 9) c) after individuals and families (L- 10) d) after different countries (L- 12) e) after doing business (L- 14)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 2.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

a) b) c) d) e) 3.

Mark the option that is equivalent in meaning to: Besides, the name cannot be confused with any existing or previous national currency. As the name cannot be confused with any existing currency. Though the name cannot be confused with any existing currency. In addition, the name cannot be confused with any existing currency. However, the name cannot be confused with any existing currency. Since the name cannot be confused with any existing currency. Mark the option that best completes the sentence: The adoption of the Euro will help ___________________________ and ____________________________. to develop the European economy// to promote competition among families to establish a stable currency // to promote European individuals. to rise expenses for individuals // to create a strong economy. to increase trade among EU members // to create more job openings to raise expenses for families // to promote the European economic growth.

a) b) c) d) e)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-12-

WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) Reproduzo este antigo texto aqui para chamar sua ateno para as diversas passive voice constructions nele sublinhadas. Read the text in order to answer the questions below Following World War II, the major economic powers of the world negotiated a set of rules for reducing and limiting trade barriers and for settling trade disputes. These rules were called the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Headquarters to oversee the administration of the GATT were established in Geneva, Switzerland. Periodically rounds of multilateral trade negotiations under the GATT were carried out. The 8th round begun in 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay, and dubbed the Uruguay Round, was concluded on Dec.15, 1993, when 117 countries completed a new trade-liberalization agreement. The-name for the GATT was changed to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which officially came into being Jan. l, 1995. (ACE- 98) 1. According to the text, the former GATT comprised a) tariff rules established by third world countries. b) trade regulations created prior to World War II. c) rules forbidding trade barriers and disputes. d) trade rules adopted in Uruguay in 1986. e) regulations related to trade issues. 2. Which of the following statements does not reflect the content of the text? a) The GATT members used to gather from time to time. b) 117 countries signed a new trade agreement. c) The World Trade Organization (WTO) used to be called GATT d) A new trade agreement may be signed by 117 countries. e) Reducing trade barriers was one of tie main concerns of the GATT.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-13-

Present Perfect items Quaisquer trs dentre os seguintes: has moved (L-3), have all witnessed (L-6), I have invoked (L-9), has issued ( L-12), has provided (L-14) Translation: to ensure that monthly payments As we have all witnessed is coping with destruction that is utterly unfathomable permit on-the-spot payments through a variety of means having representatives onsite due to damage from Hurricane K. could pick up their checks Say (T)for true or (F) for false 1. ( T ) In addition and Besides are synonyms. 2. ( T ) so far and up to this moment are synonyms. 3. ( F ) Such as commonly indicates or introduces exemplification not result. 4. ( F ) throughout ( all the time, during) could not be replaced by across here. 5. ( T ) due to could be replaced by because of in this case. Passive Voice: 1. The lion was killed by the hunter. 2. The bridge has been destroyed by terrorists. 3. A letter will be written to her boyfriend.
Para garantir pagamentos mensais Como todos ns testemunhamos Est enfrentando a destruio que totalmente insondvel Permite pagamentos no local Atravs de uma gama de meios Tendo representantes no local Devido perda causa p/ Furaco K Podiam apanhar seus cheques

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-14-

4. The books are being inspected by the auditors. 5. The money can be transferred to a savings account. 6. That report must be typed by Karen. 7. The final game Millions of soccer fans will be seen by millions of soccer fans tomorrow. 8. This grammar topic has been studied by my students already. Active voice. 1. They have implemented the plan successfully 2. We told them to leave the room. 3. They will construct the building in six months 4. Dr. Shelby is treating her. 5. He should review his lessons before the test. 6. No TV network will broadcast the game live. 7. People thought Einstein was a genius. 8. They have made announcements over the loudspeaker. LIGHTEN UP! Gratitude 1. Because he had cured her son of a serious illness. 2. She felt very grateful. 3. She had made the wallet all by herself. 4. Because he thought only the wallet would be his payment. 5. Two thousand dollar is my FEE (=honorrios) 6. She was ready to pay him three thousand dollars more than his regular fee.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

Banking Terminology 1. [checking] Com uma conta corrente seu dinheiro est imediatamente disponvel. 2. [amount] S posso investir uma pequena quantia a longo prazo. 3. [checking] Vou precisar de $5,000 a curto prazo, e posso bloquear o restante. 4. [entitles] Uma conta corrente lhe d direito a um talo de cheques. 5. [access] Gostaria de ter acesso a $50,000 em cerca de 3 anos. 6. [interest] Os juros de uma conta corrente so de 1% apenas. 7. [shares] Gostaria de investir parte do meu capital em aes. 8. [withdraw] Uma conta de depsito limita o montante que voc pode sacar a cada vez. 9. [bonds] Os ttulos so investimentos de longo prazo. 10. [attorney] Se voc der a sua esposa uma procurao ela poder retirar dinheiro de sua conta. 11. [notice] Gostaria de ter $10,000 disponibilizados de imediato. 12. [ tax ] Nossas contas de depsito rendem 3% menos imposto. NB: O termo checking account (= conta corrente) mais comum no US, enquanto que current account mais comum no UK. Mini-Text 1. affected // 2. eligible // 3. expedite // 4. identification // 5. verifying // 6. assistance // 7. ensure // 8. heartbreaking // 9. remain // 10. copes. Vocabulary Post Test A 1. to assist families 2. Emergency procedures 3. processing of applications 4. to apply for jobs 5. Yet, through all of this 6. in the wake of B ajudar as famlias procedimentos de emergncia processamento das requisies candidatar-se a empregos Contudo, em meio a tudo isso na esteira de

A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS THE EURO 1. E // 2. C // 3. D WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)

1. E // 2. D

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

GRAMMAR SUPPLEMENTS MODAL VERBS I - CAN / COULD / CAN HAVE / COULD HAVE a) Can or Could Usado para pedir e conceder permisso, uso mais informal que may Can I leave a little earlier today, Mr. Evans? May I leave can be used, too - but its more formal Could I use your car tonight? You can go upstairs now. b) Can or Could Para expressar habilidade. She can play the flute very well.
Ela sabe tocar flauta bem.

Can you play soccer?


Voc sabe jogar futebol?

I could play chess quite well when I was in College.


Eu sabia jogar xadrez bastante bem quando estava na faculdade.

c) can or one form of be able to Para expressar aes futuras. I dont speak English fluently but I will be able to soon.
Eu no falo ingls fluentemente, mas em breve falarei (serei capaz de faz-lo)

I can help you with the dishes tonight, but tomorrow I wont be able to help you with the kids because I have an exam at the university.
Posso ajud-lo com os pratos hoje noite mas amanh no poderei dar uma ajuda com as crianas porque tenho uma prova na universidade.

d) can have / could have Usado para expressar possibilidade no passado. That desk wasnt here yesterday. Well, the janitor can have (could have moved it during the night.
Esta carteira no estava aqui ontem. Bem, o zelador pode/ poderia t-la movido durante a noite.

If you had phoned me, I could have dropped by to help you out.
Se voc tivesse me telefonado, eu poderia ter ido a para lhe ajudar.

I was just wondering what can/could have happened to my pens.


Estava s imaginando o que pode/ poderia ter acontecido com minhas canetas.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Ii - MUST / HAVE TO / MUST HAVE a) Must and have to Usados para expressar algo que indispensvel que se faa. I must (have to) leave early today.
Tenho que sair cedo hoje.

Must you leave us so soon?


Voc tem que partir to cedo?

Do you have to leave now?


Voc tem que ir agora?

b) Must and have to in negative statements. Ateno! No se pode usar um pelo outro You must not enter that area. The sign says: Authorized Personnel only. must not indicates prohibition)
Voc no pode entrar naquela rea. A placa diz: Somente Pessoal Autorizado!

A forma must not aqui indica proibio) You dont have to come with us if you dont want to. Here dont have to indicates lack of necessity
Voc no precisa vir conosco se no quiser.

Aqui dont have to indica que no h necessidade. c) must Tambm pode ser usado para tirar concluses lgicas. Look! The lights in Ginas room are on. So she must be awake.
Veja! As luzes no quarto da Gina esto acesas. Logo ela deve estar acordada.

I cant see Bobs car in the garage. He must be at work downtown.


No vejo o carro do Bob na garagem. Ele deve testar no trabalho na cidade.

d)must have + past participle of main verb Usado para expressar probabilidade no passado I cant see Bobs car in the garage. He must have left for work already.
No vejo o carro do Bob na garagem. Ele j deve ter sado pro trabalho.

Look how tanned Linda is ! She must have stayed a long time in the sun.
Veja com a Linda est bronzeada! Ela dever ficado no sol um tempo.

NB: In the negative cant have + past part. of main verb should be used. Bobs car is still in the garage. He cant have left for work yet.
O carro do Bob ainda est na garagem. Ele no deve ter sado pro trabalho ainda. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

III -- MAY / MIGHT / MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE a) may and might So usados para expressar probabilidade. Jones may (might) be promoted this time.
Jones pode (podia) ser promovido desta vez.

One may (might) say that she was enjoying the whole thing.
Algum pode (podia ) dizer que ela estava gostando daquilo tudo.

It may( might )be said that English is basically a monosyllabic language.


Pode (Podia) ser dito que o ingls uma lngua monossilbica.

b) may (might)

(usados para expressar contraste)

She may (might) like mangoes, but she shouldnt eat a dozen of them.
Ela pode (podia) gostar de mangas, mas no deve comer uma dzia delas.

c) may / might have + past participle of main verb (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado) While some of the girls may have been acting, many responsible adults were victims of the killer virus.
Enquanto algumas da meninas podem ter fingido, muitos adultos foram vtimas do vrus assassino.

The police believe Derrick may have killed his wife.


A polcia acredita que Derrick pode ter assassinado sua esposa.

If you had invited Jane to the party, she might have shown up.
Se voc tivesse convidado a Jane para a festa, ela podia ter aparecido por l.

Joshua might not have left if you had been more polite to him.
Joshua poderia no ter ido embora se voc tivesse sido mais educado com ele.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

IV - SHALL / SHOULD / SHOULD HAVE a) should (ought to) Usados para indicar algo que aconselhvel fazer. You should see your dentist twice a year.
Voc deve consultar seu dentista duas vezes por ano.

She shouldnt smoke so much, in my opinion.


Ela no devia fumar tanto na minha opinio.

We ought to review our lessons before the exam.


Devemos revisar nossas lies antes do exame.

b) Should have and ought to have Usados para expressar aes que se esperava acontecessem no passado mas que no aconteceram. My secretary is late for work today. She should have (or ought to have) gotten here half an hour ago.
Minha secretria est atrasada para o trabalho hoje. Ela j deveria ter chegado h meia hora.

Shouldnt they have finished their lessons by now?


Eles / Elas no deviam ter terminado suas lies j?

