Você está na página 1de 5

FOCUS QUESTION 2: what influences the health of individuals?

THE DETERMINATES OF HEALTH

* an individuals health is determined by a range of factors which act in various combinations * Some of the factors can impact a persons health more than others such as someones genetic makeup which is not modifiable INDIVIDUAL FACTORS
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

* Having knowledge and skills empower people to make healthy lifestyle choices * Allows us to access health information i.e. via internet * We can pick up on messages that are portrayed in health campaigns * Develop communication skills and assertiveness * High literacy levels which leads to greater access to medical services * Develop interpersonal skills - good support network of family and friends * recognise health problems (in themselves or others), make choices about behaviours and access health services when required. * The increasing ability to access information electronically (via the Internet), has provided the general population with greater access to knowledge about health than ever before.
ATTITUDES

* Influenced by groups; peers, schools, individuals * Attitudes are challenged - risk behaviours (binge drinking, driving, sexual activity) * Social environment will impact/influence decision making * Health campaigns * Some people may have good attitudes in one area (diet) (Ben Cousins) and negative attitude towards something else (drinking)
GENETICS

* Certain diseases are known to be inherited. These include asthma, type-1 diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. Heredity is a risk factor for these diseases. * Significant role in determining an individuals health (muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, CYDL, hemophilia, colour blindness - genetically past on) * Could pass on intellect, life expectancy and physical condition (co-ordination) * Fair skin, freckles - skin cancer * Cancers (breast) - genetic screening * People need to know family history - disease Socio-cultural factors
Family

* married people tend to be healthier and live longer than those who are unmarried. * Children and young people in lone-parent households have poorer health than those in two parent households. * Employment opportunities - income bought in * Role models * Main source of education * Values, beliefs and habits * Provide opportunity for social interaction

* Interpersonal relations * Attitudes (values/beliefs)


PEERS

* positive and negative peer pressure (gym/binge drinking) * Protective and risky behaviours * Individuals skills/knowledge (confidence) to stick up for peer pressure * Most individuals have a social need for acceptance. They therefore seek companionship, support, approval and acceptance from others. * Young people are influenced by their peers. A persons peers may have either a positive or negative effect on his or her decision-making.
MEDIA

* educate about health conditions * Wrong idea of health (body image) * Can offer support (quit helpline) * Road safety/weight campaigns * Violence - video games/movies * Junk food advertisements * Cigarette smoking * Alcohol advertising
RELIGION

* sense of connection/belonging (youth groups) * Different types of food * The body is something you must look after - worship values and decisions we make (sexual activity) * Positive when struggling with stress and grief
CULTURE

* Hijab - has an affect on physical activity * Male and female participation * Traditions/days of celebration * Australian culture - bronze aussie leads to skin cancer * Males not accessing health service (doctors) shell be right * Workplaces - teams/supports
SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS EMPLOYMENT

* allows for financial independence * Unemployment - low self esteem (feelings of) depression * Higher education - higher income - increased health services * Blue collared workers poorer health than white collared workers * Unemployment limits income to pay for health services and products
EDUCATION

* provides greater knowledge and skills for accessing health services * Helps to make healthy decisions - healthy lifestyle * Better employment opportunities

INCOME

* better access to goods and health services * Better housing, food, better preventative health measure * High self esteem
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION

* living in rural and remote areas reduce opportunity to access health services * Rural communities = low SES, increased risk of isolation * Death from injuries (suicide) more common in rural communities * Social isolation * Have to travel to access health services * Better air, water quality, less traffic
ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES

* location can limit and SES impact on access to health services * Need to be aware/educated * Some services may not be available (limited by gender e.g. Breast screening) * PBS and medicare - provide/insure equal access to medication/care * Language barriers
TECHNOLOGY

* Greater access to health information (signs, symptoms, treatments) * Doctors can communicate (city - rural) * Improvement in robotics (surgery) * Improvement in screening - early detection (MRI, X-ray) * Location * Making people sedentary (computers, video games)
THE DEGREE OF CONTROL INDIVIDUALS CAN EXERT OVER THEIR HEALTH MODIFIABLE AND NON MODIFIABLE HEALTH DETERMINATES

* A persons health behaviours are modifiable actions that affect his or her health either positively (for example, through physical activity) or negatively (for example, by smoking). * Age, is a major risk factor for many conditions, but it is not modifiable. * Obesity, is also a risk factor for many conditions, but in many cases individuals are able to make changes that will help them to obtain a healthy weight. * limited control over individual factors, such as heredity, and environmental factors, such as access to health care. These are non-modifiable health determinants. * Factors that influence behaviour change can be divided into three general categories: predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors. * Our life experiences, knowledge, culture and ethnicity, and current beliefs and values are all predisposing factors that influence behaviour. They are factors that predispose us towards certain behaviours, making us more or less motivated to act in a particular way. They also include our age, sex, income, family background, educational background and access to health care. Young people have little or no control over these factors. * Skills and abilities; physical, emotional and mental capabilities; community and government priorities and approaches to health; and health resources and facilities are enabling factors. They may be positive or negative. Positive enablers encourage positive

behaviour change. Negative enablers are barriers and work against the intention to change unhealthy behaviours. Individuals have some control over enabling factors. * Identifying positive and negative enabling factors and making alternative plans when negative factors outweigh the positive are part of planning for positive behaviour change. * Reinforcing factors include the presence or absence of support and encouragement from important people or bodies in your life. These include employer actions and policies, health provider costs, community resources and access to health education.

MODIFIABLE Diet Education Physically activity Socio economic status Housing standards ATSI Gender Family Age Ethnicity Genetics

NON MODIFIABLE

CHANGING INFLUENCE OF DETERMINANTS THROUGH DIFFERENT LIFE STAGE

* The influence of health determinants changes through the different life stages. * Children of less affluent families are more likely to experience failure at school, work in the more disadvantaged sectors of the workforce, and experience unemployment early in their working lives. * Poorer families are more likely to produce babies of lower birth weight. Children with a low birth weight have an increased risk of socio-economic disadvantage during childhood and adolescence and an increased risk of chronic disease in middle age. * People who enter less well paid employment are at greater risk of experiencing work insecurity and being exposed to physical and chemical hazards at work. They are also more likely to live in less well constructed housing in more polluted neighbourhoods, and to retire on no more than the basic pension.
HEALTH AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF DETERMINANTS

1. Your socioeconomic status can effect other determinates of your health such as your access to services 2. Your socio cultural factors can impact other parts of other parts of your health. The media may have an impact on your health but they can also encourage people to seek help and provide information. Language barriers can also impact on your medical services, employment and education which will impact on your income

HEALTH IS SOLELY AN INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBILITY

* Health is not only an individuals responsibility. The government and the community also play and important part * Community; volunteer time to educate, health professionals could make frequent visits, incentive programs for going to school (surf clubs), breakfast program and role modeling from elders * Government; money for children to attend school, swimming pool program, fund breakfast programs, incentives for doctors and nurses, more police, scholarships, incentives for employers to take on Aboriginal employees * Individuals; attend school more frequently to gain better education on health - find employment, seek health for yourself, educate your parents