HAD BETTER Just like should and ought to the expression had better - considered by some grammarians as a quasi-modal- can also be used to give advice. Had better is followed by the infinitive without to. You had better study for the test; otherwise you wont succeed.
Voc deveria estudar para o teste, do contrrio no ter sucesso.

We had better not talk to Mr. Simpson now. Hes not in a good mood today.
melhor no falarmos com o Sr. Simpson agora. Ele no est de bom humor hoje.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto V - WOULD / WOULD HAVE

-20-

a) Would Gramaticalmente, o passado de will Numa estrutura em discurso indireto, reported speech, isto fica bem claro. Jeff : I will visit you next month.
Jeff: - Eu visitarei voc no ms que vem.

Jeff said he would visit us next month.


Jeff disse que nos visitaria no prximo ms.

b) would Usado com aes repetidas no passado. Every Sunday we would visit our parents when they lived here in Rio.
Todos os domingos visitvamos nossos pais quando moravam aqui no Rio.

Mrs. Hill would say softly, You can do it. Have confidence in you.
A Sra. Hill dizia suavemente: -Vocs podem faz-lo. Tenham confiana em vocs.

NB:A expresso used to deve ser empregada quando nos referimos a aes em continuidade no passado. Our family used to live in the north of Brazil before Dad got transferred to Rio.
Nossa famlia morava no norte do Brasil antes de meu pai se transferido para o Rio.

My uncle used to sell electronic gadgets to make a living.


Meu tio costumava vender engenhocas eletrnicas para ganhar a vida.

c) would have +past participle of main verb in if-clauses (past unreal situations) We would have visited you but we didnt know where you lived.
Nos teramos visitado voc, mas no sabamos onde voc morava.

I would have invited you to the party if I had known you were in town.
Teria convidado voc para a festa se tivesse sabido que voc estava na cidade.

You would have met Alice if you had gone to the show.
Voc teria encontrado a Alice se tivesse ido ao show.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 8

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-21-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Passive Voice in texts


Voz passiva nos textos

Study of text 1: Social Security Hurricane Katrina


Estudo do texto1:Previdncia Social / Furaco Katrina

III Reading Comprehension: (T) or (F) questions


Compreenso de Leitura: Questes de Falso ou Verdadeiro?

IV VVI

Word Forms the suffix EE


Formao de Palavras: o sufixo EE

Passive Voice Summary // Task


Resumo de Voz Passiva // Exerccio

Lighten up! Gratitude


Relaxe! Gratido

VII Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: terminology // Social Security & Hurricane Katrina (II)

Banking

Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: Termos Bancrios // Previdncia Social & Furaco Katrina

VIII Analysis of past exams: The Euro / WTO


Anlise de provas anteriores: Euro // OMC

IX

Supplement: Modal Verbs all together


Suplemento: Os verbos modais todos juntos

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 9 LOOKING BACK ON PREVIOUS LESSONS


U.S. Wants WTO Ministerial Meeting After Session in Hong Kong

10

15

20

25

30

Washington - U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman is urging countries to advance the long-stalled World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations at the December Hong Kong ministerial meeting and asserted that trade ministers should meet again soon after to keep the negotiations on track. "I believe we ought to have another meeting," Portman said November 22 at a press conference in Geneva. "Without a meeting, without setting up sort of a backstop, its tough to make progress We need to continue to push, keep the pressure on, to meet the end of 2006 deadline." Portman made the comments after meeting with ministers from Brazil, the European Union (EU), India and Japan. Launched in 2001 and stalled almost from the start over politically difficult agricultural trade issues, the negotiations, formally called the Doha Development Agenda, were originally scheduled to conclude in 2005. Since then, participants have pressed for conclusion by December 2006, which would give the United States time to submit any agreement to Congress before the presidents negotiating authority, called trade promotion authority or fast track, expires in mid-2007. When the United States submitted an agriculture proposal October 10 to substantially reduce domestic support payments to farmers and tariffs, Portman said the aim was to revive chances for the December 13-18 Hong Kong meeting to set the modalities -- the details and deadlines -- necessary for concluding the negotiations a year later. That aim was frustrated, however, when a subsequent EU agriculture proposal was found by other participants to offer no real increased market access. Outside the EU, food-importing developed countries and major developing countries issued statements rejecting market-opening concessions. Still, at the November 22 press conference Portman said that, although the Hong Kong ministerial will not establish modalities, the United States remains committed to concluding an agreement with real substance. "While expectations for Hong Kong have been lowered, and while Hong Kong will not be all we had hoped it would be," he said, "the U.S. continues to have very high expectations." (By Bruce Odessey Washington File Staff Writer) Visit http://usinfo.state.gov

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

Pre-testing Vocabulary No quadro seguinte voc encontra transparent words associadas a outras no to evidentes. Faa o skimming do texto e, sem dicionrio, tente traduzi-las. A 1. the long-stalled negotiations 2. keep the negotiations on track 3. setting up sort of a backstop 4. committed to concluding an agreement 5. expectations have been lowered B ) instalar um tipo de proteo ) comprometidos em fechar o acordo ) as expectativas diminuram ) negociaes h muito emperradas ) manter as negociaes nos eixos

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Escreva um exemplo retirado do text 1 nos Verb tenses below: Present continuous ____________________________________________ Present simple _________________________________________________ Past simple ___________________________________________________ Present perfect _________________________________________________ Future Simple __________________________________________________ Past perfect ____________________________________________________

2. Escreva dois exemplos de construes na voz passive: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

3. Como voc traduz a expresso em negrito no seguinte fragmento do texto?: the United States remains committed to concluding an agreement with real substance (L- 28/29) ________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

Reading Comprehension Answer in Portuguese: 1. Aps reunir-se com representantes do Brasil, da Europa do Japo por que Rob Portman sugere uma nova reunio aps Hong Kong?
_________________________________________________________________________

2. Porque motivo as negociaes sobre comrcio travaram logo depois de seu incio em 2001?
_________________________________________________________________________

3. Quais os motivos que reduzem consideravelmente as chances de sucesso da reunio dos ministros do comrcio em Hong Kong?
_________________________________________________________________________

4. A expresso Since then (L 14) est usada no texto para indicar o qu?
_________________________________________________________________________

5. Que idia indica a palavra still (L-27) como marcadora do discurso?


_________________________________________________________________________

6. Que idia indica a palavra while (L-30) como marcadora do discurso?


_________________________________________________________________________

7. possvel parafrasear o fragmento the long-stalled WTO negotiations (L-2) da seguinte forma: The WTO negotiations that have not advanced for a long time. True ( ) or False ( )?

8. In "I believe we ought to have another meeting," (L-5) o modal verb ought to pode ser substitudo por should sem prejuzo do sentido. True ( ) or False ( )?

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-4-

WORD FORMS: PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES fundamental que voc acredite no estudo que vem realizando. Se voc chega AULA 9 de um curso programado para dez aulas e no capaz de pr em prtica os ensinamentos ministrados, de duas uma: ou no est estudando suficientemente ou ao professor falta demonstrar o encadeamento didtico do material apresentado. Well (faltava um well), desta vez vamos fazer um verdadeiro affix rally juntar prefixos e sufixos num estudo abrangente. No final desta aula disponibilizamos uma coletnea com os principais AFFIXES para sua referncia. No deixe de estud-los para o simulado que vamos propor aps a AULA 10. Com o propsito de lhes dar maior confiana neste estudo vamos repassar vrios exemplos de palavras com formao prefixal e sufixal no texto 1. First, em ministerial meeting, a reunio dos trade ministers (=ministros do comrcio), evidentemente ministerial pertence famlia da palavra minister e voc chega ao significado em portugus com facilidade. Em WTO negotiations (= negociaes da OMC) o substantivo negotiations pertence famlia do verbo regular negotiate, do adjetivo negotiable, ou do seu antnimo non-negotable, e vai por a. Em press conference (= conferncia de imprensa), conference substantivo derivado do verbo regular confer. Na expresso keep the pressure on (=manter a presso sobre) voc tem o substantivo pressure, da mesma famlia do verbo regular press (= pressionar) e do substantivo press (= imprensa) supracitado. Em politically difficult =(= politicamente difceis) a esta o advrbio com a terminao mente de que tanto falamos. No fragmento participants have pressed for conclusion, o substantivo participants (= participantes) da mesma famlia do verbo regular participate, e conclusion (= concluso) da mesma famlia do verbo regular conclude. Em submit any agreement, tem-se o substantivo agreement (= acordo) formado com o acrscimo do sufixo ment ao regular verb to agree. Voc reconhece em agriculture proposal o substantive proposal (= proposta) derivado de o regular verb to propose? Last but not least, observe em expectations lowered, ambas as palavras podem ser dissecadas: expectations vem do verbo expect e lowered, particpio passado do verbo to lower (= diminuir). Como voc percebe os prefixos e sufixos aparecem dezenas de vezes em textos de todas as espcies. Familiarize-se sempre mais com eles e sua leitura ser indubitavelmente mais fluente.Faa os exerccios que se seguem e procure traduzir as frases curtas. No final confronte seu trabalho com minha traduo.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

I - Use the prefixes in the box to complete the sentences below: ILIR IM IN UN

1. The witnesss account of the facts was rather ___-accurate. 2. Im not going to do it because its against the law. Its ___-legal. 3. We all expect judges to be ____-partial. 4. As the leader, he had to take ____-popular decisions. 5. I was drawn to the place by some kind of ____-resistible force. II - Use the prefixes in the box to complete the sentences below: MISDISNONINUN-

1. Dont cheat on the exam or youll be ___-qualified. 2. Make a decision. Why do you always have to be so ___-decisive? 3. Shes been feeling so ___-sure. 4. There must some ___-understanding. This is not what I meant. 5. Mr. Lombard said he worked for a ___-profit organization. III - Add the suffixes in the box to the nouns in parentheses. -ISH -ABLE -OUS -IC -IVE

1. Doctor Sales found out that Julia was _________ (allergy) to penicillin. 2. You have to read the _________ (class) authors. 3. Share your room with your cousin. Be less _________ (self), Gene. 4. That snake is _________ (poison). Be careful. 5. Freddys business is very _________ (profit). IV - Add the suffixes in the box to the nouns in parentheses. -FUL -IBLE -LY -AL -Y

1. Samantha has a _________ (love) child. 2. Because of Julias hypertension she cant eat _________ (salt) food. 3. We have to remain ________ (watch) so that another robbery does not happen again. 4. I hated that scene. It was _________ (horror). 5. My father loves _________ (class) music.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD UP

-6-

Para fins didticos dividi o artigo Unleashing Growth Through Sound Developing Policies (Promovendo o Crescimento atravs de Polticas de Desenvolvimento Saudveis) em dez excerpts. Como lhes disse antes este o tipo do exerccio que cada um pode preparar a seu bel prazer. Eight words have been removed from the excerpts. Complete with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the mini-texts.

Mini-text 1: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies sponsored accomplished business successful gather pledged join key

In September 2000, 189 nations agreed to ____________ (1) forces in a fight against poverty, illiteracy, hunger, lack of education, gender inequality, child and maternal mortality, disease, and environmental degradation. These countries, including the United States, __________ (2) to take bold decisions to make development a reality for all nations. On September 14, 2005, five years after that historic meeting, leaders from more than 170 nations will ____________ (3) at the United Nations in New York City to take measure of the progress made to date. While much remains to be __________ (4), the progress has been substantial. The 2000 meeting gave the political impetus for reform, but it was two years later, at the 2002 United Nations-___________ (5) International Conference on Financing for Development held in Mexico, that leaders agreed to the definitive framework for ___________ (6) development called the Monterrey Consensus. At that meeting, developing countries and donors alike, with input from civil society and the __________ (7) community, embraced good governance, domestic ownership of development strategies, trade, and private investment as ___________ (8) elements of economic growth and prosperity. (By Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt I)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

Mini-text 2: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies nearly beyond eradication mechanisms sustainable assistance corruption industrialized

In Africa, for example, many leaders are now working through the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) process, linking poverty ___________ (1) to policies that promote ___________ (2) growth and trade, good governance, and the fight against the pernicious evil of __________ (3). For its part, the United States has increased its official development assistance (ODA) even _________ (4) President Bushs 2002 Monterrey pledge. Since 2000, American assistance has __________ (5) doubled, rising from $10 billion to $19 billion in 2004. That constitutes one-quarter of the ODA from the 30 ___________ (6) member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. History has shown, however, that the amount of development __________ (7) is less important than the uses to which it is put and the implementation __________ (8) used to carry out programs. It is essential, therefore, that increases in ODA be matched by increases in effectiveness and sustainability. (By Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 2) Mini-text 3: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies sources growth assistance figures donations contributions commitment institutions

Countries that have proven their ___________ (1) to change and reform, governing justly, investing in their people, and maintaining policies and ___________ (2) that support market-led ___________ (3) will receive billions of dollars in the coming years from another of President Bush's initiatives: the Millennium Challenge Corporation. But the United States gives far more development ___________ (4) than is reflected in ODA statistics. ___________ (5) from the private sector, for example, whether corporations, private voluntary organizations, or nongovernmental organizations, are not counted as official development assistance. And yet these private ___________ (6) of capital account for a large percentage of what the people of the United States contribute to development every year. According to ___________ (7) released by the Hudson Institute, a nonpartisan policy research organization, U.S. private ___________ (8) to developing countries exceeded $62 billion in 2003. (By Andrew Natsios USAID
Administrator // Excerpt 3) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

Mini-text 4: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies relief resources partners failure development achievement further advantage

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has tried to take __________ (1) of these new sources of development assistance in recent years, joining forces with socially responsible private sector organizations in our Global Development Alliance. Since 2002, we have invested $1 billion in 290 public-private alliances in 98 countries, while our private sector _________ (2) have contributed more than $3.7 billion in total __________ (3). Too often, humanitarian ____________ (4) has been treated as if it were somehow separate from development and the ___________ (5) of the goals set forth in the 2000 Millennium Declaration. It is not. The ___________ (6) to respond to food emergencies in countries in Africa and elsewhere can only lead to ___________ (7) instability and make their ____________ (8) even more difficult. (By Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 4) Mini-text 5: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies founder conflict path totals respond separate health family

Too often, humanitarian relief has been treated as if it were somehow __________ (1) from development and the achievement of the goals set forth in the 2000 Millennium Declaration. It is not. The failure to __________ (2) to food emergencies in countries in Africa and elsewhere can only lead to further instability and make their development even more difficult. To help states caught up in crisis and _________(3) return to stability and put their economies on the _________ (4) to sustained growth, President Bush recently announced that the United States will provide an additional $674 million for humanitarian emergencies in Africa this year. This is beyond the approximately $1.4 billion already committed. As a ___________ (5) and largest donor of the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the United States also provided $459 million to the fund in 2004. The U.S. contribution for all of its HIV/AIDS programs __________ (6) more than $2.8 billion in the current fiscal year. In addition, we provide approximately $435 million annually for voluntary _________ (7) planning and maternal __________ (8) care to 60 countries. (By
Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 5)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9-

Mini-text 6: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies experience revenues considerable articulated wealth poverty mission agency

Achieving the goals __________ (1) in the Millennium Declaration is very much in the interests of the United States and central to the mission of USAID. As the first-ever bilateral development _________ (2) - and still the largest - we have had ___________ (3) stake in the process and more than 40 years of __________ (4) in what works and what does not. That is why we put so much emphasis on economic growth. Simply put: Without trade, there can be no sustained economic growth. Without economic growth, there will be no increase in tax __________ (5) to support improved public services. Without growth and services, there will be no increase in _________ (6) and reduction in ___________ (7) Unless foreign aid contributes to economic growth, it is failing to achieve its primary __________ (8). (By Andrew Natsios USAID
Administrator // Excerpt 6)

Mini-text 7: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies debt owed components liberalization forefront incomes benefit reach

There are several __________ (1) of a successful economic growth program. One of the most important, we have learned, is trade. The United States has long led the world in trade __________ (2), and USAID devotes substantial resources to helping countries participate successfully in trade negotiations and enter the World Trade Organization (WTO). Liberalizing trade laws and participating fully in the global economy does not just __________ (3) developed countries. The completion of the WTO Doha Development Round could add $200 billion annually to developing countries __________ (4) and lift more than 500 million people out of poverty. For several years, the United States has been at the __________ (5) of the movement to ease the Third Worlds __________ (6) burdens. The United States and other G8 countries have called for 100 percent cancellation of many debt obligations __________ (7) to the World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. This could result in approximately $40 billion in immediate debt relief - and it could __________ (8) more than $56 billion if all the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries become eligible. (By
Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 7)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-10-

Mini-text 8: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies mobilized immense estimates inability property borders assets tapped

Another __________ (1) source of potential revenue for the developing countries of the world lies within their own __________ (2). The report of the U.N. Commission on the Private Sector and Development - Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor - __________ (3) that developing countries have $9.4 trillion dollars in private financial __________ (4) that cannot be fully __________ (5) for development, largely because of corruption and inadequate legal protections for __________ (6) and contracts. Further, as the Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto has shown in a number of his works, the _________ (7) of millions of Third World people to capitalize on their homes and businesses due to overly rigid property and titling regulations suggests that a great reservoir of wealth remains to be __________ (8) in many developing nations. (By Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 8)

Mini-text 9: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies wealthiest consumers fostering competitive devised goals enforce confidence

A ____________ (1), well-regulated private market is indispensable because it is the most effective institution ever ____________ (2) for allocating resources efficiently, for ____________ (3) innovation, and for communicating information that helps ____________ (4) and producers make decisions. It is no coincidence that the ____________ (5) and most developed countries of the world are all free market democracies. Regulatory frameworks that build _____________ (6) in private markets, protect property, ____________ (7) contracts, and generally respect the rule of law are essential if developing nations are to achieve the ____________ (8) of the Millennium Declaration. (By
Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 9)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

Mini-text 10: Unleashing Growth through Sound Developing Policies debating choices barriers register blazed basic persistence challenge

According to a World Bank study, in one developing country, it takes 203 days to ____________ (1) a business, while in another enforcing a contract takes 1,459 days. With ____________ (2) to business formation and entrepreneurship such as these, businesses remain small and in the informal sector. There is no point in ____________ (3) whether official development assistance should be $68 billion or $100 billion or $195 billion when the most ____________ (4) policies for generating wealth are not in place. Ending poverty is a serious ____________ (5). Building effective and equitable economic institutions takes time, ____________ (6), and reform. Policies must be put in place to safeguard the most vulnerable members of society. The good news is that many countries have already ____________ (7) a trail and that the United States and the international community will help those prepared to help themselves. With the right ____________ (8), we have a good chance of reaching the goals we set for ourselves at Monterrey and in the Millennium Declaration. (By Andrew Natsios USAID Administrator // Excerpt 10)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP! I ANGUISHED LOVER

-12-

An elderly man was sitting on a park bench in tears. A police officer came up and asked him what was wrong. Im 85 years old, sobbed the man. I have a 25-year-old wife at home. She is beautiful, charming and madly in love with me. So what's the problem? I can't remember where I live!
(Tom Pennington in Louisville Courier Journal)

II - A GEM OF AN IDEA A parable told by William Cunningham, education adviser to Gov. George Deukmejian of California: A man was out walking in the desert when a voice said to him, Pick up some pebbles and put them in your pocket, and tomorrow you will he both sorry and glad. The man obeyed. He stooped down and picked up a handful of pebbles and put them in his pocket. The next morning he reached into his pocket and found diamonds and rubies and emeralds. And he was both glad and sorry. Glad that he had taken some - sorry that he hadn't taken more. And so it is with education. Which one did you like better: the old mans joke in I or the parable in II? Why?
_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto WARM UP FOR MOCK TEST

-13-

The mock test (=exame simulado) date is drawing near. Do the next questions as if they were part of your exam. Good Luck! Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 1 to 4 Meetings Fail To Advance WTO Negotiations, U.S. Officials Say Washington Decembers trade ministers meeting in Hong Kong should continue work toward consensus even though key parties have failed again to produce a framework for concluding the long-stalled World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman says. Portman and U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns said that WTO participants should keep working hard to make progress before the Hong Kong meeting. The two officials November 9 conducted a teleconference with reporters in the United States from aboard an airplane carrying them from Geneva to Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where they are scheduled to meet with subSaharan African officials to discuss cotton trade. He said the United States still intends to push hard for consensus over the coming weeks. And Johanns called premature any notion of ending the negotiations, which are formally called the Doha Development Agenda. "It would be a grave mistake to declare this round at an end at the Hong Kong meeting," Johanns said. "There is still an entire year ahead of us when we can work aggressively to have a successful Doha round, and we are committed to doing that." (By Bruce Odessey, Washington File Staff Writer)
Visit: http://usinfo.state.gov/ei/Archive/2005/Nov09-445315.html

1. a) b) c) d) e)

In relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations the author says that trade ministers will hardly reach a consensus in Hong Kong. they have not advanced for quite a while. will rely on the trade ministers consensus. depend on the production of a framework. may progress in Hong Kong at last.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 2. a) b) c) d) e) 3. a) b) c) d) e) 4. a) b) c) d) e)

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-14-

Its possible to infer as to the Doha round that it should depend on the Hong Kong meeting. might bring some progress. will fail to produce expected results. might be canceled. should be held in December 2006. The expression even though (L-2), 1st pr. indicates addition and could be replaced by moreover emphasis and could be replaced by indeed. concession and could be replaced by although. purpose and could be replaced by thus. contrast and could be replaced by nevertheless. According to the two American officials key parties wont be able to produce the appropriate framework for the Doha round of negotiations. just the Secretary of Agriculture a and a U.S. trade representative are not enough to reflect the North American policy on this issue. WTO participants should strive to make progress before the trade ministers meeting in Hong Kong. the atmosphere preceding the Hong Kong meeting is one of undeniable pessimism about reaching any consensus. demonstrated they are somewhat helpless to combat the key parties failure to work toward consensus.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-15-

Alguns comentrios antes do gabarito Se voc bom observador notou que nesta nona aula procuramos repassar variados pontos. Tenha em mente que, a no ser em textos adaptados, nenhum autor escreve um determinado essay, article ou report para que se estude o present simple, o past tense, present perfect, prepositions, passive voice, etc. O autor escreve para passar sua mensagem, para discorrer sobre determinado assunto. Como voc viu no text 1 desta aula, l esto os modal verbs pipocando aqui e ali, os verb tenses acima citados e outros, os prefixes e suffixes aparecem em profuso, os exemplos de discourse markers, e at alguns exemplos de passive voice. Devo dizer, honestamente, que no escolhi o texto inicial para demonstrar estes pontos. Actually, escolhi o text 1 porque se tratava de um desdobramento do assunto: reunio dos trade ministers em Hong Kong mesmo tpico do texto com as questes que j havia proposto num simulado aqui no RJ e que, aqui, esto funcionando como warm up para o nosso simulado depois da AULA 10. Acredito que tenha conseguido provar o meu ponto. Eu no tive que buscar desesperadamente um texto que falasse de todos os assuntos que vimos estudando; eles simplesmente estavam l. Provavelmente, ser isso que acontecer no dia da sua prova. Esses mesmos pontos fundamentais estaro l e, a, tudo vai depender de como a banca examinadora ir explor-los. Portanto, keep in mind that a probabilidade de no aparecer nenhum dos tpicos que estamos estudando zero. A no ser, claro, que voc tenha pegado a prova de espanhol por engano!

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

ANSWERS Pre-testing Vocabulary a. 3 // b. 4 // c. 5 // d. 1 // e. 2 Verb Tenses Present continuous: is urging (L-1) Present simple: We need (L-7) Past simple: Portman made (L-9), the United States submitted Present perfect: have pressed (L-14), Future simple: will not establish (L-28), Hong Kong will not be (L-32) Past perfect: all we had hoped, Passive voice Items: Quaisquer dois dos seguintes exemplos: That aim was frustrated, // when a subsequent EU agriculture proposal was found by other participants, // expectations for Hong Kong have been lowered Translation of the text fragment: In the United States remains committed to concluding an agreement with real substance (L- 28/29) Apesar de o verbo concluding apresentar-se com a forma ...ing usamos o infinitivo na traduo por causa da preposio to exigida pelo verbo committed. Portanto: os EUA permanecem determinados a concluir um acordo ... a melhor traduo do trecho.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-17-

Reading Comprehension 1. Para estabelecer uma base de proteo uma vez que progredir nas negociaes tarefa rdua. 2. Logo de incio, em 2001, por causa da questo de comercializao dos produtos agrcolas. 3. As chances de sucesso na reunio em Hong Kong ficaram sensivelmente reduzidas aps constatar-se que a proposta da Unio Europia no representava nenhum aumento real de acesso aos mercados. 2. A expresso since then (= desde ento) indica tempo decorrido desde o lanamento em 2001. 5. A palavra still (= contudo, todavia) usada como uma transitional word ou marcadora do discurso e no como advrbio. Aqui marca oposio ou contraste. 6. A palavra while (= apesar de) usada como uma transitional word ou marcadora do discurso. Igualmente, aqui est indicando oposio ou contraste. True or False? 7. (T) Ought to pode ser substitudo por should 8. (T) A traduo the long-stalled WTO negotiations : as negociaaes travadas h longo tempo

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE Prefixes // Suffixes I.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

1. [INACCURATE] O relato dos fatos apresentado pela testemunha foi impreciso (OU inexato) 2. [ILLEGAL] No vou fazer isto porque contra a lei; ilegal. 3. [IMPARTIAL] Todos ns esperamos que juzes sejam imparciais. 4. [UNPOPULAR] Na qualidade de lder tinha que tomar decises impopulares. 5. [IRRESISTIBLE] Fui arrastado para o local por um tipo de fora irresistvel. II. 1. [DISQUALIFIED] No cole no exame ou voc ser desclassificado. 2. [INDECISIVE] Tome uma deciso. Por que voc tem que ser sempre to indeciso? 3. [UNSURE] Ela tem se sentido to insegura. 4. [MISUNDERSTANDING] Deve haver algum mal-entendido. No era isso que eu queria dizer. 5. [NON-PROFIT] Mr. Lombard disse que trabalhava para uma organizao no lucrativa. III 1. [ALLERGIC] O Doutor Sales descobriu que a Julie era alrgica penicilina. 2. [CLASSIC] Voc tem que ler os autores clssicos. 3. [SELFISH] Divida seu quarto com sua prima. No seja to egosta, Gene. 4. [POISONOUS] Aquela cobra venenosa. Tenha cuidado. 5. [PROFITABLE] A empresa do Freddy muito lucrative. IV 1. [LOVELY] Samantha tem um / uma filho /a adorvel. 2. [SALTY] Por causa de sua hipertenso Julie no pode comer comidas salgadas. 3. [WATCHFUL] Temos que permanecer vigilantes a fim de que outro roubo no ocorra novamente. 4. [HORRIBLE] Detestei aquela cena. horrvel. 5. [CLASSICAL] Meu pai adora msica clssica. .

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE Vocabulary Buil Up

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

Mini-text 1 1. join // 2. pledged // 3. gather // 4. accomplished // 5. sponsored // 6. successful // 7. business // 8. key Mini-text 2 1. eradication // 2. sustainable // 3. corruption // 4. beyond // 5. nearly/ 6. industrialized // 7. assistance // 8. mechanisms Mini-text 3 1. commitment //2. institutions //3. growth //4. assistance // 5. contributions // 6. sources // 7. figures // 8. donations Mini-text 4 1. advantage // 2. partners // 3. resources // 4. relief // 5. achievement / 6. failure // 7. further // 8. development Mini-text 5 1. separate // 2. respond // 3. conflict // 4. path // 5. founder / 6. totals // 7. family // 8. health Mini-text 6 1. articulated // 2. agency // 3. considerable // 4. experience // 5. revenues / 6. wealth // 7. poverty // 8. mission Mini-text 7 1. components // 2. liberalization // 3. benefit // 4. incomes // 5. forefront / 6. debt // 7. owed // 8. reach Mini-text 8 1. immense // 2. borders // 3. estimates // 4. assets // 5. mobilized / 6. property // 7. inability // 8. tapped Mini-text 9 1. competitive // 2. devised // 3. fostering // 4. consumers // 5. wealthiest / 6. confidence // 7. enforce // 8. goals Mini-text 10 1. register // 2. barriers // 3. debating // 4. basic // 5. challenge / 6. persistence // 7. blazed // 8. choices
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-20-

MOCK TEST 1. B Veja o exerccio sobre a parfrase desse fragmento no texto 1 desta nossa aula. O que est dito na letra A? Os ministros do comrcio mal conseguiro obter um consenso em Hong Kong [Ateno para a palavra hardly cuja fora negativa Por exemplo: Without make-up, you could hardly recognize the movie star (Sem maquiagem mal se podia reconhecer a estrela do cinema). Na letra C tem-se: dependero (as negociaes) do consenso dos ministros do comrcio; na letra D, na elaborao de um painel e, em E, podem ( provvel que) progridam em Hong Kong, contrariando tudo o que esperado e mencionado no texto. 2. E Apareceu o verbo infer (ou o substantivo inference) sinal de alerta! Voc est sendo convidado a tirar uma concluso sobre alguma coisa no presente no texto com todas as letras. Na presente questo, s razovel concluir que a rodada de Doha est programada para dezembro de 2006 com apoio na declarao do secretario de agricultura norte-americano o qual diz que seria um erro descartar tal rodada quando se tem um ano inteiro para trabalhar ativamente e se buscar avanos para preparar a reunio. Quanto s demais opes: em A, deve depender da reunio de Hong Kong, em B, talvez possa trazer algum progresso [vaga demais]; em C, fracassar em produzir os resultados esperados; [no possvel afirmar isso, e mais, no uma inferncia] em D, poder, provvel que seja cancelada [no passa de um chute] 3. C Estude a folha com os discourse markers (=marcadores do discurso). Even though (=muito embora) indica concesso e poderia nesse contexto ser substitudo por although (=embora). 4. C Esta resposta est no segundo pargrafo do texto. Traduzindo: os participantes das negociaes na OMC devem envidar esforos para progredir antes mesmo da reunio dos ministros de comrcio em Hong Kong. em A, as partes-chave no sero capazes de produzir um painel adequado para a rodada de negociaes de Doha; em B, somente um secretrio de agricultura e um representante comercial no so suficientes para refletir a poltica norteamericana sobre este assunto; em D, a atmosfera precedendo a reunio de Hong Kong de inegvel pessimismo quanto a se alcanar um consenso. Finalmente, em E, l-se: demonstraram que esto um tanto indefesos para combater o fracasso da foras-chave quanto a se alcanar algum consenso.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto SUPPLEMENT: AFFIXES

-21-

de grande utilidade o estudo das word forms do ingls. Quanto mais familiarizado voc estiver com os vrios affixes (prefixes / suffixes) mais facilidade ter em decoding novos significados, e mais fluentemente voc conseguir ler e estar aumentando o seu vocabulary power. 1) PREFIXES Anti Auto Dis En Il Im In Inter Ir Mid Mis Multi Non Out Over Pre Pro Semi Un Under 2) as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in as in: as in as in as in: as in as in as in as in as in as in: as in: as in: as in as in: anti-war autobiography disconnect enlarge illegal impatient indecent interdependent irrelevant mid-way misinterpret multinational nonsmoking outlive overweight pre-test pro-abortion semicircle unwrap undernourished manifestao contra a guerra autobiografia desconectar ampliar ilegal impaciente indecente interdependent irelevante a meio caminho interpretar mal multinacional no fumante viver mais que obeso, acima do peso pr teste manifestao em favor do aborto semicrculo desembrulhar subnutrido

SUFFIXES

Formadores de verbos -ate -en -fy -ize as in: as in: as in: as in: estimate blacken certify liberalize estimar escurecer certificar liberar

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-22-

Formadores de advrbios -ly -ward(s) -wise as in as in: as in: sincere toward(s) clockwise sincerely em direo a no sentido horrio

Formadores de substantivos -age -ance -er -hood -ician -ics -ish -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -or -ship -sis -tion as in: as in as in as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: marriage attendance hunter childhood statistician statistics childish fanaticism physicist brutality improvement happiness survivor friendship synthesis attention casamento presena caador infncia estatstico estatstica infantil fanatismo fsico brutalidade melhoria felicidade sobrevivente amizade sntese ateno

Formadores de adjetivos -able -al -an -ation -ed* -ee -ful -ible -ic -ive -less -ly -ous -y as in: as in: as in as in: as in as in as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: reliable cultural American explanation experienced trainee grateful responsible classic responsive careless friendly ambitious rainy confivel cultural americano explicao experiente estagrio/a, treinando grato/a, agradecido/a responbsvel clssico responsivo/a descuidado amigvel ambicioso/a chuvoso

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 9

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-23-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

Reading Text: US wants WTO Ministerial Meeting after Session in Hong Kong
Texto para Leitura: Os EUA querem uma reunio ministerial da OMC aps a sesso de Hong Kong

II

Brief analysis of text 1: Verb Tenses, Modals, Passive Voice Discourse Markers
Breve anlise do texto 1: Tempos Verbais, Os modais, Voz Passiva, e Marcadores do Discurso

III Reading Comprehension text 1


Compreenso da Leitura do texto 1

IV V

Word Forms Affixes together


Formao de Palavras Vrios afixos juntos

Vocabulary Build-up: Specialized vocabulary: 10 excerpts from the article Unleashing Growth through Sound Development Policies
Construo de Vocabulrio: Vocabulrio tcnico: 10 trechos do artigo Promovendo o Crescimento atravs de Polticas de Desenvolvimento Adequadas.

VI IX

Lighten up! Two stories: Anguished Lover & A Gem of an Idea


Relaxe! Duas histrias: O amante angustiado & Uma jia de Idia.

Warm Up for the Mock Test // Text + comments on answers


Aquecimento para o Teste Simulado Texto + gabarito comentado

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

-1AULA 10 LOOKING BACK ON ESSENTIALS Text 1: The International Monetary Fund


Most of the worlds leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods, on Dec 27, 1945. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established then, and a system of pegged or fixed exchange rates was devised. The IMF was established mainly to promote international cooperation on monetary issues and to facilitate governments with financial resources to correct payments imbalances. The IMF is a specialized agency of the UN, with a board of governors drawn from every member country, 22 executive directors and a managing director. It had 170 members (1993). Its headquarters is in Washington D.C. The IMF extends short-term credit to nations unable to meet their balance-ofpayments debts by conventional means, usually increased exports and long-term loans. The IMF expects to be paid back and can enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations in order to advise them on how best to repay their debts. The IMF will often ask these nations to take steps to decrease their imports or perhaps depreciate their currencies. The conference at Bretton Woods also provided for fixed exchange rates between nations, but this part of the agreement has since been abandoned. In 1971, with the American trade deficit continuing to grow, the US proposed that Germany and Japan, both with favorable balances of payment, appreciate their currencies. These nations were reluctant to act, and when they did, it was too little too late. The fixed value of the dollar was abandoned and allowed to float; that is, to fluctuate in comparison to other currencies - with supply and demand determining the value. In the US, prices and wages were frozen for a time, and a 10% surcharge was imposed on imports. The purpose was to persuade Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products. A world conference was called at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., to try and revive the old system. The dollar was officially devalued, and the Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value. When the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official, and the world reverted to flexible exchange rates. Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. Flexible exchange rates would mark a compromise between the days of rigid (usually outdated) exchange rates and todays free-floating situation where supply and demand can cause extreme fluctuations in a currencys value. Flexible exchange rates would allow a currency to fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level, perhaps 1% or 2% a year. Special drawing rights are what is known as paper gold. Limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply, along with the fall in value of the dollar, have led to the need to find an alternative. The IMF has responded by agreeing to create paper gold and distribute it to member nations in proportion to the amount of their subscription. (From An Outline of American Economy, ps.132/133, USIA) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-2-

Pre-testing Vocabulary Faa o skimming do texto e correlacione os fragmentos do texto em A com sua traduo em B, impregnados de economs j que estamos falando do International Monetary Fund (IMF), that is, FMI. Como sempre as transparent words, os true cognates, vo ajud-lo nessa tarefa: A 1. pegged exchange rates 2. correct payments imbalances 3. repay their debts 4. decrease their imports 5. depreciate their currencies 6. prices and wages were frozen 7. deep-seated trade imbalances 8. special drawing rights B ) saldar suas dvidas ) taxas de cmbio fixas ) corrigir desequilbrios nos pags. ) desvalorizar suas moedas ) diminuir suas importaes ) direitos especiais de saque ) preos e salrios foram congelados ) desequilbrios comerciais srios

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. (

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Em virtude de se tratar de um relato histrico o verb tense predominante o past simple. Escreva pelo menos cinco exemplos dele nas linhas abaixo: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Escreva um exemplo retirado do text 1 nos verb tenses below: Present simple _________________________________________________ Present perfect _________________________________________________ Future Simple __________________________________________________ 3. Escreva cinco exemplos de construes na passive voice encontradas no text 1: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-3-

4. Ateno para o significado das palavras terminadas em ...ing. Indique como esto sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto. a) the worlds leading nations (L-1)
__________________________________________________________________________

b) and a managing director (L-9)


__________________________________________________________________________

c) the American trade deficit continuing to grow (L-19)


__________________________________________________________________________

d) supply and demand determining the value (L-23)


__________________________________________________________________________

e) and special drawing rights (L-34)


__________________________________________________________________________

f) todays free-floating situation (L-36)


__________________________________________________________________________

g) The IMF has responded by agreeing (L-42)


__________________________________________________________________________

5. Ateno para o significado das palavras terminadas em ...ed. Indique como esto sendo usadas as formas em negrito e traduza os fragmentos do texto a) a system of fixed exchange rates (L-3)
__________________________________________________________________________

b) The IMF is a specialized agency (L-8)


__________________________________________________________________________

c) usually increased exports (L-12)


__________________________________________________________________________

d) at Bretton Woods also provided for (L-17)


__________________________________________________________________________

e) this part of the agreement has since been abandoned (L-18)


__________________________________________________________________________

f) Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value (L-29)


__________________________________________________________________________

g) fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level (L-38)


__________________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-4-

6. Escreva nas linhas abaixo o que os seguintes modal verbs esto indicando nos fragmentos do text 1
can (L-13) ______________________________________________________ must (L-32) _____________________________________________________ would (L-35) ____________________________________________________ can (L-36) ______________________________________________________

7. Escreva nas linhas abaixo A que se referem os pronomes no text 1


it (L- 9) _________________________________________________________ its (L- 10) _______________________________________________________ their (L- 20) _____________________________________________________ their (L- 42) _____________________________________________________

WORD FORMS Basta olhar com ateno e l esto os exemplos de palavras formadas com prefixes e suffixes que vimos estudando. Escolho alguns exemplos com o sufixo OR para reviso: Governor (= aquele/a que governa, governador / a) Todos os estados americanos tm governors, com exceo claro da Califrnia que, no momento, tem um governator. No seguinte fragmento do texto em board of governors melhor entendermos como junta diretora, grupo de diretores, diretoria. with a board of governors drawn from every member country (L-7) (= com um quadro de diretores retirado de cada pas membro) Director(s) (=aquele que dirige, diretor) 22 executive directors and a managing director (L-8) (= 22 diretores e um diretor gerente) Debtor (= aquele/a que deve, devedor/a) enter into consultations with chronic debtor-nations.. (L-12/13) (= entabular
consultas com pases devedores inveterados)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-5-

Poderamos, com certeza, pinar vrios outros exemplos do texto de formao prefixal e sufixal igualmente elucidativos, mas, por enquanto, vamos ficar com o quadro seguinte. Veja se consegue fazer este exerccio sem o auxlio de um dictionary; se de todo no for possvel, recorra a um. Escreva nas quadriculas as palavras que esto faltando pertencentes s respectivas word families: Verb advise finance correct _____________ increase impose compare persuade know _____________ Noun ____________ finance ______________ officialization increase _____________ comparison t persuasion _____________ specialization Adjective advisable financial corrected officialized increasing imposed ______________ ______________ unknown special adverb advisably ________________ correctly officially ________________ imposingly comparably persuasively knowingly specially

COLLOCATIONS / COMBINATIONS Sugeri que voc estudasse blocos de palavras e no s palavras soltas. o estudo das collocations e combinations no valendo a pena, aqui, ficar preso distino entre elas. Escolhi exemplos do texto do tipo: verb + noun / adj. + noun. Coloque os verbos diante das expresses correspondentes, depois confira no texto como o autor as combinou. extends - promote - take - depreciate - determine - reduce - freeze - correct 1. ____________ international cooperation 2. ____________ steps 3. ____________ short-term credit 4. ____________ their currencies 5. ____________ trade barriers 6. ____________ trade imbalances 7. ____________ determining the value 8. ____________ freeze wages and prices
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-6-

From text 1: Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Two of the more popular ideas are the use of flexible exchange rates and special drawing rights. (L-35) COMPARATIVES Anteriormente revisamos superlatives. Desta vez vamos relembrar as comparative forms. As formas do comparativo e do superlativo dos adjetivos so importantes pois os examinadores podem perfeitamente jogar com as idias de mais isso, menos aquilo, o mais alguma coisa, o menos alguma coisa - de maneira explicita ou no to explcita nas diversas opes apresentadas numa questo de mltipla-escolha. Veja se tem o domnio das principais formaes: a. O sufixo er usado para formar o comparativo de superioridade de adjetivos curtos. easy clean hot old easier (than) cleaner (than) hotter (than) older (than) mais fcil (que) mais limpo/a (que) mais quente (que) mais velho/a (que)

b. Com adjetivos longos usa-se more+adj.+than para formar o comparativo de supeiroridade e less+adj.+than para formar o compartaivo de inferioridade. more (less) difficult than more (less) complicated than more (less) economical than c. Algumas formas irregulares: good bad little much(many) better (than) worse (than) less( than ) more (than) melhor (que) pior (que) menos (que) mais (que) mais (menos) difcil (que) mais (menos) complicado/a que) mais (menos) econmico/a (que)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-7-

A FINAL LOOK AT FALSE FRIENDS From text 1: would mark a compromise (L-35) No exemplo extrado do text 1, compromise no significa compormisso, e sim, acordo. O que faz dele um falso amigo para Brazilian students. Complete the sentences with one of the FALSE COGNATES from the box then translate the sentences. extenuating luxury affluent fabric balance attend record parties repealed costume union cargo

1. Im sure that law has been _________ already. Its no longer valid.
__________________________________________________________________________

2. There are some ______________ circumstances in his case that must be taken into account by the judge.
__________________________________________________________________________

3. In many places, an automobile is not a __________, its a necessity.


__________________________________________________________________________

4. Since you did not pay the invoice in full, how do you intend to pay the ___________ outstanding.
__________________________________________________________________________

5. He began to keep a more accurate _________ of his expenses.


__________________________________________________________________________

6. Nobody had told me it was _________ party. So I wore a suit.


__________________________________________________________________________

7. The area was nicknamed Silicon Valley for the ________ of computer chips.
__________________________________________________________________________

8. _________ leaders, together with dissatisfied workers, went on strike.


__________________________________________________________________________

9. Mr. Penn introduced us to his __________ associate from Norway.


__________________________________________________________________________

10. If the ________ were not illegal, there would not be so many men carrying shotguns on board that ship.
__________________________________________________________________________

11. Now that the two ____________ involved are in agreement the contract may be finalized.
__________________________________________________________________________

12. Unfortunately not many people enrolled to _________ Prof. Haskins talk on Economic Development.
__________________________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-8-

Como ainda estamos treinando pro mock test final, vale um exerccio de: VOCABULARY PRE TEST A 1. attract customers 2. carry money safely 3. foreign currencies 4. accept foreign checks 5. dealing with foreigners 6. insured against loss 7. do much business 8. run out of checks 9. service charge will vary 10. pay for lodging Text 2: Handling your money Most banks in the U.S. open at 9 and close between 3 and 5 but stay open late on Fridays. Some banks have longer hours in order to attract customers. Whats the best way to carry money safely while youre traveling? There are three possibilities - personal checks from your country, travelers checks and credit cards. Some American banks accept foreign checks such as Eurocheques. The problem is that only those banks that are used to dealing with foreigners will know what Eurocheques are. It may be more convenient to carry travelers checks, which are insured against loss. They should be in dollars, because only a few banks do much business in foreign currencies. If your checks arent in dollars, it may take you a long time to find a bank that will exchange them. You can use travelers checks almost anywhere - in restaurants, stores or ticket offices - without having to go to a bank. If you run out of them, you can buy more at most banks. Their service charge will vary, though, so ask what it is before you buy your checks. Americans would say the best way to carry money is to have a major credit card like Visa, Master Card or American Express. Credit Cards can be canceled if they are lost or stolen. And because they are widely accepted in the U.S., it is easy to use them to pay for lodging, transportation, meals and things you want to buy from larger stores. Of course you cant get along without cash, but you dont need to carry much with you (From "How to Survive in the USA" by Nancy Church and Anne
Moss, Unit 6, p 52)

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. ( i. ( j. (

B ) tem seguro contra perda ) realizar muitos negcios ) esgotar o estoque de. cheques ) portar dinheiro c/ segurana ) receber cheques do exterior ) moedas estrangeiras ) atrair clientes ) negociar com estrangeiros ) pagar pela hospedagem ) tarifas de servios variaro

10

15

20

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-9-

READING COMPREHENSION PRATICE FOR THE MOCK TEXT 1. Banks most likely to know about Eurocheques are the banks ... a) whose service charges are lower. b) having longer hours to attract customers. c) which do much business in all foreign currencies. d) that ordinarily deal with foreigners. e) that can exchange them if you run out of them. 2. The phrase such as (L-5) as a discourse marker is indicating a) addition b) opposition. c) emphasis. d) concession. e) exemplification. 3. The authors defend the convenience of carrying travelers checks because a) they are insured against loss. b) they should always be in dollars. c) very few banks accept them. d) you can eventually cancel them. e) banks invariably charge low service charges. 4. In you cant get along without cash the underlined expression in bold means that a) you cannot live without notes and coins. b) people will never be able to substitute for cash. c) you have to carry a little pocket money with you. d) people should not carry cash with them. e) you cannot use magnetic cards everywhere. 5. In the fragment so ask what it is before you buy your checks (L- 14) the pronoun it refers to a) a bank. b) the service charge. c) a traveler check d) the matter e) a place

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-10-

VOCABULARY BUILD UP: PHRASAL VERBS From text 2: Of course you cant get along without cash (L-20) O verbo get o verbo dos 1001 significados. Se um aluno me perguntasse Qual o significado de get? Mais uma vez a minha resposta teria que ser Em que contexto? Veja algumas possibilidades: What time did you get home last night?
A que horas voc chegou em casa ontem noite?

Harriet did not get what I meant with that phrase.


A Harriet no entendeu o que eu quis dizer com aquela frase.

The phone rings and somebody says: Ill get it!


O telefone toca e algum diz: Eu atendo!

Isso sem mencionar as inmeras possibilidades da locuo get + adjective: Its getting cold, its getting late. Time to get dressed.
Est ficando frio, est ficando tarde. Hora de se vestir.

Alm disso, como muitos outros verbos ingleses o verbo get se une a partculas como no exemplo texto para formar phrasal verbs. O prprio get along acima pode ser get along without ou get along with. Por exemplo: Ross and Ben cannot work together. They dont get along with each other.
O Ross e o Ben no podem trabalhar juntos. Eles no se do bem.

My mother-in-law just cant get along without TV.


Minha sogra no consegue passar sem a TV.

Depois que eu vi a seguinte questo no concurso de Fiscal da Receita, conforme menciono no meu livro Ingls para Concursos, a partir da passei a aconselhar meus alunos a estudarem os phrasal verbs com mais carinho. Observe: ESAF AFRF 2002.2 The expression to stem the loss means to a) stop it. b) bring it about. c) sum it up. d) take it over. e) make it out. Answer: a, the other options are examples of phrasal verbs.
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-11-

PHRASAL VERBS PRACTICE Use the phrasal verbs from the box to complete the text below (using each verb once only. Equivalents are given in brackets. You may need to use other verb tenses.
Use estes phrasal verbs para completar o texto abaixo. Use cada um deles somente uma vez. Equivalentes so fornecidos entre parnteses. Voc pode precisar alterar os tempos verbais.

act on build up fall through look after rely/count on

adhere to cash in on fight off look forward to take over

branch out draw up get away with make up take up

When we tried to (1) __________ [acquire] Mackenzie PLC we were all (2) ___________ [await with pleasure] an easy victory. We thought that most of their shareholders would (3) __________ [profit from] the chance of a quick profit. But the directors were determined to (4) ___________ [defeat] our bid. They (5) ___________ [invent] a lot of untrue stories about our company and criticized our last Annual Report, claiming that we hadnt (6) __________ [respect] Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, and that our accountants had (7) ____________ [succeeded in doing sth. wrong] a lot of window dressing. They were able to convince their shareholders that they could (8) ___________ [trust] them (the current management) to (9) _____________ [protect] their interests better than we could. Over the years, they had obviously (10) ____________ [accumulated] a lot of respect from their shareholders. who (11) ___________ [follow] the board of directors advice, and didn't (12) _____________ [accept] our offer. Thus the whole deal (13) ____________ [collapse] But we are now (14) ____________ [prepare] alternative plans to (15) ______________ [diversify] in a new direction. (Adapted from Financial
English by Ian Mackenzie, page 82, LTP)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto VOCABULARY BUILD UP

-12-

Match the words in (A) with the words in (B) then the words in (C) with ones in (D to check how much of transitional words (discourse markers you have learned:
Associe as palavras da coluna A com as palavras na coluna B depois as em C com aquelas em D para verificar o quanto voc aprendeu sobre transitions ( marcadores do discurso)

A 1. In spite of 2. However 3. As a result 4. Moreover 5. Eventually

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

B ) Furthermore ) Finally ). Nevertheless ) Despite ) Therefore

C 6. Besides 7. Hence 8. Notwithstanding 9. Because 10. Actually f. ( g. ( h. ( i. ( j. (

D ) As, since ) But ). So, thus ) In fact, really ) In addition, also

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto LIGHTEN UP

-13-

Take 1

Take 2

1. O que voc observa de diferente nos dois takes?


________________________________________________________________________

2. Qual o efeito desejado pelo criador do anncio publicitrio?


________________________________________________________________________

3. Voc consegue traduzir esse provrbio acima?


________________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto SAME OR DIFFERENT?

-14-

Write (S) in parentheses if you think a and b mean the same; write (D) if you think theyre different. 1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b) 4. a) b) 5. a) b) 6. a) b) 7. a) b) ( ) Although Jennifer studied hard for the test, she did not pass. Jennifer failed to pass the test; she studied hard for it, though. ( ) Harold studied until midnight last night. Harold kept studying until midnight last night. ( ) The quiz Prof. Lindsay gave us was very hard; very few students succeeded. Even though Prof. Lindsays test was very hard; quite a few students succeeded. ( ) No doubt Louis has many qualities; nevertheless, I think shes too inexperienced. Theres no doubt Louis has many qualities; still, I think she needs much more experience. ( ) My father let us choose shoes of our own liking. My father let us choose shoes by ourselves. ( ) I give up! Ill never learn calculus. Its just over my head. I give up! Ill never keep those calculations in mind. ( ) Brenda was one of the worst dancers of the group. Actually, she may have been the worst. Brenda was a very poor dancer. Nowadays, she is the worst of the group.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto PARAPHRASING

-15-

WARNING! Pensei muito antes de incluir este exerccio na nossa ltima aula. Primeiro por que ele exige o domnio de umas skills abrangentes. Considerei o momento que os candidatos ao concurso da Receita esto vivendo - com tantas matrias includas no edital e tudo o mais. However, no quero ningum arrancando os cabelos (quem os tem claro!) Complete each sentence so as to keep its meaning as close as possible to the original segment taken or adapted from text 1 about the IMF). Follow this example:
Complete cada uma das frases de modo a manter o significado to prximo quanto possvel dos fragmentos originais retirados ou adaptados do texto 1 sobre o FMI. Siga o seguinte exemplo:

Most of the world's leading nations sent representatives to a conference at Bretton Woods in 1945. Representatives of the world's leading nations ................................. A: Representatives of the world's leading nations were sent to Bretton Woods in 1945. 1. The IMF was established mainly to promote international cooperation on monetary issues. The promotion of ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. The IMF expects to be paid back by chronic debtor-nations. Chronic debtor nations ___________________________________________ 3. The IMF will often ask these nations to take steps to decrease their imports. These nations ___________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. In the United States, prices and wages were frozen for a time IMF directors ordered that .................................................................... 5. A 10% surcharge was imposed on imports to persuade Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products. Aiming at _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-16-

6. The dollar was officially devalued ... There was ______________________________________________________ 7. The Japanese yen and the German mark were raised in value. The value of ____________________________________________________

8. When the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official. As no noticeable improvement of ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

9. Some economists argue that more potent methods must be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. Some economists stated that _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 10. Limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply have led to the need to find an alternative. It was necessary _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto REVIEW OF VERB TENSES

-17-

Choose the alternative to complete the dialog exchanges: 1. Do you find it easy to get along with Ms. Appleton? She _________________ (to lead) a hard life so far, but she remains optimistic in spite of it all. a) has led b) was leading How come you know the meaning of ad hoc? When we were in school we ..................... (to study) Latin for 4 years. a) have studied b) studied Tell me some things about your hometown. Belm ......................... (to change) so much since the last time we ................... (to visit) it I can hardly tell you anything. a) has changed / visited b) was changing / were visiting Yesterday I was already in the parking lot when I realized I had to go back to the office because I ..................... (to leave) the car keys in my desk drawer. Man, how absent-minded can you get! a) have left b) had left That Norwegian rock group you love is in Brazil. This is the third time they ................. (to come ) to Brazil. a) will come b) have come Did Ray join you for a cup of tea at 6 p.m.? He did. He ......................................... (to work) on the computer the whole afternoon. a) was working b) had been working Does your wife drink her tea with lemon. No. My wife is not used ........................ (to drink) her tea with lemon. a) drink b) drinking Let me see if I remember. You take your coffee black. Not any more. I used ............................. (to drink) my coffee black. a) drink b) drinking

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 9.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-18-

I heard that Mr. Ramos is retiring. Well miss having him around. Mr. Ramos ....................... (always/ to be) so helpful. a) has always been b) was being always What was Sonia so worried about this morning? Her husband ......................... (to phone- neg.) her yet. a) wasnt phoning b) hadnt phoned How was it at the mall this morning? After we had been waiting for over an hour, my wife decided to buy the first dress she ....................... (to try on). a) had tried on b) has tried on ......................... (ever/ to visit) the museums in France? Not yet, but I plan to. a) Have you ever visited b) Were you ever visiting Hi, Peter. How long ........................... (to wait) for me? Not very long. I arrived about five minutes ago. a) were you waiting b) have you been waiting Would you consider trading in your old station wagon? I wouldnt. I .................. (to have) it for 5 years and it looks brand new. a) am having b) have had When did your aunt Alice move to Bahia? She moved a year ago and she ....................... (to live) there ever since. a) lives b) has been living Did you do anything special last night? I .......................... (to watch) an interesting documentary on channel 51 when the lights went out. a) watched b) was watching I guess well not be able to go anywhere this year on our vacations? And to think that this time last year we ..................... (to have) the time of our lives in Palma de Majorca. a) were having b) have had

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 18.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-19-

When was it exactly that Derek decided to step on the gas? The moment he looked out of the window and saw that another car ....................... (to follow) us. a) was following b) has followed Hey, Albert. Did you miss your bus? When I got to the terminal, my bus .................... (to leave) already. a) was left b) had left Do you know when Denise started studying English? She started studying it when she was a child and she ............................ (to practice) it ever since. a) has been practicing b) had practiced How can you be so optimistic about the future? I guarantee that things will be different a year from now. To begin with, I ..................... (to finish) paying the mortgage on my apartment by then. a) will have finished b) will finish Did you manage to talk to Sally today? No. Sally .................... (to be) pretty busy lately. a) was b) has been What is one thing that you remember about Jean? She ......................... (to play) chess very well when she was in college. a) played b) was playing Agatha asked me for another twenty bucks. She is a helpless case. She ................................. (always/to borrow) money from her friends. a) is always borrowing b) had always borrowed Do you know where Dennis ............................. (always/ to get off)? As far as I can remember, at this very station. a) will always get off b) always gets off Was it clear to you what Debbie commented on at the meeting? I dont know what Debbie ............................. (to mean) by that a) meant b) was meaning

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE 27.

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-20-

Why did Oswald decide to quit? He says he is not used to .................... (to be treated) so rudely. a) be treated b) being treated Im going over to see Carl. By going there at such a late hour you .................... (to ask) for trouble. a) are asking b) were asking Why are you asking me not to call you up tomorrow morning? I ........................... (to sleep) the whole morning. a) was sleeping b) will be sleeping How long have you been teaching English? By next July I ....................... (to teach) for more than 37 years. a) will teach b) will have being teaching What did your father use to do? My Dad ........................... (to work) for Banco do Brasil for 35 years. before he ............................. (to retire) in 1976. a) worked / retired b) has been working has retired Does anybody else in your family work for Banco do Brasil? My youngest brother ............ (to work) for Banco do Brasil since 1983. a) has been working b) is working I wanted to see Mr. Dobson. Could you please see if he is in? He ............................. (just/to leave). a) has just left b) is just left Im telling you that I have an appointment with Mr. Dobson. Im afraid he ......................... (to leave) a minute ago. a) left b) has left Are you sure you ........................... (to be) here before? Quite sure, why? a) were b) have been

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE ERRATA: AULA 1

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-21-

Houve um erro neste quadro de conjugao do past simple dos verbos. Naquela correria do cutting and pasting (cola e copia), No fiz a reviso do resumo abaixo e os verbos que deveriam ter retornado forma bsica nos exemplos walk e sleep saram errado. Agradeo ao aluno /a aluna que me chamou a ateno para este furo no FORUM. Abaixo reproduzo o quadro como deveria ter aparecido antes. Sorry, Guys!

VERB TENSES A SUMMARY


RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS

3.1

PAST SIMPLE

Utilizemos as expresses walk fast (=caminhar rpido), onde o verbo walk regular e sleep late (=dormir tarde) com o verbo irregular sleep. AFFIRMATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They walked fast // slept late

NB: Como voc observa, h somente uma forma do verbo regular, walked, e uma forma do verbo irregular: slept. Lembre-se : infelizmente as formas do passado e do particpio passado dos verbos irregulares devem ser memorizadas. Veja material suplementar a esta aula. QUESTIONS Did I / You / He / She / It / We / They walk fast // sleep late?

NB: Ateno pois o auxiliar did vai indicar que a pergunta formulada est no passado. O verbo principal retorna forma bsica (walk, sleeep) NEGATIVE I / You / He / She / It / We / They did not walk fast // sleep late

NB: Ateno, pois ao auxiliar did segue-se a partcula negativa not que indicar a forma negativa. O verbo principal retorna forma bsica (walk, sleep) Did not =didnt A seguir voc tem o teste simulado, mock test, para o qual venho chamando tanto sua ateno. S o faa depois de ter revisado todas as lies. Estabelea um tempo razovel, realista, para faz-lo. Continuaremos a nos comunicar na rea livre do Ponto, OK!. Good Luck, everybody!
www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-22-

MOCK TEST
TESTE SIMULADO

Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 1 to 3. Betting on Ben On February 1st, barring any unforeseen hiccups in his Senate confirmation, Ben Bernanke will become the most powerful central banker in the world, replacing Alan Greenspan as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Nominating Mr Bernanke on Monday October 24th, George Bush said he was the right man to replace a legend. Wall Street seems to agree. Financial pundits have heaped praise on Mr Bushs choice. Stock prices rose on the news, the dollar held steady and although bond prices fell - yields on ten-year Treasuries hit a six-month high of 4.5% on Tuesday and rose thereafter. When Mr Greenspan was named as Paul Volckers successor in 1987, stocks fell and bonds had their worst day in five years. What explains the Bernanke bullishness? Relief, for one thing. Many on Wall Street fretted that Mr Bush might opt for a financial version of Harriet Miers, his recent Supreme Court nomination, to succeed Mr Greenspan, favouring ideological fealty more than independence and ability. (Tellingly, Ms Miers withdrew on Thursday.) Instead, he chose a man with dazzling academic credentials, a short but successful stint as a Washington policymaker and little partisan baggage. Mr Bernanke is one of Americas foremost monetary economists. He was a Fed governor between 2002 and 2005, moving from that job to become chairman of Mr Bushs Council of Economic Advisers. Whereas Mr Greenspan was regarded as a partisan figure before he became chairman of the Fed, few of Mr Bernankes academic peers even knew he was a Republican until he moved to the White House. (From Economist.com) access: 26/10/05 Visit: www.economist.com/agenda/displaystory 1. Mr. Bernankes nomination by president Bush a) was welcomed by financial experts. d) confirmed the worries by many on Wall Street. b) might be the financial version of Ms. Harriet Miers. c) was frowned upon by the Senate. d) confirmed the worries by many on Wall Street. e) caused considerable controversy.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-23-

2. All of these can be said about Mr. Greenspan, except that he a) has been Chairman of the Fed for 18 years now. b) is considered a legend by President Bush. c) must have been indirectly responsible for Mr. Bernankes nomination. d) had been an active republican before being the Feds Chairman. e) succeeded Paul Volker as Chairman of the Fed. 3. Many on Wall Street a) were relieved that President Bush favoured ideological fealty. b) feared President Bush might choose a long time policymaker. c) were skeptical of President Bushs capacity to replace a legend. d) knew that President Bushs choice would cause stock prices to fall. e) were worried about President Bushs choice for the Fed. Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 4 to 7. Youre hired Meet your airlines latest employee: you. You may not have noticed, but you are also now working for your phone company and your bank. Why? Because of the growth of the self-service economy, in which companies are offloading work on to their own customers. It is, you could say, the ultimate in outsourcing. Self-service can have benefits both for companies and customers alike. It is already changing business practices in many industries, and seems likely to become even more widespread in future. () Self-service appeals to companies for an obvious reason: it saves money. The hallmark of all of these self-service transactions is that they take place with little or no human contact. The customer does the work once done by an employee, and does not expect to be paid. So to work well, self-service requires the marriage of customers with machines and software. That union, says Esteban Kolsky of Gartner, a consultancy, is now doing for the service sector what mass production once did for manufacturing: automating processes and significantly cutting costs. From the corporate side you hear, we want to make sure the customer gets what he wants, or whatever, but, bottom line, it does reduce costs:' says Mr. Kolsky. Francie Mendelsohn of Summit Research, a consultancy based in Rockville, Maryland, agrees. People dont like to admit it, but self-service is used to reduce head count and therefore improve the bottom line, she says. It's not politically correct, but it's the truth. (From The Economist Technology quarterly,
Sept. 18th, p. 16-Reports)

10

15

20

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-24-

4. According to the author a) self-service brings more harm than benefits to the consumer. b) the most common business practice in the future tends to be self-service. c) self-service has become a more and more disseminated business practice. d) companies offloading work on their customers are growing. e) the ultimate way to reduce unemployment is self-service.

5. From the corporate point of view self-service a) saves money in the process. b) is politically incorrect. c) grants consumers satisfaction. d) reduces unemployment. e) improves the companys products. 6. When the author says The hallmark of all of these self-service transactions (L-9) he is referring to a) what they represent to the companies. b) how time-saving they are. c) how fashionable they are. d) what they have in common. e) the existing disparities. 7. What mass production once did for manufacturing, nowadays self service is doing for the a) modern consumers comfort. b) manufacturing sector. c) new job offers. d) big corporations. e) service sector.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-25-

Read the text below then choose the best option to answer questions 8 to 10. Amazon: Good, Just Not Good Enough Solid third-quarter results didn't match the second quarter - and for investors anticipating another pleasant surprise, that was the problem Harry Potters magic may have dazzled book buyers over the summer, but it failed to sway Amazon investors Oct. 25. Despite selling 1.6 million copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince in the third quarter, the online retailer reported that a $40 million legal settlement whacked net income, which fell 44%, to $30 million. And a holiday season forecast that merely matched analysts' expectations sent investors fleeing, knocking down shares by almost 8% in extended trading. Pottermania did keep Amazons sales growth humming, at 27%, to $1.86 billion. And as earnings disappointments go, this one was relatively minor. Absent the legal settlement, Amazon would have reported a 12-cent-a-share profit, 2 cents above analysts estimates. (by Robert Hof)
http://www.businesswek.com/print/technology/content/

8. You can affirm that a) Harry Potters magic may have enchanted Amazon investors. b) heavy legal expenses hit Amazons net income. c) Amazon may report a 12-cent-a-share profit. d) growth derived from Harry Potters book sales caused minor damage. e) the second quarter results were no match for the ones in the 3rd quarter. 9. The authors use of despite (L-4), 1st pr indicates a) opposition and it may be replaced by however. b) concession and it may be replaced by though c) result and it may be replaced by thus. d) addition and it may be replaced by also e) emphasis and it may be replaced by indeed. 10. When the author says, sent investors fleeing (L-8) the underlined word means that investors a) were suspicious of quarter results. b) were confused about prospects. c) were attracted by profits. d) failed to invest as expected. e) could be helpless.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto ANSWERS

-26-

VOCABULARY PRE-TEST a. 3 // b. 1 // c. 2 // d. 5 // e. 4 // f. 8 // g. 6 // h. 7 PAST SIMPLE the worlds leading nations sent representatives (L-1) // It had 170 members (L-9/10) // The conference at Bretton Woods also provided for ( L- ) // the US proposed that Germany and Japan (L-18/19) // These nations were reluctant to act, and when they did (L- 21) // The purpose was to persuade Europe and Japan (L-25) // the U.S. trade position still did not improve enough (L- 29/30) // the world reverted to flexible exchange rates. (L-29/30) PRESENT SIMPLE The IMF extends short-term credit to nations (L-11) // The IMF expects to be paid back (L-13) // Some economists argue that (L-32) PRESENT PERFECT the agreement has since been abandoned (L-18) // Limited supplies of gold have led to the need (L-39 / 40) // The IMF has responded by agreeing (L- 41) FUTURE SIMPLE The IMF will often ask these nations (L-14) PASSIVE VOICE The IMF was established then (L- 3) // fixed exchange rates was devised. (L-4) // The fixed value of the dollar was abandoned (L-22) // prices and wages were frozen for a time (L-24) // and a 10% surcharge was imposed on imports (L 24/25) // A world conference was called (L-27) // The dollar was officially devalued (L-28) // the fall of the dollar was made official (L-30) // more potent methods must be used (L-32) ...ING FORMS a) leading (adjetivo) em the worlds leading nations (= as naes mais importantes do mundo ) // b) managing (adjetivo) em a managing director (= um diretor gerente) // c) continuing (gerncio) emthe American trade deficit continuing to grow (= o dficit de comrcio norte-americando continuando a crescer) // d) determining (gerndio) em supply and demand determining the value (=oferta e procura determinando o valor // e) drawing (adjetivo) em special drawing rights (= direitos especiais de saque // f) floating ( adjetivo em todays free-floating situation ( a situao do cmbio flutuante de hoje // g) agreeing (forma ...ing forada pelo uso da preposio by) em The IMF has
responded by agreeing (= O FMI reagiu ao concordar...) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-27-

...ED FORMS a) forced (adjetivo) em a system of fixed exchange rates (=um sistema de taxas de cmbio fixas) // b) specialized (adjetivo) em The IMF is a specialized agency (=O FMI uma agncia especializada.// c) increased (adjetivo) em usually increased exports (= as exportaes geralmente incrementadas ) // d) provided (past tense) em at Bretton Woods also provided for ( Bretton Woods tambm forneceu // e) abandoned (past participle) em this part of the agreement has since been abandoned (= esta parte do acordo foi desde ento abandonada) // f) raised (particpio passado) em Japanese yen and German mark were raised in value (=o iene japons e o marco alemo foram valorizados) // g) prescribed (adjetivo) em fluctuate up to a certain prescribed level
(=flutuar at um certo nivel pre-erstabelecido)

MODAL VERBS
can (L-13) em can enter into consultations (pode iniciar consultas com) tem essa prerrogativa, essa capacidade - portanto: capacity must (L-32) em more potent must be used (=tem que ser usado, h essa necessidade - portanto necessity. would (L-35) em would mark a compromise (= marcaria, indicaria um acordo) espresso a hitese futura do nosso futuro do pretrito - portanto hiptese futura. can (L-36) em can cause pode causar, tem essa possibilidade portanto possibility.

REFERENCE
it (L- 9) the IMF ( o FMI) // its (L- 10) the IMF ( o FMI) // their (L- 20) Germanys and Japans currencies // their (L- 42) member nations

WORDS IN FAMILIES Verb advise finance correct OFFICIALIZE increase impose compare persuade know SPECIALIZE Noun ADVICE finance CORRECTION officialization increase IMPOSITION comparison persuasion KNOWLEDGE specialization Adjective advisable financial corrected officialized increasing imposed COMPARABLE PERSUASIVE unknown special adverb advisably FINANCIALLY correctly officially INCREASINGLY imposingly comparably persuasively knowingly specially

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-28-

HANDLING YOUR MONEY Pre test: a. 6 // b. 7 // c. 8 // d. 2 // e. 4 // f. 3 // g. 1 // h. 5 // i. 10 // j. 9 MC questions: 1. D // 2. E // 3. A // 4. C // 5. B PHRASAL VERBS 1. take over [acquire] // 2. looking forward to [await with pleasure] 3. cash in on [profit from] // 4. fight off [defeat] // 5. made up [invented] // 6. adhere to [respected] // 7. gotten away with [succeeded in doing sth. wrong] // 8. Rely/count on [trust] // 9. look after [protect] // 10. built up [accumulated] // 11. acted on advice [follow] // 12. take up [accept] // 13. Fell through [collapse] // 14. drawing up [preparing] // 15. branch out [diversify] MATCH : A & B a. (4) // b. (5)// c. (2) // d. (1) // e. (3) MATCH : C & D f. (9) // g. (8) // h. (7) // i. (10) // j. (6) FALSE FRIENDS 1. [REPEALED] Tenho certeza de que a lei foi revogada. No mais vlida. 2. [EXTENUATING] H algumas circunstncias atenuantes no caso dele que devem ser levadas em considerao pelo juiz. 3. [LUXURY] Em muitos lugares o automvel no um luxo e sim uma necessidade. 4. [BALANCE] J que voc no pagou o total da fatura ter que pagar o saldo remanescente com juros. 5. [RECORD] Ele passou a manter um registro mais preciso de suas despesa. 6. [COSTUME] Ningum me havia dito que se tratava de uma festa fantasia. Portanto, eu vestia um terno. 7. [FABRIC] A rea foi apelidado de Vale do Silcio por causa do material bsico usado nos componentes dos computadores. 8. [UNION] Lderes sindicais em conjunto com trabalhadores insatisfeitos, entraram em greve. 9. [AFFLUENT] Mr. Penn apresentou-nos aos seu scio rico da Noruega. 10. [CARGO] Se a carga no fosse ilegal no haveria tantos homens carregando rifles a bordo do navio. 11. {PARTIES] Agora que as duas partes envolvidas esto de acordo o contrato poder ser assinado. 12. {ATTEND] Infelizmente no muitas pessoas se inscreveram para assistir palestra do Prof. Haskin sobre Desenvolvimento Econmico.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-29-

LIGHTEN UP Os personagens so o ex-presidente dos EUA Ronald Reagan e o ex-premier sovitico Gorbachev no momento da assinatura de um tratado de no proliferao de armas. No primeiro take s aparece o provrbio, e no segundo v-se que um anncio da caneta Parker. Veja se conseguiu entender o provrbio assim: A pena mais poderosa que a espada. O criador do anncio publicitrio faz um jogo inteligente com as palavras onde a sugesto de que os dois mandatrios estariam usando a caneta Parker muito forte. SAME OR DIFFERENT? 1. (S) // 2. (S) // 3. (D) very few students (= muito poucos alunos)/ quite a few students (= bastantes alunos) // 4. (S) // 5. (S) // 6. (D) Uma coisa no conseguir aprender clculo porque difcil demais para voc; a outra, no conseguir memorizar clculos // 7. (D) em a, est dito que Brenda era uma das piores danarinas do grupo, na verdade, a pior // no segundo, diz que Brenda era uma danarina muito ruim, Hoje em dia ela a pior do grupo. PARAPHRASING Model: Representatives of the world's leading nations were sent to Bretton Woods in 1945. [Comment: foi necessrio usar uma estrutura de passive voice com a nova ordenao dos termos da frase] 1. The promotion of international cooperation on monetary issues was one of the IMFs main goals (or: aims, objectives) 2. Chronic debtor nations must pay the IMF back. 3. These nations will often be asked to take steps to decrease their imports. 4. IMF directors ordered that prices and wages be frozen fro a time. 5. Aiming at persuading Europe and Japan to reduce trade barriers against American products a 10% surcharge was imposed. 6. There was an official devaluation of the dollar. 7. The value of the Japanese yen and the German mark was raised. 8. As no noticeable improvement of the U.S. trade position still did not occur in 1972, the fall of the dollar was made official. 9. Some economists stated that more potent methods had to be used to correct long-term and deep-seated trade imbalances. 10. It was necessary to find an alternative to limited supplies of gold relative to the world money supply.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-30-

VERB TENSES REVIEW 1.- has led 3.- has changed/visited 5.- have come 7.- drinking 9.- has always been 11.- had tried on 13.- have you been waiting 15.- has been living 17.- were having 19.- had left 21.- will have finished 23.- played 25.- always gets off 27.- being treated 29.- will be sleeping 31.- worked/ retired 33.- has just left 2.- studied 4.- had left 6.- had been working 8.- drink 10.- had not phoned 12.-Have you ever visited 14.- have had 16.- was watching 18.- was following 20.- has been practicing 22.- has been 24.- is always borrowing 26.- meant 28.- are asking 30.- will have been teaching 32.- has been working 34.- left 35.- have been

MOCK TEST
Answers / Respostas 1. A 2. C 6. D 7. E 3. E 8. B 4. C 9. B 5. A 10. D

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

CURSOS ON LINE AULA 10

Prof. Carlos Augusto

-31-

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcanados.

TPICOS & OBJETIVOS


Raise your awareness of:
Despertar sua conscientizao para:

I II

Reading Text: The IMF


Texto para leitura 1: O FMI

Analysis of text 1 - Review of: verb tenses, passive voice, ing forms, -ed forms, modal verbs, reference, word families
Anlise do texto1 reviso de tempoos verbais, voz passiva, ...ing formas, ed formas, verbos modais, referncia, famlias de palavras...

III Comparative Forms of adjectives


Grau comparativo dos adjetivos

IV VVI -

A final look at false friends


Uma ltima olhada nos falsos amigos

Study of text 2: Vocabulary pre--test, reading questions


Estudo do texto 2: pr-teste de vocabulrio, questes de compreenso

Vocabulary Build Up Phrasal verbs, discourse markers


Construo de vocabulrio phrasal verbs, marcadores do discurso

VII Lighten up! An ad


Relaxe! Um anncio

VIII Same or different? // Paraphrasing


Igual ou diferente? // Parfrases

IX X

Review of verb tenses - practice


Reviso dos tempos verbais - exerccio

Last but not least: MOCK TEST


Por fim, mas no menos importante: TESTE SIMULADO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSOS ON-LINE INGLS PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br